Sample records for standards-based grading system

  1. Moving to Standards-Based Grading: Lessons from Omaha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proulx, Chris; Spencer-May, Karen; Westerberg, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Getting a large, urban school district to use standards-based education and standards-based grading is challenging. Doing so in one year is monumental. During the 2009-10 school year, Omaha (NE) Public Schools began to study the feasibility of making changes to its traditional grading system. The more closely district personnel investigated the…

  2. The Benefits of Standards-Based Grading: A Critical Evaluation of Modern Grading Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iamarino, Danielle L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the methodology and application of an assessment philosophy known as standards-based grading, via a critical comparison of standards-based grading to other assessment philosophies commonly employed at the elementary, secondary, and post-secondary levels of education. Evidenced by examples of increased student engagement and…

  3. Grading as a Reform Effort: Do Standards-Based Grades Converge with Test Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Kaniskan, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based progress reports (SBPRs) require teachers to grade students using the performance levels reported by state tests and are an increasingly popular report card format. They may help to increase teacher familiarity with state standards, encourage teachers to exclude nonacademic factors from grades, and/or improve communication with…

  4. A Preliminary Investigation into the Effect of Standards-Based Grading on the Academic Performance of African-American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury-Bailey, Mary

    With the implementation of No Child Left Behind came a wave of educational reform intended for those working with student populations whose academic performance seemed to indicate an alienation from the educational process. Central to these reforms was the implementation of standards-based instruction and their accompanying standardized assessments; however, in one area reform seemed nonexistent---the teacher's gradebook. (Erickson, 2010, Marzano, 2006; Scriffiny, 2008). Given the link between the grading process and achievement motivation, Ames (1992) suggested the use of practices that promote mastery goal orientation. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of standards-based grading system as a factor contributing to mastery goal orientation on the academic performance of urban African American students. To determine the degree of impact, this study first compared the course content averages and End-of-Course-Test (EOCT) scores for science classes using a traditional grading system to those using a standards-based grading system by employing an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). While there was an increase in all grading areas, two showed a significant difference---the Physical Science course content average (p = 0.024) and ix the Biology EOCT scores (p = 0.0876). These gains suggest that standards-based grading can have a positive impact on the academic performance of African American students. Secondly, this study examined the correlation between the course content averages and the EOCT scores for both the traditional and standards-based grading system; for both Physical Science and Biology, there was a stronger correlation between these two scores for the standards-based grading system.

  5. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades 5-8 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates the titles of the…

  6. Using Standards-Based Grading to Address Students' Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaack, Susan; Kreuz, Allie; Zawlocki, Erin

    2012-01-01

    This action research project report uses standard-based grading to address the problem of traditional grades not adequately assessing student content mastery and students' lack of awareness regarding their strengths and weaknesses. Research was conducted by one elementary and two middle school teachers with 158 students between the dates of…

  7. Implementation of Standards-Based Grading at the Middle School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urich, Laura Jill

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn about the experiences of teachers as they transition from traditional grading practices to standards-based reporting (SBR). In order to achieve this overall objective, the following research questions framed this qualitative study: (1) What understandings related to practices do middle school teachers have as…

  8. "Standards"-Based Mathematics Curricula and Middle-Grades Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Harwell, Michael R.; Davis, Jon D.; Maeda, Yukiko; Cutler, Arnie; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.; Norman, Ke Wu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined achievement patterns of middle school students enrolled in Standards-based curricula, in particular those curricula that were funded from a solicitation of proposals through the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the early 1990s (NSF RFP 91-100). Approximately 1400 middle-grades students who had used either the Connected…

  9. Exemplary Science in Grades PreK-4: Standards-Based Success Stories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    Since their release in 1996, the National Science Education Standards have provided the vision for science education reform. But has that reform actually taken hold in elementary school? "Yes!," reports Robert Yager, editor of Exemplary Science in Grades PreK-4: Standards-Based Success Stories. "Probably the Standards have done more to change science in elementary schools than has occurred at the other grade levels." Evidence of change is apparent in this fourth volume of the Exemplary Science monograph series, an essay collection featuring educators in PreK-4 describing programs they've developed to fulfill the Standards' More Emphasis guidelines. The 14 programs are real-life examples you can learn from in carrying out reforms in teaching, assessment, professional development, and content. Among the topics covered: "Adapting Science Curricula in the Kindergarten Classroom," "Building on the Natural Wonder Inherent in Us All," "Guiding Students in Active and Extended Scientific Inquiry," "Active, Integrated Inquiry in an Afterschool Setting," and "Thinking Outside the Box: No Child Left Inside!" As Yager writes in the book's introduction, "The 14 exemplary programs can be seen as models for other teachers--not just to copy, but as ways of approaching science and encouraging their students to do more of what they like?. When both teachers and students are enthused, curious, and involved, science becomes central to the lives of students and others in the community and can tie the whole school experience together.

  10. The Bohr Model and the Fifth Grade: A New Standards-Based Hands-On Physics Curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Brock; Russell Springer; Bennett Goldberg

    2004-01-01

    A semester-long, standards-based, hands-on physics curriculum appropriate for the fifth grade was developed. Previously available curricula were successful in using hands-on activities to teach basic fifth-grade physics skills and concepts, but did not attempt to foster understanding of the fundamental underlying physics. We expanded the role of inquiry-based instruction to expose students to the fundamental physics behind electricity, forces, energy,

  11. Grades that Mean Something: Kentucky Develops Standards-Based Report Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Swan, Gerry M.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all states have standards for student learning and they have assessment programs to measure students' proficiency on those standards. But schools within each state nonetheless are left to develop their own standards-based student report cards as the primary means of communicating information about students' performance. To address the…

  12. Grading and Reporting in a Standards-Based Environment: Implications for Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    Teachers at all levels of education today struggle in their efforts to assign fair, accurate, and meaningful grades to students with disabilities, especially those placed in general education classrooms. Lacking specific policies or recommendations, most teachers apply informal, individual grading adaptations for such students. Although these…

  13. The Bohr Model and the Fifth Grade: A New Standards-Based Hands-On Physics Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brock, Jeff; Springer, Russell; Goldberg, Bennett

    2004-03-01

    A semester-long, standards-based, hands-on physics curriculum appropriate for the fifth grade was developed. Previously available curricula were successful in using hands-on activities to teach basic fifth-grade physics skills and concepts, but did not attempt to foster understanding of the fundamental underlying physics. We expanded the role of inquiry-based instruction to expose students to the fundamental physics behind electricity, forces, energy, light and sound. Central to the course, the Bohr model of the atom was used as a key tool both to motivate exploration of these topics as well as to develop basic conceptual understanding of fundamental ideas in quantum and electromagnetic physics. The curriculum was designed to be compatible with both district and state-mandated standards in a high-stakes test environment. This work was supported by NSF grant DGE-0231909.

  14. Safe To Be Smart. Building a Culture for Standards-Based Reform in the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelock, Anne

    Viewing standards from the perspective of classroom teachers, this book discusses the need to alter middle school culture to facilitate meaningful improvements in the teaching-learning environment. It emphasizes efforts by middle grades educators to make schools and classrooms places where more students work harder to do work of higher quality…

  15. Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

    2006-01-01

    In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

  16. Fourth-Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-Based Lunar Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Fourth-grade students' knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change.…

  17. Curriculum-Based Measurement and Standards-Based Mathematics: Monitoring the Arithmetic Word Problem-Solving Performance of Third-Grade Students at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a curriculum-based measure of word problem solving (CBM-WPS) as an indicator of performance and progress in a sample of 136 third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MDs) instructed in a standards-based mathematics curriculum. Students completed the CBM-WPS…

  18. New Teachers' Perceptions of a Standards-Based Performance Appraisal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Pry, Stephen C.; Schumacher, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with first-year teachers. It provided insight into two key research questions: (1) What were the perceptions of new teachers regarding a standards-based performance appraisal system as it was implemented on their campus? (2) What factors contributed to the perceptions of new teachers regarding this system as it was…

  19. The Development and Implementation of a National, Standards-Based, Multi-Method Teacher Performance Assessment System in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Sun, Yulan

    2014-01-01

    Assessing teaching performance is a contentious issue in current educational policy in many countries. In Chile, a national, standards-based, multi-method, mandatory teacher evaluation system has been in place since 2003 to assess the performance of about 70, 000 public school teachers from pre-school to high school and adult education. The…

  20. SOSIMPLE: A Serverless, Standards-based, P2P SIP Communication System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Bryan; Bruce B. Lowekamp; Cullen Jennings

    2005-01-01

    Voice over IP (VoIP) and Instant Messaging (IM) sys- tems to date have either followed a client-server model or have required the use of clients that do not follow any VoIP or IM standard. We present SOSIMPLE—a fully decentral- ized, P2P, standards-based approach to communications. By building on the existing SIP\\/SIMPLE infrastructure for VoIP and IM, we support reuse of

  1. Standards-based tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonisse, Jim; Randall, Scott

    2011-06-01

    Automated moving object detection and tracking are becoming cornerstone technologies for the proliferation of video and wide-area persistent surveillance systems. Emerging wide-area persistent surveillance platforms promise increasingly long periods of surveillance and increasingly wide areas of coverage with increasingly high-detail imagery over the entire area of interest, but the volume of data collected threatens to overwhelm our ability to understand the implications of the data. This paper describes a standards-based metadata architecture to support development of advanced automated movement detection and tracking capabilities - and ultimately "activity" recognition - to help the human observer bring the data volume under control.

  2. Reporting School Quality in Standards-Based Accountability Systems. CRESST Policy Brief 3, Spring 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Robert L.

    This brief discusses ways to measure and report school quality. At present, the differences in state accountability systems make comparisons of schools and school systems very difficult. The most common approach to reporting school status is in the context of current status, an approach in which the school mean or median score for students in the…

  3. Building Standards based Science Information Systems: A Survey of ISO and other standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Todd; Walker, Raymond

    Science Information systems began with individual researchers maintaining personal collec-tions of data and managing them by using ad hoc, specialized approaches. Today information systems are an enterprise consisting of federated systems that manage and distribute both historical and contemporary data from distributed sources. Information systems have many components. Among these are metadata models, metadata registries, controlled vocabularies and ontologies which are used to describe entities and resources. Other components include services to exchange information and data; tools to populate the system and tools to utilize available resources. When constructing information systems today a variety of standards can be useful. The benefit of adopting standards is clear; it can shorten the design cycle, enhance software reuse and enable interoperability. We look at standards from the International Stan-dards Organization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), American National Standards Institute (ANSI) which have influenced the develop-ment of information systems in the Heliophysics and Planetary sciences. No standard can solve the needs of every community. Individual disciplines often must fill the gap between general purpose standards and the unique needs of the discipline. To this end individual science dis-ciplines are developing standards, Examples include the International Virtual Observatory Al-liance (IVOA), Planetary Data System (PDS)/ International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), Dublin-Core Science, and the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) consortium. This broad survey of ISO and other standards provides some guidance for the development information systems. The development of the SPASE data model is reviewed and provides some insights into the value of applying appropriate standards and is used to illustrate how quasi-standards efforts can effectively evolve towards robust standards compliance. New efforts may benefit from the lessons learned.

  4. Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

    This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

  5. ACSYNT - A standards-based system for parametric, computer aided conceptual design of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaram, S.; Myklebust, A.; Gelhausen, P.

    1992-01-01

    A group of eight US aerospace companies together with several NASA and NAVY centers, led by NASA Ames Systems Analysis Branch, and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory agreed, through the assistance of Americal Technology Initiative, in 1990 to form the ACSYNT (Aircraft Synthesis) Institute. The Institute is supported by a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement to continue the research and development in computer aided conceptual design of aircraft initiated by NASA Ames Research Center and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory. The result of this collaboration, a feature-based, parametric computer aided aircraft conceptual design code called ACSYNT, is described. The code is based on analysis routines begun at NASA Ames in the early 1970's. ACSYNT's CAD system is based entirely on the ISO standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System and is graphics-device independent. The code includes a highly interactive graphical user interface, automatically generated Hermite and B-Spline surface models, and shaded image displays. Numerous features to enhance aircraft conceptual design are described.

  6. A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contino, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…

  7. Graduate Student Attitudes toward Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelides, Michalis; Kirshner, Ben

    2005-01-01

    This study examined graduate student attitudes towards letter and pass/fail grading systems in the Law School and the School of Education in a selective university in the United States. Fifty-four students completed a questionnaire on goal orientations (ability comparison vs. mastery), amount of effort and stress in each of the two grading

  8. An Automated Grade Of Service Measuring System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Inayatullah; Farooq Kifayat Ullah; Akhtar Nawaz Khan

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel way to introduce an automated system to measure grade of service system. In this system, calls are presented to a system that has limited number of resources (servers or trunks). A typical scenario involves having fewer resources than users of the system so probability of blocking is high. If the system is designed

  9. Advancing hydrometeorological prediction capabilities through standards-based cyberinfrastructure development: The community WRF-Hydro modeling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    gochis, David; Parodi, Antonio; Hooper, Rick; Jha, Shantenu; Zaslavsky, Ilya

    2013-04-01

    The need for improved assessments and predictions of many key environmental variables is driving a multitude of model development efforts in the geosciences. The proliferation of weather and climate impacts research is driving a host of new environmental prediction model development efforts as society seeks to understand how climate does and will impact key societal activities and resources and, in turn, how human activities influence climate and the environment. This surge in model development has highlighted the role of model coupling as a fundamental activity itself and, at times, a significant bottleneck in weather and climate impacts research. This talk explores some of the recent activities and progress that has been made in assessing the attributes of various approaches to the coupling of physics-based process models for hydrometeorology. One example modeling system that is emerging from these efforts is the community 'WRF-Hydro' modeling system which is based on the modeling architecture of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). An overview of the structural components of WRF-Hydro will be presented as will results from several recent applications which include the prediction of flash flooding events in the Rocky Mountain Front Range region of the U.S. and along the Ligurian coastline in the northern Mediterranean. Efficient integration of the coupled modeling system with distributed infrastructure for collecting and sharing hydrometeorological observations is one of core themes of the work. Specifically, we aim to demonstrate how data management infrastructures used in the US and Europe, in particular data sharing technologies developed within the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and UNIDATA, can interoperate based on international standards for data discovery and exchange, such as standards developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium and adopted by GEOSS. The data system we envision will help manage WRF-Hydro prediction model data flows, enabling discovery and flexible configuration of model inputs, and managing provenance for selected model outputs. The talk will end with a discussion on the opportunities for fostering open, standards-based approaches for code development, model interoperability and data and metadata structures as well as the need for multi-scale and multi-physics model structures.

  10. A Framework of Teacher Knowledge and Skills Necessary in a Standards-Based System: Lessons from High School and University Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tell, Christine A.; Bodone, Francoise M.; Addie, Karen L.

    The Standards-based Education Project (STEP) was conducted as part of the Eisenhower Initial Teacher Professional Development Program in Oregon, under the Proficiency-based Admissions Standards System (PASS). STEP focused on the development of a framework of teacher knowledge, skills, and materials for pre-service and practicing teachers. High…

  11. Lie Algebras Graded by 3Graded Root Systems and Jordan Pairs Covered by Grids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erhard Neher

    1996-01-01

    Let R be an irreducible root system. A Lie Algebra L is called graded by R if L is graded with grading group the root lattice of R such that the only nonzero homogeneous subspaces of L have degree 0 or a root in R, the grading is induced by the adjoint action of a split Cartan subalgebra of a

  12. Toronto Facial Grading System: Interobserver reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FATMA TULIN KAYHAN; DAVID ZURAKOWSKI; STEVEN D. RAUCH

    2000-01-01

    The Toronto Facial Grading System (TFGS) is an observer scale for rating facial nerve dysfunction. The TFGS scores aspects of resting symmetry, symmetry of voluntary movement, and synkinesis for each division of the face (subscores) and then provides calculated total scores and an overall composite score of facial function. The developers of the scale have validated its sensitivity for identifying

  13. Effects of Standards-Based Report Cards on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this causal-comparative study is to examine the effect of standards-based report cards on the growth and performance of Grade 4 students on the Massachusetts measure of accountability. This study examines the effect of the report card format on the grade level student growth percentiles (SGP) and composite performance index (CPI) on…

  14. The design and implementation of an off-the-shelf, standards-based tele-ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, S K; Allen, D; Brockway, P D

    2000-01-01

    We developed an off-the-shelf system to transfer DICOM-compliant ultrasound images from a small rural hospital in northern Alberta to an urban radiology clinic in Calgary. The transfer time was less than 30 s per image. The radiologist could then review the case and release the patient. The radiologist could also switch to realtime videoconferencing mode and direct the rural ultrasound technician to obtain additional images of the patient. PMID:10975102

  15. Concepts for a standard based cross-organisational information security management system in the context of a nationwide EHR.

    PubMed

    Mense, Alexander; Hoheiser-Pförtner, Franz; Schmid, Martin; Wahl, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Working with health related data necessitates appropriate levels of security and privacy. Information security, meaning ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability, is more organizational, than technical in nature. It includes many organizational and management measures, is based on well-defined security roles, processes, and documents, and needs permanent adaption of security policies, continuously monitoring, and measures assessment. This big challenge for any organization leads to implementation of an information security management system (ISMS). In the context of establishing a regional or national electronic health record for integrated care (ICEHR), the situation is worse. Changing the medical information exchange from on-demand peer-to-peer connections to health information networks requires all organizations participating in the EHR system to have consistent security levels and to follow the same security guidelines and rules. Also, the implementation must be monitored and audited, establishing cross-organizational information security management systems (ISMS) based on international standards. This paper evaluates requirements and defines basic concepts for an ISO 27000 series-based cross-organizational ISMS in the healthcare domain and especially for the implementation of the nationwide electronic health record in Austria (ELGA). PMID:23920615

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR SHIITAKE GRADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HO-HSIEN CHEN; CHING-HUA TING

    2004-01-01

    A grading system was developed to classify shiitake automatically into various grades of quality in terms of size, shape and color. A shiitake is scanned with a color charge-coupled-device camera and then various geometrical and color characteristics are determined by image processing. The online grading procedure includes the following sequences in processing dried shiitake: (a) color abnormality is eliminated by

  17. FACULTY SENATE TOWN MEETING Plus/Minus Grading System

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    not be adversely affected Dr. Teresa Heckert reported for Ruthie Dare-Halma Grade inflation could be increased TopFACULTY SENATE TOWN MEETING Plus/Minus Grading System February 13, 2001 Dr. Teresa Heckert opened the meeting at 4:30PM. Dr. Chad Mohler gave summary of information he has gathered regarding +/- grading

  18. Grades That Show What Students Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to cure the ills of current grading and reporting systems, many schools and districts across the United States have attempted to implement a standards-based system. The authors recommend four best practices in this area: (1) Get rid of the omnibus grade, which tells teachers little about the content measured or the difficulty level of…

  19. Histologic grading of urothelial papillary neoplasms: impact of combined grading (two-numbered grading system) on reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Tuna, Burçin; Yörükoglu, Kutsal; Düzcan, Ender; Sen, Sait; Nese, Nalan; Sars?k, Banu; Akder, Aysegul; Sayhan, Sehnaz; Mungan, U?ur; Kirkali, Ziya

    2011-06-01

    The clinical management of tumor patients is often strongly influenced by the tumor grade. The presence of heterogeneity is well recognized in a variety of tumors. Overall grade is based on highest grade area identified within a tumor. Urothelial carcinoma often contains different histological grades within the same tumor. This study investigates the impact of a combined grading system on the reproducibility of papillary urothelial neoplasms. A set prepared for an earlier study consisting of ten cases of each category (papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), LGPUC, and HGPUC) was used. Agreement between pairs of pathologists was evaluated using ? statistics for the combined scoring system. Interobserver agreement was fair to substantial as reflected by ? values ranging from 0.24 to 0.74 (mean ??=?0.43). The combined scores of 2 and 3 which included PUNLMP showed the lowest degree of agreement and when this category was excluded from the analysis, interobserver agreement increased significantly (mean ??=?0.65; ranging from 0.43 to 0.92) in terms of combined scores of 4, 5, and 6. PUNLMP has been shown to be the least reproducible component of a combined scoring system even among experienced observers. Exclusion of PUNLMP from grading scheme seems to improve interobserver variability. PMID:21484429

  20. A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contino, Julie

    2013-02-01

    In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the standards. This study reports an analysis of the alignment between the National Science Education Standards (NSES), New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Core Curriculum (Core Curriculum) and New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Regents Examination (Regents Exam)—the sources teachers use for creating Earth Science curricula in New York State. The NSES were found to have a 49 % overlap with the Core Curriculum and a 27 % overlap with the Regents Exam. The Core Curriculum and Regents Exam, represented by matrices consisting of performance indicators and cognitive demands, were compared using the Porter Alignment Index. The alignment was 0.35, categorized as slightly aligned, due to the different emphases on cognitive levels. The Core focused on cognitive skills of Understand and Apply while the Regents concentrated more on Apply followed by Understand and Remember. It is suggested that the NSES be revised and the Core updated to include quantifiable emphasis on the major understandings such as percentage of time.

  1. ON-LINE PREDICTION OF YIELD GRADE, LONGISSIMUS MUSCLE AREA, PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, ADJUSTED PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, AND MARBLING SCORE USING THE MARC BEEF CARCASS IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the MARC Beef Carcass Image Analysis System to predict calculated yield grade, longissimus area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score under commercial beef processing conditions. In two commerci...

  2. On-line prediction of yield grade, longissimus muscle area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score using the MARC beef carcass image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    2003-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center's beef carcass image analysis system to predict calculated yield grade, longissimus muscle area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score under commercial beef processing conditions. In two commercial beef-processing facilities, image analysis was conducted on 800 carcasses on the beef-grading chain immediately after the conventional USDA beef quality and yield grades were applied. Carcasses were blocked by plant and observed calculated yield grade. The carcasses were then separated, with 400 carcasses assigned to a calibration data set that was used to develop regression equations, and the remaining 400 carcasses assigned to a prediction data set used to validate the regression equations. Prediction equations, which included image analysis variables and hot carcass weight, accounted for 90, 88, 90, 88, and 76% of the variation in calculated yield grade, longissimus muscle area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score, respectively, in the prediction data set. In comparison, the official USDA yield grade as applied by online graders accounted for 73% of the variation in calculated yield grade. The technology described herein could be used by the beef industry to more accurately determine beef yield grades; however, this system does not provide an accurate enough prediction of marbling score to be used without USDA grader interaction for USDA quality grading. PMID:12597385

  3. APPENDIX B. Cornell University Grading System

    E-print Network

    Davis, H. Floyd

    , 1965) Grades S U PassingFail FailPassing A+ A A- B+ B B- C+ C C- D+ D D- F 4.3 4.0 3.7 3.3 3.0 2.7 2 a substantial equity at a passing level in the course with respect to work completed. 2. The student has been a student fails to complete all course requirements on time. The "incomplete" privilege is open to abuse

  4. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Comparing grades under different pay systems. 536.105 Section 536.105... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay systems. (a) General. An...

  5. Grading NASA's Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Committee on Assessing the Solar System Exploration Program has reviewed NASA's progress to date in implementing the recommendations made in the National Research Council's (NRC's) solar system exploration decadal survey covering the period 2003-2013, New Frontiers in the Solar System, and in its Mars Architecture report, Assessment of NASA s Mars Architecture 2007-2016. The committee assessed NASA's progress with respect to each individual recommendation in these two reports, assigning an academic-style grade, explaining the rationale for the grade and trend, and offering recommendations for improvement. The committee generally sought to develop recommendations in cases where it determined that the grade, the trend, or both were worrisome and that the achievement of a decadal survey recommendation would require some kind of corrective action on NASA's part. This usually meant that the committee sought to offer a recommendation when the grade was a "C" or lower. However, the committee did offer recommendations in connection with some higher grades when it believed that minor corrective action was possible and desirable. More importantly, the committee did not offer recommendations for some of the activities given lower grades, particularly in the enabling technologies area (Chapter 6), because the committee determined that only the restoration of funding and the development of a strategic technology development program would solve these problems.

  6. Positive and Negative Incentives in the Classroom: An Analysis of Grading Systems and Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docan, Tony N.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how particular grading systems motivate students. Since competency-based grading and point systems are most prevalent (Hendrickson and Gable, 1999), the current study is modeled around these systems. The grading systems used for this study were divided into two categories and defined as those students who earned their grades

  7. An Effective Standards-Based K-12 Science and Technology/Engineering Classroom

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Steven

    An Effective Standards-Based K-12 Science and Technology/Engineering Classroom The MADOE's Science characteristics of an effective standards-based science and technology/engineering classroom, applicable to grades understandings necessary for participatory citizenship in our scientific and technological society. 1 WORKING

  8. Annex A: FAU Grading System ECTS-credits

    E-print Network

    Herrmann, Samuel

    Annex A: FAU Grading System ECTS-credits ECTS, the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System, was developed by the Commission of the European Community in order to provide common procedures to guarantee, and transferring them from one institution to another. In ECTS, 60 credits represent the workload of a full year

  9. Groups graded by root systems and property (T).

    PubMed

    Ershov, Mikhail; Jaikin-Zapirain, Andrei; Kassabov, Martin; Zhang, Zezhou

    2014-12-16

    We establish property (T) for a large class of groups graded by root systems, including elementary Chevalley groups and Steinberg groups of rank at least 2 over finitely generated commutative rings with 1. We also construct a group with property (T) which surjects onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank at least two. PMID:25425669

  10. Cultural Influences on Number Preferences: Christmas and Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieger, Stefan; Krizan, Zlatan

    2013-01-01

    People consistently prefer numbers associated with themselves (e.g., birth dates) over other numbers. We argue that such number preferences are also shaped by cultural influences, such as customs regarding the day on which Christmas is celebrated and customs regarding ranking of numerals used in national school's grading system. Across 6 different…

  11. Continuous-Flow System Produces Medical-Grade Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-flow system utilizes microwave heating to sterilize water and to thermally inactivate endotoxins produced in the sterilization process. The system is designed for use in converting potable water to medical-grade water. Systems like this one could be used for efficient, small-scale production of medical- grade water in laboratories, clinics, and hospitals. This system could be adapted to use in selective sterilization of connections in ultra-pure-water-producing equipment and other equipment into which intrusion by microorganisms cannot be tolerated. Lightweight, port - able systems based on the design of this system could be rapidly deployed to remote locations (e.g., military field hospitals) or in response to emergencies in which the normal infrastructure for providing medical-grade water is disrupted. Larger systems based on the design of this system could be useful for industrial production of medical-grade water. The basic microwave-heating principle of this system is the same as that of a microwave oven: An item to be heated, made of a lossy dielectric material (in this case, flowing water) is irradiated with microwaves in a multimode microwave cavity. The heating is rapid and efficient because it results from absorption of microwave power throughout the volume of the lossy dielectric material. In this system, a copper tube having a length of 49.5 cm and a diameter of 2.25 cm serves as both the microwave cavity and the sterilization chamber. Microwave power is fed via a coaxial cable to an antenna mounted inside the tube at mid-length (see figure). Efficient power transfer occurs due to the shift in wavelength associated with the high permittivity of water combined with the strong coupling of 2.45-GHz microwaves with rotational-vibrational transitions of the dipolar water molecule.

  12. Thermal residual stresses in a functionally graded material system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Ravichandran

    1995-01-01

    A one-dimensional calculation of thermal residual stresses, arising from the fabrication of a Functionally Graded Material (FGM) system, is presented. As a first step, calculations have been limited to the linear elastic case. The FGM system consists of ceramic (Al2O3) and metal (Ni) phases varying with distance in one direction. Several functional forms of gradation of constituents were examined to

  13. Standards-Based Curriculum, Differentiated Instruction, and End of Course Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartnell, Benjamin Jeffry

    2011-01-01

    Differentiated instruction, standards-based curriculum, and end of course assessments (ECAs) are not mandated in most high schools across the United States. As such, classroom grades do not accurately reflect district report cards. In particular, grades at the study site, a suburban high school, do not show the specific standards and benchmarks…

  14. A Standards-Based Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In standards-based science fairs, children learn more about what they are interested in. They deepen understandings of how science works and improve inquiry skills--including the ability to communicate and share research results. Parents learn more about science inquiry and their child's science abilities. The standards-based science fair builds…

  15. Reliability Assessment of a Rod Photoreceptor Outer Segment Grading System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica M Jablonski; Marshall J Graney; Stephen B Kritchevsky; Alessandro Iannaccone

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of a rod photoreceptor outer segment (PR-OS) grading system based on the analysis of 1? m thick retinal sections obtained from Xenopus laevis whole-eye organ cultures. Digitally captured images, representative of the entire spectrum of rod PR-OS organization levels, were selected and coded numerically. A total of 102 individual rod

  16. Functionally graded alumina-based thin film systems

    DOEpatents

    Moore, John J.; Zhong, Dalong

    2006-08-29

    The present invention provides coating systems that minimize thermal and residual stresses to create a fatigue- and soldering-resistant coating for aluminum die casting dies. The coating systems include at least three layers. The outer layer is an alumina- or boro-carbide-based outer layer that has superior non-wettability characteristics with molten aluminum coupled with oxidation and wear resistance. A functionally-graded intermediate layer or "interlayer" enhances the erosive wear, toughness, and corrosion resistance of the die. A thin adhesion layer of reactive metal is used between the die substrate and the interlayer to increase adhesion of the coating system to the die surface.

  17. Grade Stability in a Criterion-Referenced Grading System: The Swedish Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikstrom, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates empirically the mechanisms behind the increasing grade point averages in Swedish upper secondary schools. Four hypotheses are presented as plausible explanations; improved student achievements, student selection effects, strategic behaviour in course choices, and lowering of grading standards. The analysis is based on…

  18. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOEpatents

    Kuznetsov, Stephen B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel.

  19. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOEpatents

    Kuznetsov, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel. 4 figs.

  20. Grade Posting Options in the Student Information System (SIS) Grade posting in the Student Information System (SIS) can be completed in multiple ways

    E-print Network

    Howat, Ian M.

    Grade Posting Options in the Student Information System (SIS) Grade posting in the Student Information System (SIS) can be completed in multiple ways: Use the Faculty Center. Instructors teaching Center for details (https://assist erp.osu.edu/sis/WebHelp/facultycenter/). Post directly in the SIS

  1. Stimulation of systemic low-grade inflammation by psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Rohleder, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    Psychosocial stress is an important precursor of disease and reduced quality of life in humans. The biological pathways between stress exposure and pathophysiological processes underlying disease have received substantial scientific attention, although the roles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system remain insufficiently understood. Recent attention has focused on chronic systemic low-grade inflammation as a promising pathway because elevated inflammation often accompanies chronic psychosocial distress. These alterations of inflammatory activity play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases that are adversely affected by chronic distress, such as cardiovascular disease. Transient increases in systemic inflammation are observed in response to acute psychosocial stress, with larger responses among individuals reporting adverse psychosocial states or conditions such as depression, lower self-esteem, or lower self-compassion. Recent evidence shows that lower subjective social status and perceived purpose in life are associated with sensitization of inflammatory stress responses to repeated stress exposure. The aims of this selective review article are to summarize current knowledge of the role of acute and chronic psychosocial stress on low-grade inflammation in humans and to discuss potential relationships between inflammatory responses to acute psychosocial stress and long-term development of disease. PMID:24608036

  2. A proposed grading system for endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: Buffalo score

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Travis M.; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Spetzler–Martin arteriovenous malformation (AVM) grading system has proven to be useful in guiding treatment of cerebral AVMs with craniotomy. It is based on anatomical characteristics each of which makes surgical resection of an AVM more difficult, namely, deep venous drainage, eloquence of surrounding tissue, and large nidus size. A higher score correlates with more complications after treatment. Although this grading system has proven reliable over time, it does not reflect the major determinants of risk associated with endovascular treatment. The authors developed a grading system unique to endovascular treatment of cerebral AVMs. Methods: The proposed grading system accounts for the principal AVM anatomical and physiological features that make endovascular embolization more difficult and, thus, the likelihood of complications greater. These include number of arterial pedicles, diameter of arterial pedicles, and eloquent location of AVM nidus. The proposed grading system was retrospectively applied to 50 patients undergoing endovascular AVM embolization, and its ability to predict complications was compared to the Spetzler–Martin grading system. Results: Perioperative complications among the 50 patients included 4 major and 9 minor complications. The proposed grading system was predictive of complication risk, with an increasing rate of perioperative complications associated with an increasing AVM grade. An improved correlation of perioperative complication incidence was noted with the proposed system (P = 0.002), when compared with the Spetzler–Martin grading system (P = 0.33). Conclusion: This grading system for the endovascular treatment of AVMs is simple, easily reproduced, and clinically valuable. PMID:25657856

  3. A Qualitative Case Study on the Effects of Online Grading Systems on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, C. Mark, II

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored perceptions of teachers and educational administrators regarding differences between online grading systems and traditional written grade books. The purpose was to gain knowledge of online grade books in relation to parental involvement in the educational process and student academic performance, when compared…

  4. Markov property and strong additivity of von Neumann entropy for graded quantum systems

    E-print Network

    Hajime Moriya

    2006-03-16

    It is easy to verify the equivalence of the quantum Markov property and the strong additivity of entropy for graded quantum systems as well. However, the structure of Markov states for graded systems is different from that for tensor product systems. For three-composed graded systems there are U(1)-gauge invariant Markov states whose restriction to the pair of marginal subsystems is non-separable.

  5. Necrotizing cervical fasciitis: Prognosis based on a new grading system.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Jagdeep Singh; Verma, Neeti; Thakur, Anamika; Sharma, Dev Raj; Mohindroo, Narinder Kumar

    2013-03-01

    We conducted a 10-year retrospective study to determine the prognosis of necrotizing cervical fasciitis (NCF). Our study population included 38 patients-32 males and 6 females, aged 10 months to 70 years (mean: 55 yr)-who had presented for management of NCF at our tertiary care hospital between Jan. 1, 2000, and Dec. 31, 2009. We classified each case into four categories based on the duration of disease prior to presentation, the severity of disease, and other factors that influence outcomes. We found that the most important factor in determining prognosis was the time interval between the onset of NCF and subsequent presentation for specialist or surgical intervention. Patients with a higher grade of NCF had longer hospital stays. Although aggressive surgical and medical intervention is the gold standard for the management of NCF, many of our patients presented with a relatively healthy appearing wound, which could mislead the evaluating clinician and delay prompt management. We believe that our new grading system will help obviate this problem and make clinicians more vigilant when faced with a new case of necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:23532652

  6. Teaching in the Standards-Based Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "ENC Focus" focuses on teaching in the standards-based classroom. Contents include: (1) "Creating Ideals and Making Them Real" (Annette Thorson); (2) "ENC Partners: Eisenhower National Clearinghouse Sites" (Juyong Pae); (3) "Innovators' Forum"; (4) "Using the Internet: Connecting Students through Collaborative Projects" (Kimberly S.…

  7. GRADUATE INFORMATION The grading system of the Graduate School applies

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    hours. WF -- withdrawn failing; the student withdrew from the course following the eighth week -- withdrawn passing; the student withdrew from the course following the eighth week of the semester, having and Applied Science. Grades are on a letter scale: A through C­, pass; F, failure. Grades of S (satisfac- tory

  8. Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, B. D.; Giller, C. A.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of consciousness. However, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in such patients may be quite different from that of healthy individuals, particularly when assessed during the rapidly changing hemodynamic conditions associated with neurocardiogenic syncope. To be able to interpret the pathophysiological significance of these observations, a clear understanding of the normal responses of the cerebral circulation to orthostatic stress must be obtained, particularly in the context of the known changes in systemic and regional distributions of blood flow and vascular resistance during orthostasis. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in the cerebral circulation during graded reductions in central blood volume in the absence of systemic hypotension in healthy humans. We hypothesized that cerebral vasoconstriction would occur and CBF would decrease due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. We further hypothesized, however, that the magnitude of this change would be small compared with changes in systemic or skeletal muscle vascular resistance in healthy subjects with intact autoregulation and would be unlikely to cause syncope without concomitant hypotension. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test this hypothesis, we studied 13 healthy men (age, 27 +/- 7 years) during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP). We measured systemic flow (Qc is cardiac output; C2H2 rebreathing), regional forearm flow (FBF; venous occlusion plethysmography), and blood pressure (BP; Finapres) and calculated systemic (SVR) and forearm (FVR) vascular resistances. Changes in brain blood flow were estimated from changes in the blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) using transcranial Doppler. Pulsatility (systolic minus diastolic/mean velocity) normalized for systemic arterial pressure pulsatility was used as an index of distal cerebral vascular resistance. End-tidal PACO2 was closely monitored during LBNP. From rest to maximal LBNP before the onset of symptoms or systemic hypotension, Qc and FBF decreased by 29.9% and 34.4%, respectively. VMCA decreased less, by 15.5% consistent with a smaller decrease in CBF. Similarly, SVR and FVR increased by 62.8% and 69.8%, respectively, whereas pulsatility increased by 17.2%, suggestive of a mild degree of small-vessel cerebral vasoconstriction. Seven of 13 subjects had presyncope during LBNP, all associated with a sudden drop in BP (29 +/- 9%). By comparison, hyperventilation alone caused greater changes in VMCA (42 +/- 2%) and pulsatility but never caused presyncope. In a separate group of 3 subjects, superimposition of hyperventilation during highlevel LBNP caused a further decrease in VMCA (31 +/- 7%) but no change in BP or level of consciousness. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in healthy humans during graded reductions in central blood volume caused by LBNP. However, the magnitude of this response is small compared with changes in SVR or FVR during LBNP or other stimuli known to induce cerebral vasoconstriction (hypocapnia). We speculate that this degree of cerebral vasoconstriction is not by itself sufficient to cause syncope during orthostatic stress. However, it may exacerbate the decrease in CBF associated with hypotension if hemodynamic instability develops.

  9. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  10. Four Steps in Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

  11. Understanding Standards-Based Reform in Early Childhood Education: An Exploratory Study of Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rader, Shannon Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based reform has traditionally focused on K-12 educational systems, but there is growing evidence that it is now affecting early childhood programs. While it is increasingly apparent that standards-based reform has arrived in early childhood, there is a significant gap in our understanding of how these policies are being implemented in…

  12. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  13. Optical system components for navigation grade fiber optic gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Marcus; Liesegang, Maximilian; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2013-10-01

    Interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes belong to the class of inertial sensors. Due to their high accuracy they are used for absolute position and rotation measurement in manned/unmanned vehicles, e.g. submarines, ground vehicles, aircraft or satellites. The important system components are the light source, the electro optical phase modulator, the optical fiber coil and the photodetector. This paper is focused on approaches to realize a stable light source and fiber coil. Superluminescent diode and erbium doped fiber laser were studied to realize an accurate and stable light source. Therefor the influence of the polarization grade of the source and the effects due to back reflections to the source were studied. During operation thermal working conditions severely affect accuracy and stability of the optical fiber coil, which is the sensor element. Thermal gradients that are applied to the fiber coil have large negative effects on the achievable system accuracy of the optic gyroscope. Therefore a way of calculating and compensating the rotation rate error of a fiber coil due to thermal change is introduced. A simplified 3 dimensional FEM of a quadrupole wound fiber coil is used to determine the build-up of thermal fields in the polarization maintaining fiber due to outside heating sources. The rotation rate error due to these sources is then calculated and compared to measurement data. A simple regression model is used to compensate the rotation rate error with temperature measurement at the outside of the fiber coil. To realize a compact and robust optical package for some of the relevant optical system components an approach based on ion exchanged waveguides in thin glass was developed. This waveguides are used to realize 1x2 and 1x4 splitter with fiber coupling interface or direct photodiode coupling.

  14. Ceramic\\/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Petrovic; K. J. McClellan

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key

  15. Classification of two-dimensional quantum systems with Z{sub 3}-graded topological symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Pouladsaz, D. [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    In this article, I have derived the general conditions on two-dimensional quantum systems possess Z{sub 3}-graded topological symmetries and calculated the solutions of two special cases of such systems.

  16. A Relation Between $Z_3$-Graded Symmetry and Shape Invariant Supersymmetric Systems

    E-print Network

    V. K. Oikonomou

    2014-06-04

    We study an important property of shape invariant supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems. Particularly, we demonstrate that each shape invariant supersymmetric system can constitute a $Z_3$-graded topological symmetric algebra. The latter is known to provide topological invariants which are generalizations of the Witten index. In addition, we relate the $Z_3$-graded algebra to the generators of the SO(2,1) Lie algebra underlying each shape invariant system. We generalize the results to the case of sequential shape invariant systems, in which case we find a sequence of $Z_3$-graded algebras. Finally, we briefly discuss two systems that are related to shape invariance, but have different algebraic origin, namely supersymmetric systems with central charge equipped with an additional symmetry and $Z_3$-graded algebraic systems. In view of the fact that the shape invariance condition is somewhat an additional algebraic condition, with no origin to some concrete algebraic structure, our results might be useful towards this line of research.

  17. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students…

  18. Grading System, University Final grades are available on the campus Pipeline web service (http://pipeline.wayne.edu).

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    -plus' -- Fair: 2.33 grade points per credit `C' -- Fair: 2.00 grade points per credit `C-minus' -- Fair: 1.67 grade points per credit `CNC' -- Fair: no credit `D-plus' -- Poor: 1.33 grade points per credit `D

  19. Lie algebras graded by finite root systems and intersection matrix algebras

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgia Benkart; Efim Zelmanov

    1996-01-01

    .   This paper classifies the Lie algebras graded by doubly-laced finite root systems and applies this classification to identify\\u000a the intersection matrix algebras arising from multiply affinized Cartan matrices of types B,C,F, and G. This completes the determination of the Lie algebras graded by finite root systems initiated by Berman and Moody who studied\\u000a the simply-laced finite root systems of

  20. Connections: Water, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Catherine R.

    Natural Resources for Grade 3 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of Learning for…

  1. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Crictor"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coblin, Mary Payne; Huss, Dorothy; Kirk, Bonnie; Lonneman, Melissa; Melville, Claire

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  2. An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy

    E-print Network

    Lee, Seok Woo

    Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low ...

  3. A field evaluation of experimental passive railroad-highway grade crossing warning systems

    E-print Network

    Beitler, Michael Morgan

    1993-01-01

    A FIELD EVALUATION OF EKPERIMENTAL PASSIVE RAILROAD-HIGHWAY GRADE CROSSING WARNING SYSTEMS A Thesis MICHAEL MORGAN BEITLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Civil Engineering )~~I ABSTRACT A Field Evaluation of Experimental Passive Railroad- Highway Grade Crossing Warning Systems. (August 1993) Michael Morgan Beitler, B. S. , University...

  4. Is It a System?: Building a Global Perspective in the Elementary and Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Ann V.

    1988-01-01

    Uses the stereo and the human body systems as models to help intermediate grade (3-6) students understand the world as a global system. Provides a teaching script for "Is It a System?" a lesson plan for teaching systems models. Provides objectives, instructional materials, and procedures. (NL)

  5. An evaluation of a standards based portfolio.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, P

    2001-07-01

    In undergraduate and postgraduate nursing studies, the essay type assignment is commonly used to assess student learning. The literature suggests that of the alternatives for the assessment of learning, the use of portfolios may be an effective tool. A portfolio is generally conceptualized as a collection of the students best work or a collection of work that evidences incremental development. For a particular unit of learning, 'Nursing Business', second year undergraduate students in the Bachelor of Nursing programme were required to complete a portfolio. The assessment directed the students to meet specific criteria which in turn reflected the learning outcomes. Therefore the portfolio in this study is more appropriately described as a standards based portfolio (SBP). A SBP is a series of student work that seeks to address pre-determined learning outcomes. This study is an evaluation of student perceptions of a SPB and of interest to the study was the relationship between theory and practice, the availability of resources to complete the assignment and the contribution the portfolio made to the process of learning. PMID:11403588

  6. An evaluation of a standards based portfolio.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, P

    2001-04-01

    In undergraduate and postgraduate nursing studies, the essay type assignment is commonly used to assess student learning. The literature suggests that of the alternatives for the assessment of learning, the use of portfolios may be an effective tool. A portfolio is generally conceptualized as a collection of the students best work or a collection of work that evidences incremental development. For a particular unit of learning, 'Nursing Business', second year undergraduate students in the Bachelor of Nursing programme were required to complete a portfolio. The assessment directed the students to meet specific criteria which in turn reflected the learning outcomes. Therefore the portfolio in this study is more appropriately described as a standards based portfolio (SBP). A SBP is a series of student work that seeks to address pre-determined learning outcomes. This study is an evaluation of student perceptions of a SPB and of interest to the study was the relationship between theory and practice, the availability of resources to complete the assignment and the contribution the portfolio made to the process of learning. PMID:11322810

  7. Multi-phase functionally graded materials for thermal barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.R.; Ritter, A.M.; Gigliotti, M.F.; Kaya, A.C.; Gallo, J.P. [General Electric CRD, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Jet engine and gas turbine hot section components can be protected from the 1,350--1,650 C combustion gases by thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Metallic candidates for functionally graded material (FGM) coatings have been evaluated for potential use in bonding zirconia to a single crystal superalloy. Properties for four materials were studied for the low-expansion layer adjacent to the ceramic. Ingots were produced for these materials, and oxidation, expansion and modulus were determined. A finite element model was used to study effects of varying the FGM layers. Elastic modulus dominated stress generation, and a 20--25% reduction in thermal stress generated within the zirconia layer may be possible.

  8. Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

    This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

  9. Starting the Conversation about Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    As they attempt to make the transition to standards-based grading, many schools go off track or get swamped by side issues, writes Brookhart. They waste energy having hard discussions about grading practice details that, by themselves, cannot accomplish real reform. Instead, schools should focus discussion on major questions: What meaning do we…

  10. A grading system combining architectural features and mitotic count predicts recurrence in stage I lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kadota, Kyuichi; Suzuki, Kei; Kachala, Stefan S.; Zabor, Emily C.; Sima, Camelia S.; Moreira, Andre L.; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Riely, Gregory J.; Rusch, Valerie W.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Travis, William D.

    2015-01-01

    The IASLC/ATS/ERS has recently proposed a new lung adenocarcinoma classification. We investigated whether nuclear features can stratify prognostic subsets. Slides of 485 stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients were reviewed. We evaluated nuclear diameter, nuclear atypia, nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, chromatin pattern, prominence of nucleoli, intranuclear inclusions, mitotic count/10 high-power fields (HPF) or 2.4 mm2, and atypical mitoses. Tumors were classified into histologic subtypes according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification and grouped by architectural grade into low (adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma or lepidic predominant), intermediate (papillary or acinar), and high (micropapillary or solid). Log-rank tests and Cox regression models evaluated the ability of clinicopathologic factors to predict recurrence-free probability. In univariate analyses, nuclear diameter (p=0.007), nuclear atypia (p=0.006), mitotic count (p<0.001), and atypical mitoses (p<0.001) were significant predictors of recurrence. The recurrence-free probability of patients with high mitotic count (?5/10HPF: n=175) was the lowest (5-year recurrence-free probability=73%), followed by intermediate (2–4/10HPF: n=106, 80%), and low (0–1/10HPF: n=204, 91%, p<0.001). Combined architectural/mitotic grading system stratified patient outcomes (p<0.001): low grade (low architectural grade with any mitotic count and intermediate architectural grade with low mitotic count: n=201, 5-year recurrence-free probability=92%), intermediate grade (intermediate architectural grade with intermediate-high mitotic counts: n=206, 78%), and high grade (high architectural grade with any mitotic count: n=78, 68%). The advantage of adding mitotic count to architectural grade is in stratifying patients with intermediate architectural grade into two prognostically distinct categories (p=0.001). After adjusting for clinicopathologic factors including sex, stage, pleural/lymphovascular invasion, and necrosis, mitotic count was not an independent predictor of recurrence (p=0.178). However, patients with the high architectural/mitotic grade remained at significantly increased risk of recurrence (high vs. low: p=0.005) after adjusting for clinical factors. We proposed this combined architectural/mitotic grade for lung adenocarcinoma as a practical method that can be applied in routine practice. PMID:22499226

  11. Developing Seventh Grade Students’ Systems Thinking Skills in the Context of the Human Circulatory System

    PubMed Central

    Raved, Lena; Yarden, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Developing systems thinking skills in school can provide useful tools to deal with a vast amount of medical and health information that may help learners in decision making in their future lives as citizen. Thus, there is a need to develop effective tools that will allow learners to analyze biological systems and organize their knowledge. Here, we examine junior high school students’ systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. A model was formulated for developing teaching and learning materials and for characterizing students’ systems thinking skills. Specifically, we asked whether seventh grade students, who studied about the human circulatory system, acquired systems thinking skills, and what are the characteristics of those skills? Concept maps were used to characterize students’ systems thinking components and examine possible changes in the students’ knowledge structure. These maps were composed by the students before and following the learning process. The study findings indicate a significant improvement in the students’ ability to recognize the system components and the processes that occur within the system, as well as the relationships between different levels of organization of the system, following the learning process. Thus, following learning students were able to organize the systems’ components and its processes within a framework of relationships, namely the students’ systems thinking skills were improved in the course of learning using the teaching and learning materials. PMID:25520948

  12. Teacher Quality and Educational Equality: Do Teachers with Higher Standards-Based Evaluation Ratings Close Student Achievement Gaps?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Kimball, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    Using standards-based evaluation ratings for nearly 400 teachers, and achievement results for over 7,000 students from grades 4-6, this study investigated the distribution and achievement effects of teacher quality in Washoe County, a mid-sized school district serving Reno and Sparks, Nevada. Classrooms with higher concentrations of minority,…

  13. Communities Around the World. Their Economic Systems. Teacher's Guide to Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This general guide to a grade 4 social studies course outlines goals, content, and teaching methods on the theme Communities Around the World, with an economic emphasis. Different communities are used as vehicles to teach about contrasting economic systems and the relationship between the economic system and the rest of culture. Four major units…

  14. A Comparative and Evaluative Study of Two Cytological Grading Systems in Breast Carcinoma with Histological Grading: An Important Prognostic Factor

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, Alok; Chandra, Subrat; Kaur, Swarn

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Cytonuclear gradings in the breast carcinoma raise the level of FNA reportage and improves patient management. Our aim was to evaluate and compare two cytological grading methods (Robinson's and Mouriquand's) in breast carcinoma and correlate it with Nottingham modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) histological grading. Materials and Methods. 30 cytologically proven cases of infiltrating ductal carcinoma were graded cytologically and histologically. Cytograding was done by Robinson's and Mouriquand's methods (grades I to III) followed by comparison of the two methods. Cytogradings were correlated with SBR grading method. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy, and concordance and discordance rates were evaluated. Results. An overall concordance of 76.66% between cytogradings, of 83.33% between Robinson's method and SBR, and of 66.66% between Mouriquand's method and SBR was seen. Robinson's method correlated best with SBR in all the three nuclear grades. Robinson's method showed a diagnostic accuracy of 90% with 91.30% sensitivity while Mouriquand's method had an accuracy of 76.66% with 95.65% sensitivity. The specificity by Mouriquand's method was quite low (14.28%) as compared to Robinson's method (85.71%). Conclusion. Comprehensive cytological grading of breast cancer by Robinson's method seems better because of more objective set of criteria, easy reproducibility, and specificity.

  15. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: the mallet grading system for shoulder function--revisited.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, M M; El-Sayed, A A F

    2014-01-01

    The Mallet grading system is a commonly used functional scoring system to assess shoulder abduction/external rotation deficits in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. One feature of the Mallet score is that each grade is translated into certain degrees of deficiencies in both shoulder abduction and external rotation. The aim of the current study is to investigate the percentage of children in which the Mallet score could not be applied because of a discrepancy between the deficiency of shoulder abduction and shoulder external rotation. The study group included 50 consecutive unoperated older children (over 5 years of age) with Erb's palsy and deficits in shoulder movements. The Mallet score could be applied in 40 cases (80%). In the remaining 10 cases (20%), the Mallet score could not be applied either because shoulder abduction had a better grade than the grade of shoulder external rotation (n = 7) or vice versa (n = 3). It was concluded that documenting the deficits in shoulder abduction and external rotation are best done separately and this can be accomplished by using other grading systems. PMID:24527447

  16. Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: The Mallet Grading System for Shoulder Function—Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Al-Qattan, M. M.; El-Sayed, A. A. F.

    2014-01-01

    The Mallet grading system is a commonly used functional scoring system to assess shoulder abduction/external rotation deficits in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. One feature of the Mallet score is that each grade is translated into certain degrees of deficiencies in both shoulder abduction and external rotation. The aim of the current study is to investigate the percentage of children in which the Mallet score could not be applied because of a discrepancy between the deficiency of shoulder abduction and shoulder external rotation. The study group included 50 consecutive unoperated older children (over 5 years of age) with Erb's palsy and deficits in shoulder movements. The Mallet score could be applied in 40 cases (80%). In the remaining 10 cases (20%), the Mallet score could not be applied either because shoulder abduction had a better grade than the grade of shoulder external rotation (n = 7) or vice versa (n = 3). It was concluded that documenting the deficits in shoulder abduction and external rotation are best done separately and this can be accomplished by using other grading systems. PMID:24527447

  17. The Utility of Curriculum-Based Measurement within a Multitiered Framework: Establishing Cut Scores as Predictors of Student Performance on the Alaska Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between student performance on Reading Curriculum-based Measures (R-CBM) and student performance on the Alaska's standards based assessment (SBA) administered to students in Studied School District (SSD) Grade 3 through Grade 5 students in the Studied School District as required by…

  18. A Tool for Auditing Standards-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianda, Marcella; McKeon, Denise; Kapinus, Barbara

    The National Education Association developed this audit tool for interested affiliates to use to assess standards-based education in their states by gathering and analyzing information about its implementation and to array the information they gather against a set of standards that can help ensure that standards-based education fulfills its…

  19. Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions

    E-print Network

    Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, A-16 . Keywords: aluminum, atomic clocks, frequency standards, ion traps, mercury 1. INTRODUCTION Optical frequency standards based on the mercury ion and, more recently, the aluminum ion are under devel- opment

  20. MRC: Overview of the Solar System Grades 6-8

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about size and scale of the solar system. Learners will review the structure, content and size of the Solar System. This lesson is designed using the 5E instructional model and includes: teacher training, unit pacing guides, essential questions, a black-line master science notebook, a student presentation booklet, supplemental materials, and vocabulary for both students and teachers. This is lesson 1 as part of the Mars Rover Celebration Unit, a six week long curriculum.

  1. Application of functionally graded material for solid insulator in gaseous insulation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsumi Kato; Muneaki Kurimoto; Hideki Shumiya; Hiroshi Adachi; Shuichi Sakuma; Hitoshi Okubo

    2006-01-01

    Functionally graded materials (FGM) have spatial distribution of a material property in order to achieve efficient stress control. An application of the FGM to a solid insulator (spacer) for a gaseous insulation system, like gas insulated switchgear, is expected to improve electric field (E-field) distribution around the spacer. In this paper, we describe the applicability of the FGM spacer to

  2. First Grade and Forward: A Seven-Year Examination within the Baltimore City Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Stephen B.; Durham, Rachel E.; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth; Norman, Obed

    2008-01-01

    This report describes a cohort of first-grade students from the Baltimore City Public School System (BCPSS). Specifically, we follow the 9,176 students who were first-graders in the district in 1999-00 for seven years. We learn much about patterns of promotion and retention, mobility within BCPSS, transfer out of BCPSS, attendance, and…

  3. The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Sami

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

  4. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  5. Enhancing On-Task Behavior in Fourth-Grade Students Using a Modified Color Wheel System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondin, Carolyn; Skinner, Christopher; Parkhurst, John; Wood, Allison; Snyder, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel System (M-CWS) on the on-task behavior of 7 students enrolled in the 4th grade. Standard CWS procedures were modified to include a 4th set of rules designed to set behavioral expectation for cooperative learning activities. Mean data showed that immediately…

  6. Ultrasound grading of hydronephrosis: Introduction to the system used by the society for fetal urology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Fernbach; M. Maizels; J. J. Conway

    1993-01-01

    The Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) was founded in 1988 to study the postnatal evolution of prenatally detected anomalies of the urinary tract by following those neonates whose prenatal studies have brought them to medical attention while asymptomatic. The SFU has attempted to standardize methods of performing and grading the ultrasound and radionuclide examinations in this population. A system to

  7. Ready to Assemble: Grading State Higher Education Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldeman, Chad; Carey, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    States need strong higher education systems, now more than ever. In the tumultuous, highly competitive 21st century economy, citizens and workers need knowledge, skills, and credentials in order to prosper. Yet many colleges and universities are falling short. To give all students the best possible postsecondary education, states must create…

  8. Graded Si1-xGex Metrology Using a Multi-Technology Optical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pois, Heath; Huang, Jacky; Morris, Stephen; Peterlinz, Kevin; Zangooie, Shahin; Liu, JinPing; Tan, Boon Lay; Sohn, Dong Kyun; Jones, Robert; Scheirer, Curry

    2003-09-01

    Graded Si1-xGex structures have been measured with good accuracy, stability and tool-tool matching by utilizing different measurement methods in one system (Opti-Probe®). The measurement methods utilized are (i) laser reflectivity versus angle for S and P polarization (BPR®), (ii) visible-DUV reflectometry (BB), and (iii) spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). An alloy dispersion model, along with a multi-layer linear graded-material model, were used to process the data and extract the thickness of the cap-Si, graded and spacer Si1-xGex layers, as well as the Ge%, simultaneously. The results were found to be in agreement with subsequent SIMS analysis to within 50Å for all layers and 0.5% atomic Ge%. Stability and matching results for thickness were <13Å (3?) for all layers, and for the Ge% the stability was <0.25-0.6% (3?).

  9. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

  10. An XML cytometry standard based on DICOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leif, Robert C.

    2009-02-01

    Introduction: The International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Data Standards Task Force (DSTF) is developing a new Advanced Cytometry Specification (ACS). DICOM has developed and is extending a pathology extension. The work of both groups is complementary with some overlap. Interoperation would benefit both groups and permit each to benefit from the other's expertise. Methods: The design and implementation of the CytometryML version of the ACS schemas have been based on each schema describing one object (modularity), iterative (spiral) development, inheritance, and reuse of data-types and their definitions from DICOM, Flow Cytometry Standard, and other standards. Results: These schemas have been validated with two tools and XML pages were generated from highest level schemas. Binary image data and its associated metadata are stored together in a zip file based container. A schema for a table of contents, which is one of the metadata files of this container, has recently been developed and reported upon. The binary image data is placed in one file in the container; and the metadata associated with an image in another. The schema for the image metadata file includes elements that are based on the DICOM design. This image schema includes descriptions of the acquisition context, image (including information on compression), specimen, slide, transmission medium, major optical parts, optical elements in one or more optical channels, detectors, and pixel format. The image schema describes both conventional camera systems and scanning or confocal systems.

  11. A Radio Based Intelligent Railway Grade Crossing System to Avoid Collision

    E-print Network

    Mostafa, Sheikh Shanawaz; Reza, Khondker Jahid; Rashid, Gazi Maniur

    2011-01-01

    Railway grade crossing is become the major headache for the transportation system. This paper describes an intelligent railway crossing control system for multiple tracks that features a controller which receives messages from incoming and outgoing trains by sensors. These messages contain detail information including the direction and identity of a train. Depending on those messages the controller device decides whenever the railroad crossing gate will close or open.

  12. Stability of aqueous food grade fibrillar systems against pH change.

    PubMed

    Kroes-Nijboer, Ardy; Sawalha, Hassan; Venema, Paul; Bot, Arjen; Flöter, Eckhard; den Adel, Ruud; Bouwman, Wim G; van der Linden, Erik

    2012-01-01

    We report that the stability of an aqueous food grade fibril system upon pH change is affected by the presence of peptides that are formed during the process of fibril formation. We discuss several other relationships between food relevant properties and nano-scale characteristics, and compare these relationships for aqueous fibril systems to those of oil based fibril systems. In such fibril systems, dynamics, self-organisation, and sensitivity to external conditions, play an important role. These aspects are common to complex systems in general and define the future challenge in relating functional properties of food to molecular scale properties of their ingredients. PMID:23234164

  13. Redefining Stage I Endometrial Cancer: Incorporating Histology, a Binary Grading System, Myometrial Invasion, and Lymph Node Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Barlin, Joyce N.; Soslow, Robert A.; Lutz, Megan; Zhou, Qin C.; St Clair, Caryn M.; Leitao, Mario M.; Iasonos, Alexia; Hensley, Martee L.; Barakat, Richard R.; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We propose a new staging system for stage I endometrial cancer and compare its performance to the 1988 and 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) systems. Methods We analyzed patients with 1988 FIGO stage I endometrial cancer from January 1993 to August 2011. Low-grade carcinoma consisted of endometrioid grade 1 to grade 2 lesions. High-grade carcinoma consisted of endometrioid grade 3 or nonendometrioid carcinomas (serous, clear cell, and carcinosarcoma). The proposed system is as follows: IA Low-grade carcinoma with less than half myometrial invasion IA1 Negative nodes IA2 No nodes removed IB High-grade carcinoma with no myometrial invasion IB1 Negative nodes IB2 No nodes removed IC Low-grade carcinoma with half or greater myometrial invasion IC1 Negative nodes IC2 No nodes removed ID High-grade carcinoma with any myometrial invasion ID1 Negative nodes ID2 No nodes removed Results Data from 1843 patients were analyzed. When patients were restaged with our proposed system, the 5-year overall survival significantly differed (P < 0.001): IA1, 96.7%; IA2, 92.2%; IB1, 92.2%; IB2, 76.4%; IC1, 83.9%; IC2, 78.6%; ID1, 81.1%; and ID2, 68.8%. The bootstrap-corrected concordance probability estimate for the proposed system was 0.627 (95% confidence interval, 0.590–0.664) and was superior to the concordance probability estimate of 0.530 (95% confidence interval, 0.516–0.544) for the 2009 FIGO system. Conclusions By incorporating histological subtype, grade, myometrial invasion, and whether lymph nodes were removed, our proposed system for stage I endometrial cancer has a superior predictive ability over the 2009 FIGO staging system and provides a novel binary grading system (low-grade including endometrioid grade 1–2 lesions; high-grade carcinoma consisting of endometrioid grade 3 carcinomas and nonendometrioid carcinomas). PMID:24126219

  14. Characterizations of Mg-W System Graded-Density Impactors for Complex Loading Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Guoqiang; Bai, Jinsong; Tan, Hua; Shen, Qiang; Hu, Jianbo; Wang, Qingsong; Dai, Chengda; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2010-09-01

    We designed an Mg-W functionally graded-density materials system with two different sequences of density-thickness distributions and fabricated disk-like pellets with the graded-density materials by elaborate stacking of different metal powder layers, followed by a one-step hot-pressure sintering process. The microstructures of the sintered pellets were characterized using a scanning electronic microscope and a scanning acoustic microscope. The pellets were used as graded-density impactors (GDIs) to test their capabilities to produce complex particle-velocity wave profiles along a specified thermodynamic path. The wave profile was obtained from reverse-impact experiments using a two-stage light gas gun in which the GDI flyer impacted a lithium fluoride window. The particle-velocity history at the impact surface of the LiF window was deduced from the interference fringe numbers of the distance interferometer system for any reflector records. For GDIs consisting of nine composition layers of graded-density materials, the particle velocity profiles displayed combined shock loading and quasi-isentropic compressing and release processes. The impactor, consisting of 12 composition layers, produced wave profiles that contained shock loading, quasi-isentropic reloading, controlled releasing, and recompressing and released processes. The wave profiles simulated using a hydrodynamic computer model developed in house agree well with the experimental results as well as other theoretical results.

  15. Standard-Based Teaching: Overcoming the Side Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, David Alan; Gilman, Ruth Ann

    2003-01-01

    Identifies several problems associated with standards-based teaching and provides solutions for overcoming them. Problems include curricular limitations, ineffective remediation, alternative choices, questionable tests, unfair labeling, educator morale, negative perceptions, reallocation of resources, and incompatible expectations. (PKP)

  16. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  17. An international classification and grading system for age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. C. Bird; N. M. Bressler; S. B. Bressler; I. H. Chisholm; G. Coscas; M. D. Davis; P. T. V. M. de Jong; C. C. W. Klaver; B. E. K. Klein; R. Klein; P. Mitchell; J. P. Sarks; S. H. Sarks; G. Soubrane; H. R. Taylor; J. R. Vingerling

    1995-01-01

    A common detection and classification system is needed for epidemiologic studies of age-related maculopathy (ARM). Such a grading scheme for ARM is described in this paper. ARM is defined as a degenerative disorder in persons ?50 years of age characterized on grading of color fundus transparencies by the presence of the following abnormalities in the macular area: soft drusen ?63?m,

  18. The Impact of Two Standards-Based Mathematics Curricula on Student Achievement in Massachusetts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie E. Riordan; Pendred E. Noyce

    Since the passage of the Education Reform Act in 1993, Massachusetts has developed curriculum frameworks and a new statewide testing system. As school districts align curriculum and teaching practices with the frameworks, standards-based mathematics programs are beginning to replace more traditional curricula. This paper presents a quasi-experimental study using matched comparison groups to investigate the impact of one elementary and

  19. A Standard-Based Model for Adaptive E-Learning Platform for Mauritian Academic Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaksabee, P.; Odit, M. P.; Ramdoyal, A.

    2011-01-01

    The key aim of this paper is to introduce a standard-based model for adaptive e-learning platform for Mauritian academic institutions and to investigate the conditions and tools required to implement this model. The main forces of the system are that it allows collaborative learning, communication among user, and reduce considerable paper work.…

  20. Alignment: Its Role in Standards-Based Reform and Prospects for the Common Core

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massell, Diane; Perrault, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) of 2010 represent a new chapter in the 25-year history of standards-based reforms (SBR). The CCSS attempts to bring the system back to the principles of its founding--more rigorous, focused, academic content and performance expectations collectively embraced by the nation. The new standards depart…

  1. Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

  2. Thermal Energy Storage System Using a Technical Grade Paraffin Wax as Latent Heat Energy Storage Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Kaygusuz; Ahmet Sari

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to experimentally establish thermal energy storage (TES) performance using a technical grade paraffin wax as a phase change material (PCM) in a vertical concentric pipe-in-pipe latent heat storage system. The melting and solidification temperature range of the paraffin was found as 38°C–43°C and 36°C–42°C, respectively. These values were well in agreement with the values

  3. Enhancing On-Task Behavior in Fourth-Grade Students Using a Modified Color Wheel System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolyn Blondin; Christopher Skinner; John Parkhurst; Allison Wood; Jamie Snyder

    2012-01-01

    The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel System (M-CWS) on the on-task behavior of 7 students enrolled in the 4th grade. Standard CWS procedures were modified to include a 4th set of rules designed to set behavioral expectation for cooperative learning activities. Mean data showed that immediately after the M-CWS was applied,

  4. Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaafar, Hussain F.; Nandi, Asoke K.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

  5. Making the Grade in a Portfolio-Based System: Student Performance and the Student Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Nowacki, Amy S.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment is such an integral part of the educational system that we rarely reflect on its value and impact. Portfolios have gained in popularity, but much attention has emphasized the end-user and portfolio assessment. Here we focus on the portfolio creator (the student) and examine whether their educational needs are met with such an assessment method. This study aims to investigate how assessment practices influence classroom performance and the learning experience of the student in a graduate education setting. Studied were 33 medical students at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, a program utilizing a portfolio-based system. The students may elect to simultaneously enroll in a Masters program; however, these programs employ traditional letter grades. Thus creating a unique opportunity to assess 25 portfolio only (P) students and 8 portfolio and grade (PG) students concurrently taking a course that counts for both programs. Classroom performance was measured via a comprehensive evaluation where the PG students scored modestly better (median total scores, 72% P vs. 76% PG). Additionally, a survey was conducted to gain insight into student’s perspective on how assessment method impacts the learning experience. The students in the PG group (those receiving a grade) reported increased stress but greater affirmation and self-assurance regarding their knowledge and skill mastery. Incorporation of such affirmation remains a challenge for portfolio-based systems and an area for investigation and improvement. PMID:23565103

  6. Cerebellar Arteriovenous Malformations: Anatomical Subtypes, Surgical Results, and Increased Predictive Accuracy of the Supplementary Grading System

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana; Kim, Helen; Pourmohamad, Tony; Young, William L.; Lawton, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Anatomical diversity amongst cerebellar AVMs calls for a classification that is intuitive and surgically informative. Selection tools like the Spetzler-Martin grading system are designed to work best with cerebral AVMs, but have shortcomings with cerebellar AVMs. Objective To define subtypes of cerebellar AVMs that clarify anatomy and surgical management, determine results according to subtypes, and compare predictive accuracies of Spetzler-Martin and supplementary systems. Methods From a consecutive surgical series of 500 patients, 60 had cerebellar AVMs, 39 had brain stem AVMs and were excluded, and 401 had cerebral AVMs. Results Cerebellar AVM subtypes were: 18 vermian, 13 suboccipital, 12 tentorial, 12 petrosal, and 5 tonsillar. Patients with tonsillar and tentorial AVMs fared best. Cerebellar AVMs presented with hemorrhage more than cerebral AVMs (p<0.001). Cerebellar AVMs were more likely to drain deep (p=0.036) and less likely eloquent (p<0.001). The predictive accuracy of supplementary grade was better than that of Spetzler-Martin grade with cerebellar AVMs (areas under the ROC curve 0.74 and 0.59, respectively). The predictive accuracy of the supplementary system was consistent for cerebral and cerebellar AVMs, whereas that of the Spetzler-Martin system was greater with cerebral AVMs. Conclusion Patients with cerebellar AVMs present with hemorrhage more than patients with cerebral AVMs, justifying an aggressive treatment posture. The supplementary system is better than the Spetzler-Martin system at predicting outcomes after cerebellar AVM resection. Key components of the Spetzler-Martin system, like venous drainage and eloquence, are distorted by cerebellar anatomy in ways that components of the supplementary system are not. PMID:22986595

  7. CTCAE v3.0: development of a comprehensive grading system for the adverse effects of cancer treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Trotti; A. Dimitrios Colevas; Ann Setser; Valerie Rusch; David Jaques; Volker Budach; Corey Langer; Barbara Murphy; Richard Cumberlin; C. Norman Coleman; Philip Rubin

    2003-01-01

    Multiple systems have been developed for grading the adverse effects (AEs) of cancer treatment. The National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) system has substantially evolved since its inception in 1983. The most recent version, CTCAE v3.0 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) represents the first comprehensive, multimodality grading system for reporting the acute and late effects of

  8. Road grade quantification based on global positioning system data obtained from real-world vehicle fuel use and emissions measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani Boroujeni, Behdad; Frey, H. Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Real-world vehicle fuel use and emission rates depend on engine load, which is quantified in terms of Vehicle Specific Power (VSP). VSP depends on vehicle speed, acceleration, and road grade. There is not a standard method for measuring road grade from a moving vehicle. A method for quantifying grade is evaluated based on statistical analysis of multiple runs using low cost consumer grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers with in-built Barometric Altimeter (GPS/BA). The average grade precision is ±0.71, ±0.46, and ±0.31 percentage points, for sample sizes of 9, 18, and 36 GPS/BA runs, respectively, among 2213 individual 0.08 km road segments. In addition, 4 sets of repeated measurements were performed on the same routes using a high cost, high accuracy Differential GPS (DGPS). Both sets of GPS-based grade estimates compared well with those derived from LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data. GPS/BA and DGPS grade estimates were similar, except for high magnitude grades of 8-10 percent for which DGPS estimates are more accurate. DGPS is more sensitive to loss of signal; thus, a hybrid approach for substituting GPS/BA data for missing DGPS data at specific locations along a route is demonstrated. The local and overall effects of road grade on fuel use and emission rates are investigated for an example light duty gasoline vehicle.

  9. Evaluation of symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis using the GRADE system

    PubMed Central

    Bruyère, Olivier; Burlet, Nansa; Delmas, Pierre D; Rizzoli, René; Cooper, Cyrus; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Background Symptomatic slow-acting drugs (SYSADOA) have been largely studied over the last decade. The objective of this study is to prepare a document providing recommendations for the use of SYSADOA in osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The following interventions were taken into consideration: avocado/soybean unsaponifiables, chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, hyaluronic acid, oral calcitonin, risedronate, strontium ranelate. Recommendations were based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. The GRADE system is based on a sequential assessment of the quality of evidence, followed by assessment of the balance between benefits versus downsides and subsequent judgment about the strength of recommendations. Results Chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid have demonstrated pain reduction and physical function improvement with very low toxicity, with moderate to high quality evidence. Even if pre-clinical data and some preliminary in vivo studies have suggested that oral calcitonin and strontium ranelate could be of potential interest in OA, additional well-designed studies are needed. Conclusion In the benefit/risk ratio, the use of chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid could be of potential interest for the symptomatic management of OA. PMID:19087296

  10. Standards-Based Mathematics Assessments Appearances May Be Deceiving

    E-print Network

    Klein, David

    to determine the worth of a high school diploma and compensate for the effects of years of grade-inflation grade level assessed, as well as the design of the assessments and related reporting mechanisms. Tests of five eighth grade mathematics tests used in the United States (three commercial tests and two designed

  11. Automated grading system for evaluation of ocular redness associated with dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, John D; Johnston, Patrick R; Ousler, George W; Smith, Lisa M; Abelson, Mark B

    2013-01-01

    Background We have observed that dry eye redness is characterized by a prominence of fine horizontal conjunctival vessels in the exposed ocular surface of the interpalpebral fissure, and have incorporated this feature into the grading of redness in clinical studies of dry eye. Aim To develop an automated method of grading dry eye-associated ocular redness in order to expand on the clinical grading system currently used. Methods Ninety nine images from 26 dry eye subjects were evaluated by five graders using a 0–4 (in 0.5 increments) dry eye redness (Ora Calibra™ Dry Eye Redness Scale [OCDER]) scale. For the automated method, the Opencv computer vision library was used to develop software for calculating redness and horizontal conjunctival vessels (noted as “horizontality”). From original photograph, the region of interest (ROI) was selected manually using the open source ImageJ software. Total average redness intensity (Com-Red) was calculated as a single channel 8-bit image as R – 0.83G – 0.17B, where R, G and B were the respective intensities of the red, green and blue channels. The location of vessels was detected by normalizing the blue channel and selecting pixels with an intensity of less than 97% of the mean. The horizontal component (Com-Hor) was calculated by the first order Sobel derivative in the vertical direction and the score was calculated as the average blue channel image intensity of this vertical derivative. Pearson correlation coefficients, accuracy and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) were calculated after regression and standardized regression of the dataset. Results The agreement (both Pearson’s and CCC) among investigators using the OCDER scale was 0.67, while the agreement of investigator to computer was 0.76. A multiple regression using both redness and horizontality improved the agreement CCC from 0.66 and 0.69 to 0.76, demonstrating the contribution of vessel geometry to the overall grade. Computer analysis of a given image has 100% repeatability and zero variability from session to session. Conclusion This objective means of grading ocular redness in a unified fashion has potential significance as a new clinical endpoint. In comparisons between computer and investigator, computer grading proved to be more reliable than another investigator using the OCDER scale. The best fitting model based on the present sample, and usable for future studies, was C4=?12.24+2.12C2HOR+0.88C2RED:C4 is the predicted investigator grade, and C2HOR and C2RED are logarithmic transformations of the computer calculated parameters COM-Hor and COM-Red. Considering the superior repeatability, computer automated grading might be preferable to investigator grading in multicentered dry eye studies in which the subtle differences in redness incurred by treatment have been historically difficult to define. PMID:23814457

  12. The Failure of a Decision Support System: Inconsistency in Test Grading by Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of boredom/fatigue on Israeli junior high school teachers' evaluation of students' written compositions. Teachers graded 31 papers, placed in sequential order, which had received a grade of 80 percent from three experts. They graded the papers in one sitting. Scores teachers gave to papers they graded earlier were…

  13. A molecular correlate to the Gleason grading system for prostate adenocarcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence True; Ilsa Coleman; Sarah Hawley; Ching-Ying Huang; David Gifford; Roger Coleman; Tomasz M. Beer; Edward Gelmann; Milton Datta; Elahe Mostaghel; Beatrice Knudsen; Paul Lange; Robert Vessella; Daniel Lin; Leroy Hood; Peter S. Nelson

    2006-01-01

    Adenocarcinomas of the prostate can be categorized into tumor grades based on the extent to which the cancers histologically resemble normal prostate glands. Because grades are surrogates of intrinsic tumor behavior, characterizing the molecular phenotype of grade is of potential clinical importance. To identify molecular alterations underlying prostate cancer grades, we used microdissection to obtain specific cohorts of cancer cells

  14. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

    2014-12-01

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)6(3-/4-) redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas. PMID:25404325

  15. Secondary Student Motivation Orientations and Standards-Based Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Luanna H.; McClure, John; Walkey, Frank; Weir, Kirsty F.; McKenzie, Lynanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individual student characteristics such as competence motivation, achievement values, and goal orientations have been related in meaningful ways to task attainment. The standards-based National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) was developed in New Zealand with the intention of strengthening connections between student…

  16. Standards Gaps: Unintended Consequences of Local Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Ogawa, Rodney T.; Scribner, Samantha Paredes

    2004-01-01

    In response to the establishment of standards by states and professional organizations, many local school districts have adopted a standards-based curriculum. The expressed purpose of standards is to improve student academic performance by providing teachers with a common sequence of targets at which to aim instruction. In this study, we examine…

  17. Aligning Transition and Standards-Based Education: Issues and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochhar-Bryant, Carol, Ed.; Bassett, Diane S., Ed.

    Eleven papers address issues in the alignment of standards-based education and individualized transition planning and service development for students with disabilities including differences in assumptions and principles, the transition planning model as a framework for achieving this alignment, and educational practices resulting from this…

  18. Teacher and Administrator Responses to Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since the onset of standards-based reform and its continuation in the form of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and now Race to the Top, debates have continued about whether such policies foster desirable change in states, districts, schools and classrooms. Research Question: The study asks: How do state and district administrators,…

  19. High-speed potato grading and quality inspection based on a color vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordam, Jacco C.; Otten, Gerwoud W.; Timmermans, Toine J. M.; van Zwol, Bauke H.

    2000-03-01

    A high-speed machine vision system for the quality inspection and grading of potatoes has been developed. The vision system grades potatoes on size, shape and external defects such as greening, mechanical damages, rhizoctonia, silver scab, common scab, cracks and growth cracks. A 3-CCD line-scan camera inspects the potatoes in flight as they pass under the camera. The use of mirrors to obtain a 360-degree view of the potato and the lack of product holders guarantee a full view of the potato. To achieve the required capacity of 12 tons/hour, 11 SHARC Digital Signal Processors perform the image processing and classification tasks. The total capacity of the system is about 50 potatoes/sec. The color segmentation procedure uses Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in combination with a Mahalanobis distance classifier to classify the pixels. The procedure for the detection of misshapen potatoes uses a Fourier based shape classification technique. Features such as area, eccentricity and central moments are used to discriminate between similar colored defects. Experiments with red and yellow skin-colored potatoes have shown that the system is robust and consistent in its classification.

  20. Science Sampler: Using grading systems to promote analytical thinking skills, responsibility, and reflection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Chesbro

    2008-09-01

    As educators, we know that math must be integrated into our subject to best communicate the essence of scientific investigation. Unfortunately, this is easier said than done when students learn subjects in isolated classrooms on a daily basis. As young scientists, students must learn to recognize trends in scientific data. In order to develop these skills, students must first practice precise techniques for recording data, and the best way to develop in students an eye for mathematic systems is to study one that they can most relate to--their own grades.

  1. New generation of a mobile primary frequency standard based on cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, S. T.; Júnior, J. de Martin; Pechoneri, R. D.; Santa Catharina, P.; Bagnato, V. S.; Magalhães, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a mobile primary frequency standard using intra-cavity cold cesium atoms and the results have shown the advantages of using this kind of system compared to cesium beam standards. Based on the first setup with an expanding cloud of atoms, we can plan the construction of a clock more compact since it has no strict size limitations. In order to assemble the new system even smaller, the development of a system containing lasers, microwave source and cavity in a single box has already begun. The mobile atomic standard based on cold atoms is a possible strategic product with a broad range of applications and an important contribution to a primary standard of high relevance.

  2. Canonical Nlrp3 inflammasome links systemic low grade inflammation to functional decline in aging

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Yun-Hee; Grant, Ryan W.; McCabe, Laura R.; Albarado, Diana C.; Nguyen, Kim Yen; Ravussin, Anthony; Pistell, Paul; Newman, Susan; Carter, Renee; Laque, Amanda; Münzberg, Heike; Rosen, Clifford J.; Ingram, Donald K.; Salbaum, J. Michael; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a wealth of clinical data showing an association between inflammation and degenerative disorders in elderly, the immune sensors that causally link systemic inflammation to aging remain unclear. Here we detail a mechanism that the Nlrp3 inflammasome controls systemic low grade age-related ‘sterile’ inflammation in both periphery and brain independently of the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome. Ablation of Nlrp3 inflammasome protected mice from age-related increases in the innate immune activation, alterations in CNS transcriptome and astrogliosis. Consistent with the hypothesis that systemic low grade inflammation promotes age-related degenerative changes, the deficient Nlrp3 inflammasome mediated caspase-1 activity improved glycemic control and attenuated bone loss and thymic demise. Notably, IL-1 mediated only Nlrp3 inflammasome dependent improvement in cognitive function and motor performance in aged mice. These studies reveal Nlrp3 inflammasome as an upstream target that controls age-related inflammation and offer innovative therapeutic strategy to lower Nlrp3 activity to delay multiple age-related chronic diseases. PMID:24093676

  3. This standards-based program targets middle school grades. The physical and

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    and Historic Parks, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, the New York City Department of Environmental Protection, Cornell Cooperative Extension, and the National Park Service at Gateway. The program- training course, conducted by the National Park Service and the NYC DOE, is required prior to the trip

  4. Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Essay titles reveal the range of programs--and creativity--this book encompasses. Among the titles are "Technology and Cooperative Learning: The IIT Model for Teaching Authentic Chemistry Curriculum," "Modeling: Changes in Traditional Physics Instruction," "Guided by the Standards: Inquiry and Assessment in Two Rural and Urban Schools," and even "Sing and Dance Your Way to Science Success." The book ends with a summary chapter by editor Robert Yager on successes and continuing challenges in meeting the Standards' visions for improving high school science. As Yager notes, "The exemplary programs described in this monograph give inspiration while also providing evidence that the new directions are feasible and worth the energy and effort needed for others to implement changes.

  5. Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E., Ed

    2005-01-01

    In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude…

  6. Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories (e-book)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-05-18

    In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Essay titles reveal the range of programs--and creativity--this book encompasses. Among the titles are "Technology and Cooperative Learning: The IIT Model for Teaching Authentic Chemistry Curriculum," "Modeling: Changes in Traditional Physics Instruction," "Guided by the Standards: Inquiry and Assessment in Two Rural and Urban Schools," and even "Sing and Dance Your Way to Science Success." The book ends with a summary chapter by editor Robert Yager on successes and continuing challenges in meeting the Standards' visions for improving high school science. As Yager notes, "The exemplary programs described in this monograph give inspiration while also providing evidence that the new directions are feasible and worth the energy and effort needed for others to implement changes.

  7. Rituximab monoclonal antibody as initial systemic therapy for patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Hainsworth; Howard A. Burris; Lisa H. Morrissey; Sharlene Litchy; Daniel C. Scullin Jr; James D. Bearden; Paul Richards; F. Anthony Greco

    1 B cells, produces a 48% response rate in patients with refractory low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In this phase II trial, patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma who had previ- ously received no systemic therapy were treated with rituximab, 375 mg\\/m2, admin- istered by IV infusion for 4 consecutive weeks. Patients with objective response or stable disease received repeat 4-week courses of

  8. The Weaknesses and Shortcomings of the Junior High School in Israel: Some Insights into Grade Configurations of Educational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar; Tubin, Dorit

    2009-01-01

    The current study aimed to explore the weaknesses of the junior high school system in Israel, a country whose first junior high schools (Grades 7-9) were established in the early 1970s and whose educational system differs from the systems of Europe and North America in terms of structure, ideology, and control. Based on semistructured interviews…

  9. AC and DC voltage standards based on silicon micromechanics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Suhonen; H. Seppa; A. S. Oja; M. Heinila; I. Nakki

    1998-01-01

    Micromechanical AC and DC standards, suitable for compact, low-cost precision electronics applications are described. The standards are based on controlling the charge of a parallel-moving-plate capacitor. We expect that the voltage standards based on mechanical and geometrical properties of single crystalline silicon can have a high stability. We show the basic principle of the AC and DC standards and preliminary

  10. Graded photonic quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Dyachenko, Pavel N; Pavelyev, Vladimir S; Soifer, Victor A

    2012-06-15

    We introduce graded photonic quasicrystals and investigate properties of such structures on the example of a Luneburg lens based on a dodecagonal photonic quasicrystal. It is shown that the graded photonic quasicrystal lens has better focusing properties as compared with the graded photonic crystal lens in a frequency range suitable for experimental realization. The proposed graded photonic quasicrystals can be used in optical systems where compact and powerful focusing elements are required. PMID:22739847

  11. A DHT Key-Value Storage System with Carrier Grade Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guangyu; Chen, Jian; Gong, Hao; Fan, Lingyuan; Xue, Haiqiang; Lu, Qingming; Liang, Liang

    The Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology being widely adopted in today’s both academic research and practical service providing, has many potential advantages and achieves a great success in Information Technology scope. Recently some researchers have proposed that P2P inspired architecture also might be one choice for the telecom network evolution. Most of such works adopted structured P2P (DHT) as the basic solutions, but they seldom discussed how to eliminate the huge gap between the telecom underlay performance requirement and the performance of existed DHT which mainly originated from the Internet applications. This paper presents the design and implementation of SandStone, a DHT based key-value storage system with carrier grade performance, such as good scalability, strong consistency and high reliability, which could be deployed as the cornerstone in such new P2P inspired networking architectures.

  12. Prevalence of systemic co-morbidities in patients with various grades of diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Pradeep; Tibrewal, Sapna; Bhowmik, Dipankar; Tripathi, Manjari; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Vashist, Naginder; Vohra, Rajpal; Garg, Satpal

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Though diabetes affects multiple organs, most studies highlight the occurence of only one complication in isolation. We conducted a hospital-based study to estimate the co-existence of significant systemic co-morbid conditions in patients with varying grades of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: A total of 170 consecutive patients with diabetic retinopathy were prospectively recruited for the study between June 2009 to June 2010 at a tertiary care eye centre in north India. Retinopathy was graded by fundus biomicroscopy and fundus photography and classified into three categories (mild-moderate nonproliferative retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy requiring only laser and proliferative retinopathy requiring surgery). Nephropathy was classified by calculating the six variable estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for all patients. Nerve conduction studies and clinical assessment were used to determine presence of neuropathy. Co-existence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease was also ascertained. Results: The percentages of patients with overt nephropathy in the three groups were 19.2, 38.0 and 41.2, respectively. Significant linear trends were observed for serum creatinine (P=0.004), albumin (P=0.017) and eGFR (P=0.030). A higher per cent had abnormal nerve conduction on electrophysiology than that diagnosed clinically (65.4 vs. 44.2, 76.0 vs. 40.0 and 64.8 vs. 48.6, respectively). The odds ratio (95% CI) for co-existence of nephropathy, neuropathy, CVA (cerebrovascular accidents) and PVD (peripheral vascular disease) was 2.9, 0.9, 4.8 and 3.5, respectively. Independent of retinopathy severity, patients with clinically significant macular oedema (CSME) had a higher percentage of nephropathy (P < 0.005). Interpretation & conclusions: The co-existence of overt nephropathy, nerve conduction based neuropathy and macrovascular co-morbidity in patients with early grades of diabetic retinopathy was significant. Screening for overt nephropathy by eGFR should be considered in all patients with clinically significant macular oedema. PMID:25222781

  13. Crack mechanics of functionally graded coating/substrate systems. Final report, 1 February 1995--31 January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, G.

    1998-01-01

    This 3-year research program focuses on micromechanics and fracture mechanics analyses of cracking in functionally graded coating/substrate systems used in turbine engines and wear-related applications. Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are new advanced composites whose composition varies from place to place according to performance requirements. Recent developments of FGMs have demonstrated that functionally graded materials have the potential to enjoy a wide range of thermal and structural applications including thermal barrier coatings, wear, oxidation and corrosion resistant coatings and metal/ceramic joining. The objectives of the study include: establishing a fundamental understanding of the relationship between coating composition and performance, quantifying the influence of coating gradation, evaluating the effect of metal plasticity and crack bridging, and predicting the fracture driving forces and fracture resistance curves. Emphases in this study is placed on delamination fracture and multiple cracking in FGM coatings. The fundamental understanding gained from this study may enable one to select coatings at the component design stage. The systematic model predictions and design charts for the thermomechanical behavior of the coating/substrate systems may provide guidance to the gradation design of functionally graded coatings. This study thus can have a significant impact on the developments of functionally graded materials in turbine engine and wear related applications.

  14. Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one’s status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9–16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child’s role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

  15. The Uncomplicated Elementary Career Education System for the "Real" Classroom. Grades K-6 Factivities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield. Div. of Adult Vocational and Technical Education.

    Prepared by classroom teachers for the infusion of career education into existing curriculum, these teacher materials are designed to accompany the "Career Capers" for grades 4-6 (CE 023 598). Monthly distribution to the classroom teacher by an administrator is suggested for these supplemental materials. Factivities for grades K-3 emphasize career…

  16. The Consistency between Human Raters and an Automated Essay Scoring System in Grading High School Students' English Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Min-hsiu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the consistency between human raters and an automated essay scoring system in grading high school students' English compositions. A total of 923 essays from 23 classes of 12 senior high schools in Taiwan (Republic of China) were obtained and scored manually and electronically. The results show that the consistency between…

  17. Implementation of an Automated Grading System with an Adaptive Learning Component to Affect Student Feedback and Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kevin; Janicki, Thomas; He, Ling; Patterson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on the development and implementation of an adaptive learning and grading system with a goal to increase the effectiveness and quality of feedback to students. By utilizing various concepts from established learning theories, the goal of this research is to improve the quantity, quality, and speed of feedback as it pertains…

  18. Friction Spinning—New Innovative Tool Systems For The Production of Complex Functionally Graded Workpieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homberg, Werner; Hornjak, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Friction spinning is a new innovative and promising incremental forming technology implying high potential regarding the manufacturing of complex functionally graded workpieces and enhancing existing forming limits of conventional metal spinning processes. The friction spinning process is based on the integration of thermo-mechanical friction subprocesses in this incremental forming process. By choosing the appropriate process parameters, e.g. axial feed rate or relative motion, the contact conditions between tool and workpiece can be influenced in a defined way and, thus, a required temperature profile can be obtained. Friction spinning allows the extension of forming limits compared to conventional metal spinning in order to produce multifunctional components with locally varying properties and the manufacturing of e.g. complex hollow parts made of tubes, profiles, or sheet metals. In this way, it meets the demands regarding efficiency and the manufacturing of functionally graded lightweight components. There is e.g. the possibility of locally increasing the wall thickness in joining zones and, as a consequence, achieving higher quality of the joint at decreased expense. These products are not or only hardly producible by conventional processes so far. In order to benefit from the advantages and potentials of this new innovative process new tooling systems and concepts are indispensable which fulfill the special requirements of this thermo-mechanical process concerning thermal and tribological loads and which allow simultaneous and defined forming and friction operations. An important goal of the corresponding research work at the Chair of Forming and Machining Technology at the University of Paderborn is the development of tool systems that allow the manufacturing of such complex parts by simple uniaxial or sequential biaxial linear tool paths. In the paper, promising tool systems and geometries as well as results of theoretical and experimental research work (e.g. regarding the influence and interaction of process parameters on the workpiece quality) will be discussed. Furthermore, possibilities regarding the manufacturing of geometries (demonstrator workpieces) which are not or only hardly producible with conventional processes will be presented.

  19. Translation into Brazilian Portuguese and validation of the "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Post-acne Scarring".

    PubMed

    Cachafeiro, Thais Hofmann; Escobar, Gabriela Fortes; Maldonado, Gabriela; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Postacne Scarring" was developed in English for acne scar grading, based on the number and severity of each type of scar. The aims of this study were to translate this scale into Brazilian Portuguese and verify its reliability and validity. The study followed five steps: Translation, Expert Panel, Back Translation, Approval of authors and Validation. The translated scale showed high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability, confirming its reproducibility. Therefore, it has been validated for our population and can be recommended as a reliable instrument to assess acne scarring. PMID:25184939

  20. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Le Geant de Zeralda"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keoseian, Therese; Ladd, Richard; Moakley, Rosanna; Pierce, Constance

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  1. 40 CFR 268.46 - Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. 268.46 Section...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.46 Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. For the...

  2. 40 CFR 268.46 - Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. 268.46 Section...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.46 Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. For the...

  3. 40 CFR 268.46 - Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. 268.46 Section...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.46 Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. For the...

  4. 40 CFR 268.46 - Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. 268.46 Section...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.46 Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. For the...

  5. 40 CFR 268.46 - Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. 268.46 Section...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.46 Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. For the...

  6. Murine model of Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis. I: Phenotypic characterization with development of a histopathologic grading system

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhi; Dhall, Deepti; Zhao, Lifu; Wang, Hanlin L.; Doherty, Terence M.; Bresee, Catherine; Frykman, Philip K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to characterize enterocolitis in the Ednrb-null (Ednrb?/?) mouse with aganglionosis of the colon and to develop and validate a semiquantitative histopathologic grading system to assess enterocolitis. Methods We isolated colon and ileal specimens of Ednrb?/? and control mice (Ednrb+/+) and performed histochemical staining (H&E) on tissue sections. After establishing inflammation grading criteria, 2 blinded pathologists independently assessed the severity and depth of inflammation of proximal colon segments on 2 separate occasions. Interclass correlations (ICCs) and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated to determine interrater and intrarater agreement. We then prospectively applied the enterocolitis grading system to Ednrb?/? mice that became clinically ill. A cohort of Ednrb?/? mice were observed until they developed clinical illness, at which time they were euthanized and had multiple organ homogenates cultured for bacteria, and colon and small bowel were histopathologically graded for enterocolitis. Spearman’s rank correlations comparing enterocolitis scores with level of bacteremia were performed. Results Intra- and interrater ICCs of the histologic scoring system were satisfactory (0.61 and 0.94, respectively), as were intra- and interrater CVs (18% and 9%, respectively). Of the Ednrb?/? mice, 65% developed bacteremia. Those with bacteremia had significantly higher enterocolitis scores than those without bacteremia (P < .01). Ednrb?/? mice that developed bacteremia showed a strong positive correlation between total enterocolitis scores and number of bacterial colony forming units in peritoneal lavage, liver, kidney, and aerobic spleen. Conclusions The Ednrb?/? mouse with aganglionosis develops enterocolitis and has features similar to Hirschsprung-associated enterocolitis in humans. Our grading system is a reliable way to assess enterocolitis. By performing microsurgical pull-through, we can now perform controlled, hypothesis-driven, mechanistic studies to evaluate etiologic factors affecting enterocolitis in the Ednrb?/? mouse. PMID:20223308

  7. Investigating the potential value of individual parameters of histological grading systems in a sheep model of cartilage damage: the Modified Mankin method.

    PubMed

    Moody, Hayley R; Heard, Bryan J; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G; Oloyede, Adekunle O

    2012-07-01

    A total histological grade does not necessarily distinguish between different manifestations of cartilage damage or degeneration. An accurate and reliable histological assessment method is required to separate normal and pathological tissue within a joint during treatment of degenerative joint conditions and to sub-classify the latter in meaningful ways. The Modified Mankin method may be adaptable for this purpose. We investigated how much detail may be lost by assigning one composite score/grade to represent different degenerative components of the osteoarthritic condition. We used four ovine injury models (sham surgery, anterior cruciate ligament/medial collateral ligament instability, simulated anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and meniscal removal) to induce different degrees and potentially 'types' (mechanisms) of osteoarthritis. Articular cartilage was systematically harvested, prepared for histological examination and graded in a blinded fashion using a Modified Mankin grading method. Results showed that the possible permutations of cartilage damage were significant and far more varied than the current intended use that histological grading systems allow. Of 1352 cartilage specimens graded, 234 different manifestations of potential histological damage were observed across 23 potential individual grades of the Modified Mankin grading method. The results presented here show that current composite histological grading may contain additional information that could potentially discern different stages or mechanisms of cartilage damage and degeneration in a sheep model. This approach may be applicable to other grading systems. PMID:22591160

  8. Apprenticeship Training in Ireland: From Time-Served to Standards Based; Potential and Limitations for the Construction Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Len; Harvey, Noel

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with construction industry personnel (15 employers, 14 instructors) in Ireland found satisfaction with a new standards-based apprenticeship system that focused on competence rather than length of apprenticeship. Criticisms were related to problems in gaining access to training courses. (SK)

  9. Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

  10. Implementing Standards-Based Multiple Measures for IASA, Title I Accountability Using Sacramento Achievement Levels Test (SALT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Nancy

    Under the Improving America's Schools Act (IASA), Title I programs are evaluated using standards-based multiple measures. In California, school systems would like to use state standards for the evaluation, but state performance standards are still under development and content standards are very new. The Sacramento City Schools (California) has…

  11. The Role of the Library Media Specialist in Standards-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corey, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of the school library media specialist in standards-based learning. Topics include standards-based assessment; information literacy standards; collaboration with classroom teachers; benchmarks and indicators for student performance; leadership in a standards-based climate; and the use of technology to support curriculum and…

  12. Leprosy and lymphatic filariasis comorbidity: the case for an integrated functional limitation grading system.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Timothy Miles; Rao, P V Ranganadha

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide, both lymphatic filariasis (LF) and leprosy are major causes of morbidity and functional limitation. Despite an abundance of data on the impairment caused by these infections in isolation, there is little data on disability in patients unfortunate enough to be affected by both infections. We present two cases of patients with LF and leprosy comorbidity. Both cases suffer from Grade 2 disability and chronic lymphedema in the same limb (left and right leg, respectively). These morbidities cause significant functional limitation in the patients' activities of daily living. Both LF and leprosy are endemic in India and their comorbid conditions contribute to functional limitation. However, there is still currently no integrated scale for assessment of interventions for functional limitation in these patients. Investigating and managing impairment and functional limitations individually is the least cost effective and sustainable strategy. Considering the similarities of caring for functional limitations in both diseases and assuming its efficacy, augmentation of LF care services with leprosy referral centres may be beneficial. Integrated approaches have been pilot tested at district level in states in India under the title 'Integrated Prevention of Deformity project' (IPoD). Further work is required to identify a reliable, holistic, functional impairment scoring system, which allows for comparison between diseases. This may help promote greater understanding of impairments and functional limitations these cause and allow effective monitoring and evaluation of all aspects, activities and stages of similar programmes. PMID:24974445

  13. Investment-Grade Compressed Air System Audit, Analysis, and Upgrade in a Pulp and Paper Mill

    E-print Network

    Parekh, P. S.

    An investment-grade compressed air audit, analysis, design, and upgrade in an industrial facility requires a thorough understudying of original design basis, current problem definition, goal settings, load assessment, base case model development...

  14. Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Materials and methods Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. Results We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. Discussions This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Conclusions Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites. PMID:24699371

  15. Complications of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Classified by the Modified Clavien Grading System: A Single Center’s Experience over 16 Years

    E-print Network

    Purpose: To stratify complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in a single, tertiary hospital by use of the modified Clavien system. Materials and Methods: From May 1987 to December 2010, 1,236 cases of PCNL were performed at our institute. Medical records were available for 826 cases of PCNL from 698 patients, from February 1995 to December 2010. Using multiple factors, we retrospectively reviewed and analyzed 698 patients for complication rates classified by the modified Clavien grading system, along with success rates. Results: In 698 patients, staghorn stone patients accounted for 33.8 % (236 patients). Initial and overall stone-free rates were 69.9 % and 88.8%. A total of 297 complications were documented in 282 patients. According to the modified Clavien classification, grade I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IVa, IVb, and V complications were observed in 88 (12.6%), 145 (20.8%), 31 (4.4%), 5 (0.7%), 6 (0.9%), 4 (0.6%), and 3 (0.4%) patients, respectively. Transient peri-nephrostomy catheter urine leakage (15.2%) was the most common complication, followed by transient fever>38 o (11%) and transfusion (6.9%). Other individual complications occurred in less than 1.5 % of cases. In patients with staghorn stones, grade I, II, IIIb, and IVa complications were significantly more common, and all grade IVb and V complications occurred in patients with staghorn stones. Conclusions: The modified Clavien classification provides a standardized grading system for complications of PCNL, although consensus on specific complications would prompt better comparison between centers. A shorter operation time is imperative to achieve less bleeding. Previous stone-related fever and staghorn stones are significant contributing factors for developing postoperative fever. Key Words: Complications; Nephrostomy, percutaneous; Treatment outcome This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License

  16. Treatment delivery software for a new clinical grade ultrasound system for thermoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Novák, Petr; Moros, Eduardo G; Straube, William L; Myerson, Robert J

    2005-11-01

    A detailed description of a clinical grade Scanning Ultrasound Reflector Linear Array System (SURLAS) applicator was given in a previous paper [Med. Phys. 32, 230-240 (2005)]. In this paper we concentrate on the design, development, and testing of the personal computer (PC) based treatment delivery software that runs the therapy system. The SURLAS requires the coordinated interaction between the therapy applicator and several peripheral devices for its proper and safe operation. One of the most important tasks was the coordination of the input power sequences for the elements of two parallel opposed ultrasound arrays (eight 1.5 cm x 2 cm elements/array, array 1 and 2 operate at 1.9 and 4.9 MHz, respectively) in coordination with the position of a dual-face scanning acoustic reflector. To achieve this, the treatment delivery software can divide the applicator's treatment window in up to 64 sectors (minimum size of 2 cm x 2 cm), and control the power to each sector independently by adjusting the power output levels from the channels of a 16-channel radio-frequency generator. The software coordinates the generator outputs with the position of the reflector as it scans back and forth between the arrays. Individual sector control and dual frequency operation allows the SURLAS to adjust power deposition in three dimensions to superficial targets coupled to its treatment window. The treatment delivery software also monitors and logs several parameters such as temperatures acquired using a 16-channel thermocouple thermometry unit. Safety (in particular to patients) was the paramount concern and design criterion. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was applied to the applicator as well as to the entire therapy system in order to identify safety issues and rank their relative importance. This analysis led to the implementation of several safety mechanisms and a software structure where each device communicates with the controlling PC independently of the others. In case of a malfunction in any part of the system or a violation of a user-defined safety criterion based on temperature readings, the software terminates treatment immediately and the user is notified. The software development process consisting of problem analysis, design, implementation, and testing is presented in this paper. Once the software was finished and integrated with the hardware, the therapy system was extensively tested. Results demonstrated that the software operates the SURLAS as intended with minimum risk to future patients. PMID:16372408

  17. Earth Science for Educators: Preparing 7-12 Teachers for Standards-based, Inquiry Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, H.

    2002-05-01

    "Earth Science for Educators" is an innovative, standards-based, graduate level teacher education curriculum that presents science content and pedagogic technique in parallel. The curriculum calls upon the resources and expertise of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) to prepare novice New York City teachers for teaching Earth Science. One of the goals of teacher education is to assure and facilitate science education reform through preparation of K-12 teachers who understand and are able to implement standard-based instruction. Standards reflect not only the content knowledge students are expected to attain but also the science skills and dispositions towards science they are expected to develop. Melding a list of standards with a curriculum outline to create inquiry-based classroom instruction that reaches a very diverse population of learners is extremely challenging. "Earth Science for Educators" helps novice teachers make the link between standards and practice by constantly connecting standards with instruction they receive and activities they carry out. Development of critical thinking and enthusiasm for inquiry is encouraged through engaging experience and contact with scientists and their work. Teachers are taught Earth systems science content through modeling of a wide variety of instruction and assessment methods based upon authentic scientific inquiry and aimed at different learning styles. Use of fieldwork and informal settings, such as the Museum, familiarizes novice teachers with ways of drawing on community resources for content and instructional settings. Metacognitive reflection that articulates standards, practice, and the teachers' own learning experience help draw out teachers' insights into their students' learning. The innovation of bring science content together with teaching methods is key to preparing teachers for standards-based, inquiry instruction. This curriculum was successfully piloted with a group of 28 novice teachers as part of the AMNH-City University of New York partnership and the CUNY Teaching Opportunity Program Scholarship. Reactions and feedback from program coordinators and teachers have been extremely positive during the year and a half since its implementation.

  18. Free vibration analysis of a rotating hub-functionally graded material beam system with the dynamic stiffening effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Zhang, D. G.; Zhu, W. D.

    2014-02-01

    A comprehensive dynamic model of a rotating hub-functionally graded material (FGM) beam system is developed based on a rigid-flexible coupled dynamics theory to study its free vibration characteristics. The rigid-flexible coupled dynamic equations of the system are derived using the method of assumed modes and Lagrange's equations of the second kind. The dynamic stiffening effect of the rotating hub-FGM beam system is captured by a second-order coupling term that represents longitudinal shrinking of the beam caused by the transverse displacement. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system with the chordwise bending and stretching (B-S) coupling effect are calculated and compared with those with the coupling effect neglected. When the B-S coupling effect is included, interesting frequency veering and mode shift phenomena are observed. A two-mode model is introduced to accurately predict the most obvious frequency veering behavior between two adjacent modes associated with a chordwise bending and a stretching mode. The critical veering angular velocities of the FGM beam that are analytically determined from the two-mode model are in excellent agreement with those from the comprehensive dynamic model. The effects of material inhomogeneity and graded properties of FGM beams on their dynamic characteristics are investigated. The comprehensive dynamic model developed here can be used in graded material design of FGM beams for achieving specified dynamic characteristics.

  19. Standard-based integration profiles for clinical research and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Christel; Erturkmen, Gokce Banu Laleci; Sinaci, Ali Anil; Delaney, Brendan C; Curcin, Vasa; Bain, Landen

    2013-01-01

    EHRs can now be adapted to integrate seamlessly with existing research platforms. However, key challenges need to be overcome in order to provide a platform that functions across many EHR systems. The IHE Quality, Research and Public Health (QRPH) domain addresses the information exchange standards necessary to share information relevant to quality improvement in patient care and clinical research. In collaboration with CDISC's Healthcare Link initiative, IHE QRPH has developed a set of integration profiles that specifically address EHR-enabled research. The panel participants from three European projects will present how subsets of existing IHE QRPH profiles can be pulled together (and extended when necessary) to form a super profile which will standardize and automate the clinical trial process flow. The EHR4CR project is providing adaptable, reusable and scalable tools and services for reusing data from hospital EHRs for Clinical Research. TRANSFoRm is developing an informatics infrastructure to support the learning healthcare system in European Primary Care. SALUS project is providing scalable, standard based interoperability framework for sustainable proactive post market safety studies. Overall, the panel will discuss the key steps towards realizing a joint EHR4CR/TRANSFoRm/SALUS European projectathon demonstrating EHR-enabled clinical research across Europe using standard-based integration and content profiles. PMID:24303234

  20. Development of a cost-effective machine vision system for in-field sorting and grading of apples: Fruit orientation and size estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop an in-field apple presorting and grading system to separate undersized and defective fruit from fresh market-grade apples. To achieve this goal, a cost-effective machine vision inspection prototype was built, which consisted of a low-cost color camera, L...

  1. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  2. Evaluation of an on-line ash analysis system for low-grade and inhomogeneous Greek lignite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual-energy γ-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the pit to the

  3. Preparation, Placement, Proficiency: Improving Middle Grades Math Performance. Policy and Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trish; Haertel, Edward; Kirst, Michael W.; Rosin, Matthew; Perry, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Early in 2010, EdSource released a landmark study on middle grades education in California. "Gaining Ground in the Middle Grades" looked at the critical 6th- to 8th-grade years in the context of standards-based education. The analysis identified a comprehensive set of practices that differentiated higher from lower schoolwide academic achievement…

  4. The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas

    E-print Network

    Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Beckett Heat Recovery is a series of techniques for recovering low-grade waste heat from flue gas. Until the cost of fossil fuels began rising rapidly, flue gas below 600 F was considered economically unworthy of reclaim. This paper...

  5. Application of the Navy Average Grade Model to the Naval Underwater Systems Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannis, Laurence S.

    Forecasts for manpower requirements by NUSC for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 were made using a linear regression model of the goal programming variety. An application of one of the Charnes, Cooper, Niehaus career management models for manpower planning was then made to evaluate the consequences of the policy reducing average GS grade to 9.35 while…

  6. Effect of graded interlayer on the mode I edge delamination by residual stresses in multilayer coating-based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. C.; Xu, B. S.; Wang, H. D.; Wu, Y. X.

    2008-01-01

    The mode I edge delamination could be initiated due to the presence of the interfacial peeling stresses near the edges of the multilayered systems due to the material mismatches between the adjacent layers. However, the exact peeling stress distributions could not be obtained by using the existing analytical and numerical models. It was proposed recently that the peeling moment resulting from the localized peeling stresses could be used to characterize mode I edge delamination. In this paper, the effect of the graded interlayer on the mode I edge delamination by thermal residual stresses in multilayer coating-based systems was investigated. Following the previous analysis approaches, the exact closed-form solutions for the peeling moments at individual interfaces and the curvatures for bilayer system, typical thermal barrier coating (TBC) system and TBC-based system with a graded interlayer inserted between the metallic layer and the ceramic layer were, respectively, derived. Case studies showed that the edge delamination by thermal stress could be impeded by properly selecting the coating materials and individual layer thicknesses. These studies may provide some important insights for developing fail-safe designing methodologies for multilayered systems.

  7. The Dinosaur Education Project: A Curriculum Model for Standards-Based Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jo Wixom

    This curriculum model represents an entire school district's attempt to use paleontology to implement standards-based education reforms. While most colleges do not have a dinosaur available for student and teacher use, the project provides a template for partnerships between colleges and local school districts. The curriculum can be adopted by teachers to institute standards-based classroom practice and by education professors to model standards-based pedagogy for pre-service teachers. Examples of curriculum activities are included.

  8. Evaluation of low-fusing ceramic systems combined with titanium grades II and V by bending test and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Garbelini, Wilson José; Henriques, Guilherme Elias Pessanha; Troia Junior, Manoel; Mesquita, Marcelo Ferraz; Dezan, Cássia Cilene

    2003-12-01

    The bond strength by three point bending strength of two metal substrates (commercially pure titanium or grade II, and Ti-6Al-4V alloy or grade V) combined to three distinct low-fusing ceramic systems (LFC) and the nature of porcelain-metal fracture by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were evaluated. The results were compared to a combination of palladium-silver (Pd-Ag) alloy and conventional porcelain (Duceram VMK68). Sixty metal strips measuring 25x3x0.5mm were made - 30 of titanium grade II and 30 of titanium grade V, with application of the following types of porcelain: Vita Titankeramik, Triceram or Duceratin (10 specimens for each porcelain). The porcelains were bonded to the strips with dimensions limited to 8x3x1mm. The control group consisted of ten specimens Pd-Ag alloy/Duceram VMK68 porcelain. Statistical analyses were made by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey test at 5% significance level. Results showed that the bond strength in control group (48.0MPa ± 4.0) was significantly higher than the Ti grade II (26.7MPa ± 4.1) and Ti grade V (25.2MPa ± 2.2) combinations. When Duceratin porcelain was applied in both substrates, Ti grade II and Ti grade V, the results were significantly lower than in Ti grade II/Vitatitankeramik. SEM analysis indicated a predominance of adhesive fractures for the groups Ti grade II and Ti grade V, and cohesive fracture for control group Pd-Ag/Duceram. Control group showed the best bond strength compared to the groups that employed LFC. Among LFC, the worst results were obtained when Duceratin porcelain was used in both substrates. SEM confirmed the results of three point bending strength. PMID:21394414

  9. 5 CFR 536.201 - Mandatory grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention...201 Mandatory grade retention. (a) Subject...must provide grade retention to an employee who moves from a position under a covered pay system to a...

  10. Analysis of improvements in system efficiency and safety at highway-railroad-pedestrian grade crossings

    E-print Network

    Tydlacka, Jonathan Michael

    2013-02-22

    high. The section of interest will include four signalized intersections, each near a Highway- Railroad Grade Crossing, and they are (from north to south): Old Main Dr. , Joe Routt Blvd. , George Bush Dr. , and Holleman Dr. See Figure I for a map... the intersections Lane width ~ Number of lanes and their configurations at each intersection ~ Whether a turning bay was present, and, if present, its length After this data was collected, some information was still missing. Due to the construction at the Joe...

  11. High-resolution CT scoring system-based grading scale predicts the clinical outcomes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The 2011 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) guidelines are based on the diagnosis of IPF using only high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, few studies have thus far reviewed the usefulness of the HRCT scoring system based on the grading scale provided in the guidelines. We retrospectively studied 98 patients with respect to assess the prognostic value of changes in HRCT findings using a new HRCT scoring system based on the grading scale published in the guidelines. Methods Consecutive patients with IPF who were diagnosed using HRCT alone between January 2008 and January 2012 were evaluated. HRCT examinations and pulmonary function tests were performed at six-month intervals for the first year after diagnosis. The HRCT findings were evaluated using the new HRCT scoring system (HRCT fibrosis score) over time. The findings and survival rates were analyzed using a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results The HRCT fibrosis scores at six and 12 months after diagnosis were significantly increased compared to those observed at the initial diagnosis (p?system based on the grading scale is useful for predicting the clinical outcomes of IPF and identifying patients with an adverse prognosis when used in combination with spirometry. PMID:24479411

  12. Utilization of the graded universal testing system to increase the efficiency for assessing aerobic and anaerobic capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Sandra L.

    1992-01-01

    The in-flight exercise test performed by cosmonauts as part of the Russian Exercise Countermeasure Program is limited to 5 minutes due to communication restrictions. During a recent graded exercise test on a U.S. Shuttle flight, the test was terminated early due to an upcoming loss of signal (LOS) with the ground. This exercise test was a traditional test where the subject's exercise capacity dictates the length of the test. For example, one crew member may take 15 minutes to complete the test, while another may take 18 minutes. The traditional exercise test limits the flight schedulers to large blocks of space flight time in order to provide medical and research personnel information on the fitness capacity (maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max) of crew members during flight. A graded exercise test that would take a finite amount of time and a set preparation and recovery time would ease this problem by allowing flight schedulers to plan exercise tests in advance of LOS. The Graded Universal Testing System (GUTS) was designed to meet this goal. Fitness testing of astronauts before and after flight provides pertinent data on many variables. The Detailed Supplemental Objective (DSO608) protocol (6) is one of the graded exercise tests (GXT) currently used in astronaut testing before and after flight. Test times for this protocol have lasted from 11 to 18 minutes. Anaerobic capacity is an important variable that is currently not being evaluated before and after flight. Recent reports (1,2,5) from the literature have suggested that the oxygen deficit at supramaximal exercise is a measure of anaerobic capacity. We postulated that the oxygen deficit at maximal exercise would be an indication of anaerobic capacity. If this postulate can be accepted, then the efficiency of acquiring data from a graded exercise test would increase at least twofold. To examine this hypothesis anaerobic capacity was measured using a modified treadmill test (3,4) designed to exhaust the anaerobic systems in approximately 45 to 75 seconds. Lactate concentration in the blood was analyzed after all tests, since lactate is the end-product of anaerobic energy production. Therefore, the peak lactate response is an additional indication of anaerobic capacity. A preliminary comparison of the GUTS and the DSO608 suggests that the GUTS protocol would increase the efficiency of VO2max testing of astronauts before and after flight. Results for anaerobic capacity have not been tabulated.

  13. Science for Iowa Schools, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nice, Karl; And Others

    This guide includes four units for use in each of grades 4 through 6. The fourth grade units are entitled Measurement Systems, Classification Systems, Bio-Control Systems, and Hydrologic Systems; the fifth grade units are Chemical Systems, Force Systems, Bio-Systems, and Astro-Systems; and the sixth grade units are Equilibrium Systems,…

  14. Grading Policies of the Public Two-Year Community Colleges in Michigan, Fall 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Edward; Dulaney-Sorochak, Jeanne

    An examination of the grading policies at the 29 Michigan community colleges is presented. Six major classifications cover all grades given at the colleges: main grading system, pass-fail grades, withdrawal grades, incomplete grades, and audit options. The most common grade policy, used by 24 of the colleges, is the five grade system assigning…

  15. Parents' and Teachers' Perceptions of Standards-Based and Traditional Report Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Gerry M.; Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine parents' and teachers' perceptions of standards-based and traditional report cards. Participants included 115 parents/guardians of students from a single, midsize school district that had implemented a standards-based report card. During the first two marking periods, all parents/guardians…

  16. Transformative Shifts in Art History Teaching: The Impact of Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormond, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article examines pedagogical shifts in art history teaching that have developed as a response to the implementation of a standards-based assessment regime. The specific characteristics of art history standards-based assessment in the context of New Zealand secondary schools are explained to demonstrate how an exacting form of assessment has…

  17. Assessing the Impact of Standards-Based Curricula: Investigating Students' Epistemological Conceptions of Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Jon R.; Hoffmann, Amanda Jansen

    2005-01-01

    Since the advent of the NCTM "Standards" (1989), mathematics educators have been faced with the challenge of assessing the impact of "Standards"-based (or "reform") curricula. Research on the impact of "Standards"-based curricula has predominantly focused on student achievement; here we consider an alternative: Students' epistemological…

  18. Improving the Quality of Maternal and Neonatal Care: the Role of Standard Based Participatory Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Tamburlini, Giorgio; Yadgarova, Klara; Kamilov, Asamidin; Bacci, Alberta

    2013-01-01

    Background Gaps in quality of care are seriously affecting maternal and neonatal health globally but reports of successful quality improvement cycles implemented at large scale are scanty. We report the results of a nation-wide program to improve quality of maternal and neonatal hospital care in a lower-middle income country focusing on the role played by standard-based participatory assessments. Methods Improvements in the quality of maternal and neonatal care following an action-oriented participatory assessment of 19 areas covering the whole continuum from admission to discharge were measured after an average period of 10 months in four busy referral maternity hospitals in Uzbekistan. Information was collected by a multidisciplinary national team with international supervision through visit to hospital services, examination of medical records, direct observation of cases and interviews with staff and mothers. Scores (range 0 to 3) attributed to over 400 items and combined in average scores for each area were compared with the baseline assessment. Results Between the first and the second assessment, all four hospitals improved their overall score by an average 0.7 points out of 3 (range 0.4 to 1), i.e. by 22%. The improvements occurred in all main areas of care and were greater in the care of normal labor and delivery (+0.9), monitoring, infection control and mother and baby friendly care (+0.8) the role of the participatory action-oriented approach in determining the observed changes was estimated crucial in 6 out of 19 areas and contributory in other 8. Ongoing implementation of referral system and new classification of neonatal deaths impede the improved process of care to be reflected in current statistics. Conclusions Important improvements in the quality of hospital care provided to mothers and newborn babies can be achieved through a standard-based action-oriented and participatory assessment and reassessment process. PMID:24167616

  19. Enhanced Access to Earth Science Data through Standards-based Web Services and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, S. H.; Hashimoto, H.; Melton, F. S.; Michaelis, A.; Milesi, C.; Nemani, R. R.; Votava, P.; Wang, W.

    2009-12-01

    The Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) at NASA Ames Research Center's Ecological Forecasting Lab generates a suite of gridded data products in near real-time that are designed to enhance management decisions related to floods, droughts, forest fires, human health, as well as crop, range, and forest production. Derived from the synthesis of satellite imagery, ground observations, and specialized ecosystem models, our data products hold great potential for supporting research and practical applications across a wide range of disciplines. In order to provide enhanced access to our data and to promote multidisciplinary collaboration we implement standards-based web services. We serve TOPS data conforming to the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP) which allows subsetting and distribution of large HDF or NetCDF datasets, complete with standards-based metadata. Additionally, we implement a standard Web Map Service (WMS) for visualization of geospatial data. To further extend the use of our data to a wider audience we build upon these web services to develop browser-based visualization and analysis tools. We use Asynchronous Javascript and XML (AJAX) techniques to build interactive web applications leveraging our web services. For example, our WMS provides the map image tiles used in our mapping client. Users can click on the map to query TOPS datasets and regional summaries via OPeNDAP, producing time-series charts allowing temporal analysis of environmental trends and associated phenomena. We present the TOPS Data Gateway and its components, highlighting how the use of open protocols and standards provides improved data access for our clients and research partners, encouraging data interoperability and multidisciplinary collaboration.

  20. GP connector - a tool to enable access for general practitioners to a standards-based personal and electronic health record in the Rhine-Neckar region.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Oliver; Schmuhl, Holger; Bergh, Björn

    2011-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) as well as personal health records (PHR) are in widespread use today. Since several years the University Hospital Heidelberg is implementing a so-called personal and electronic health record (PEHR). The joint approach is standards-based and includes several needed services. However a remained unresolved issue is how to connect general practitioners (GP) and their systems to the record. This work describes a tool called GP Connector that provides access for GPs to the PEHR within the law. GPs can profit from all advantages of the PEHR usage. Only adding documents to the record comfortably through standards-based interfaces remains still open. Thus, deep integration of the PEHR into primary systems is preferable anytime. Yet the continuous trend towards multi-institutional health network may also pave the way for standards-based interfaces also in the field of practice management systems. PMID:21893770

  1. Two RFID standard-based security protocols for healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Bagheri, Nasour; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2013-10-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in access control, transportation, real-time inventory and asset management, automated payment systems, etc. Nevertheless, the use of this technology is almost unexplored in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, asset traceability and drug administration systems, to mention just a few. RFID technology can offer more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before its adoption. This is even more dramatical in healthcare applications where very sensitive information is at stake and patient safety is paramount. In Wu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 37:19, 43) recently proposed a new RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments. In this paper we show that this protocol puts location privacy of tag holders at risk, which is a matter of gravest concern and ruins the security of this proposal. To facilitate the implementation of secure RFID-based solutions in the medical sector, we suggest two new applications (authentication and secure messaging) and propose solutions that, in contrast to previous proposals in this field, are fully based on ISO Standards and NIST Security Recommendations. PMID:23949845

  2. Conceptualizing Teaching to the Test under Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; Eastwood, Melissa; D'Agostino, Jerome V.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and school accountability systems based on high-stakes tests are ubiquitous throughout the United States and appear to be growing as a catalyst for reform. As a result, educators have increased the proportion of instructional time devoted to test preparation. Although guidelines for what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate test…

  3. Managing Marginal School Employees: Applying Standards-Based Performance Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lynette; Reck, Brianne; Egley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This book contains a collection of case studies that provide a variety of situations in managing or working with marginal employees in a school system. Managing Marginal School Employees will serve as a primary or companion text for administrator candidates or current administrators that include dilemmas for the student to think about, discuss,…

  4. The FBE development project: toward flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social individual records.

    PubMed

    Frattura, Lucilla; Simoncello, Andrea; Bassi, Giovanni; Soranzio, Andrea; Terreni, Stefano; Sbroiavacca, Fulvio

    2012-01-01

    Under the ARCHITRAVE programme aimed at redesigning the regional health and social information system, the alpha version of a new web application was developed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and other medical terminology systems as a basis for a flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social record. The web application was developed in order to collect information according to a multiaxial assessment framework consistent with the model of functioning adopted by the ICF. The web application translates information collected in natural language into ICF and releases outputs at different stages of the assessment process useful in evaluating clinical and social outcomes, distinguishing between functioning and disability in the same functioning profile and planning reasonable adaptations to overcome disability. The alpha version works in Italian and was adapted to the Italian welfare system/services/policies, but an international version working in other languages/welfare systems can be designed. The first field trial is ongoing in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, implementing the regional Health and Social Action Plan 2010-2012. PMID:22874272

  5. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Any practical WSN deployment must contend with a number of difficulties in its radio frequency (RF) environment. Multi-path reflections can distort signals, limit data rates, and cause signal fades that prevent nodes from having clear access to channels, especially in a closed environment such as a spacecraft. Other RF signal sources, such as wireless internet, voice, and data systems may contend with the sensor nodes for bandwidth. Finally, RF noise from electrical systems and periodic scattering from moving objects such as crew members will all combine to give an incredibly unpredictable, time-varying communication environment.

  6. Comparison of 2- and 3-category histologic grading systems for predicting the presence of metastasis at the time of initial evaluation in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors: 386 cases (2009-2014).

    PubMed

    Stefanello, Damiano; Buracco, Paolo; Sabattini, Silvia; Finotello, Riccardo; Giudice, Chiara; Grieco, Valeria; Iussich, Selina; Tursi, Massimiliano; Scase, Timothy; Di Palma, Stefano; Bettini, Giuliano; Ferrari, Roberta; Martano, Marina; Gattino, Francesca; Marrington, Mary; Mazzola, Monica; Elisabetta Vasconi, Maria; Annoni, Maurizio; Marconato, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Objective-To compare the Kiupel (2 categories) and Patnaik (3 categories) histologic grading systems for predicting the presence of metastasis at the time of initial examination in dogs with cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs). Design-Retrospective case series. Animals-386 client-owned dogs with cutaneous MCTs. Procedures-Medical records of dogs with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cutaneous MCTs that had undergone complete clinical staging were reviewed for clinical and histopathologic data. Results-All Patnaik grade 1 MCTs (n = 52) were classified as Kiupel low-grade MCTs, and all Patnaik grade 3 MCTs (43) were classified as Kiupel high-grade MCTs. Of the 291 Patnaik grade 2 MCTs, 243 (83.5%) were classified as Kiupel low-grade tumors, and 48 (16.5%) were classified as Kiupel high-grade MCTs. Dogs with Patnaik grade 3 MCTs were significantly more likely to have metastases at the time of initial examination than were dogs with grade 1 or 2 MCTs (OR, 5.46), and dogs with Kiupel high-grade MCTs were significantly more likely to have metastases than were dogs with Kiupel low-grade MCTs (OR, 2.54). However, 3 of 52 (5.8%) dogs with Patnaik grade 1 tumors, 48 of 291 (16.5%) dogs with Patnaik grade 2 tumors, and 44 of 295 (14.9%) dogs with Kiupel low-grade tumors had metastatic disease. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Findings indicated that in dogs with cutaneous MCTs, prognostication should not rely on histologic grade alone, regardless of grading system used, but should take into account results of clinical staging. PMID:25794126

  7. Evaluation of an on-line ash analysis system for low-grade and inhomogeneous Greek lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis [Public Power Corporation SA, Athens (Greece). General Division of Mines

    2007-08-15

    The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual-energy {gamma}-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the pit to the bunker of Kardia mine, Ptolemais. According to the obtained results, the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not adequate and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The deterioration of the on-line measurements' accuracy, compared to previous applications in other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the lignite ash content and ash composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average atomic number of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of this method to low-grade lignites that exhibit large variation in ash content and composition. 17 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Standards-Based Education and Its Implications for Mathematics Faculty

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Latiolais, P. (Paul)

    The Mathematical Association of America offers a collection of articles on standardizing secondary education. This specific article, written by Robby Robson and Paul Latiolais of Oregon State and Portland State Universities, discusses creating a system of comparable standards for higher education. As the authors point out, there are annual standards met for primary education, from standardized tests like the ACT and SAT to year-end examinations. However, once students reach the university level, such methods of comparison disappear among college-level mathematics. Robson and Latiolais propose a series of changes that could be made across the level of nationally accredited universities to ensure an established set of standards for college degrees, credits, and skill sets. While not all of their suggestions could be adopted immediately, Robson and Latiolais make great strides in beginning a national dialogue on holding our universities accountable for the education they provide.

  9. Motion Imagery and Robotics Application (MIRA): Standards-Based Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Lindolfo; Rich, Thomas; Lucord, Steven; Diegelman, Thomas; Mireles, James; Gonzalez, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This technology development originated from the need to assess the debris threat resulting from soil material erosion induced by landing spacecraft rocket plume impingement on extraterrestrial planetary surfaces. The impact of soil debris was observed to be highly detrimental during NASA s Apollo lunar missions and will pose a threat for any future landings on the Moon, Mars, and other exploration targets. The innovation developed under this program provides a simulation tool that combines modeling of the diverse disciplines of rocket plume impingement gas dynamics, granular soil material liberation, and soil debris particle kinetics into one unified simulation system. The Unified Flow Solver (UFS) developed by CFDRC enabled the efficient, seamless simulation of mixed continuum and rarefied rocket plume flow utilizing a novel direct numerical simulation technique of the Boltzmann gas dynamics equation. The characteristics of the soil granular material response and modeling of the erosion and liberation processes were enabled through novel first principle-based granular mechanics models developed by the University of Florida specifically for the highly irregularly shaped and cohesive lunar regolith material. These tools were integrated into a unique simulation system that accounts for all relevant physics aspects: (1) Modeling of spacecraft rocket plume impingement flow under lunar vacuum environment resulting in a mixed continuum and rarefied flow; (2) Modeling of lunar soil characteristics to capture soil-specific effects of particle size and shape composition, soil layer cohesion and granular flow physics; and (3) Accurate tracking of soil-borne debris particles beginning with aerodynamically driven motion inside the plume to purely ballistic motion in lunar far field conditions.

  10. Prom Night in Mississippi: A Teacher's Guide with Standards-Based Lessons for Grades 7 and up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holladay, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    When Morris Dees was a young man in Alabama, the law said that black people couldn't drink from the same water fountain as white people, or sit at the same lunch counter. Back then, the government created and sanctioned divisions between human beings. The Civil Rights Movement changed all of that, of course, and ended state-mandated apartheid in…

  11. Impact of Writing Interventions Informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics with a Focus on Tenor, on Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Katherine Hayes

    2012-01-01

    This action research study examines the impact instruction informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) with a particular focus on tenor and socio-cultural theory has on sixth, seventh and eighth grade English language learners in an urban school. Over the course of seven and 1/2 months I used Systemic Functional Linguistics with a focus on…

  12. 77 FR 42988 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ...OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...correcting a direct final rule (DFR) with regard to the construction industry head protection standards to eliminate...

  13. 77 FR 43018 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ...OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...proposed rulemaking (NPRM) with regard to the construction industry head protection standards to eliminate...

  14. 5 CFR 536.202 - Optional grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Optional grade retention. (a...provide grade retention to an employee moving from...under a covered pay system to...different covered pay system is a...c) When an employee is offered...with grade retention under...

  15. Grade of service balancing for originating and handoff calls and system cost minimization using genetic algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. A. Fakoorian; H. Taheri

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of mobile wireless communication systems, customers are expecting the same quality of service (QoS), availability and performance from the wireless communication networks as the traditional wire-line networks. Currently the research work on radio channel allocation in cellular mobile systems focuses mainly on two aspects, improving the user admission capability and protecting the connection continuity for handoff

  16. Special Automotive Repair Service Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Vehicle Emission Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins Associates, Hadlyme, CT.

    This curriculum is intended to serve as a guide for high school instructors teaching a basic course on emission control systems on General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler products. The material may also be incorporated on an engine system basis and inserted into an overall tune-up curriculum. Other uses of the curriculum include specialized training…

  17. Grading maintainability parameters for sanitary plumbing system for high-rise residential buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Y. L. Chew

    Sanitary-plumbing system can waste energy and even become a source of fatal contamination unless designed, constructed or maintained properly. Human health and convenience are the two critical issues and it is important to identify, analyse and quantify the maintainability parameters of complex sanitary-plumbing systems to meet requirements of today's bigger and better buildings. This research was undertaken to investigate the

  18. Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Education 101: Exploration Begins Here [Grades 9-12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

  19. Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO): Exploration Begins Here [Grades K-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

  20. A Failing Grade for the German End-of-Life Vehicles Take-Back System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Nina; Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2005-01-01

    The German end-of-life vehicle take-back system is described and analyzed in terms of its impact on the environment and the car companies involved. It is concluded that although this system is often cited as an example of a successful take-back scheme, it is not one that maximizes the value recovered from end-of-life vehicles. As a result,…

  1. Graded Differential Geometry of Graded Matrix Algebras

    E-print Network

    Harald Grosse; Gert Reiter

    1999-05-21

    We study the graded derivation-based noncommutative differential geometry of the $Z_2$-graded algebra ${\\bf M}(n| m)$ of complex $(n+m)\\times(n+m)$-matrices with the ``usual block matrix grading'' (for $n\

  2. Flat-plate solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The engineering design, fabrication, assembly, operation, economic analysis, and process support research and development for an Experimental Process System Development Unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the slane-to-silicon process are reported. The design activity was completed. About 95% of purchased equipment was received. The draft of the operations manual was about 50% complete and the design of the free-space system continued. The system using silicon power transfer, melting, and shotting on a psuedocontinuous basis was demonstrated.

  3. 78 FR 16414 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings AGENCY: Federal...or other unsafe condition at highway-rail and pathway grade crossings. This document...implements Section 205 (Sec. 205) of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008...

  4. Additive manufacturing of graded dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, David A.; Good, Brandon L.; McCauley, Raymond; Yarlagadda, Shridhar; Smith, Jared; Good, Austin; Pa, Peter; Mirotznik, Mark S.

    2014-04-01

    A method for the fabrication of graded dielectrics within a structural composite is presented. This system employs an ultrasonic powder deposition head to print high dielectric powders onto a woven fabric composite substrate. It is shown how this system can integrate 3D variations of dielectric properties at millimeter resolution within a mechanically rugged substrate. To conclude, the system’s practical application is demonstrated with experimental results from a graded index lens.

  5. A dynamic power system model with graded precision for fast extraction of pertinent load flow information

    SciTech Connect

    Zaborszky, J.; Huang, G.M.; Huang, P.; Liu, J.B.

    1985-12-01

    In many situations of power system restoration or emergency control load flow, often dynamic load flow, results are needed at a time scale which makes regular load flow computations impractical. In this paper a low order dynamic model is introduced which retains fully detailed and precise representation of the critical components (such as strong backbone lines like EHV or weak tie lines) where the interest is focused and reduces the detail of representation of other parts of the system gradually with their distance from the spotlighted sections where details are needed. The result is a low order and hence very fast computation with not only detailed but also quite precise results for those parts of the system which are critical. This approach is very flexible, it can be used to compute tie line load and frequency swings on an interconnection of areas or static loads on the tie lines of such a system affecting third parties in a power trading situation. It can be used to compute precisely and fast the EHV system loads or any combinations of such elements. The operator is quite free to choose what should be represented in precise detail.

  6. The Impact of Birth Month, within Grade Levels, on Student Performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speziale, Kerry Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether chronological age differences among students in the same grade level affected their respective levels of academic performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics assessment. The study analyzed the additional independent variables of gender, socioeconomic status, and special education…

  7. Measuring Quality in Rural Kindergarten Classrooms: Reliability and Validity Evidence for the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, Kindergarten-Third Grade (CLASS K-3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandilos, Lia E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the structural validity and stability of scores on a measure of global classroom quality, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, Kindergarten-Third Grade (CLASS K-3; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008). Using data from a sample of 417 kindergarten classrooms in the rural Southern and Mid-Atlantic…

  8. [The GRADE system: a change in the way of assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations].

    PubMed

    Neumann, Ignacio; Pantoja, Tomás; Peñaloza, Blanca; Cifuentes, Lorena; Rada, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Individual clinicians and organizations making health care decisions should not only consider the magnitude of the benefits and harms of different courses of action (interventions), but also the confidence we can have in those estimates. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach offers a systematic and transparent way to summarize the evidence, to rate the confidence we can have in the effects of the interventions and to move from evidence to recommendations. The GRADE approach has been adopted by several organizations worldwide, including the World Health Organization and the Cochrane Collaboration. In Chile, this approach has already been used by guidelines produced by the Chilean Ministry of Health. In this paper we describe the core concepts of the GRADE approach to rate the quality of the evidence and to grade the strength of recommendations. As clinicians, being familiar with such concepts may be helpful to make decisions informed by the best available evidence. PMID:25427021

  9. Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2014-06-01

    All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

  10. ARITHMETIC, GRADE FIVE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GARBER, CLAIRE N.

    FIFTH GRADE WORK SHOULD CONTINUE THE SEQUENTIAL DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL UNDERSTANDINGS AND COMPUTATIONAL SKILLS. THE PROBLEMS APPROACH SHOULD BE USED SO CHILDREN MAY DISCOVER MATHEMATICAL TRUTHS AND ARRIVE AT GENERALIZATIONS. THE NUMBER SYSTEM UNIT SHOULD EMPHASIZE THE ABILITY TO READ AND WRITE NUMERALS TO SIX PLACES AND THE ABILITY TO READ…

  11. THE FOOD INTAKE RECORDING SOFTWARE SYSTEM (FIRSST) IS VALID AMONG 4TH GRADE CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to assess how accurately the Food Intake Recording Software System (FIRSSt) enabled children to report what they ate the previous day as compared to a dietitian conducted diet recall; and to test the effects of several procedures on accuracy of dietary report. We u...

  12. Development of oral food-grade delivery systems: current knowledge and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Benshitrit, Revital Cohen; Levi, Carmit Shani; Tal, Sharon Levi; Shimoni, Eyal; Lesmes, Uri

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the development of new and efficient oral food delivery systems as tools to prevent disease and promote human health and well-being. Such vehicles are sought to protect bioactive ingredients added to food while controlling and targeting their release as they pass through the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This review aims to summarize the key concepts of food delivery systems, their characterization and evaluation. Particularly, evaluation of their performance within the human GIT is discussed. To this end an overview of several in vivo and in vitro methods currently applied for the study of such systems is given. Although considered to be still in its infancy, this promising field of research is likely to infiltrate into real products through rational design. In order for such efforts to materialize into real products some challenges still need to be met and are discussed herein. Overall, it seems that adopting a comprehensive pharmacological approach and relevant cutting edge tools are likely to facilitate innovations and help elucidate and perhaps tailor delivery systems' behavior in the human GIT. PMID:21993691

  13. An Introduction to the SI Metric System. Inservice Guide for Teaching Measurement, Kindergarten Through Grade Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This handbook was designed to serve as a reference for teacher workshops that: (1) introduce the metric system and help teachers gain confidence with metric measurement, and (2) develop classroom measurement activities. One chapter presents the history and basic features of SI metrics. A second chapter presents a model for the measurement program.…

  14. Design and cost optimization of utility-grade off-grid power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Berdner; C. Whitaker; H. Wenger; C. Jennings

    1994-01-01

    Electric utilities are beginning to provide off-grid electricity service to customers in lieu of extending uneconomic electric distribution lines. To a large extent, the success of an electric utility off-grid service program is dependent on the utility's ability to provide power systems with excellent reliability and power quality at competitive prices. In December 1992, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (USA)

  15. Grading Practices: The Third Rail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Although Social Security funds are in decline and no solution is evident, few politicians have the temerity to try to change the system. Why? Because Social Security is the third rail in politics: if one touches it, he or she will die. The field of education has an issue that is equally as lethal: grading. Grading is one of the most private…

  16. Reversing Platinum Resistance in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma: Targeting BRCA and the Homologous Recombination System

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemeyer, W. Ruprecht; Beach, Jessica A.; Karlan, Beth Y.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to platinum chemotherapy is one of the main factors driving ovarian cancer mortality, and overcoming platinum resistance is considered one of the greatest challenges in ovarian cancer research. Genetic and functional evidence points to the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair system, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 in particular, as main determinants of response to platinum therapy. BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers are especially sensitive to platinum, associated with better survival, and amenable to poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor treatment. Here, we discuss a therapeutic concept that seeks to disrupt HR capacity via targeting of BRCA1 and BRCA2 functionality in order to reverse platinum resistance in BRCA-proficient high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC). We review the molecular signaling pathways that converge on BRCA1 and BRCA2, their activation status in ovarian cancer, and therapeutic options to modulate BRCA function. Several recent publications demonstrate efficient chemosensitization of BRCA-proficient cancers by combining targeted therapy with standard platinum-based agents. Due to its inherent genomic heterogeneity, molecularly defined subgroups of HGSOC may require different approaches. We seek to provide an overview of available agents and their potential use to reverse platinum resistance by inhibiting the HR system, either directly or indirectly, by targeting oncogenic activators of HR. PMID:24624361

  17. A simple method to recover the latency time of tactical grade IMU systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seube, Nicolas; Picard, Alan; Rondeau, Mathieu

    2012-11-01

    This paper investigates the problem of latency estimation between an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) and a LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging). The latency is due to the IMU itself, but also to the acquisition software and hardware configuration, which is generally set-up by survey systems users. We propose a method for latency estimation, and we show that this method meets the accuracy requirements of most LiDAR survey applications. We present test results of our method on various acquisition systems and hardware configuration which demonstrate that it is able to identify very accurately the total IMU-LiDAR latency through a simple procedure. The principle of the method is to put the LiDAR-IMU in rotational motions, thanks to a rotating table. By scanning a spherical target at different angular velocities, we can observe position shifts of the target center from which we derive an estimate the IMU-LiDAR latency. The method we propose works without absolute positioning and is therefore not sensitive to nonmodeled errors coming from GPS geolocated data. We show that in estimating accurately the LiDAR-IMU latency, we can optimize the configuration of a mobile LiDAR survey system in order to enhance its robustness with respect to high motion dynamics of the survey platform.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Aron; Jon Gore, Roger Dalton; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Owen Thomas; Tim Jarman

    2003-07-01

    This report describes progress, experiments, and results for a project to develop a pipeline inline inspection tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). There is a brief introduction that gives background material about EMATs and relevant previous Tuboscope work toward a tool. This work left various choices about the modes and transducers for this project. The experimental section then describes the lab systems, improvements to these systems, and setups and techniques to narrow the choices. Improvements, which involved transducer matching networks, better magnetic biasing, and lower noise electronics, led to improved signal to noise (SNR) levels. The setups permitted transducer characterizations and interaction measurements in plates with man-made cracks, pipeline sections with SCC, and a full pipe with SCC. The latter were done with a moveable and compact EMAT setup, called a lab mouse, which is detailed. Next, the results section justifies the mode and transducer choices. These were for magnetostrictive EMATs and the use of EMAT launched modes: SH0 (at 2.1 MHz-mm) and SV1 (at 3.9 MHz-mm). This section then gives details of measurements on these modes. The measurements consisted of signal to noise ratio, insertion loss, magnetic biasing sensitivities crack reflection and transmission coefficients, beam width, standoff and tilt sensitivities. For most of the measurements the section presents analysis curves, such as reflection coefficient versus crack depth. Some notable results for the chosen modes are: that acceptable SNRs were generated in a pipe with magnetostrictive EMATs, that optimum bias for magnetostrictive transmitters and receivers is magnetic saturation, that crack reflection and transmission coefficients from crack interactions agree with 2 D simulations and seem workable for crack grading, and that the mouse has good waveform quality and so is ready for exhaustive measurement EMAT scans of SCC interactions. This section also reviews further coil optimization and implementation requirements. These involve transmitter and receiver power, acquisition parameters, and magnetic configuration. At this time all these seem reasonable for an ILI tool.

  19. A 100-W grade closed-cycle thermosyphon cooling system used in HTS rotating machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felder, Brice; Miki, Motohiro; Tsuzuki, Keita; Shinohara, Nobuyuki; Hayakawa, Hironao; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2012-06-01

    The cooling systems used for rotating High-Temperature Superconducting (HTS) machines need a cooling power high enough to ensure a low temperature during various utilization states. Radiation, torque tube or current leads represent hundreds of watts of invasive heat. The architecture also has to allow the rotation of the refrigerant. In this paper, a free-convection thermosyphon using two Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocoolers is presented. The cryogen is mainly neon but helium can be added for an increase of the heat transfer coefficient. The design of the heat exchangers was first optimized with FEM thermal analysis. After manufacture, they were assembled for preliminary experiments and the necessity of annealing was studied for the copper parts. A single evaporator was installed to evaluate the thermal properties of such a heat syphon. The maximum bearable static heat load was also investigated, but was not reached even at 150 W of load. Finally, this cooling system was tested in the cooling down of a 100-kW range HTS rotating machine containing 12 Bi-2223 double-pancake coils (DPC).

  20. Cytological grading of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspirates and its relation with histological grading

    PubMed Central

    Phukan, Jyoti Prakash; Sinha, Anuradha; Deka, Jatindra Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Grading of breast carcinoma on fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is beneficial for selecting patients for neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Aims: To grade the breast carcinoma on FNAC using Robinson grading system and to assess the concordance of cytological grading (CG) with histological grading (HG) using Elston-Ellis modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading system. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted for 1-year, comprising of 50 female patients attending outpatient departments (OPD) as well as admitted in various surgical wards of a teaching hospital, diagnosed as breast carcinoma. FNAC smears were stained with May–Grunwald–Giemsa and Papanicolaou (Pap) stains and CG was done using Robinson system on Pap stained smears. The results were compared with HG system after resection of tumors. Results: Of 50 cases, 14 (28%) cases were graded as grade I, 24 (48%) grade II, and 12 (24%) grade III by CG, whereas 9 (18%), 28 (56%) and 13 (26%) cases were graded as grade I, II and III by HG. The result showed overall 72% concordance of CG with HG, with grade II and grade III showing highest degree of concordance (83.33%), which is comparable to previous studies. Kappa measurement showed a higher degree of agreement in high-grade tumors compared with low-grade tumors (0.73 in grade III, 0.53 in grade II and 0.39 in grade I). Conclusion: Cytological grading is comparable to HG in majority of cases. Because neoadjuvant chemotherapy is becoming increasingly popular as primary treatment modality of breast cancer, CG could be a useful parameter in selecting the mode of therapy and predicting tumor behavior.

  1. Comprehensive review of post-liver resection surgical complications and a new universal classification and grading system

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Masayuki; Mizuguchi, Toru; Harada, Kohei; Ota, Shigenori; Meguro, Makoto; Ueki, Tomomi; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Okita, Kenji; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Liver resection is the gold standard treatment for certain liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver tumors. Some patients with such tumors already have reduced liver function due to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis before surgery. Therefore, complications due to poor liver function are inevitable after liver resection. Although the mortality rate of liver resection has been reduced to a few percent in recent case series, its overall morbidity rate is reported to range from 4.1% to 47.7%. The large degree of variation in the post-liver resection morbidity rates reported in previous studies might be due to the lack of consensus regarding the definitions and classification of post-liver resection complications. The Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification of post-operative complications is widely accepted internationally. However, it is hard to apply to some major post-liver resection complications because the consensus definitions and grading systems for post-hepatectomy liver failure and bile leakage established by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery are incompatible with the CD classification. Therefore, a unified classification of post-liver resection complications has to be established to allow comparisons between academic reports. PMID:25349645

  2. Low-grade systemic inflammation connects aging, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Guarner, Verónica; Rubio-Ruiz, Maria Esther

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with immunosenescence and accompanied by a chronic inflammatory state which contributes to metabolic syndrome, diabetes and their cardiovascular consequences. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes overlap, leading to the hypothesis that both share an inflammatory basis. Obesity is increased in the elderly population, and adipose tissue induces a state of systemic inflammation partially induced by adipokines. The liver plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of nutrients and exhibits alterations in the expression of genes associated with inflammation, cellular stress and fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis and its related inflammatory state (steatohepatitis) are the main hepatic complications of obesity and metabolic diseases. Aging-linked declines in expression and activity of endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones and folding enzymes compromise proper protein folding and the adaptive response of the unfolded protein response. These changes predispose aged individuals to CVDs. CVDs and endothelial dysfunction are characterized by a chronic alteration of inflammatory function and markers of inflammation and the innate immune response, including C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, TNF-?, and several cell adhesion molecules are linked to the occurrence of myocardial infarction and stroke in healthy elderly populations and patients with metabolic diseases. PMID:25341516

  3. [GRADE: Methodology for formulating and grading recommendations in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Rigau, David; Rotaeche, Rafael; Selva, Anna; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) provide recommendations on the benefits and harms of different healthcare interventions. Proper CPG development and implementation can potentially reduce variability in clinical practice while improving its quality and safety. The GRADE system is used to assess the quality of evidence and to grade the strength of recommendations in the context of the development of CPGs, systematic reviews or health technology assessments. The aim of this article is to describe the main characteristics of the GRADE system through relevant examples in the context of primary care. PMID:24684818

  4. Controlled gene expression systems for Lactococcus lactis with the food-grade inducer nisin.

    PubMed Central

    de Ruyter, P G; Kuipers, O P; de Vos, W M

    1996-01-01

    The kinetics, control, and efficiency of nisin-induced expression directed by the nisA promoter region were studied in Lactococcus lactis with transcriptional and translational fusions to the gusA reporter genes. In the nisin-producing L. lactis strain NZ9700, the specific beta-glucuronidase activity increased very rapidly after mid-exponential growth until the maximum level at the start of the stationary phase was reached. Expression of the gusA gene was also studied in L. lactis NZ9800, an NZ9700 derivative carrying a deletion in the structural nisA gene that abolishes nisin production, and in L. lactis NZ3900, an MG1363 derivative containing the regulatory nisRK genes integrated in the chromosome. In both strains, beta-glucuronidase activity was linearly dependent on the amount of nisin added to the medium. Without nisin, no beta-glucuronidase production was observed. To optimize translation initiation, an expression vector was constructed by fusing the gusA gene translationally to the start codon of the nisA gene. Use of the translational fusion vector yielded up to six times more beta-glucuronidase activity than the transcriptional fusion vector in these strains after induction by nisin. In this way, gene expression can be achieved in a dynamic range of more than 1,000-fold. The beta-glucuronidase activity was found to be up to 25-fold higher in extracts of strain NZ3900 than in extracts of strain NZ9800. This translational fusion vector was used for high-level production of aminopeptidase N, up to 47% of the total intracellular protein. These results clearly illustrate the potential of the nisin-inducible expression system for overproduction of desired proteins. PMID:8837421

  5. Teacher Preparation: Assessing Teacher Quality, Administrative Support, Standards-Based Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakoff, Anne Rogers, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of papers focuses on the preparation of teachers by university-based education programs. The papers are: "The STEPS That Support P-12 Learning and Achievement" (Diana Rigden), which describes the Standards-based Teacher Education Project (STEP) for improving student learning; "The Responsibility for Assessing Beginning Teachers"…

  6. Validating a Standards-Based Classroom Assessment of English Proficiency: A Multitrait-Multimethod Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llosa, Lorena

    2007-01-01

    The use of standards-based classroom assessments to test English learners' language proficiency is increasingly prevalent in the United States and many other countries. In a large urban school district in California, for example, a classroom assessment is used to make high-stakes decisions about English learners' progress from one level to the…

  7. The Substantive and Symbolic Consequences of a District's Standards-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Rodney T.; Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Martinez-Flores, Marilyn; Scribner, Samantha Paredes

    2003-01-01

    Examined one school district's efforts to develop and implement a standards-based curriculum using rational and institutional perspectives. Findings show that the district took an expressly rationalistic approach in using standards, but lacking a clear instructional philosophy, the district also took an institutional approach. (SLD)

  8. Creating Standards-Based Integrated Curriculum: Aligning Curriculum, Content, Assessment, and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    In today's accountability-driven environment, educators strive to develop an integrated, relevant, and measurable curriculum while also presenting engaging subject matter that inspires student learning. In this completely revised edition of the classic text, Susan M. Drake provides a new approach to standards-based curriculum, instruction, and…

  9. Successful Strategies for Implementation of a High School Standards-Based Integrated Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Math achievement for students in the United States is not as high as in other countries. In response, one state implemented a new standards-based, integrated math curriculum that combines traditional high school math courses and emphasizes student centered instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of a standards…

  10. A case study of a special education teacher piloting a standards-based curriculum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Schaunessey L Findlay

    2002-01-01

    This study, through the theoretical perspective of phenomenology, examined the lived experiences of a special education teacher engaged in piloting a standards-based curriculum for employability. In her school district, she led the development of the Career Information and Exploration class using the Employability Skills Assessment Pilot Project standards for employability. I conducted in-depth interviews with the participant, observed her class

  11. Authoring a Full Life Cycle Model in Standards-Based, Adaptive E-learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rosmalen, Peter; Vogten, Hubert; Van Es, Rene; Passier, Harrie; Poelmans, Patricia; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce a standards-based model for adaptive e-learning and to investigate the conditions and tools required by authors to implement this model. Adaptation in the context of e-learning is about creating a learner experience that purposely adjusts to various conditions over a period of time with the intention of…

  12. A Standards-Based Open Source Application to Gather Health Assessment Data in Developing

    E-print Network

    Davis, James E.

    A Standards-Based Open Source Application to Gather Health Assessment Data in Developing Countries Email: torkroth@yahoo.com Health Records for Everyone Email:pcstrong@comcast.net §UC Santa Cruz Email health care organizations and infrastruc- ture to provide sustainable, community-based health care

  13. Standards-Based Evaluation and Teacher Career Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; Muncey, Donna E.; You, Sukkyung

    2005-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of a conceptual model specifying hypothesized linkages among perceptions of characteristics of standards-based evaluation, work environment mediators, and career satisfaction and other outcomes. Four comprehensive high schools located in two neighboring counties in southern…

  14. Selecting the Qualified: A Standards-Based Teacher Education Admission Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denner, Peter R.; Salzman, Stephanie A.; Newsome, Jack D.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a standards-based admission process for qualifying caring and competent teacher candidates. The process includes prerequisite standards, multiple assessments to evaluate these standards, and an admission interview process that involves faculty from several disciplines. There is a strong focus on dispositional standards. (SLD)

  15. A standard-based software infrastructure to support energy efficiency using renewable energy sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celson Lima; Vasco Gomes; Jose Lima; Joao F. Martins; Jose Barata; Luis Ribeiro; Goncalo Candido

    2011-01-01

    The NEMO&CODED (NEMO) project targets the development of a standard-based software infrastructure, aiming to provide the appropriate support to manage energy- related devices considering an environment where energy is generated, stored, distributed, and consumed in a rational and environmentally correct way. This paper presents and discusses the results achieved so far by the project, with special emphasis on the implementation

  16. The Social Organization of School Counseling in the Era of Standards-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    The reform policies of standards-based accountability, as outlined in NCLB, impede the functioning of school counseling programs and the delivery of services to students. Although recent studies have focused on the transformation of the school counseling profession, a gap exists in the literature with regard to how the experiences of school…

  17. Standards-Based Reforms in the United States of America: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to introduce readers to the main aspects of standards-based reforms in the United States of America. Content analyses of policy documents, reports of studies on education reforms, standards' documents and curriculum frameworks, and verbal communications from officials of education agencies provided the main sources of…

  18. Composition-graded nanowire solar cells fabricated in a single process for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Derek; Liu, Zhicheng; Shelhammer, David; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Nanomaterials such as semiconductor nanowires have unique features that could enable novel optoelectronic applications such as novel solar cells. This paper aims to demonstrate one such recently proposed concept: Monolithically Integrated Laterally Arrayed Multiple Band gap (MILAMB) solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems. Two cells with different band gaps were fabricated simultaneously in the same process on a single substrate using spatially composition-graded CdSSe alloy nanowires grown by the Dual-Gradient Method in a chemical vapor deposition system. CdSSe nanowire ensemble devices tested under 1 sun AM1.5G illumination achieved open-circuit voltages up to 307 and 173 mV and short-circuit current densities as high as 0.091 and 0.974 mA/cm(2) for the CdS- and CdSe-rich cells, respectively. The open-circuit voltages were roughly three times those of similar CdSSe film cells fabricated for comparison due to the superior optical quality of the nanowires. I-V measurements were also performed using optical filters to simulate spectrum-splitting. The open-circuit voltages and fill factors of the CdS-rich subcells were uniformly larger than the corresponding CdSe-rich cells for similar photon flux, as expected. This suggests that if all wires can be contacted, the wide-gap cell is expected to have greater output power than the narrow-gap cell, which is the key to achieving high efficiencies with spectrum-splitting. This paper thus provides the first proof-of-concept demonstration of simultaneous fabrication of MILAMB solar cells. This approach to solar cell fabrication using single-crystal nanowires for spectrum-splitting photovoltaics could provide a future low-cost high-efficiency alternative to the conventional high-cost high-efficiency tandem cells. PMID:25203692

  19. 5 CFR 536.203 - Additional eligibility requirements for grade retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Grade Retention § 536...grade retention. (a) An employee is eligible for grade retention under § 536.201(a)(1...more positions under a covered pay system at one or more...

  20. Low cost solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and installation of an experimental process system development unit (EPSDU) were analyzed. Supporting research and development were performed to provide an information data base usable for the EPSDU and for technological design and economical analysis for potential scale-up of the process. Iterative economic analyses were conducted for the estimated product cost for the production of semiconductor grade silicon in a facility capable of producing 1000-MT/Yr.

  1. Flat-plate solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The process technology for the manufacture of semiconductor-grade silicon in a large commercial plant by 1986, at a price less than $14 per kilogram of silicon based on 1975 dollars is discussed. The engineering design, installation, checkout, and operation of an Experimental Process System Development unit was discussed. Quality control of scaling-up the process and an economic analysis of product and production costs are discussed.

  2. Effect of Thin Prep® imaging system on laboratory rate and relative sensitivity of atypical squamous cells, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion not excluded and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Koltz, Brooke R.; Russell, Donna K.; Lu, Naiji; Bonfiglio, Thomas A.; Varghese, Sharlin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Automated screening of Thin Prep® Papanicolaou Tests has become increasingly common in clinical practice. Increased productivity has initiated laboratory use of the Thin Prep® Imaging System (TIS). Increased sensitivity is a potential additional benefit of TIS. Published studies have shown an increase in discovery of dysplastic cells. This study evaluates the effect of TIS on the incidence of atypical squamous cells high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion not excluded (ASC-H) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) results on Thin Prep® Pap Tests by comparing TIS-assisted and manual screening findings and the diagnoses on subsequent follow-up in a screening population over a 1-year time period. Materials and Methods: A compilation of all ASC-H and HGSIL cases was prepared by conducting a computerized search over a 1-year period (7/06-6/07). The accumulated cases include Thin Prep Pap tests that were both TIS and manually screened. Follow-up results of cytologic and histologic cervical specimens were obtained for a time period extending to 2010. Interpretation utilizing TIS was in place 10 months prior to the study's initiation. Results: During the study period 70,522 Pap tests were performed in our laboratory. One third (33%) of Pap tests were screened with assistance of TIS. Manual screening was performed on 47,380 Pap tests of which 153 (0.32%) were interpreted as ASC-H and 164 (0.35%) were interpreted as HGSIL. During the same time period automated screening (TIS) was performed on 23,111 Pap tests. Interpretation of 62 (0.27%) cases provided an ASC-H result, while 71 (0.31%) were HGSIL. Follow-up cervical dysplasia by colposcopic biopsy and cone biopsy was distributed proportionally between TIS and manual screening for both ASC-H and HGSIL categories. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II/III) was identified on follow-up biopsy of 41% TIS cases and 45% manually screened cases for ASC-H. In the HGSIL subset 71% of TIS cases and 69% manually screened cases showed CIN II/III on follow-up. TIS was 26% less sensitive relative to manual screening for ASC-H cases and 3% less sensitive for HGSIL. Conclusion: The similar rate of detection using TIS with an equal percentage of histologic correlation for ASC-H and HGSIL lesions on follow-up histology suggests patients screened by the TIS method are being sent for appropriate follow-up surveillance and treatment. A high-grade or possible high-grade lesion is as likely to be detected by TIS as by a manual screen. The similarities in relative sensitivity and specificity in a direct comparison between manual and TIS screening methodologies indicate that TIS compared to manual screening does not affect detection in patients with high-grade cervical lesions. PMID:23599725

  3. IEEE 802.22: An Introduction to the First Wireless Standard based on Cognitive Radios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos De M. Cordeiro; Kiran S. Challapali; Dagnachew Birru

    2006-01-01

    In November\\/2004, we witnessed the formation of the first worldwide effort to define a novel wireless air interface (i.e., MAC and PHY) standard based on Cognitive Radios (CRs): the IEEE 802.22 Working Group (WG). The IEEE 802.22 WG is chartered with the development of a CR-based Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) Physical (PHY) and Medium Access Control (MAC) layers for

  4. IEEE 802.22: the first worldwide wireless standard based on cognitive radios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Cordeiro; Kiran Challapali; Dagnachew Birru; N. Sai Shankar

    2005-01-01

    In November\\/2004, we witnessed the formation of the first worldwide effort to define a novel wireless air interface standard based on cognitive radios (CRs): the IEEE 802.22 working group (WG). The IEEE 802.22 WG is chartered with the development of a CR-based wireless regional area network (WRAN) physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers for use by license-exempt devices

  5. Optical frequency standard based on a two-photon transition in calcium

    E-print Network

    Vutha, Amar C

    2015-01-01

    A two-photon transition in laser-cooled and trapped calcium atoms is proposed as the atomic reference in an optical frequency standard. An efficient scheme for interrogation of the frequency standard is described, and the sensitivity of the clock transition to systematic effects is estimated. Frequency standards based on this transition could lead to compact and portable devices that are capable of rapidly averaging down to $< 10^{-16}$.

  6. Best Practices for Making Scientific Data Discoverable and Accessible through Integrated, Standards-Based Data Portals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucido, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists in the fields of hydrology, geophysics, and climatology are increasingly using the vast quantity of publicly-available data to address broadly-scoped scientific questions. For example, researchers studying contamination of nearshore waters could use a combination of radar indicated precipitation, modeled water currents, and various sources of in-situ monitoring data to predict water quality near a beach. In discovering, gathering, visualizing and analyzing potentially useful data sets, data portals have become invaluable tools. The most effective data portals often aggregate distributed data sets seamlessly and allow multiple avenues for accessing the underlying data, facilitated by the use of open standards. Additionally, adequate metadata are necessary for attribution, documentation of provenance and relating data sets to one another. Metadata also enable thematic, geospatial and temporal indexing of data sets and entities. Furthermore, effective portals make use of common vocabularies for scientific methods, units of measure, geologic features, chemical, and biological constituents as they allow investigators to correctly interpret and utilize data from external sources. One application that employs these principles is the National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) Data Portal (http://cida.usgs.gov/ngwmn), which makes groundwater data from distributed data providers available through a single, publicly accessible web application by mediating and aggregating native data exposed via web services on-the-fly into Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant service output. That output may be accessed either through the map-based user interface or through the aforementioned OGC web services. Furthermore, the Geo Data Portal (http://cida.usgs.gov/climate/gdp/), which is a system that provides users with data access, subsetting and geospatial processing of large and complex climate and land use data, exemplifies the application of International Standards Organization (ISO) metadata records to enhance data discovery for both human and machine interpretation. Lastly, the Water Quality Portal (http://www.waterqualitydata.us/) achieves interoperable dissemination of water quality data by referencing a vocabulary service for mapping constituents and methods between the USGS and USEPA. The NGWMN Data Portal, Geo Data Portal and Water Quality Portal are three examples of best practices when implementing data portals that provide distributed scientific data in an integrated, standards-based approach.

  7. Development of a decision support system for diagnosis and grading of brain tumours using in vivo magnetic resonance single voxel spectra.

    PubMed

    Tate, Anne R; Underwood, Joshua; Acosta, Dionisio M; Julià-Sapé, Margarida; Majós, Carles; Moreno-Torres, Angel; Howe, Franklyn A; van der Graaf, Marinette; Lefournier, Virginie; Murphy, Mary M; Loosemore, Alison; Ladroue, Christophe; Wesseling, Pieter; Luc Bosson, Jean; Cabañas, Miquel E; Simonetti, Arjan W; Gajewicz, Witold; Calvar, Jorge; Capdevila, Antoni; Wilkins, Peter R; Bell, B Anthony; Rémy, Chantal; Heerschap, Arend; Watson, Des; Griffiths, John R; Arús, Carles

    2006-06-01

    A computer-based decision support system to assist radiologists in diagnosing and grading brain tumours has been developed by the multi-centre INTERPRET project. Spectra from a database of 1H single-voxel spectra of different types of brain tumours, acquired in vivo from 334 patients at four different centres, are clustered according to their pathology, using automated pattern recognition techniques and the results are presented as a two-dimensional scatterplot using an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI). Formal quality control procedures were performed to standardize the performance of the instruments and check each spectrum, and teams of expert neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, neurologists and neuropathologists clinically validated each case. The prototype decision support system (DSS) successfully classified 89% of the cases in an independent test set of 91 cases of the most frequent tumour types (meningiomas, low-grade gliomas and high-grade malignant tumours--glioblastomas and metastases). It also helps to resolve diagnostic difficulty in borderline cases. When the prototype was tested by radiologists and other clinicians it was favourably received. Results of the preliminary clinical analysis of the added value of using the DSS for brain tumour diagnosis with MRS showed a small but significant improvement over MRI used alone. In the comparison of individual pathologies, PNETs were significantly better diagnosed with the DSS than with MRI alone. PMID:16763971

  8. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the 'increases in grade point average' definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all. PMID:25288826

  9. Method and system using power modulation for maskless vapor deposition of spatially graded thin film and multilayer coatings with atomic-level precision and accuracy

    DOEpatents

    Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Folta, James Allen (Livermore, CA); Tan, Swie-In (San Jose, CA); Reiss, Ira (New City, NY)

    2002-07-30

    A method and system for producing a film (preferably a thin film with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) on a flat or graded substrate (such as concave or convex optics), by sweeping the substrate across a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. In preferred embodiments, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. A user selects a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a predetermined desired thickness profile of the deposited film. The method relies on precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

  10. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA subscales. Correlations were computed for BAT, BASA, and demographic variables to identify relationships between teacher efficacy, teacher characteristics, and school characteristics. Further research is recommended to refine the instrument and apply its use to a larger sample of science teachers. Its further development also has significance for the enhancement of science teacher education programs.

  11. Standards-Based Classroom Assessments of English Proficiency: A Review of Issues, Current Developments, and Future Directions for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llosa, Lorena

    2011-01-01

    With the United States' adoption of a standards-based approach to education, most attention has focused on the large-scale, high-stakes assessments intended to measure students' mastery of standards for accountability purposes. Less attention has been paid to the role of standards-based assessments in the classroom. The purpose of this paper is to…

  12. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  13. Developing Knowledgeable Teachers: A Framework for Standards-Based Teacher Education Supported by Institutional Collaboration. The STEP Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin, Patty, Ed.

    This collection of papers describes the process of creating a standards-based teacher education program through strong collaboration among arts and science, education, and P-12 faculty members and administrators. The Standards-based Teacher Education Project (STEP) was designed to help teacher education programs ensure that their graduates know…

  14. Teaching a Standard-Based Communicative English Textbook Series to Secondary School Students in Egypt: Investigating Teachers' Practices and Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdel Latif, Muhammad M. Mahmoud

    2012-01-01

    Since any standards-based reform is made to bring about an improvement in students' learning, it requires changes in teachers' practices as well. This study examined how a standards-based communicative curricular reform in general secondary school English in Egypt has changed teachers' classroom practices, and the factors influencing such…

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

    2005-02-01

    This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length and depth could be determined for deep enough cracks. Defect shadow and short length effects were apparent but may be taken into account. The SH0 scan was done with the mule prototype circuits and permanent magnet EMATs. These gave good enough results that this hardware and the processing techniques are very encouraging for use in a practical ILI tool.

  16. The Effect of Pressure on the Combustion Synthesis of a Functionally-Graded Material: TiB 2 Al 2 O 3 Al Ceramic Metal Composite System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Feng; J. J. Moore

    1993-01-01

    This article describes some recent research on the synthesis of functionally-graded materials (FGM using combustion synthesis\\u000a or self- propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). A model ceramic-metal SHS system was investigated based on the reaction\\u000a system: 3TiO2 + 3B2O3 + (10 + x)Al = 3TiB2 + 5Al2O2 + xAl in which x was varied between 0 and 17 to achieve the required

  17. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and noncognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades and undermines their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge…

  18. Coping with plagiarism and grading load: Randomized programming assignments and reflective grading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diomidis Spinellis; Panagiotis Zaharias; Adam Vrechopoulos

    2007-01-01

    Programming assignments often suffer from plagiarism and lack of feedback. The Jarpeb system creates individually randomized assignments, grades the students' programs by utilizing Java's reflective evaluation capabilities, and allows students to submit their grade through the web by signing their grade with a cryptographically strong checksum. Jarpeb's empirical evaluation included as the dependent variables important learners' dimensions: plagiarism, understanding, learning,

  19. The formation of high-grade ignimbrites, I: Experiments on high- and low-concentration transport systems containing sticky particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin Freundt

    1998-01-01

    High-grade ignimbrites are thought to be deposited by pyroclastic flows at temperatures exceeding minimum welding temperature\\u000a or even solidus temperature. Corresponding pyroclastic-flow particles range from plastic to partially liquid and are able\\u000a to aggregate or coalesce. This contrasts with particles in pyroclastic flows producing unwelded ignimbrite, which are capable\\u000a of elastic grain interactions. The low aspect ratio and great areal

  20. Plus/Minus Grading: A within Instructor Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Michael L.; Feeney, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A three semester, within instructor, interrupted time series analysis of grading practices was conducted in order to observe the effects of the implementation of a plus minus grading system. Over 260 individual instructor's grades were compared before and after implementation of plus minus grading. The results indicate no overall effect of the…

  1. Graded zooming

    DOEpatents

    Coffland, Douglas R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-04-25

    A system for increasing the resolution in the far field resolution of video or still frame images, while maintaining full coverage in the near field. The system includes a camera connected to a computer. The computer applies a specific zooming scale factor to each of line of pixels and continuously increases the scale factor of the line of pixels from the bottom to the top to capture the scene in the near field, yet maintain resolution in the scene in the far field.

  2. Cool Apps: Building Cryospheric Data Applications with Standards-Based Service Oriented Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, J.; Truslove, I.; Collins, J. A.; Liu, M.; Lewis, S.; Brodzik, M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) holds a large collection of cryospheric data, and is involved in a number of informatics research and development projects aimed at improving the discoverability and accessibility of these data. To develop high- quality software in a timely manner, we have adopted a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach for our core technical infrastructure development. Data services at NSIDC are internally exposed to other tools and applications through standards-based service interfaces. These standards include OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting), various OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards including WMS (Web Map Service) and WFS (Web Feature Service), ESIP (Federation of Earth Sciences Information Partners) OpenSearch, and NSIDC-defined service endpoints which follow a RESTful architecture. By taking a standards-based approach, we are able to use off-the-shelf tools and libraries to consume, translate and broker these data services, and thus develop applications faster. Additionally, by exposing public interfaces to these services we provide valuable data services to technical collaborators; for example, NASA Reverb (http://reverb.echo.nasa.gov) uses NSIDC's WMS services. Our latest generation of web applications consume these data services directly. The most complete example of this is the Operation IceBridge Data Portal (http://nsidc.org/icebridge/ portal) which depends on many of the aforementioned services, retrieving data in several ways. The maps it displays are obtained through the use of WMS and WFS protocols from a MapServer instance hosted at NSIDC. Links to the scientific data collected on Operation IceBridge campaigns are obtained through ESIP OpenSearch requests service providers that encapsulate our metadata databases. These standards-based web services are also developed at NSIDC and are designed to be used independently of the Portal. This poster provides a visual representation of the relationships described above, with additional details and examples, and more generally outlines the benefits and challenges of this SOA approach.

  3. Dick Effect in a Microwave Frequency Standard Based on Laser-Cooled 113Cd+ Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Wei; Miao, Kai; Wang, Li-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The Dick effect is one of the main limits to the frequency stability of a passive frequency standard, especially for the fountain clock and ion clock operated in pulsed mode which require unavoidable dead time during interrogation. Here we measure the phase noise of the interrogation oscillator applied in the microwave frequency standard based on laser-cooled 113Cd+ ions, and analyze the Allan deviation limited by the Dick effect. The results indicate that the Dick effect is one of the key issues for the cadmium ion clock to reach expected frequency stability. This problem can be resolved by interrogating the local oscillator continuously with two ion traps.

  4. Standards-based publication and sharing of time series information in the DRIHM project: a EU-US collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Richard; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Parodi, Antonio; Gochis, David; Jha, Shantenu; Whitenack, Thomas; Valentine, David; Caumont, Olivier; Dekic, Ljiljana; Ivkovic, Marija; Molini, Luca; Bedrina, Tatiana; Gijsbers, Peter J. A.; de Rooij, Erik; Rebora, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    To enable a plug-and-play infrastructure, the European DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project aims to develop a comprehensive data publication and sharing system presenting uniform standards-based data discovery and access interfaces for hydrometeorological data collected by DRIHM partners in several European countries. This is a challenging task due to heterogeneity in types of data being collected and organized for modeling, and different semantic and structural conventions adopted by different data publishers. To meet this goal, the DRIHM project, and its DRIHM2US extension, collaborates with the recently funded US SCIHM (Standards-based Cyberinfrastructure for HydroMeteorology) project to develop a data sharing infrastructure for time series information. We report initial results of the application of the data integrating technologies developed by the NSF-funded CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Data, Inc., Hydrologic Information System) project, to information collected within DRIHM. The CUAHSI HIS system has been widely used in the US; it provides access to about a hundred water data collections that can be queried via uniform web services. The DRIHM partners initially implementing the system, include the CIMA Research Foundation (Italy), the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. The collected time series information was ingested into CUAHSI Observations Data Model databases, and water data services were created for each of the partners. At the time of writing, the water data services include SOAP and REST endpoints that provide access to the time series in WaterML 1 and WaterML 2.0 formats. The former encoding, developed by CUAHSI HIS, has been adopted by a number of federal agencies and research groups in the US, while the latter, created by an international group of experts under the aegis of the Hydrology Domain Working Group of the Open Geospatial Consortium and the World Meteorological Organization, has been recently adopted as an international standard for exchanging hydrologic data. The services are registered at the central catalog, which supports discovery of time series based on their spatio-temporal characteristics and on variable semantics. The semantics of the measurements is aligned , in the process of publication and service registration, with a set of centrally managed controlled vocabularies and a parameter vocabulary. Data from multiple collections can be discovered, accessed, visualized and analyzed using CUAHSI HydroDesktop software, or other clients that support water data service interfaces. While HydroDesktop relies on WaterML 1 format, the Delft FEWS system, maintained by a DRIHM partner Deltares, is already capable of ingesting WaterML 2.0 services, which enables interfacing WaterML 2.0-formatted streams with forecast models. Development of a consistent data sharing system is one of the first steps in realizing DRIHM objectives. Next steps include further integration of water data services with simulation models, WRF and WRF-Hydro in particular, and integrating point time series with gridded information to be used as model input. We discuss these additional steps and associated challenges, and demonstrate the complementarity and benefits of US-EU collaboration in the development of global standards-based infrastructure for hydrometeorological data.

  5. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  6. Standards-based Assessment of Development Toolchains in Safety-Critical Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . In this paper we propose a method for the assessment of development processes and toolchains. The tasks for the selection of proper development methods and measures. Accordingly, if software is deployed in a critical integrity levels (SIL) for development processes and describes methods that can be applied during

  7. Faculty/Staff Perceptions of a Standards-Based Exit Portfolio System for Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tena L.; Bailey, Rita L.

    2006-01-01

    New standards for certification were recently developed for speech-language pathology graduate training programs by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. The new standards are outcomes-based rather than process-based. Using a collective case study approach, this article highlights the perceptions of faculty and staff regarding use of a…

  8. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  9. MyRED Changing "Official" Grades Changing "Official" Grades

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    MyRED ­ Changing "Official" Grades Changing "Official" Grades Navigation: Faculty Tab > Grade Rosters Tab Follow these steps if you need to change a grade that has been posted to a student's record 1 #12;MyRED ­ Changing "Official" Grades 8. Click on Grade Roster tab. 9. Find the Final Grade

  10. Does grade inflation affect the reliability of grades?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Millman; Simeon P. Slovacek; Edward Kulick; Karen J. Mitchell

    1983-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the effect of grade inflation on the piling up of grades in fewer grade categories and on the reliability of grade point averages (GPAs). In all comparisons, grades were more bunched after grade inflation, which in turn, was associated with only slight, nonsignificant decreases in GPA reliability. As expected, grades were more bunched when

  11. Should the grading of colorectal adenocarcinoma include microsatellite instability status?

    PubMed

    Rosty, Christophe; Williamson, Elizabeth J; Clendenning, Mark; Walters, Rhiannon J; Win, Aung K; Jenkins, Mark A; Hopper, John L; Winship, Ingrid M; Southey, Melissa C; Giles, Graham G; English, Dallas R; Buchanan, Daniel D

    2014-10-01

    Adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum are graded using a 2-tiered system into histologic low-grade and high-grade tumors based on the proportion of gland formation. The current grading system does not apply to subtypes of carcinomas associated with a high frequency of microsatellite instability (MSI), such as mucinous and medullary carcinomas. We investigated the combined effect of histologic grade and MSI status on survival for 738 patients with colorectal carcinoma (48% female; mean age at diagnosis 68.2 years). The proportion of high-grade adenocarcinoma was 18%. MSI was observed in 59 adenocarcinomas (9%), with higher frequency in high-grade tumors compared with low-grade tumors (20% versus 6%; P < .001). Using Cox regression models, adjusting for sex and age at diagnosis and stratifying by the American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, microsatellite stable (MSS) high-grade tumors were associated with increased hazard of all-cause and colorectal cancer-specific mortality: hazard ratio 2.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.58-2.77) and 2.54 (95% CI, 1.86-3.47), respectively, both P < .001. A new grading system separating adenocarcinoma into low grade (all histologic low grade and MSI high grade) and high grade (MSS histologic high grade) gave a lower Akaike information criterion value when compared with the current grading system and thus represented a better model fit to stratify patients according to survival. We found that patients with a high-grade adenocarcinoma had significantly shorter survival than patients with low-grade adenocarcinoma only if the tumor was MSS, suggesting that the grading of colorectal adenocarcinoma with high-grade histologic features should be made according to the MSI status of the tumor. PMID:25149551

  12. Marsden{endash}Weinstein reduction on graded symplectic manifolds

    SciTech Connect

    Baguis, P.; Stavracou, T. [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS, Luminy, Case 907-F-13288, Marseille, Cedex 9 (France)] [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS, Luminy, Case 907-F-13288, Marseille, Cedex 9 (France)

    1997-03-01

    We extend the Marsden{endash}Weinstein reduction of Hamiltonian systems with symmetry to the category of graded manifolds. We define free, proper, and symplectic actions in the graded setting; especially for the symplectic actions of graded Lie groups, it is possible to speak about momentum mappings. We also examine the reduction of the graded Hamiltonian derivations which determines the dynamics on the reduced phase space for constrained supersystems with symmetry. We apply the general formalism to specific examples, thus constructing graded (complex) projective spaces, and proving that the coadjoint orbits of graded Lie groups are reduced graded symplectic manifolds. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. High-gravity-assisted pulsed laser ablation system for the fabrication of functionally graded material thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, T.; Morinaga, S.; Nagayama, K.

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method for the fabrication of a thin film deposited on an appropriate substrate having a continuous composition gradient. The composition gradient was achieved by a combination of pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of the target material with a very strong acceleration field generated on a moving disk rotating at a very high speed. The PLA process was used to produce a cloud of high-energy particles of the target material that will be deposited on a substrate placed on the rotating disk. After deposition, the particles will diffuse on the surface of the thin film under a strong acceleration field. The high energy of the particles and their diffusion on the substrate surface in a high-vacuum environment produces a macroscopic composition distribution in the thin film. We have constructed an experimental apparatus consisting of a vacuum chamber in which a circular disk made of titanium is driven by a high-frequency inductive motor. An acceleration field of up to 10 000 G can be generated by this apparatus. Functionally graded material thin films of FeSi2 with a continuous concentration gradient were successfully fabricated by this method under a gravity field of 5400 G. A significant advantage of this method is that it allows us to fabricate graded thin films with a very smooth surface covered by few droplets.

  14. High-gravity-assisted pulsed laser ablation system for the fabrication of functionally graded material thin film.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, T; Morinaga, S; Nagayama, K

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method for the fabrication of a thin film deposited on an appropriate substrate having a continuous composition gradient. The composition gradient was achieved by a combination of pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of the target material with a very strong acceleration field generated on a moving disk rotating at a very high speed. The PLA process was used to produce a cloud of high-energy particles of the target material that will be deposited on a substrate placed on the rotating disk. After deposition, the particles will diffuse on the surface of the thin film under a strong acceleration field. The high energy of the particles and their diffusion on the substrate surface in a high-vacuum environment produces a macroscopic composition distribution in the thin film. We have constructed an experimental apparatus consisting of a vacuum chamber in which a circular disk made of titanium is driven by a high-frequency inductive motor. An acceleration field of up to 10,000 G can be generated by this apparatus. Functionally graded material thin films of FeSi(2) with a continuous concentration gradient were successfully fabricated by this method under a gravity field of 5400 G. A significant advantage of this method is that it allows us to fabricate graded thin films with a very smooth surface covered by few droplets. PMID:19334931

  15. Beach Hopper Bonanza Grade Level: Second Grade

    E-print Network

    Beach Hopper Bonanza Grade Level: Second Grade Developers: Jan Ward, Merry Lojkovic, Kara Davidson the characteristics, behavior, and anatomy of beach hoppers. !" Examine the relationships between the beach hopper (transparent) !" 1-2 buckets !" sieves !" shovel !" small plastic container with lid to hold beach hoppers

  16. Changes in the aromatic profile of espresso coffee as a function of the grinding grade and extraction time: a study by the electronic nose system.

    PubMed

    Severini, C; Ricci, I; Marone, M; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2015-03-01

    The changes in chemical attributes and aromatic profile of espresso coffee (EC) were studied taking into account the extraction time and grinding level as independent variables. Particularly, using an electronic nose system, the changes of the global aromatic profile of EC were highlighted. The results shown as the major amounts of organic acids, solids, and caffeine were extracted in the first 8 s of percolation. The grinding grade significantly affected the quality of EC probably as an effect of the particle size distribution and the percolation pathways of water through the coffee cake. The use of an electronic nose system allowed us to discriminate the fractions of the brew as a function of the percolation time and also the regular coffee obtained from different grinding grades. Particularly, the aromatic profile of a regular coffee (25 mL) was significantly affected by the grinding level of the coffee grounds and percolation time, which are two variables under the control of the bar operator. PMID:25665600

  17. Is the grading system of the severity of the OSAHS used presently rational or not?: from the view of incidence of hypertension in different severity groups.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinrang; Chen, Xi; Sun, Jianjun

    2014-09-01

    The grading system of the severity of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) used presently showed that the severe OSAHS had an extensive range of apnea hypopnea index (AHI) (? 30, even over 100). So this grading system is not rational. From Jan 1999 to June 2011, there were 2,618 patients complaining of snoring took the polysomnography. The patients were divided into 11 groups according to their AHI. Frequencies of OSAHS with hypertension in each group were tested using crosstabs. The incidence of hypertension was increased as the increasing of AHI. Crosstab analysis showed that there were four cutoff points of AHI (5, 30, 50, 100). There was a significant difference in the incidence of hypertension between the groups of AHI more than the cutoff point and AHI less than the cutoff point. So from the view of hypertension in each group, we recommend that the AHI <5 should be considered as normal or simple snorer, AHI = 5-30 as mild degree of OSAHS, AHI = 30-50 as moderate degree of OSAHS, AHI = 50-100 as severe degree of OSAHS, and AHI ? 100 as profound degree of OSAHS. PMID:24756614

  18. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "La Mujer Que Brillaba Aun Mas Que el Sol"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullitt, Leslie Kay; Gonzalez, Augusta C.; Luna, Boni

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  19. Students' Knowledge about Chemical Reactions--Development and Analysis of Standard-Based Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpuski, Maik; Ropohl, Mathias; Sumfleth, Elke

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 national educational standards for chemistry were implemented in Germany. While the standards describe different competencies to be reached after grade 10, no compulsory contents are defined. The contents are defined by the different German states individually. This means that there are no defined common topics taught in all states that…

  20. Ten Activities for Middle School School Science: Developmentally Appropriate, Inquiry- and Standards-Based

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jackie Cleveland

    2004-01-01

    Before we move to the activities, we need to give a disclaimer or two concerning the danger of using any "template" for lesson planning. The components of the lesson-plan template presented in these activities are all integral to inquiry-based science instruction, but, as teachers know, units and lessons need to be tailored to the specific needs of different groups of students, different days, and even variations in unit objectives. Teachers using this template are encouraged to modify it as needed to fit their own circumstances. (Suggestions for making modifications are provided in Chapter 7.) What's more, the authors' know that the activities might look cumbersome, but they've opted to include extensive detail so that they are truly ready-to-use. This chapter includes the following ten inquiry- and standards-based activities: Thinking Like a Scientist, Attributes, Penny Water, The Incredible, Edible Candle, Sewer Lice, Cartesian Diver, Nut Case, Wrist Taker, Oh, Nuts!, and Gobstoppers

  1. Lower Grade Glioma

    Cancer.gov

    Lower grade glioma is a type of cancer that develops in the glial cells of the brain. Glial cells support the brain’s nerve cells and keep them healthy. Tumors are classified into grades I, II, III or IV based on standards set by the World Health Organization. TCGA is including grades II and III in this specific study, as opposed to higher grade brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme, which were studied in a separate project.

  2. Cool Apps: Building Cryospheric Data Applications With Standards-Based Service Oriented Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; Truslove, I.; Billingsley, B. W.; Oldenburg, J.; Brodzik, M.; Lewis, S.; Liu, M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) holds a large collection of cryospheric data, and is involved in a number of informatics research and development projects aimed at improving the discoverability and accessibility of these data. To develop high-quality software in a timely manner, we have adopted a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach for our core technical infrastructure development. Data services at NSIDC are internally exposed to other tools and applications through standards-based service interfaces. These standards include OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting), various OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards including WMS (Web Map Service) and WFS (Web Feature Service), ESIP (Federation of Earth Sciences Information Partners) OpenSearch, and NSIDC-specific RESTful services. By taking a standards-based approach, we are able to use off-the-shelf tools and libraries to consume, translate and broker these data services, and thus develop applications faster. Additionally, by exposing public interfaces to these services we provide valuable data services to technical collaborators; for example, NASA Reverb (http://reverb.echo.nasa.gov) uses NSIDC's WMS services. Our latest generation of web applications consume these data services directly. The most complete example of this is the Operation IceBridge Data Portal (http://nsidc.org/icebridge/portal) which depends on many of the aforementioned services, and clearly exhibits many of the advantages of building applications atop a service-oriented architecture. This presentation outlines the architectural approach and components and open standards and protocols adopted at NSIDC, demonstrates the interactions and uses of public and internal service interfaces currently powering applications including the IceBridge Data Portal, and outlines the benefits and challenges of this approach.

  3. What matters in the classroom: A structural model of standards-based scientific literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shive, Louise E.

    For over two decades educators and policy makers have been particularly concerned with student achievement in the wake of A Nation at Risk. A majority of studies indicates that students' family background has the strongest influence on achievement, although characteristics of their teachers and schools have significant impact as well. This study considered achievement in science in particular, investigating the influence of alterable factors within the classroom on students' gains in scientific literacy. Scientific literacy included three elements: content knowledge, scientific process skills, and attitude towards science. Based on a review of the literature on student achievement, a structural equation model was constructed with five latent variables: teacher's education, instructional practices, teacher's attitudes, school's context, and students' scientific literacy. The model was tested using data from the five-month implementation of a standards-based integrated text/technology/laboratory program, Biology: Exploring Life. The sixteen biology teachers completed two pre-implementation surveys, and 664 of their students completed the three pretests and the corresponding posttests. The initial model did not fit well (chi2(80) = 2784.16; chi 2/df = 34.80; GFI = .70; IFI = .49; CFI = .49) and was inadmissible due to the presence of negative variances. After revision of the model, fit improved somewhat (chi2(53) = 1623.97; chi 2/df = 30.64; GFI = .77; IFI = .65; CFI = .65), although a negative variance migrated and persisted. The total effects were greatest for the teacher's attitudes (largely indirect, mediated through instructional practices), followed by school's context, and instructional practices. Teacher's education had the lowest total effects due to almost equal but opposite direct effects (positive) and indirect effects (mediated through instructional practices and teacher's attitudes). The investigator concluded that alterable factors such as teachers' attitudes, instructional practices, and classroom context can influence students' gains in scientific literacy within a standards-based integrated text/technology/laboratory program.

  4. Improving performance of Zambia Defence Force antiretroviral therapy providers: evaluation of a standards-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Mi; Banda, Joseph; Kanjipite, Webby; Sarkar, Supriya; Bazant, Eva; Hiner, Cyndi; Tholandi, Maya; Reinhardt, Stephanie; Njobvu, Panganani Dalisani; Kols, Adrienne; Benavides, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Zambia Defence Force (ZDF) has applied the Standards-Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R®) approach, which uses detailed performance standards, at some health facilities to improve HIV-related services offered to military personnel and surrounding civilian communities. This study examines the effectiveness of the SBM-R approach in improving facility readiness and provider performance at ZDF facilities. Methods: We collected data on facility readiness and provider performance before and after the 2010–2012 intervention at 4 intervention sites selected for their relatively poor performance and 4 comparison sites. Assessors observed whether each facility met 16 readiness standards and whether providers met 9 performance standards during consultations with 354 returning antiretroviral therapy (ART) clients. We then calculated the percentages of criteria achieved for each readiness and performance standard and conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses of provider performance data. Results: Facilities' ART readiness scores exceeded 80% before the intervention at both intervention and comparison sites. At endline, scores improved on 4 facility readiness standards in the intervention group but on only 1 standard in the comparison group. Multivariate analysis found that the overall provider performance score increased significantly in the intervention group (from 58% to 84%; P<.01) but not in the comparison group (from 62% to 70%). The before-and-after improvement in scores was significantly greater among intervention sites than among comparison sites for 2 standards—initial assessment of the client's condition and nutrition counseling. Conclusion: The standards-based approach, which involved intensive and mutually reinforcing intervention activities, showed modest improvements in some aspects of providers' performance during ART consultations. Further research is needed to determine whether improvements in provider performance affect client outcomes such as adherence to ART. PMID:25276534

  5. Redesigning Grading--Districtwide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsley, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In the first years of his career as a high school math teacher, Matt Townsley was bothered by the fact that his grades penalized students for not learning content quickly. A student could master every standard, but low quiz grades and homework assignments they didn't complete because they didn't understand would lower their final grade,…

  6. Grading and Student Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, David S.

    In the Spring of 1968, a joint study group called an Ad Hoc Committee on Grades and Evaluation was created to examine current methods of student evaluation. Several members of the group believed that letter grading on the undergraduate and graduate levels was counterproductive, because grades do not accurately reflect either student performance or…

  7. My Math Grade (percents)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Students work to calculate their own grades in the class. Students will want to keep all of their returned work so that they have access to the grades they received on tests, homework, etc (a study skill they should likely develop anyway), or if grades are on blackboard they can quickly retrieve their scores.

  8. Accounting Grade Inflation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Cluskey Jr; Nathan Griffin; Craig Ehlen

    1997-01-01

    Grade inflation has the potential to undermine the credibility of accounting education. The purpose of this study was to determine if the grade point average (GPA) in accounting courses has increased over time without a corresponding increase in student aptitude, signaling accounting grade inflation. A regression analysis compared average American College Testing (ACT) scores of seniors to the overall GPA

  9. Functionally Graded Materials Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisara, Katsuto; Konno, Tomomi; Niino, Masayuki

    2008-02-01

    Functionally Graded Materials Database (hereinafter referred to as FGMs Database) was open to the society via Internet in October 2002, and since then it has been managed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). As of October 2006, the database includes 1,703 research information entries with 2,429 researchers data, 509 institution data and so on. Reading materials such as "Applicability of FGMs Technology to Space Plane" and "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" were prepared in FY 2004 and 2005, respectively. The English version of "FGMs Application to Space Solar Power System (SSPS)" is now under preparation. This present paper explains the FGMs Database, describing the research information data, the sitemap and how to use it. From the access analysis, user access results and users' interests are discussed.

  10. Myoepithelial sialadenitis versus low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the salivary gland in FNAB: is discrimination by means of an image processing system possible?

    PubMed

    Ruschenburg, I; Kneitz, S; Brinck, U; Korabiowska, M; Harms, H; Droese, M

    1999-01-01

    The diagnosis of myoepithelial sialadenitis (MESA) in fine needle aspiration biopsy may be difficult. There is a dense lymphocytic infiltration in the gland and discrimination between a hyperimmune reaction and a low grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) of B-cell origin may be impossible. To get additional diagnostically helpful criteria, texture feature analysis on routinely obtained FNAB's of the salivary gland was applied. In the data set 36/36 cases of low grade B-NHL confirmed by histology and 10/13 histologically confirmed cases of MESA could be classified correctly by means of an image processing system. The chromatin structure of each nucleus was classified by texture features (n = 6), which were determined according to the method of Harms et al. For statistical analysis of the cell types a classification tree based on the commercial program CART was applied. The data set of 49 cases was proved by the crossvalidation test 10 fold. The calculated diagnosis for each case suggests that this method may be helpful in the cytologically doubtful cases. PMID:10757047

  11. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  12. Metric Activities, Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Bob, Comp.

    This pamphlet presents worksheets for use in fifteen activities or groups of activities designed for teaching the metric system to children in grades K through 6. The approach taken in several of the activities is one of conversion between metric and English units. The majority of the activities concern length, area, volume, and capacity. A…

  13. Correlation between Teacher Turnover Rates in the State of Alaska and Standardized Test Scores in the Area of Mathematics on the Standards Based Assessments/High School Qualifying Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehl, Roy F., II

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized bivariate correlations, partial correlations, multivariate analysis including Hotelling-T, and observed power to investigate the possible correlations and connections of teacher turnover in Alaska's public school system to performance on the standards-based assessment of the Alaska High School Qualifying Exam (HSQE). The study…

  14. Grading The Graduate Student: A Student Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iadarola, Toni

    Dissatisfaction with traditional grading practices has been increasing steadily during the past few years. Although alternative methods have been used by many institutions, there will be no commonly accepted system until some agreement has been reached on the goals of graduate level instruction and grading. There is no evidence to indicate that…

  15. Texas's Decision to Have Twelve Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watlington, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    A majority of American students have taken the journey through schools that progressed from first to twelfth grade. So by the 1913 Committee on the Economy of Time in Education, American education featured a twelve-grade system quickly evolving from the forces of consolidation and corporate efficiency. Such was not the reality in Texas schools.…

  16. The Sixth Grade: Caught in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lounsbury, John H.

    A comparative investigation of the place of the sixth grade in public education used a shadow study technique to address three questions: (1) What is a sixth grader's day in school like? (2) In what ways do programs provided for sixth graders differ, depending on where the grade is located in the school system? (3) How does what is known of the…

  17. Grade Inflation: An Elementary and Secondary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sraiheen, Abdulwahab; Lesisko, Lee James

    2006-01-01

    School administrators in a small suburban school district in Southeastern Pennsylvania were concerned about grade inflation at the elementary and secondary levels. Specifically, they wanted to know if students in grades 5, 8, and 11 who scored at the basic or below basic performance level on the 2003-2004 Pennsylvania System of School Assessment…

  18. Establishing an appropriate mode of comparison for measuring the performance of marbling score output from video image analysis beef carcass grading systems.

    PubMed

    Moore, C B; Bass, P D; Green, M D; Chapman, P L; O'Connor, M E; Yates, L D; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2010-07-01

    A beef carcass instrument grading system that improves accuracy and consistency of marbling score (MS) evaluation would have the potential to advance value-based marketing efforts and reduce disparity in quality grading among USDA graders, shifts, and plants. The objectives of this study were to use output data from the Video Image Analysis-Computer Vision System (VIA-CVS, Research Management Systems Inc., Fort Collins, CO) to develop an appropriate method by which performance of video image analysis MS output could be evaluated for accuracy, precision, and repeatability for purposes of seeking official USDA approval for using an instrument in commerce to augment assessment of quality grade, and to use the developed standards to gain approval for VIA-CVS to assist USDA personnel in assigning official beef carcass MS. An initial MS output algorithm was developed (phase I) for the VIA-CVS before 2 separate preliminary instrument evaluation trials (phases II and III) were conducted. During phases II and III, a 3-member panel of USDA expert graders independently assigned MS to 1,068 and 1,242 stationary carcasses, respectively. Mean expert MS was calculated for each carcass. Additionally, a separate 3-member USDA expert panel developed a consensus MS for each carcass in phase III. In phase II, VIA-CVS stationary triple-placement and triple-trigger instrument repeatability values (n = 262 and 260, respectively), measured as the percentage of total variance explained by carcasses, were 99.9 and 99.8%, respectively. In phases II and III, 95% of carcasses were assigned expert MS for which differences between individual expert MS, and for which the consensus MS in phase III only, was < or = 96 MS units. Two differing approaches to simple regression analysis, as well as a separate method-comparability analysis that accommodates error in both dependent and independent variables, were used to assess accuracy and precision of instrument MS predictions vs. mean expert MS. Method-comparability analysis was more appropriate in assessing the bias and precision of instrument MS predictions. Ether-extractable fat percentages (n = 257; phase II) differed among MS (P < 0.05) but were not suitable to predict or validate assigned MS. The performance and reproducibility of expert MS assignment in future evaluations was considered, and an official USDA performance standard was established, to which an instrument must conform to be approved for official on-line MS assessment. The VIA-CVS subsequently was approved to assign MS to carcasses on-line after completion of a 2006 USDA instrument approval trial conducted according to methods developed during completion of this study. PMID:20348376

  19. A Grading System To Evaluate Objectively the Strength of Pre-Clinical Data of Acute Neuroprotective Therapies for Clinical Translation in Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Elena B.; Tsai, Eve; Beattie, Michael S.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Magnuson, David K.; Reier, Paul J.; McTigue, Dana M.; Popovich, Phillip G.; Blight, Andrew R.; Oudega, Martin; Guest, James D.; Weaver, Lynne C.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The past three decades have seen an explosion of research interest in spinal cord injury (SCI) and the development of hundreds of potential therapies that have demonstrated some promise in pre-clinical experimental animal models. A growing number of these treatments are seeking to be translated into human clinical trials. Conducting such a clinical trial, however, is extremely costly, not only for the time and money required to execute it, but also for the limited resources that will then no longer be available to evaluate other promising therapies. The decision about what therapies have sufficient pre-clinical evidence of efficacy to justify testing in humans is therefore of utmost importance. Here, we have developed a scoring system for objectively grading the body of pre-clinical literature on neuroprotective treatments for acute SCI. The components of the system include an evaluation of a number of factors that are thought to be important in considering the “robustness” of a therapy's efficacy, including the animal species and injury models that have been used to test it, the time window of efficacy, the types of functional improvements effected by it, and whether efficacy has been independently replicated. The selection of these factors was based on the results of a questionnaire that was performed within the SCI research community. A modified Delphi consensus-building exercise was then conducted with experts in pre-clinical SCI research to refine the criteria and decide upon how to score them. Finally, the grading system was applied to a series of potential neuroprotective treatments for acute SCI. This represents a systematic approach to developing an objective method of evaluating the extent to which the pre-clinical literature supports the translation of a particular experimental treatment into human trials. PMID:20507235

  20. Lifestyle and nutritional imbalances associated with Western diseases: causes and consequences of chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in an evolutionary context.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Núñez, Begoña; Pruimboom, Leo; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2013-07-01

    In this review, we focus on lifestyle changes, especially dietary habits, that are at the basis of chronic systemic low grade inflammation, insulin resistance and Western diseases. Our sensitivity to develop insulin resistance traces back to our rapid brain growth in the past 2.5 million years. An inflammatory reaction jeopardizes the high glucose needs of our brain, causing various adaptations, including insulin resistance, functional reallocation of energy-rich nutrients and changing serum lipoprotein composition. The latter aims at redistribution of lipids, modulation of the immune reaction, and active inhibition of reverse cholesterol transport for damage repair. With the advent of the agricultural and industrial revolutions, we have introduced numerous false inflammatory triggers in our lifestyle, driving us to a state of chronic systemic low grade inflammation that eventually leads to typically Western diseases via an evolutionary conserved interaction between our immune system and metabolism. The underlying triggers are an abnormal dietary composition and microbial flora, insufficient physical activity and sleep, chronic stress and environmental pollution. The disturbance of our inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance is illustrated by dietary fatty acids and antioxidants. The current decrease in years without chronic disease is rather due to "nurture" than "nature," since less than 5% of the typically Western diseases are primary attributable to genetic factors. Resolution of the conflict between environment and our ancient genome might be the only effective manner for "healthy aging," and to achieve this we might have to return to the lifestyle of the Paleolithic era as translated to the 21st century culture. PMID:23657158

  1. Student and Faculty Perceptions of Plus/Minus Grading and Its Effect on Course Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Graham, Donna L.; Dixon, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2005, the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences at the University of Arkansas authorized the optional use of a plus/minus grading system. Since 2005, approximately one-half of courses have been graded using plus/minus and one-half using the straight letter grade system. This study examined student (n = 338) and…

  2. Power Conversion and Transmission Systems: A 9th and/or 10th Grade Industrial Education Curriculum Designed To Fulfill the Kansas State Department of Vocational Education's Level 2 Course Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Harvey R., Ed.

    The document is a guide to a 9th and 10th grade industrial education course investigating the total system of power--how man controls, converts, transmits, and uses energy; the rationale is that if one is to learn of the total system of industry, the subsystem of power must be investigated. The guide provides a "body of knowledge" chart…

  3. Grade inflation : fact or myth?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amelia L. Bello; Roger M. Valientes

    2008-01-01

    Real grade inflation is the upward shift in grades without a similar rise in achievement (Kohn [2002]; Rosovsky and Hartley [2002]). It implies a decline in standards and obscures the role of grades as a signal of academic ability. Guskey [2003] believes that resolving the debate on grade inflation depends on clarifying the purpose\\/meaning of grades. Grades may be used

  4. A study of science leadership and science standards in exemplary standards-based science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Wendy Renae

    The purpose for conducting this qualitative study was to explore best practices of exemplary standards-based science programs and instructional leadership practices in a charter high school and in a traditional high school. The focus of this study included how twelve participants aligned practices to National Science Education Standards to describe their science programs and science instructional practices. This study used a multi-site case study qualitative design. Data were obtained through a review of literature, interviews, observations, review of educational documents, and researcher's notes collected in a field log. The methodology used was a multi-site case study because of the potential, through cross analysis, for providing greater explanation of the findings in the study (Merriam, 1988). This study discovered six characteristics about the two high school's science programs that enhance the literature found in the National Science Education Standards; (a) Culture of expectations for learning-In exemplary science programs teachers are familiar with a wide range of curricula. They have the ability to examine critically and select activities to use with their students to promote the understanding of science; (b) Culture of varied experiences-In exemplary science programs students are provided different paths to learning, which help students, take in information and make sense of concepts and skills that are set forth by the standards; (c) Culture of continuous feedback-In exemplary science programs teachers and students work together to engage students in ongoing assessments of their work and that of others as prescribed in the standards; (d) Culture of Observations-In exemplary science programs students, teachers, and principals reflect on classroom instructional practices; teachers receive ongoing evaluations about their teaching and apply feedback towards improving practices as outlined in the standards; (e) Culture of continuous learning-In exemplary science programs teachers value continuous personal development, teachers are provided on-going science professional development opportunities to improve instructional practices, teachers reflect and share professional practices, and teachers establish professional learning communities within their classrooms; and (f) Culture of shared leadership-In exemplary science programs instructional leadership purposes and values are consistently shared among all stakeholders which are outlined in the standards. These results are potentially useful for understanding exemplary standards-based science programs and science instructional leadership practices as a model for science programs trying to improve science education so that all students can have a true scientific learning experience.

  5. Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system

    DOEpatents

    Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5 .mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photolvoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of growing layer.

  6. Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ca.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system

    DOEpatents

    Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5.mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photovoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of the growing layer.

  7. The Application of Ti/Al2O3 Composite in W-Mo-Al System Wave Impedance Graded Flier-plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Feng, S.; Shi, G. P.; Shen, Q.; Zhang, L. M.

    2013-03-01

    Ti/Al2O3 composite of different components were prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering technique, mechanical and acoustical properties of Ti/Al2O3 composite were analyzed, weldability of Ti/Al2O3 composite with Mo and Al was also studied. The results indicate that 38.5vol%Ti/Al2O3 composite has good mechanical performance with relative density >99.20%, bending strength 897MPa, fracture toughness 17.38 MPa·m1/2 and micro-hardness 17.13GPa. The wave impedance of the composite was between which of Mo and Al, and the 38.5vol% Ti/Al2O3 welded well with Mo and Ti. These demonstrate that 38.5vol%Ti/Al2O3 composite could serve as one of interlayer materials in W-Mo-Al system graded flier-plate.

  8. An Analysis of the Education Systems in Mexico and the United States from Pre-Kinder to 12 Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Luis A.; Hellawell, Marisa; Zamora, Ezequiel Benedicto

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the public school system in Mexico from early childhood to high school, and compares it with the American education system. It also identifies educational terminology and concepts unique to the Mexican system that can become possible sources of conflict and confusion for American educators. (Contains 7…

  9. Perceptions and attitudes of clinicians in Spain toward clinical practice guidelines and grading systems: a protocol for a qualitative study and a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have become a very popular tool for decision making in healthcare. While there is some evidence that CPGs improve outcomes, there are numerous factors that influence their acceptability and use by healthcare providers. While evidence of clinicians' knowledge, perceptions and attitudes toward CPGs is extensive, results are still disperse and not conclusive. Our study will evaluate these issues in a large and representative sample of clinicians in Spain. Methods/Design A mixed-method design combining qualitative and quantitative research techniques will evaluate general practitioners (GPs) and hospital-based specialists in Spain with the objective of exploring attitudes and perceptions about CPGs and evidence grading systems. The project will consist of two phases: during the first phase, group discussions will be carried out to gain insight into perceptions and attitudes of the participants, and during the second phase, this information will be completed by means of a survey, reaching a greater number of clinicians. We will explore these issues in GPs and hospital-based practitioners, with or without previous experience in guideline development. Discussion Our study will identify and gain insight into the perceived problems and barriers of Spanish practitioners in relation to guideline knowledge and use. The study will also explore beliefs and attitudes of clinicians towards CPGs and evidence grading systems used to rate the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations. Our results will provide guidance to healthcare researchers and healthcare decision makers to improve the use of guidelines in Spain and elsewhere. PMID:21129195

  10. Evidence for Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation in Individuals with Agoraphobia from a Population-Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, En-Young N.; Wagner, Jan T.; Glaus, Jennifer; Vandeleur, Caroline L.; Castelao, Enrique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F.; Vollenweider, Peter; Preisig, Martin; von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders have been linked to an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease in which inflammation plays a key pathogenic role. To date, no studies have looked at the association between proinflammatory markers and agoraphobia. Methods In a random Swiss population sample of 2890 persons (35-67 years, 53% women), we diagnosed a total of 124 individuals (4.3%) with agoraphobia using a validated semi-structured psychiatric interview. We also assessed socioeconomic status, traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., body mass index, hypertension, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio), and health behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity), and other major psychiatric diseases (other anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, drug dependence) which were treated as covariates in linear regression models. Circulating levels of inflammatory markers, statistically controlled for the baseline demographic and health-related measures, were determined at a mean follow-up of 5.5 ± 0.4 years (range 4.7 – 8.5). Results Individuals with agoraphobia had significantly higher follow-up levels of C-reactive protein (p = 0.007) and tumor-necrosis-factor-? (p = 0.042) as well as lower levels of the cardioprotective marker adiponectin (p = 0.032) than their non-agoraphobic counterparts. Follow-up levels of interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusions Our results suggest an increase in chronic low-grade inflammation in agoraphobia over time. Such a mechanism might link agoraphobia with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, and needs to be tested in longitudinal studies. PMID:25875094

  11. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

  12. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

  13. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

  14. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

  15. Grade Roster Print Page The Grade Roster Print page is used to print generated grade rosters.

    E-print Network

    The sequence number of the grade roster rows within the Grade Roster Print component. w Academic Organization The academic organization associated with the grade roster(s) to be printed. e Session The session for whichGrade Roster Print Page Background · The Grade Roster Print page is used to print generated grade

  16. Achieving Standards in Urban Systemic Reform: An Example of a Sixth Grade Project-Based Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivet, Ann E.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    A challenge for urban systemic reform initiatives in science education has been to achieve local, state, and national standards for teaching and learning. We have collaborated with teachers in the Detroit Public School System to design project-based curriculum materials that contextualize the learning of science in meaningful real-world problems,…

  17. Hybrid pressure retarded osmosis-membrane distillation system for power generation from low-grade heat: thermodynamic analysis and energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shihong; Yip, Ngai Yin; Cath, Tzahi Y; Osuji, Chinedum O; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 °C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance optimization. PMID:24724732

  18. Packing Up for the Moon: Human Exploration Project Engineering Design Challenge. Design, Build and Evaluate. A Standards-Based Middle School Unit Guide. Engineering By Design: Advancing Technological Literacy--A Standards-Based Program Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASA Educator Resource Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Human Exploration Project (HEP) units have several common characteristics. All units: (1) Are based upon the Technological Literacy standards (ITEA, 2000/2002); (2) Coordinate with Science (AAAS, 1993) and Mathematics standards (NCTM, 2000); (3) Utilize a standards-based development approach (ITEA, 2005); (4) Stand alone and coordinate with…

  19. Grassmann-graded Lagrangian theory of even and odd variables

    E-print Network

    G. Sardanashvily

    2012-06-12

    Graded Lagrangian formalism in terms of a Grassmann-graded variational bicomplex on graded manifolds is developed in a very general setting. This formalism provides the comprehensive description of reducible degenerate Lagrangian systems, characterized by hierarchies of non-trivial higher-order Noether identities and gauge symmetries. This is a general case of classical field theory and Lagrangian non-relativistic mechanics.

  20. The Arguments and Data in Favor of Minimum Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; Carey, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The arguments and for and against minimum grading systems have grown increasingly more intense and acrimonious in the past decade. However, there has been an absence of empirical data, theory and clear comparative analyses of conflicting points of view. Critics of minimum grading contend that the practice will produce grade inflation and social…

  1. Accountability and Grade Inflation in a Rural School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Deborah Hayes; Holman, David M.

    In an effort to hold schools accountable, Arkansas added grade inflation into the accountability system. The Arkansas Legislature mandated that the Arkansas Department of Education identify high schools with "statistically significant variance" between students' grade point averages (GPAs) and ACT performances. A grade inflation index developed…

  2. Grade Inflation: A Leadership Opportunity for Schools of Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1999-01-01

    Grade inflation pervades U.S. schools at all levels, and it is particularly pronounced in the humanities fields and in departments, schools, and colleges of education (DSCEs). This problem presents a leadership opportunity for DSCEs to develop and implement a credible and meaningful grade distribution system to combat pervasive grade inflation.…

  3. First grade math skills set foundation for later math ability

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-02-27

    This article describes several core number concepts and emphasizes the importance of developing number sense in early grades to set a foundation for future math abilities. A long-term study funded by the National Institute of Health found that failure to acquire basic number system knowledge in first grade significantly impaired a child's ability to develop functional numeracy by 7th grade.

  4. Evaluation of the food grade expression systems NICE and pSIP for the production of 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase (2,5-DKG reductase) catalyses the reduction of 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid (2,5-DKG) to 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KLG), a direct precursor (lactone) of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C). This reaction is an essential step in the biocatalytic production of the food supplement vitamin C from D-glucose or D-gluconic acid. As 2,5-DKG reductase is usually produced recombinantly, it is of interest to establish an efficient process for 2,5-DKG reductase production that also satisfies food safety requirements. In the present study, three recently described food grade variants of the Lactobacillales based expression systems pSIP (Lactobacillus plantarum) and NICE (Lactococcus lactis) were evaluated with regard to their effictiveness to produce 2,5-DKG reductase from Corynebacterium glutamicum. Our results indicate that both systems are suitable for 2,5-DKG reductase expression. Maximum production yields were obtained with Lb. plantarum/pSIP609 by pH control at 6.5. With 262 U per litre of broth, this represents the highest heterologous expression level so far reported for 2,5-DKG reductase from C. glutamicum. Accordingly, Lb. plantarum/pSIP609 might be an interesting alternative to Escherichia coli expression systems for industrial 2,5-DKG reductase production. PMID:23356419

  5. oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades Exporting/Importing Grades in oZONE The new - Log in to ozone.ou.edu using your OU Net ID (4+4) as you would in any other OU system. Click Importing Grades from a Exported oZONE template If you exported a course template from the oZONE grading

  6. Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple…

  7. The Math We Need to Know and Do in Grades 6-9: Concepts, Skills, Standards, and Assessments. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Pearl Gold

    2007-01-01

    In a new edition of her standards-based math workbook, author Pearl Gold Solomon covers essential concepts and skills as defined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics for learners in middle schools. Designed as a comprehensive resource for planning curriculum, instruction, and assessment, The Math We Need to Know and Do in Grades 6-9,…

  8. Teacher Implementation of Reform-Based Mathematics and Implications for Algebra Readiness: A Qualitative Study of 4th Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Stephen Korb

    2011-01-01

    This study looked at 4th grade classrooms to see "how" teachers implement NCTM standards-based or reform-based mathematics instruction and then analyzed it for the capacity to improve students' "algebra readiness." The qualitative study was based on classroom observations, teacher and administrator interviews, and teacher surveys. The study took…

  9. Building and Supporting a Validity Argument for a Standards-Based Classroom Assessment of English Proficiency Based on Teacher Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llosa, Lorena

    2008-01-01

    Using an argument-based approach to validation, this study examines the quality of teacher judgments in the context of a standards-based classroom assessment of English proficiency. Using Bachman's (2005) assessment use argument (AUA) as a framework for the investigation, this paper first articulates the claims, warrants, rebuttals, and backing…

  10. Indiana high school science teachers' beliefs about the intended and actual impacts of standards-based reforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph W. Shane

    2005-01-01

    Teachers' beliefs about educational policy are essential components of successful, local implementation. Policies not accounting for teachers' beliefs about learning, instruction, and effective reform risk being ignored or ineffectually implemented. In this research, I characterize the beliefs that science teachers from three high schools in Indiana have about general aspects of standards-based reforms and about the Indiana Academic Standards for

  11. The Role of End-of-Course Exams and Minimum Competency Exams in Standards-Based Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael; Moriarty, Joan Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors looked at the effects of one old-style educational reform--higher course graduation requirements--and five standard-based reforms--(1) school report cards; (2) rewards for school improvement; (3) sanctions for failing schools; (4) minimum competency examinations; and (5) hybrid minimum competency exam…

  12. Standards-Based Accountability under No Child Left Behind: Experiences of Teachers and Administrators in Three States. MG-589-NSF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Marsh, Julie A.; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Robyn, Abby; Russell, Jennifer; Naftel, Scott; Barney, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001-2002, standards-based accountability (SBA) provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) have shaped the work of public school teachers and administrators in the United States. NCLB requires each state to develop content and achievement standards in several subjects, administer tests to measure students' progress toward…

  13. Teacher Self-Efficacy in Understanding Standards-Based Curriculum: Finding the Gap between Curriculum and Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    In standards-based education the importance of interpreting standards and effectively embedding them into instructional design is critical in connecting curriculum and instruction. Finding the link between standards and instruction while striving to engage students has proven difficult. Too often instructional design does not meet the cognitive…

  14. Cultivating Common Ground: Integrating Standards-Based Visual Arts, Math and Literacy in High-Poverty Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunnington, Marisol; Kantrowitz, Andrea; Harnett, Susanne; Hill-Ries, Aline

    2014-01-01

    The "Framing Student Success: Connecting Rigorous Visual Arts, Math and Literacy Learning" experimental demonstration project was designed to develop and test an instructional program integrating high-quality, standards-based instruction in the visual arts, math, and literacy. Developed and implemented by arts-in-education organization…

  15. Material Analysis and Processing Systems: A 9th and/or 10th Grade Industrial Education Curriculum Designed To Fulfill the Kansas State Department of Vocational Education's Level 2 Course Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Harvey R., Ed.

    The teacher developed curriculum guide provides the industrial education teacher with the objectives, equipment lists, material, supplies, references, and activities necessary to teach students of the 9th and/or 10th grade the concepts of interrelationships between material analysis and processing systems. Career information and sociological…

  16. Writing Development in Third and Fourth Grade Native American Students (Social Context, Linguistic Systems, and Creation of Meaning). A Research Report. Program in Language and Literacy Occasional Paper No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Yetta M.; Wilde, Sandra

    Focusing on children's production of written language, a two-year study, conducted on the Oodham (Papago) Indian Reservation in Arizona, explored social context, linguistic systems, and the creation of meaning as aspects of the writing process. Ten American Indian children in third and fourth grade provided over 200 stories that formed the basic…

  17. Impact of Toxicity Grade and Scoring System on the Relationship Between Mean Lung Dose and Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in a Large Cohort of Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.or [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jin Hekun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hunan Tumor Hospital and Institution, Hunan (China); Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Xiangya Medical School, Changsha (China); Wei Xiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To compute the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with RP scored using three grading systems and analyzed at four threshold levels of toxicity in a large cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: On the basis of medical records and radiographic images, RP was scored retrospectively in 442 patients with NSCLC who had {>=}6 months of follow-up after the end of RT. The severity of RP was scored for each patient using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0 (CTC2.0); the NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0 (CTCAE3.0); and the grading system of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). For each grading system and for each of four levels of toxicity (Grade {>=}1, {>=}2, {>=}3, {>=}4), the Lyman, logistic, and log-logistic normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were fitted to the data as functions of MLD. The parameter estimates from the model fits are listed in table form, and the RP risk estimates are presented graphically for the Lyman and log-logistic NTCP models. Results: The results presented here illustrate the impact of scoring system and level of toxicity on the relationship between MLD and RP risk. Conclusions: These results facilitate quantitative comparisons between our data and studies of RP risk reported by others, and several examples of such comparisons are provided.

  18. Science. Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    GRADES OR AGES: Kindergarten--grade 6. SUBJECT MATTER: Science. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory section deals with objectives, scope, sequences, and units. The main body of the guide deals with activities and lists materials, with illustrations. The guide is offset printed and bound with a soft cover. OBJECTIVES AND…

  19. Economics of Grade Reduction

    E-print Network

    Neff, Paul J.

    1914-02-10

    of this increase has little value in a report dealing with grade reduction. It is considered better, from a practical standpoint, to analyze the actual en- gine performance on the division in question and then to assume that after the grade reduction,lite per...

  20. Making Grading Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lotto, Edward; Smith, Bruce

    Two teachers have developed a procedure for grading student compositions that seems fairer to both them and their students. The students are given a choice of which papers they wish to submit for grading, and when they do submit work, the papers are identified by a number only (chosen by the student and indexed in a class card file). Each teacher…

  1. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  2. CRA Grade Inflation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth H. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (CRA) ratings and performance evaluations are the only bank and thrift exam findings disclosed by financial institution regulators. Inflation of CRA ratings has been alleged by community activists for two decades, but there has been no quantification or empirical investigation of grade inflation. Using a unique grade inflation methodology on actual ratings and evaluation data

  3. Beef grading by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  4. Project ASTRO NOVA brings Standard Based Astronomy to New Jersey Schools.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veen, W.; Vinski, J.; Gallagher, A. C.

    2000-12-01

    Begun in 1998, Project ASTRO NOVA is hosted by the Planetarium at Raritan Valley Community College in Somerville, New Jersey. It is part of a National Network of eleven Project ASTRO sites created by the Astronomical Society of the Pacific with financial support of the National Science Foundation (see other papers at this meeting). Our goal is to bring hands-on inquiry based astronomy into classrooms and help teachers meet the New Jersey Science Standards. New Jersey mandates the teaching of astronomy in grades K-12 and statewide assessment takes place in grades 4 and 8. Capitalizing on New Jersey's record number of amateur astronomers per capita our site has trained 75 astronomers (including 21 professional astronomers) over the last three years. Before the start of each school year a new group of astronomers is trained together with their partner teacher(s) in the use of hands-on and age-appropriate astronomy activities that support the New Jersey Science Standards. Astronomers adopt a classroom and visit the same students at least four times during the year. Currently 53 astronomers are participating during the 2000-2001 school year. The program in New Jersey targets teachers in grades 3-9. A total of 114 teachers have been training at our annual workshops and 75 of them are participating during the 2000-2001 school year. Satisfaction with the program has been high with students, teachers and astronomers. When students meet scientists as role models and experience that doing science can be a lot of fun they become more interested. At the same time teachers are re-energized and gain a better understanding of how to teach science and astronomy. Finally, astronomers have the satisfaction of making a real difference in the lives of thousands of children, gain a better understanding of the issues in K-12 education and learn new teaching strategies for use in their college classes or astronomy clubs. In general we find that students and teachers are becoming better astronomers and scientists and that astronomers are becoming better teachers. Project ASTRO NOVA acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation, the 3M Corporation, the New York Mercantile Exchange Charitable Foundation and the New Jersey Space Grant Consortium.

  5. What Successful Math Teachers Do, Grades PreK-5: 47 Research-Based Strategies for the Standards-Based Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Edward S.; Posamentier, Alfred S.

    2006-01-01

    This easy-to-navigate guide offers research-based teaching strategies for introducing prekindergarten and elementary school students to the content and skills recommended by the NCTM principles and standards for mathematics. Using the popular format of the "What Successful Teachers Do" books, the authors present 47 dynamic learning activities,…

  6. The Impact of Sustained, Standards-Based Professional Learning on Second and Third Grade Teachers’ Content and Pedagogical Knowledge in Integrated Mathematics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lora B. Bailey

    2010-01-01

    This 3 year longitudinal study reports the feasibility of an Improving Teacher Quality: No Child Left Behind project for impacting teachers’ content and pedagogical knowledge in mathematics in nine Title I elementary schools in the\\u000a southeastern United States. Data were collected for 3 years to determine the impact of standards and research-based teacher\\u000a training on these aspects of teacher quality. Content knowledge

  7. Graded Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, M.; Bryant, P.

    1988-06-01

    There has been a lot of activity directed at describing super Riemann surfaces and the super Teichmuller spaces that classify them. Most descriptions use a subcategory of G ?-supermanifolds in which the coordinate charts have a particularly simple form (“de Witt” supermanifolds). This paper considers the more restrictive case of Riemann surfaces in the category of graded manifolds. The gain in doing this is the evident role of the double cover Sl(2, C) of the Lorentz group in the classification of graded Riemann surfaces. The results are as follows. 1. The group Sl(2, C) plays the role of the Mobius group as the automorphism group of the algebra of “graded rational functions.” 2. All graded Riemann surfaces occur as quotients of “simply connected” graded Riemann surfaces by discrete subgroups of Sl(2, C).

  8. In this paper, we propose a newly developed sus-pension system called "Pentad Grade Assist Suspen-

    E-print Network

    Kuroda, Yoji

    Assist Suspen- sion (PEGASUS)". PEGASUS has high mobility as well as rocker-bogie suspension, with very- sity, adopts PEGASUS as its mobility system. The Micro5 is under testing on the variety types of land to "Smaller, Faster, Better" from large scale projects like Apollo missions. In order to carry out the mis

  9. Automatic Water Supply Control System of Graded Constant Pressure by Variable Frequency Speed and Its Application to Pipeline Irrigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    He Wu-quan; Cai Ming-ke; Wang Yu-bao; Wang Xiao-jian

    2010-01-01

    In pipeline irrigation system using pressurizing electromechanical pumps, the pumps usually work in constant speed under fundamental frequency power supply (50Hz) and the operation characteristics of pumps could not adapt to the practical changes of pipe network. When the irrigation area is huge or the gradient of field is high, the requirement of irrigation uniformity in the whole field can

  10. Learning about Body Systems. Superific Science Book IX. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    This document offers an explanation and drawings of each of the major systems of the human body and of the five senses. It provides teachers with classroom activities, demonstrations, and experiments which are intended to involve students in the acquisition of knowledge concerning the structure and function of their bodies. The drawings of the…

  11. Messages from Space: The Solar System and Beyond. Grades 508. Teacher's Guide. Great Explorations in Science (GEMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Kevin; Erickson, John; Sneider, Cary

    Building on collaborative work between the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute and the Lawrence Hall of Science, this curriculum takes advantage of humans' fascination with extraterrestrials to catalyze the study of the solar system and beyond. The unit begins when students attempt to decode a fictitious message from outer…

  12. Development of a Media Driven Online Assessment System: Improving Quality, Frequency, and Deployment of Grades and Feedback in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaurez, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Information communication technologies (ICT) in education is an expanding field, and within this field there is a need for development of effective systems for faculty and learners to communicate feedback and assess performance. The increasing migration of many academic disciplines and courses to an online format has prompted an increased need for…

  13. Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.

    PubMed

    Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

    2013-01-01

    To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains. PMID:23121262

  14. Creation of a functional graded nanobiomembrane using a new electrospinning system for drug release control and an in vitro validation of drug release behavior of the coating membrane.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Hee; Chung, Min-Young; Unnithan, Afeesh Rajan; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2015-05-01

    Functional graded nanobiomembranes (FGMs) with multiple layers were created by a single process using a novel electrospinning system equipped with a generator and a PCI type motion board as a controller in order to control the drug release rate. By varying physical apparatus-related parameters such as nozzle-to-collector distance via a robot and the collector moving velocity the FGMs were formed. For the membrane base layer, poly-(?-caprolactone) (PCL) with paclitaxel (PTX) was dissolved in a solvent (dichloromethane, N,N-dimethylformamide) and electrospun. For the top layers, the PCL solution was electrospun according to the distance and FGM system parameters, which can move the collector location at a constant ratio. It was observed that pore size, porosity, and permeability were higher when the membrane was spun at the far distance. The top surface of FGM is more porous, rougher, more permeable, and more hydrophilic so as to be active to the surrounding tissue cells. Meanwhile, the porous inside membrane was as low as the membrane spun at a close distance. Thus it induced a slow drug release due to the internal structure of FGM, which is considered to be very effective for slow drug release as well as bioactivity and bioconductivity. PMID:25746254

  15. An assessment of standards-based reform in Florida's middle school science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart Hammer, Kathryn Elizabeth

    The era of school accountability and standards based reform (SBR) has brought many challenges and changes to Florida's public schools. It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' attitudes and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement SBR. The study was designed to assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions of changes related to SBR and the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in middle school science programs in Florida. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated the Sunshine State Standards (SSS) for science and began focusing on preparing students for the science FCAT. The survey was distributed to 265 randomly selected middle school science teachers throughout the State of Florida. Seventy-six and ninety-two percent of teachers reported increased levels of stress as a result of SBR and the science FCAT, respectively. Eighty-six percent of teachers reported loss of autonomy and control over what goes on in their classrooms, and fifty-four percent of teachers reported loss of freedom and creativity regarding curriculum and lessons. Eighty-three percent of teachers believe that increased time spent on test preparation has come at the expense of other important curricular items. By contrast, only nineteen percent of teachers believe that the science FCAT has brought about improvement in curriculum, instruction and student learning in science. Yet, twenty-five percent of teachers believe that reform efforts will improve their school. An important finding is that teachers' attitudes toward reform efforts are strongly influenced by their attitudes toward the administration at their school. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the science FCAT measured in this study. Although the majority of teachers reported negative attitudes toward the reform process, a small minority that report working under supportive administrators believe that reform efforts are working well or will soon show positive effects. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

  16. Physical properties of normal grade biodiesel and winter grade biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Moksin, Mohd Maarof; Nang, Harrison Lau Lik; Norozi, Monir; Yunus, W Mahmood Mat; Zakaria, Azmi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C(16:0) content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel. PMID:21731429

  17. Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Moksin, Mohd Maarof; Nang, Harrison Lau Lik; Norozi, Monir; Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat; Zakaria, Azmi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C16:0 content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel. PMID:21731429

  18. [Lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant system in patients with bronchial asthma and asthmatic bronchitis subjected to graded physical load].

    PubMed

    Amatuni, V G; Safarian, M D

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of lipid peroxidation and the antioxidant system in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) and chronic asthmatic bronchitis (CAB) before and after muscular exercise. Physical exercise in BA patients was accompanied by an increase in the amount of hydroperoxides and a raised activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a drop of peroxidase and catalase activity. Peroxidase and SOD activity did not increase in CAB patients in whom muscular exercise caused no bronchospastic syndrome in the presence of an increase in the amount of hydroperoxides. PMID:3715752

  19. Functionally graded boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

    1998-12-31

    Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

  20. Manufacture of Clinical-Grade CD19-Specific T Cells Stably Expressing Chimeric Antigen Receptor Using Sleeping Beauty System and Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harjeet; Figliola, Matthew J.; Dawson, Margaret J.; Olivares, Simon; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Ge; Maiti, Sourindra; Manuri, Pallavi; Senyukov, Vladimir; Jena, Bipulendu; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard E.; Huls, Helen; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is being evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Our current approach to adoptive immunotherapy is based on a second generation CAR (designated CD19RCD28) that signals through a CD28 and CD3-? endodomain. T cells are electroporated with DNA plasmids from the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system to express this CAR. Stable integrants of genetically modified T cells can then be retrieved when co-cultured with designer artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2 and 21. Here, we reveal how the platform technologies of SB-mediated transposition and CAR-dependent propagation on aAPC were adapted for human application. Indeed, we have initiated clinical trials in patients with high-risk B-lineage malignancies undergoing autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We describe the process to manufacture clinical grade CD19-specific T cells derived from healthy donors. Three validation runs were completed in compliance with current good manufacturing practice for Phase I/II trials demonstrating that by 28 days of co-culture on ?-irradiated aAPC ?1010 T cells were produced of which >95% expressed CAR. These genetically modified and propagated T cells met all quality control testing and release criteria in support of infusion. PMID:23741305

  1. MAGNETIC LIQUID DEFORMABLE MIRRORS FOR ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS: ACTIVE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL ABERRATIONS FROM LOWER-GRADE OPTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E. F., E-mail: borra@phy.ulaval.ca [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2012-08-01

    Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

  2. Functionally graded fluoridated apatites.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, M; Miake, Y; Tohda, H; Yanagisawa, T; Matsumoto, T; Takahashi, J

    1999-08-01

    Fluoridated hydroxyapatite was synthesized at 80 +/- 1 degree C and pH 7.4 +/- 0.2 using a gradient fluoride supply system. X-ray diffraction analysis showed a typically apatitic pattern, although the (3 0 0) reflection was broader than that of homogeneous fluorapatite. Scanning electron micrographic observation indicated that the apatite was composed of rod-like crystals similarly to fluorapatite. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed electron damage in the core of the crystal. When the apatite pellet was prepared, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis showed a negative gradient of fluoride concentration with depth in the crystals. The apparent solubility in 0.5 mol/l acetate buffer solution (37 degrees C and pH 4.0) was 9.16 +/- 0.39 mmol/l, much less than that of homogeneous hydroxyapatite 32.3 +/- 1.9 mmol/l, and less than that of heterogeneous two-layer fluoridated apatite with an outer fluoride-rich layer 12.5 +/- 0.6 mmol/l, which was synthesized previously by supplying fluoride during the latter half of the experimental period. These results suggest that graded fluoridated apatite may be formed by this process and have higher acid resistance than two-layer fluoridated apatite. PMID:10454014

  3. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure both carcass yield and eating quality have the potential to underpin the development and implementation of transparent value-based payment systems which will encourage improved production efficiency throughout the supply chain. PMID:20541325

  4. Lesson Plans for the Busy Librarian: A Standards Based Approach for the Elementary Library Media Center, Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    The author designed this book, like Volume I of the set, to give elementary school librarians a quick, enjoyable way to coordinate with teachers to teach information literacy and literacy skills aligned with national standards. The chapters in the book include: (1) Kindergarten Lesson Plans; (2) First-Grade Lesson Plans; (3) Second-Grade Lesson…

  5. How Consistent Are Course Grades? An Examination of Differential Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenberg, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Differential grading occurs when students in courses with the same content and curriculum receive inconsistent grades across teachers, schools, or districts. It may be due to many factors, including differences in teacher grading standards, district grading policies, student behavior, teacher stereotypes, teacher quality, and curriculum adherence.…

  6. Measuring grade inflation: a clinical grade discrepancy score.

    PubMed

    Paskausky, Anna L; Simonelli, M Colleen

    2014-08-01

    Grade inflation presents pedagogical and safety concerns for nursing educators and is defined as a "greater percentage of excellent scores than student performances warrant" (Speer et al., 2000, p. 112). This descriptive correlational study evaluated the relationship of licensure exam-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades from undergraduate students (N = 281) for evidence of grade inflation at a private undergraduate nursing program in the Northeast of the United States and developed a new measurement of grade inflation, the clinical grade discrepancy score. This measurement can be used in programs where clinical competency is graded on a numeric scale. Evidence suggested grade inflation was present and the clinical grade discrepancy score was an indicator of the severity of grade inflation. The correlation between licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades was moderate to low at 0.357. The clinical grade discrepancy scores were 98% positive indicating likely grade inflation. Some 70% of clinical grade discrepancy scores indicated a difference of student licensure-style final written exams and faculty assigned clinical grades of at least one full letter grade (10 points out of 100). Use of this new measure as a tool in exploring the prevalence of grade inflation and implications for patient safety are discussed. PMID:24602828

  7. Grade Information and Grade Inflation: The Cornell Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talia Bar; Vrinda Kadiyali; Asaf Zussman

    2009-01-01

    Grade inflation and high grade levels have been subjects of concern and public debate in recent decades. In the mid-1990s, Cornell University's Faculty Senate had a number of discussions about grade inflation and what might be done about it. In April 1996, the Faculty Senate voted to adopt a new grade reporting policy which had two parts: 1) the publication

  8. Effects of Grading on Achievement in College Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Youxiang; Zakrajsek, Dorothy B.

    1994-01-01

    Study examined the effects of three grading systems on college physical education students' outcome measures in table tennis using skill tests, written tests, game play variables, class attendance, student behaviors, and attitudes toward the systems. Positive effects of the three grading systems were demonstrated on most process and outcome…

  9. Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM) and Teacher Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.; Schmidt, C.; Metzger, E. P.; Cordero, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA-funded project, Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM), is designed to improve the climate literacy of California's 450,000 6th-grade students through teacher professional development that presents climate change as an engaging context for teaching earth science standards. The project fosters experience-based interaction among learners and encourages expressive creativity and idea-exchange via the web and social media. The heart of the CLINM project is the development of an online educator-friendly experience that provides content expert-reviewed, teacher-tested, standards-based educational resources, classroom activities and lessons that make meaningful connections to NASA data and images as well as new media tools (videos, web, and phone applications) based on the Green Ninja, a climate-action superhero who fights global warming by inspiring personal action (www.greenninja.info). In this session, we will discuss this approach to professional development and share a collection of teacher-tested CLINM resources. CLINM resources are grounded in earth system science; classroom activities and lessons engage students in exploration of connections between natural systems and human systems with a particular focus on how climate change relates to everyone's need for food, water, and energy. CLINM uses a team-based approach to resource development, and partners faculty in San José State University's (SJSU) colleges of Science, Education, and Humanities and the Arts with 6th-grade teachers from local school districts, a scientist from NASA Ames Research Center and climate change education projects at Stanford University, the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, and the University of Idaho. Climate scientists and other content experts identify relevant concepts and work with science educators to develop and/or refine classroom activities to elucidate those concepts; activities are piloted in pre-service science methods courses at SJSU and in teacher professional development workshops offered through the Bay Area Earth Science Institute (BAESI); workshop attendees frame the activities as lessons appropriate for their 6th grade students; participants who use the lessons and resources in their classrooms provide iterative feedback, which is used to improve the resources for other teachers involved in the project.

  10. In-vitro investigation to evaluate the flexural bond strengths of three commercially available ultra low fusing ceramic systems to Grade II Titanium

    PubMed Central

    Mabrurkar, Vijay; Habbu, Nitin; Hashmi, Sayed Wahhiuddin; Musani, Smita; Joshi, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Background: This in-vitro investigation was designed to compare the flexural bond strengths of three commercially available ultra low fusing ceramic systems to Grade II Titanium and evaluate the type of bond failure through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersion X ray Spectrum (EDS). Materials & Methods: Sixty patterns of auto polymerizing resin of dimensions 25.1 mm X 3.1mm X 0.6mm each were fabricated from a stainless steel die. Titanium casting for all the samples was done in a Titanium casting machine. Ten samples were allotted to each of three groups randomly. Ceramic build up was done step by step using the manufacturers' instructions. Flexural Bond strength tests for the samples were performed by using a 3-point bending test on a Universal testing machine in compliance with Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) 13.927 draft. After the tests were completed, three samples, one from each group were selected randomly for the subsequent Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) studies to characterize the type and morphology of the fracture in representative specimens. Results: The maximum load to fracture the porcelain was recorded for each specimen. All the means of the three groups were compared by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and it was found that Group I & Group III had significantly higher bond strength values as compared with the Group II (P< 0.001). All the 10 samples of Group I & III gave bond strength values above the standard values of 25 MPa. There was statistically significant difference in the bond strengths between Group I & Group III (t = 2.76 and P< 0.05), between Group I & II (t = 5.09 and P< 0.001) and between Group II & Group III (t = 13.28 and P< 0.001). SEM studies revealed occurrence of cohesive type fractures in the ceramic body of samples belonging to Groups I & III, while there was adhesive failure at ceramo-metal junction of samples belonging to Group II. EDS Analysis supported the findings of SEM studies. Conclusion: All the three ceramic systems fared better than the minimal recommended values stated by ISO 9693:1999 of 25MPa of which Orotig TiKrom was rated the best with values of 54.69 MPa. Vita TitanKeramik ranked second with values of 45.12MPa and the least values were obtained with Noritake Ti-22 with values of 27.76. The bond failure was predominantly cohesive in nature in case of Vita TitanKeramik and Orotig TiKrom; whereas adhesive failure was noticed in case of Noritake Ti-22. How to cite this article: Mabrurkar V, Habbu N, Hashmi SW, Musani S, Joshi N. In-vitro investigation to evaluate the flexural bond strengths of three commercially available ultra low fusing ceramic systems to Grade II Titanium. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(5):101-7. PMID:24324312

  11. Standards-based teaching and educational digital libraries as innovations: Undergraduate science faculty in the adoption process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Judith Sulkes

    This study describes undergraduate science faculty in terms of their feelings of preparedness for and their use of standards-based teaching methods, their stages of concern related to Educational Digital Libraries (EDLs), and their adoption and diffusion of both innovations. These innovations may have a synergistic relationship that may result in enhanced adoption of both. The investigation began with a series of group meetings with life science, chemistry, physics, and geology faculty from a 2-year and a 4-year institution. Faculty were introduced to dimensions of standards-based teaching and examples of EDLs. Faculty completed the Demographics and Experience Questionnaire, the Standards-Based Teaching Instrument, and the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ). Semi-structured interviews containing literature-based questions were conducted with one faculty member from each discipline from the 2-year and 4-year institutions. Document analyses were performed on mission/goal web-based statements for the institutions and their science departments. Triangulated data were used to construct individual faculty case studies based on four facets: background, standards-based teaching profile, EDLs profile, and rate of innovation diffusion. The individual case studies were used to perform cross-case analyses by type of institution, discipline, and locus of control. Individual case studies and cross-case analyses suggest the following conclusions: (a) faculty felt prepared to use and frequently used textbooks as a reference, (b) feelings of preparedness and frequency of use of standards-based teaching categories may be related to discipline, (c) all faculty had relatively high awareness and informational EDL concerns, and (d) faculty central to the locus of control were more likely to use methods to develop student conceptual understanding, use inquiry methods, and be agents of change. A grounded theoretical model connects study results with literature related to educational change and innovation adoption. The model suggests undergraduate science faculty professional developers and innovation developers should establish a shared understanding of vocabulary related to innovations, conduct national innovation awareness and informational campaigns, consider faculty pre-existing understanding of the innovations, align with organizational norms, and clarify the relationship between institutional mission/goal statements and the innovations. The study protocols and instruments may be valuable tools for others studying educational change and innovations.

  12. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  13. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades

  14. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  15. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  16. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  17. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  18. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

  19. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  20. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades

  1. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  2. Using Free and Open Source GIS to Automatically Create Standards-Based Spatial Metadata in Academia Using Free and Open Source GIS to

    E-print Network

    Köbben, Barend

    Using Free and Open Source GIS to Automatically Create Standards-Based Spatial Metadata in Academia Using Free and Open Source GIS to Automatically Create Standards-Based Spatial Metadata in Academia.ellul@ucl.ac.uk Abstract The importance of understanding the quality of data used in any GIS operation has increased

  3. Exploring the Impact of a Standards-Based Mathematics and Pedagogy Class on Preservice Teachers' Beliefs and Subject Matter Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohlmann, Micah Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This case study explored the impact of a standards-based mathematics and pedagogy class on preservice elementary teachers' beliefs and conceptual subject matter knowledge of linear functions. The framework for the standards-based mathematics and pedagogy class in this study involved the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards,…

  4. Preparation, Practice, and Performance: An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Standards-Based Instruction on Secondary Students' Math and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    For almost two decades proponents of educational reform have advocated the use of standards-based education in maths and science classrooms for improving teacher practices, increasing student learning, and raising the quality of maths and science instruction. This study empirically examined the impact of specific standards-based teacher…

  5. Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Mathematics Teaching and Learning: Lens for Interpreting Experiences in a Standards-Based Mathematics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlin, Michelle T.

    2013-01-01

    In a mathematics course for prospective elementary teachers, we strove to model standards-based pedagogy. However, an end-of-class reflection revealed the prospective teachers were considering incorporating standards-based strategies in their future classrooms in ways different from our intent. Thus, we drew upon the framework presented by Simon,…

  6. High-Grading Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Sellar, Glenn; Nunez, Jorge; Mosie, Andrea; Schwarz, Carol; Parker, Terry; Winterhalter, Daniel; Farmer, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts on long-duration lunar missions will need the capability to high-grade their samples to select the highest value samples for transport to Earth and to leave others on the Moon. We are supporting studies to define the necessary and sufficient measurements and techniques for high-grading samples at a lunar outpost. A glovebox, dedicated to testing instruments and techniques for high-grading samples, is in operation at the JSC Lunar Experiment Laboratory. A reference suite of lunar rocks and soils, spanning the full compositional range found in the Apollo collection, is available for testing in this laboratory. Thin sections of these samples are available for direct comparison. The Lunar Sample Compendium, on-line at http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm, summarizes previous analyses of these samples. The laboratory, sample suite, and Compendium are available to the lunar research and exploration community. In the first test of possible instruments for lunar sample high-grading, we imaged 18 lunar rocks and four soils from the reference suite using the Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) developed by Arizona State University and JPL (see Farmer et. al. abstract). The MMI is a fixed-focus digital imaging system with a resolution of 62.5 microns/pixel, a field size of 40 x 32 mm, and a depth-of-field of approximately 5 mm. Samples are illuminated sequentially by 21 light emitting diodes in discrete wavelengths spanning the visible to shortwave infrared. Measurements of reflectance standards and background allow calibration to absolute reflectance. ENVI-based software is used to produce spectra for specific minerals as well as multi-spectral images of rock textures.

  7. Clinical validation of the gastrointestinal NET grading system: Ki67 index criteria of the WHO 2010 classification is appropriate to predict metastasis or recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the WHO 2010 classification, the neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are subdivided by their mitotic index or Ki67 index into either G1 or G2 NETs. Tumors with a Ki67 index of <2% are classified as G1 and those with 3—20% are classified as G2. However, the assessment of tumors with Ki67 index of greater than 2% and less than or equal to 3% is still unclear. To resolve the problem, we validated the Ki67 index criteria of gastrointestinal NETs of the WHO 2010 classification. Methods The medical records of 45 patients who were pathologically diagnosed as having NET G1/G2 of the gastrointestinal tract were analyzed retrospectively. According to the WHO 2010 classification, Ki67 index were calculated. Computer-assisted cytometrical analysis of Ki67 immunoreactivity was performed using the WinRooF image processing software. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the best discriminating Ki67 index. To clarify the assessment of tumors with Ki67 index between 2—3%, the calculated cutoff of Ki67 index was evaluated using Fisher’s exact test. Results ROC curve analysis confirmed that 2.8% was the best Ki67 index cutoff value for predicting metastasis or recurrence. The sensitivity of the new Ki67 index cutoff was 42.9%, and the specificity was 86.8%. Conclusions Division of NETs into G1/G2 based on Ki67 index of 3% was appropriate to predict metastases or recurrences. The WHO grading system may be the most useful classification to predict metastases or recurrences. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1553036118943799 PMID:23607525

  8. The effect of pressure on the combustion synthesis of a functionally-graded material: TiB[sub 2]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Al ceramic-metal composite system

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, H.J.; Moore, J.J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    This article describes some recent research on the synthesis of functionally-graded materials (FGM) using combustion synthesis or self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). A model ceramic-metal SHS system was investigated. The effects of combustion mode, reactant stoichiometry (xAl), green density, and applied loads on the stability of the SHS reaction and density of the FGM product are described.

  9. The effect of pressure on the combustion synthesis of a functionally-graded material: TiB[sub 2]Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]Al ceramic-metal composite system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Feng; J. J. Moore

    1993-01-01

    This article describes some recent research on the synthesis of functionally-graded materials (FGM) using combustion synthesis or self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). A model ceramic-metal SHS system was investigated. The effects of combustion mode, reactant stoichiometry (xAl), green density, and applied loads on the stability of the SHS reaction and density of the FGM product are described.

  10. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204 Section 810.2204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application...2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  11. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204 Section 810.2204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application...2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  12. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204 Section 810.2204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application...2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  13. A Call to Action: Transforming Grading Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    At a very early age, students learn the point system and how school can be about the accumulation of points, not the accumulation of knowledge and skills. Grading systems are pervasive in districts across the nation, with questionable results. For example, a southern school district was highlighted in a 2009 Associated Press story for selling test…

  14. Plus/Minus Grading: Solution or Problem? Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Surprisingly, the debate over +/- grade systems seems to occur, largely, at the college and university level. Few middle and high schools seem to have taken on the issue, at least in any way that appears in the public literature. Other opinions suggest that it is the discriminating quality of plus/minus grading systems that make them useful. A…

  15. Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

    2013-10-01

    Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

  16. Enhanced Access to Earth Science Data through Standards-based Web Services and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. H. Hiatt; H. Hashimoto; F. S. Melton; A. Michaelis; C. Milesi; R. R. Nemani; P. Votava; W. Wang

    2009-01-01

    The Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) at NASA Ames Research Center's Ecological Forecasting Lab generates a suite of gridded data products in near real-time that are designed to enhance management decisions related to floods, droughts, forest fires, human health, as well as crop, range, and forest production. Derived from the synthesis of satellite imagery, ground observations, and specialized ecosystem

  17. Demonstration of Combined Efforts in School-Wide Academic and Behavioral Systems and Incidence of Reading and Behavior Challenges in Early Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Chard, David J.; Boland, Joseph B.; Horner, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    This study provides descriptive data on the rates of office discipline referrals and beginning reading skills for students in grades K-3 for one school district that is implementing a three-tier prevention model for both reading and behavior support. Students in the district are provided a continuum of reading and/or behavioral support based on…

  18. The Effect of Teacher-Support Programs on Teacher Attrition in a Rural Pre-Kindergarten through Twelfth Grade Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carol R.

    2013-01-01

    Many new teachers are leaving the profession during their first 3 years in a rural pre-kindergarten through 12th grade public school classroom in the southeastern United States. This study reviewed the teacher-support programs typically used in this school that assisted new teachers and encouraged their retention. This work is important because…

  19. Impact of Small-Group Tutoring Interventions on the Mathematical Problem Solving and Achievement of Third-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Rodriguez, Michael; Kanive, Rebecca; Huang, Ju-Ping; Church, Chris; Corroy, Kelly A.; Zaslofsky, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This intervention study compared the efficacy of small-group tutoring on the mathematics learning of third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulty using either a school-provided standards-based curriculum (SBC) or a schema-based instruction (SBI) curriculum. The SBI curriculum placed particular emphasis on the underlying mathematical…

  20. Listening: Upper Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lorena

    The importance of a good listening program in the upper-elementary grades was emphasized. Perhaps the biggest listening problem with these students, the author said, is to teach them to read as they listen. Suggestions were offered as to how to build listening skills. The separate communicative skills of listening, speaking, reading, and writing…

  1. Modern Problems. Grade 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilmington Public Schools, DE.

    The general purpose of the twelfth grade course is to help the student assume his role as a decision-maker in a democratic society. The nature and complexity of contemporary problems are examined using this guide to enable the student: 1) to analyze alternative solutions to these problems; 2) to develop attitudes and values appropriate to a…

  2. Health, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui Van Bao; And Others

    This is the fifth and last of the Vietnamese series of elementary health textbooks. This one was designed for fifth grade students in Vietnam. The thirty-five lessons are presented in the form of short stories with illustrations and a short summary. The four chapters cover the ordinary symptoms of illness, elementary notions of microbes and…

  3. Computer grading of examinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frigerio, N. A.

    1969-01-01

    A method, using IBM cards and computer processing, automates examination grading and recording and permits use of computational problems. The student generates his own answers, and the instructor has much greater freedom in writing questions than is possible with multiple choice examinations.

  4. Early Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents computer-oriented teaching suggestions suitable for early grades. They include creating houses and stained glass ornaments using Logo, recording class activities with a database management program, making mazes with graphics programs, making drawings with a KoalaPad, and using a program to introduce computers to non-English speaking…

  5. Flower gardens (grade 3)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 3 fraction standards. In this interactive three-part task students reason about fractions used to represent area or a location on a number line. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric, and background on the task itself.

  6. Mariana's fractions (grade 3)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 3 fraction standards. In this interactive five-part task students reason about fractions used to represent part of a whole or a location on a number line. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric, and background on the task itself.

  7. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes five computer-oriented activities suitable for middle grade students. Activities focus on use of spreadsheets to record nutrition data, programs that cause lights to twinkle on a Christmas tree and balloons to burst, an arithmetic problem, and a mathematics exercise using a spreadsheet. (JN)

  8. Career Awareness: Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade two, performance…

  9. Grades as Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior coursework,…

  10. Career Awareness: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade five, performance…

  11. First Grade Baseline Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

    2013-01-01

    The First Grade Baseline Evaluation is an optional tool that can be used at the beginning of the school year to help teachers get to know the reading and language skills of each student. The evaluation is composed of seven screenings. Teachers may use the entire evaluation or choose to use those individual screenings that they find most beneficial…

  12. Inverse viscosity grading

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.F.; Casteel, J.F.

    1983-11-15

    The method of oil recovery is disclosed for use within a fluid flood comprising grading the viscosity of injected fluids at a low concentration at the front thereof to a high concentration at the rear thereof to prevent the formation of viscous zones within the injected fluids which reduce oil recovery.

  13. American Independence. Fifth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Annette

    This fifth grade teaching unit covers early conflicts between the American colonies and Britain, battles of the American Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence. Knowledge goals address the pre-revolutionary acts enforced by the British, the concepts of conflict and independence, and the major events and significant people from the…

  14. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  15. Hungarian Graded Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalyfy, Ilona; Koski, Augustus A.

    This graded reader is intended to supplement a beginning course in Hungarian after the student has "developed control of about 700 lexical items and can manipulate with fluency much of the basic structure of Hungarian." (It may also be used in an intermediate course.) The 56 reading selections are varied in content and sequenced to develop reading…

  16. The Role of the Science Leader in Implementing Standards-Based Science Programs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jack Rhoton

    2001-01-01

    Although most of the literature of reform and systemic change focuses on policy, programs, and practices that the leaders should be responsible for producing, this chapter will emphasize what is known about how leaders bring about these improvements and what the research says about the skills, behaviors, and leadership styles of effective leaders. Finally, this chapter will highlight the concept of distributed leadership as presented in the National Science Education Standards. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Foreward, Preface, and Introduction.

  17. Achieving mask order processing automation, interoperability and standardization based on P10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, B.; Filies, O.; Sadran, D.; Tissier, Michel; Albin, D.; Stavroulakis, S.; Voyiatzis, E.

    2007-02-01

    Last year the MUSCLE (Masks through User's Supply Chain: Leadership by Excellence) project was presented. Here is the project advancement. A key process in mask supply chain management is the exchange of technical information for ordering masks. This process is large, complex, company specific and error prone, and leads to longer cycle times and higher costs due to missing or wrong inputs. Its automation and standardization could produce significant benefits. We need to agree on the standard for mandatory and optional parameters, and also a common way to describe parameters when ordering. A system was created to improve the performance in terms of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) such as cycle time and cost of production. This tool allows us to evaluate and measure the effect of factors, as well as the effect of implementing the improvements of the complete project. Next, a benchmark study and a gap analysis were performed. These studies show the feasibility of standardization, as there is a large overlap in requirements. We see that the SEMI P10 standard needs enhancements. A format supporting the standard is required, and XML offers the ability to describe P10 in a flexible way. Beyond using XML for P10, the semantics of the mask order should also be addressed. A system design and requirements for a reference implementation for a P10 based management system are presented, covering a mechanism for the evolution and for version management and a design for P10 editing and data validation.

  18. Wavelet-based asphalt concrete texture grading and classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almuntashri, Ali; Agaian, Sos

    2011-03-01

    In this Paper, we introduce a new method for evaluation, quality control, and automatic grading of texture images representing different textural classes of Asphalt Concrete (AC). Also, we present a new asphalt concrete texture grading, wavelet transform, fractal, and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based automatic classification and recognition system. Experimental results were simulated using different cross-validation techniques and achieved an average classification accuracy of 91.4.0 % in a set of 150 images belonging to five different texture grades.

  19. Advanced Use of the OWL Grade Book

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    Advanced Use of the OWL Grade Book #12;Notes Overview The Grade Book has many features to help you organize, release, and compile grades. This manualette will discuss the following advanced Grade Book the Grade Book, creating columns or adding and releasing grades, please see the Basic Use of the OWL Grade

  20. Patterns of dietary intake and serum carotenoid and tocopherol status are associated with biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Wood, Adrian D; Strachan, Anna A; Thies, Frank; Aucott, Lorna S; Reid, David M; Hardcastle, Antonia C; Mavroeidi, Alexandra; Simpson, William G; Duthie, Garry G; Macdonald, Helen M

    2014-10-28

    Dietary modification may affect inflammatory processes and protect against chronic disease. In the present study, we examined the relationship between dietary patterns, circulating carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations, and biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in a 10-year longitudinal study of Scottish postmenopausal women. Diet was assessed by FFQ during 1997-2000 (n 3237, mean age 54·8 (SD 2·2) years). Participants (n 2130, mean age 66·0 (SD 2·2) years) returned during 2007-11 for follow-up. Diet was assessed by FFQ (n 1682) and blood was collected for the analysis of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-6, serum amyloid A, E-selectin, lipid profile and dietary biomarkers (carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol). Dietary pattern and dietary biomarker (serum carotenoid) components were generated by principal components analysis. A past 'prudent' dietary pattern predicted serum concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 (which decreased across the quintiles of the dietary pattern; P= 0·002 and P= 0·001, respectively; ANCOVA). Contemporary dietary patterns were also associated with inflammatory biomarkers. The concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 decreased across the quintiles of the 'prudent' dietary pattern (P= 0·030 and P= 0·006, respectively). hs-CRP concentration increased across the quintiles of a 'meat-dominated' dietary pattern (P= 0·001). Inflammatory biomarker concentrations decreased markedly across the quintiles of carotenoid component score (P< 0·001 for hs-CRP and IL-6, and P= 0·016 for E-selectin; ANCOVA). Prudent dietary pattern and carotenoid component scores were negatively associated with serum hs-CRP concentration (unstandardised ? for prudent component: -0·053, 95% CI -0·102, -0·003; carotenoid component: -0·183, 95% CI -0·233, -0·134) independent of study covariates. A prudent dietary pattern (which reflects a diet high in the intakes of fish, yogurt, pulses, rice, pasta and wine, in addition to fruit and vegetable consumption) and a serum carotenoid profile characteristic of a fruit and vegetable-rich diet are associated with lower concentrations of intermediary markers that are indicative of CVD risk reduction. PMID:25313576

  1. Running WRF on various distributed computing infrastructures through a standard-based Science Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Roberto; Bruno, Riccardo; La Rocca, Giuseppe; Markussen Lunde, Torleif; Pehrson, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelling system is a widely used meso-scale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both atmospheric research and operational forecasting needs. WRF has a large worldwide community counting more than 20,000 users in 130 countries and it has been specifically designed to be the state-of-the-art atmospheric simulation system being portable and running efficiently on available parallel computing platforms. Although WRF can be executed in many different environments ranging form the single core inside a stand-alone machine up to the most sophisticated HPC platforms, there are no solutions yet to match the e-Science paradigm where software, data and users are "linked" together by the network as components of distributed computing infrastructures. The topmost component of the typical e-Science model consists of Science Gateways, defined as community-developed sets of tools, applications, and data collections that normally are integrated via a portal to get access to a distributed infrastructure. One of the many available Science Gateway solutions is the Catania Science Gateway Framework (CSGF - www.catania-science-gateways.it) whose most descriptive keywords are: standard adoption, interoperability and standard adoption. The support of standards such as SAGA and SAML allows any CSGF user to seamlessly access and use both Grid and Cloud-based resources. In this work we present the CSGF and how it has been used in the context of the eI4frica project (www.ei4africa.eu) to implement the Africa Grid Science Gateway (http://sgw.africa-grid.org), which allows to execute WRF simulations on various kinds of distributed computing infrastructures at the same time, including the EGI Federated Cloud.

  2. Piles, Number of Grade Categories, and Theme Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the use of piles on the reliability and level of theme grades; and the effects of the number of grading categories on the reliability and level of theme grades, awarded to undergraduate English compositions. (CS)

  3. Graded Readers: How the Publishers Make the Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claridge, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Publishing graded readers is big business, but there is evidence that the texts themselves are not being read in sufficient quantity to improve language proficiency. This article reports on a study of graded readers, focusing on interviews with some major publishers of graded readers, to investigate their production rationales. The findings…

  4. Security challenges in integration of a PHR-S into a standards based national EHR.

    PubMed

    Mense, Alexander; Hoheiser Pförtner, Franz; Sauermann, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Health related data provided by patients themselves is expected to play a major role in future healthcare. Data from personal health devices, vaccination records, health diaries or observations of daily living, for instance, is stored in personal health records (PHR) which are maintained by personal health record systems (PHR-S). Combining this information with medical records provided by healthcare providers in electronic health records (EHR) is one of the next steps towards "personal care". Austria currently sets up a nationwide EHR system that incorporates all healthcare providers and is technically based on international standards (IHE, HL7, OASIS, ...). Looking at the expected potential of merging PHR and EHR data it is worth to analyse integration approaches. Although knowing that an integration requires the coordination of processes, information models and technical architectures, this paper specifically focuses on security issues by evaluating general security requirements for a PHR-S (based on HL7 PHR-S FM), comparing them with the information security specifications for the Austrian's national EHR (based on ISO/IES 27000 series) and identifying the main challenges as well as possible approaches. PMID:25160182

  5. Grade Inflation: Metaphor and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Richard; Biggs, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Grade inflation has become a general term for teachers and administrators in recent times and is an ambiguous denomination which needs to be identified. The allegory and reality of grade inflation is discussed.

  6. ili G d C l i h hFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizerGrade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate Recovery Phillip Barak, PhDAmanda Boyce, MSc Phillip Barak, PhDAmanda Boyce, MSc

    E-print Network

    Barak, Phillip

    ili G d C l i h hFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizerGrade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate Recovery Phillip Barak, PhDAmanda Boyce, MSc F W T Pl Phillip endeavored to improve on this recovery system by producing calcium phosphates from p p y fl idi d b d t i d

  7. 5 CFR 532.417 - Within-grade increases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration...regular Federal Wage System schedule with a work performance rating of satisfactory...automatically to the next higher step within the grade...local wage area with a higher wage schedule;...

  8. Taking the Grading Conversation Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    To manage effective grading reform, education leaders must engage teachers, parents, communities, and policymakers in a rational discussion about grading. Doug Reeves suggests that leaders start the conversation with a discussion of the principles on which all stakeholders can agree; make clear what will not change under the new grading policy; be…

  9. Grade Inflation in HETAC Awards

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin O'Grady; Brendan Guilfoyle; Michael Galvin; Simon Quinn; Joan Cleary

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present data indicative of grade inflation in HETAC awards between 1998 and 2002. This is based on the trend in proportion of certificates and diplomas of each class being awarded over that period. Grade inflation at third level has occurred against a backdrop of grade inflation at Leaving Certificate level and a drop in the minimum

  10. Grade Inflation and Education Quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raphael Boleslavsky; Christopher Cotton

    2012-01-01

    We consider a game in which schools compete to place graduates in two distinct ways: by investing in the quality of education, and by strategically designing grading policies. In equilib- rium, schools issue grades that do not perfectly reveal graduate abilities. This leads evaluators to have less-accurate information. However, compared to fully-revealing assessments, strategic grading motivates greater investment in educating

  11. Lunar Plant Growth Chamber: Human Exploration Project STS-118 Design Challenge. A Standards-Based High School Unit Guide. Engineering by Design: Advancing Technological Literacy. A Standards-Based Program Series. EP-2007-08-94-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Daniel W.; Fuller, Jeremy; Watson, Janice; St. Hilaire, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In May 2005, the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) was funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop curricular units for Grades K-12 on Space Exploration. The units focus on aspects of the themes that NASA Engineers and Scientists--as well as future generations of explorers--must consider, such…

  12. DUAL-COMPONENT VIDEO IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM (VIASCANTM) AS A PREDICTOR OF BEEF RED MEAT YIELD PERCENTAGE AND FOR AUGMENTING APPLICATION OF USDA YIELD GRADES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Cannell; J. D. Tatum; K. E. Belk; J. W. Wise; R. P. Clayton; G. C. Smith

    Summary Improved ability to quantify differences in the fabrication yields of beef carcasses would facilitate application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Dual-Component Australian VIASCANTM: (a) to predict fabricated beef subprimal yields as a percentage of carcass weight at each of three fat-trim levels and (b) to augment USDA yield grading, thereby improving

  13. Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Forst, Deborah A.; Nahed, Brian V.; Loeffler, Jay S.

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are a diverse group of primary brain tumors that often arise in young, otherwise healthy patients and generally have an indolent course with longer-term survival in comparison with high-grade gliomas. Treatment options include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combined approach, and management is individualized based on tumor location, histology, molecular profile, and patient characteristics. Moreover, in this type of brain tumor with a relatively good prognosis and prolonged survival, the potential benefits of treatment must be carefully weighed against potential treatment-related risks. We review in this article current management strategies for LGG, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In addition, the importance of profiling the genetic and molecular properties of LGGs in the development of targeted anticancer therapies is also reviewed. Finally, given the prevalence of these tumors in otherwise healthy young patients, the impact of treatment on neurocognitive function and quality of life is also evaluated. PMID:24664484

  14. Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related Yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7

    PubMed Central

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Age-normed tests of Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression were administered in grades 1 (n=128), 3, and 5 or 3 (n=113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared one- and four- factor models at each grade level and supported a four- factor model of Language by Ear, Mouth, Eye, and Hand. Multiple regressions identified which of the three other language skills explained unique variance in each of the four language skill outcomes and provided additional evidence that language is not a single skill. Individuals’ ipsative scores (amount that the standard score for age on each language measure deviated from individual’s mean for all four measures) showed that 25% to 30% of individuals showed relative strengths or weaknesses (+ or ? 1 SD) in specific language skills, but only 7% were stable across grades 3 and 5. Findings are discussed in reference to (a) theoretical implications for idea comprehension and expression via language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand, and (b) educational applications of observed developmental and individual differences for general, special, and gifted education. PMID:21461140

  15. School Mural ( Grade 3)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 3 operations and algebraic thinking standards as well as the measurement and data standards. In this interactive multi-step task students must write a number sentence that can be used to find how many tiles high the mural is at school and then show the value of the Distributive Property in solving a problem. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric and background on the task itself.

  16. Fourth Grade Lab Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Boissonnault

    2005-06-23

    These are a collection of sites related to the Fourth Grade CORE, to be explored in the computer lab. For SCIENCE explorations click below. 1. Clouds and the water cycle at the Enchanted Learning site. 2. Look at the Cloud Man&s pictures of clouds. 3. Cloud Types 4. Clouds and Precipitation: online meteorology guide 5. The Dirt on Soil 6. The Dirt on Soil 7. Soil Horizons For MATH activities click below. Math activities "A" ...

  17. Public Service Occupations: Grade 8. Cluster I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Public Service Occupations." It is divided into six units: education, public utilities, community social and health services, law enforcement agencies, fire departments, and the postal system. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  18. Reading Resource Manual for Intermediate Grade Levels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conforti, Diane; Feeley, Dot

    This guide describes where specific skills are emphasized in the three reading texts (published by Ginn, Holt, and Lyons and Carnhan) used in the intermediate grades in the Stoneham (Massachusetts) Public School System. The four major sections of the book are color-coded and include phonetic and structural analysis, vocabulary development, study…

  19. Hewlett packard's seismic grade MEMS accelerometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Homeijer; D. Lazaroff; D. Milligan; R. Alley; J. Wu; M. Szepesi; B. Bicknell; Z. Zhang; R. G. Walmsley; P. G. Hartwell

    2011-01-01

    HP has recently made its plans to develop an ultrahighresolution seismic sensing solution public. This solution is being developed with Royal Dutch Shell Corporation for oil and gas exploration [1]. Central to delivering this system is HP’s new single axis seismic grade MEMS accelerometer. The HP device uses both bulk micromachining methods and standard thin film technologies as well as

  20. The GeoDataPortal: A Standards-based Environmental Modeling Data Access and Manipulation Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, D. L.; Kunicki, T.; Booth, N.; Suftin, I.; Zoerb, R.; Walker, J.

    2010-12-01

    Environmental modelers from fields of study such as climatology, hydrology, geology, and ecology rely on many data sources and processing methods that are common across these disciplines. Interest in inter-disciplinary, loosely coupled modeling and data sharing is increasing among scientists from the USGS, other agencies, and academia. For example, hydrologic modelers need downscaled climate change scenarios and land cover data summarized for the watersheds they are modeling. Subsequently, ecological modelers are interested in soil moisture information for a particular habitat type as predicted by the hydrologic modeler. The USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics Geo Data Portal (GDP) project seeks to facilitate this loose model coupling data sharing through broadly applicable open-source web processing services. These services simplify and streamline the time consuming and resource intensive tasks that are barriers to inter-disciplinary collaboration. The GDP framework includes a catalog describing projects, models, data, processes, and how they relate. Using newly introduced data, or sources already known to the catalog, the GDP facilitates access to sub-sets and common derivatives of data in numerous formats on disparate web servers. The GDP performs many of the critical functions needed to summarize data sources into modeling units regardless of scale or volume. A user can specify their analysis zones or modeling units as an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard Web Feature Service (WFS). Utilities to cache Shapefiles and other common GIS input formats have been developed to aid in making the geometry available for processing via WFS. Dataset access in the GDP relies primarily on the Unidata NetCDF-Java library’s common data model. Data transfer relies on methods provided by Unidata’s Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Distribution System Data Server (TDS). TDS services of interest include the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP) standard for gridded time series, the OGC’s Web Coverage Service for high-density static gridded data, and Unidata’s CDM-remote for point time series. OGC WFS and Sensor Observation Service (SOS) are being explored as mechanisms to serve and access static or time series data attributed to vector geometry. A set of standardized XML-based output formats allows easy transformation into a wide variety of “model-ready” formats. Interested users will have the option of submitting custom transformations to the GDP or transforming the XML output as a post-process. The GDP project aims to support simple, rapid development of thin user interfaces (like web portals) to commonly needed environmental modeling-related data access and manipulation tools. Standalone, service-oriented components of the GDP framework provide the metadata cataloging, data subset access, and spatial-statistics calculations needed to support interdisciplinary environmental modeling.

  1. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810.1804 Section 810... United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade Minimum test...

  2. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810.1804 Section 810... United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade Minimum test...

  3. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810.1804 Section 810... United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade Minimum test...

  4. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810.1804 Section 810... United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade Minimum test...

  5. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  6. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  7. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  8. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  9. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  10. A Collaborative Approach to Preparing Field-Based Teachers/Supervisors for Standards-Based Accountability Systems in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Beverlee-Ann; Szlosek, Peggy; Flaherty, Thomas; Ryan, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Preparing college supervisors/cooperating teachers to support teacher candidates' performance using standards is a challenge for teacher preparation programs. This paper will describe a professional development program collaboratively developed by representatives of the state department of education, institutions of higher education, and K-12…

  11. Graded Chern-Simons field theory and graded topological D-branes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Calin I. Lazaroiu; Radu Roiban; Diana Vaman

    2002-01-01

    We discuss graded D-brane systems of the topological A model on a Calabi-Yau threefold (in the absence of worldsheet instanton corrections), by means of their string field theory. We give a detailed analysis of the extended string field action, showing that it satisfies the classical master equation, and construct the associated BV system. The analysis is entirely general and it

  12. Basic Use of the OWL Grade Book

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    Basic Use of the OWL Grade Book #12;Notes Overview The Grade Book tool provides an easy and convenient way for instructors to manage grades and distribute them to students. Using the Grade Book. This handout will show you how to: · Access the Grade Book · Create a column in the Grade Book · Add

  13. Grading of soft tissue sarcomas: from histological to molecular assessment.

    PubMed

    Neuville, Agnes; Chibon, Frédéric; Coindre, Jean-Michel

    2014-02-01

    Several histological grading systems for soft tissue sarcomas have been described since the early 1980s. Their main objective is to select patients for adjuvant chemotherapy. Two histological grading systems are used in daily practice, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group (FNCLCC) systems. They have been devised by combining histological parameters: number of mitoses per high-power field, the presence of necrosis, cellular and nuclear morphology and the degree of cellularity for the NCI grading; and tumour differentiation, mitotic index and extent of necrosis for the French system. Histological grading is far more appropriate to assess the risk of metastasis. However, several limitations prevent its use: grade cannot be applied to all histological types, its reproducibility is not perfect, a three-grade system generates an intermediate grade with undetermined prognosis, and finally the core needle biopsy, now widely used for the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, is not the best sample to assess the grade. The development of molecular grading in addition to histological grading probably represents the next step. Molecular signatures based on quantitative evaluation of chromosomal complexity such as CINSARC (complexity index in sarcomas) appear as a strong independent predictive factor for metastasis in several types of sarcoma, and even in several other types of cancer. When they can be instituted in daily practice on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded material, molecular signatures will not only provide information on risk of metastasis, but also better understanding of cancer development, response or resistance to evaluated drugs, and potential targets for future treatments. PMID:24378389

  14. Evidence on Grades and Grade Inflation at Ontario's Universities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Anglin; Ronald Meng

    2000-01-01

    Using information on first-year university grades from across Ontario, we examine whether or not there has been grade inflation by discipline. In a survey of seven universities for the periods 1973-74 and 1993-94, we find significant grade inflation in various Arts and Science programs. The rate of inflation is not uniform. Some subjects, such as Mathematics experienced little or no

  15. OVARIAN LOW-GRADE AND HIGH-GRADE SEROUS CARCINOMA: Pathogenesis, Clinicopathologic and Molecular Biologic Features, and Diagnostic Problems

    PubMed Central

    Vang, Russell; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian serous carcinomas have been graded using various systems. Recently, a 2-tier system in which tumors are subdivided into low-grade and high-grade has been proposed. This approach is simplistic, reproducible, and based on biologic evidence indicating that both tumors develop via different pathways. Low-grade serous carcinomas exhibit low-grade nuclei with infrequent mitotic figures. They evolve from adenofibromas or borderline tumors, have frequent mutations of the KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2 genes, and lack TP53 mutations (Type I pathway). The progression to invasive carcinoma is a slow step-wise process. Low-grade tumors are indolent and have better outcome than high-grade tumors. In contrast, high-grade serous carcinomas have high-grade nuclei and numerous mitotic figures. Identification of a precursor lesion in the ovary has been elusive and therefore the origin of ovarian carcinoma has been described as de novo. More recently, studies have suggested that a proportion appear to originate from intraepithelial carcinoma in the fallopian tube. The development of these tumors is rapid (Type II pathway). The vast majority are characterized by TP53 mutations and lack mutations of KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2. Although both types of serous carcinomas evolve along different pathways, rare high-grade serous carcinomas seem to arise through the Type I pathway. Immunohistochemical stains for p53, p16, and Ki-67 for distinction of low- from high-grade tumors are of limited value but can be helpful in selected instances. This review provides an update on the pathogenesis and clinicopathologic features of these two types of serous carcinomas and addresses some of the diagnostic problems that are encountered in routine practice. PMID:19700937

  16. Functionally graded materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems research. Semi-annual report, May 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    A combination of two new production methods, reaction-bonded metal oxide (RBMO) and electrochemical processing, have been utilized to create a functionally graded thermal barrier coating. Electrochemical processing, which includes both electrodeposition (EDEP) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD), has been used to deposit both the metallic and ceramic layers of the coating. EPD has been used to deposit the RBMO precursor powders, which exhibit the dual properties of both a metal and ceramic due to its composite nature. A summary of the FGM production methods and resulting characterization of the produced coatings for the eleventh and twelfth quarters (5/96--12/96), as well as a project summary, are outlined in this final report.

  17. SMS fiber structure with a multimode fiber graded index type for a temperature measurement using an intensity-based interrogation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mufarrikha, Ainun; Hatta, Agus M.; Koentjoro, Sekartedjo

    2015-01-01

    Temperature sensing based on a singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fiber structure with a graded index multimode fiber (GI-MMF) type using an intensity-based interrogation has been investigated numerically and experimentally. The effect of temperature on the SMS fiber structure with the MMF-GI type was modeled using a modal propagation analysis (MPA). The SMS fiber structures for temperature sensor was fabricated and tested with the MMF length of 57 mm. It is demonstrated experimentally, and supported with numerical results, that the sensor showed a sensitivity of 0.063 dB/°C with a temperature measurement range of 175-325°C. This sensor offers simple configuration and low cost of fabrication for the temperature measurement applications.

  18. Grade 10 to Grade 12 Mathematics Resources: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Standards Branch.

    This annotated bibliography identifies the English language resources endorsed by Alberta, Canada and all Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) jurisdictions implementing The Common Curriculum Framework for K-12 Mathematics Grade 10 to Grade 12. The WCP resources in this bibliography were selected through a collaborative review process based on their…

  19. Grade 10 to Grade 12 Mathematics Resources: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This annotated bibliography identifies English language resources endorsed by all Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) jurisdictions implementing The Common Curriculum Framework for K-12 Mathematics Grade 10 to Grade 12. Resources in this annotated bibliography were selected through a collaborative review process based on their high level of fidelity…

  20. Simplification in Graded Readers: Measuring the Authenticity of Graded Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claridge, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics and quality of simplification in graded readers as compared to those of "normal" authentic English. Two passages from graded readers are compared with the original passages. The comparison uses a computer programme, RANGE (Nation and Heatley, 2003) to analyse the distribution of high and low frequency words…

  1. Making the Grade: A History of the A-F Marking Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jack; Hutt, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a historical interpretation of one of the defining features of modern schooling: grades. As a central element of schools, grades--their origins, uses and evolution--provide a window into the tensions at the heart of building a national public school system in the United States. We argue that grades began as an intimate…

  2. Mechanics of Graded Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; Boyce, Mary

    2013-03-01

    Shark skin is known for its anti-fouling and self-cleaning properties. In attempts to mimic this pattern for getting similar properties, different surface patterns such as Sharklet and wrinkles have been previously introduced. Wrinkled patterns have gained importance in applications such as microfluidics, wetting and adhesion. Through buckling of a thin film of stiff material on a substrate of softer material, and maintaining symmetric geometries, ordered wrinkled patterns can be created. However, it can be shown that using the same principle, by changing the geometry of the surface, the dimensions of the wrinkles can be altered. This alteration turns ordered wrinkles into graded wrinkles which have more resemblance to shark skin than the ordered wrinkles, maintaining the same wave length while each wave having different amplitude. Here using finite element models, experiments and analytical solutions, the relations between different geometries and the resulting patterns were investigated.

  3. Third Grade Number Actiivities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nicola Godwin

    2012-01-01

    This page provides examples of Third Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

  4. Gleason Grade Progression Is Uncommon

    PubMed Central

    Penney, Kathryn L.; Stampfer, Meir J.; Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Sinnott, Jennifer A.; Flavin, Richard; Rider, Jennifer R.; Finn, Stephen; Giovannucci, Edward; Sesso, Howard D.; Loda, Massimo; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Fiorentino, Michelangelo

    2013-01-01

    Gleason grade is universally used for pathologic scoring the differentiation of prostate cancer. However, it is unknown whether prostate tumors arise well-differentiated and then progress to less differentiated forms or if Gleason grade is an early and largely unchanging feature. Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) screening has reduced the proportion of tumors diagnosed at advanced stage, which allows assessment of this question on a population level. If Gleason grade progresses as stage does, one would expect a similar reduction in high grade tumors. We studied 1,207 Physicians’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants diagnosed with prostate cancer 1982–2004 and treated with prostatectomy. We compared the distribution of grade and clinical stage across the pre-PSA and PSA screening eras. We re-reviewed grade using the ISUP 2005 revised criteria. The proportion of advanced stage tumors dropped more than six-fold, from the earliest period (12/1982–1/1993), 19.9% stage ?T3, to the latest (5/2000–12/2004), 3% stage T3, none T4. The proportion of Gleason score ?8 decreased substantially less, from 25.3% to 17.6%. A significant interaction between stage and diagnosis date predicting grade (p=0.04) suggests the relationship between grade and stage varies by time period. As the dramatic shift in stage since the introduction of PSA screening was accompanied by a more modest shift in Gleason grade, these findings suggest grade may be established early in tumor pathogenesis. This has implications for the understanding of tumor progression and prognosis, and may help patients diagnosed with lower grade disease feel more comfortable choosing active surveillance. PMID:23946472

  5. 78 FR 33146 - Importance of Clear Safety Procedures for Temporary Removal From Service of Highway-Rail Grade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ...Temporary Removal From Service of Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Warning Systems and Wayside...public and railroad employees when highway- rail grade crossing warning systems and wayside...procedures to ensure the safety of highway-rail grade crossing warning systems and...

  6. When is a grade 4 pressure ulcer not grade 4?

    PubMed

    Briggs, Shiu-Ling

    The adoption of the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) (2009) pressure ulcer classification system within healthcare trusts in the UK has provided health professionals with a common approach for the description of tissue damage for pressure ulcers. However, the omission of the 'unstageable/unclassified' and 'suspected deep tissue injury under intact skin' has caused difficulties when the visual appearance of pressure ulcers falls outside the four grades listed in the classification system. These difficulties lead health professionals to overestimate the degree of tissue damage, resulting in confusion in regards to determining the true extent of the tissue damage and often misdirection of scarce resources (Moore, 2005). The Berkshire Tissue Viability Nurses Group attempted to bring clarity to the situation by highlighting the issues to raise awareness and stimulate discussion among health professionals. The author, with support of the Berkshire Tissue Viability Nurses Group, first presented the content of this article at a meeting of the No Needless Skin Breakdown Work Stream meeting of the South Central Strategic Health Authority Patient Safety Federation in January 2011. PMID:22067935

  7. "Grading Guide" Instructor: John Steinberger

    E-print Network

    Steinberger, John

    the workload of the TAs · Increase the grading accuracy · So you can think about how your homework looks. Just because the solution you're grading isn't as good as yours doesn't mean points should be taken off; if it's good enough (the result is correct and the explanation is intelligible) then don't take points

  8. Teaching Literacy in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paratore, Jeanne R.; McCormack, Rachel L.

    2005-01-01

    Second-grade classrooms are exciting places to visit. Children are consolidating their growing reading and writing expertise, exploring new genres, and becoming more effective communicators. This book takes the reader into several exemplary second-grade classrooms to demonstrate what teachers can do to optimize literacy learning for their…

  9. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cattaneo, A. S. [Institut fuer Mathematik, Universitaet Zuerich-Irchel, Winterthurerstr. 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Zambon, M. [Centre de Recerca Matematica, Apartat de correus 50, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2009-02-02

    The main result extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result.

  10. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  11. How Accurate Is Peer Grading?

    PubMed Central

    Parks, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Previously we showed that weekly, written, timed, and peer-graded practice exams help increase student performance on written exams and decrease failure rates in an introductory biology course. Here we analyze the accuracy of peer grading, based on a comparison of student scores to those assigned by a professional grader. When students graded practice exams by themselves, they were significantly easier graders than a professional; overall, students awarded ?25% more points than the professional did. This difference represented ?1.33 points on a 10-point exercise, or 0.27 points on each of the five 2-point questions posed. When students graded practice exams as a group of four, the same student-expert difference occurred. The student-professional gap was wider for questions that demanded higher-order versus lower-order cognitive skills. Thus, students not only have a harder time answering questions on the upper levels of Bloom's taxonomy, they have a harder time grading them. Our results suggest that peer grading may be accurate enough for low-risk assessments in introductory biology. Peer grading can help relieve the burden on instructional staff posed by grading written answers—making it possible to add practice opportunities that increase student performance on actual exams. PMID:21123695

  12. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level, an overview of the topic, a list…

  13. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  14. Student Expectations of Grade Inflation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landrum, R. Eric

    1999-01-01

    College students completed evaluation-of-teaching surveys in five different courses to develop an evaluation instrument that would provide results concerning faculty performance. Two questions examined students' expectations regarding grades. Results indicated a significant degree of expected grade inflation. Large proportions of students doing…

  15. RTP AREA ROAD GRADE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grade data collection with GPS equipment is important because the load model component of the MEASURE model uses grade to predict the vehicle load. To date, data collection has been conducted for high priority roads and this task will include other roads not included in the firs...

  16. Coastal Studies for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Venetia R.; Roach, Ellen M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a set of field trips for participants of the Coastal Environmental Education for Primary Grades program in Georgia. Includes a sample of the activities used by first- and second-grade students. Discusses follow-up activities and the need for more educational programs dealing with sand dunes and saltwater marshes. (TW)

  17. Grade Inflation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The topic of grade inflation, the awarding of too many "A's" and "B's", is frequently mentioned in the literature on higher education. Many educational philosophies have suggested ways to evaluate students fairly. Some professors have used the bell-shaped curve as a model, giving grades according to the normal distribution curve regardless of the…

  18. Information, Course Selection, and Grade Inflation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talia Bar

    2008-01-01

    We exploit a unique natural experiment — Cornell University's 1996 decision to publish course median grades online — to examine the effect of grade information on course selection and grade inflation. We model students' course selection as dependent on their tastes, abilities, and expected grades. The model yields three testable hypotheses: (1) students will be drawn to leniently graded courses

  19. Fuzzy logic and a risk-based graded approach for developing S/RIDs: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    A Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is the set of expressed performance expectations, or standards, for a facility. Critical to the development of an integrated standards-based management is the identification of a set of necessary and sufficient standards from a selected set of standards/requirements. There is a need for a formal, rigorous selection process for the S/RIDs. This is the first of three reports that develop a fuzzy logic selection process. In this report the fundamentals of fuzzy logic are discussed as they apply to a risk-based graded approach.

  20. 7 CFR 810.2205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty wheat. Wheat that contains more than 0.05 percent of ergot....