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Sample records for standards-based grading system

  1. Seven Reasons for Standards-Based Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriffiny, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past three years, Patricia L. Scriffiny has transformed the grading system in her high school mathematics classroom by replacing the traditional points-based system with a standards-based system. Instead of assigning points for assignments, she lists student progress toward meeting clearly defined course objectives. In this article,…

  2. Standards-Based Grading and Reporting Will Improve Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Marco A.; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Grading and reporting are foundational elements in nearly every educational system. Grading represents teachers' evaluations, formative or summative, of students' performance. Reporting is how the results of those evaluations are communicated to students, parents, or others. Because of their fundamental nature, educators must ensure that grading

  3. A Preliminary Investigation into the Effect of Standards-Based Grading on the Academic Performance of African-American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury-Bailey, Mary

    With the implementation of No Child Left Behind came a wave of educational reform intended for those working with student populations whose academic performance seemed to indicate an alienation from the educational process. Central to these reforms was the implementation of standards-based instruction and their accompanying standardized assessments; however, in one area reform seemed nonexistent---the teacher's gradebook. (Erickson, 2010, Marzano, 2006; Scriffiny, 2008). Given the link between the grading process and achievement motivation, Ames (1992) suggested the use of practices that promote mastery goal orientation. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of standards-based grading system as a factor contributing to mastery goal orientation on the academic performance of urban African American students. To determine the degree of impact, this study first compared the course content averages and End-of-Course-Test (EOCT) scores for science classes using a traditional grading system to those using a standards-based grading system by employing an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). While there was an increase in all grading areas, two showed a significant difference---the Physical Science course content average (p = 0.024) and ix the Biology EOCT scores (p = 0.0876). These gains suggest that standards-based grading can have a positive impact on the academic performance of African American students. Secondly, this study examined the correlation between the course content averages and the EOCT scores for both the traditional and standards-based grading system; for both Physical Science and Biology, there was a stronger correlation between these two scores for the standards-based grading system.

  4. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades 5-8 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates the titles of the…

  5. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades K-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades K-4 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates the titles of the…

  6. Using Standards-Based Grading to Address Students' Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaack, Susan; Kreuz, Allie; Zawlocki, Erin

    2012-01-01

    This action research project report uses standard-based grading to address the problem of traditional grades not adequately assessing student content mastery and students' lack of awareness regarding their strengths and weaknesses. Research was conducted by one elementary and two middle school teachers with 158 students between the dates of…

  7. "Standards"-Based Mathematics Curricula and Middle-Grades Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Harwell, Michael R.; Davis, Jon D.; Maeda, Yukiko; Cutler, Arnie; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.; Norman, Ke Wu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined achievement patterns of middle school students enrolled in Standards-based curricula, in particular those curricula that were funded from a solicitation of proposals through the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the early 1990s (NSF RFP 91-100). Approximately 1400 middle-grades students who had used either the Connected…

  8. Implementation Issues of a Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation System: Perceptions of Campus Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine the key implementation issues of a standards-based teacher evaluation system as perceived by campus administrators. The 80 campus administrators that participated in this study were from six public school districts located in southeastern Texas that serve students in grades Kindergarten…

  9. Fourth-Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-Based Lunar Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Fourth-grade students' knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change.…

  10. Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

    2006-01-01

    In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

  11. New Teachers' Perceptions of a Standards-Based Performance Appraisal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Pry, Stephen C.; Schumacher, Gary

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted with first-year teachers. It provided insight into two key research questions: (1) What were the perceptions of new teachers regarding a standards-based performance appraisal system as it was implemented on their campus? (2) What factors contributed to the perceptions of new teachers regarding this system as it was…

  12. Domain management OSSs: bridging the gap between legacy and standards-based network management systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemley, Todd A.

    1996-11-01

    The rapid change in the telecommunications environment is forcing carriers to re-assess not only their service offering, but also their network management philosophy. The competitive carrier environment has taken away the luxury of throwing technology at a problem by using legacy and proprietary systems and architectures. A more flexible management environment is necessary to effectively gain, and maintain operating margins in the new market era. Competitive forces are driving change which gives carriers more choices than those that are available in legacy and standards-based solutions alone. However, creating an operational support system (OSS) with this gap between legacy and standards has become as dynamic as the services which it supports. A philosophy which helps to integrate the legacy and standards systems is domain management. Domain management relates to a specific service or market 'domain,'and its associated operational support requirements. It supports a companies definition of its business model, which drives the definition of each domain. It also attempts to maximize current investment while injecting new technology available in a practical approach. The following paragraphs offer an overview of legacy systems, standards-based philosophy, and the potential of domain management to help bridge the gap between the two types of systems.

  13. Design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent self-management system (PICS).

    PubMed

    von Bargen, Tobias; Gietzelt, Matthias; Britten, Matthias; Song, Bianying; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Kohlmann, Martin; Marschollek, Michael; Haux, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change and a diminishing care workforce there is a growing need for personalized decision support. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent care systems (PICS). PICS makes consistent use of internationally accepted standards such as the Health Level 7 (HL7) Arden syntax for the representation of the decision logic, HL7 Clinical Document Architecture for information representation and is based on a open-source service-oriented architecture framework and a business process management system. Its functionality is exemplified for the application scenario of a patient suffering from congestive heart failure. Several vital signs sensors provide data for the decision support system, and a number of flexible communication channels are available for interaction with patient or caregiver. PICS is a standards-based, open and flexible system enabling personalized decision support. Further development will include the implementation of components on small computers and sensor nodes. PMID:23542984

  14. Discover, Visualize, and Deliver Geospatial Data through OGC Standards-based WebGIS System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yaxing; SanthanaVannan, Suresh K; Cook, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial data are important to understand the Earth - ecosystem dynamics, land cover changes, resource management, and human interactions with the Earth to name a few. One of the biggest difficulties users face is to discover, access, and assemble distributed, large volume, heterogeneous geospatial data to conduct geo-analysis. Traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery lack the capabilities of resource sharing and automation across systems or organizational boundaries. They require users to download the data ldquoas-isrdquo in their original file format, projection, and extent. Also, discovering data served by traditional methods requires prior knowledge of data location, and processing requires specialized expertise. These drawbacks of traditional methods create additional burden to users, introduce too much overhead to research, and also reduce the potential usage of the data. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), researchers working on NASA-sponsored projects: Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and Modeling and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) have tapped into the benefits of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards to overcome the drawbacks of traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery. The OGC standards-based approach facilitates data sharing and interoperability across network, organizational, and geopolitical boundaries. Tools and services based on OGC standards deliver the data in many user defined formats and allow users to visualize the data prior to download. This paper introduces an approach taken to visualize and deliver ORNL DAAC, MAST-DC, and other relevant geospatial data through OGC standards-based Web Services, including Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Feature Service (WFS). It also introduces a WebGIS system built on top of OGC services that helps users discover, visualize, and access geospatial data.

  15. The Development and Implementation of a National, Standards-Based, Multi-Method Teacher Performance Assessment System in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Sun, Yulan

    2014-01-01

    Assessing teaching performance is a contentious issue in current educational policy in many countries. In Chile, a national, standards-based, multi-method, mandatory teacher evaluation system has been in place since 2003 to assess the performance of about 70, 000 public school teachers from pre-school to high school and adult education. The…

  16. The standard-based open workflow system in GeoBrain (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Yu, G.; Zhao, P.; Deng, M.

    2013-12-01

    GeoBrain is an Earth science Web-service system developed and operated by the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems, George Mason University. In GeoBrain, a standard-based open workflow system has been implemented to accommodate the automated processing of geospatial data through a set of complex geo-processing functions for advanced production generation. The GeoBrain models the complex geoprocessing at two levels, the conceptual and concrete. At the conceptual level, the workflows exist in the form of data and service types defined by ontologies. The workflows at conceptual level are called geo-processing models and cataloged in GeoBrain as virtual product types. A conceptual workflow is instantiated into a concrete, executable workflow when a user requests a product that matches a virtual product type. Both conceptual and concrete workflows are encoded in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). A BPEL workflow engine, called BPELPower, has been implemented to execute the workflow for the product generation. A provenance capturing service has been implemented to generate the ISO 19115-compliant complete product provenance metadata before and after the workflow execution. The generation of provenance metadata before the workflow execution allows users to examine the usability of the final product before the lengthy and expensive execution takes place. The three modes of workflow executions defined in the ISO 19119, transparent, translucent, and opaque, are available in GeoBrain. A geoprocessing modeling portal has been developed to allow domain experts to develop geoprocessing models at the type level with the support of both data and service/processing ontologies. The geoprocessing models capture the knowledge of the domain experts and are become the operational offering of the products after a proper peer review of models is conducted. An automated workflow composition has been experimented successfully based on ontologies and artificial intelligence technology. The GeoBrain workflow system has been used in multiple Earth science applications, including the monitoring of global agricultural drought, the assessment of flood damage, the derivation of national crop condition and progress information, and the detection of nuclear proliferation facilities and events.

  17. The Impact of Standards-Based Reforms on the Art of Teaching: A Narrative Case Study of the Perceptions of Highly Effective Teachers in Grades 7-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    In the 12 years subsequent to the passing of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the ensuing standards-based reforms (SBRs) have created multiple effects that have permeated every aspect of the educational process, and teachers have reported specific constraints being placed upon them as a result. Grounded in Eisner's (2002b) theory of aesthetic teaching…

  18. Standards-based tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonisse, Jim; Randall, Scott

    2011-06-01

    Automated moving object detection and tracking are becoming cornerstone technologies for the proliferation of video and wide-area persistent surveillance systems. Emerging wide-area persistent surveillance platforms promise increasingly long periods of surveillance and increasingly wide areas of coverage with increasingly high-detail imagery over the entire area of interest, but the volume of data collected threatens to overwhelm our ability to understand the implications of the data. This paper describes a standards-based metadata architecture to support development of advanced automated movement detection and tracking capabilities - and ultimately "activity" recognition - to help the human observer bring the data volume under control.

  19. Building Standards based Science Information Systems: A Survey of ISO and other standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Todd; Walker, Raymond

    Science Information systems began with individual researchers maintaining personal collec-tions of data and managing them by using ad hoc, specialized approaches. Today information systems are an enterprise consisting of federated systems that manage and distribute both historical and contemporary data from distributed sources. Information systems have many components. Among these are metadata models, metadata registries, controlled vocabularies and ontologies which are used to describe entities and resources. Other components include services to exchange information and data; tools to populate the system and tools to utilize available resources. When constructing information systems today a variety of standards can be useful. The benefit of adopting standards is clear; it can shorten the design cycle, enhance software reuse and enable interoperability. We look at standards from the International Stan-dards Organization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), American National Standards Institute (ANSI) which have influenced the develop-ment of information systems in the Heliophysics and Planetary sciences. No standard can solve the needs of every community. Individual disciplines often must fill the gap between general purpose standards and the unique needs of the discipline. To this end individual science dis-ciplines are developing standards, Examples include the International Virtual Observatory Al-liance (IVOA), Planetary Data System (PDS)/ International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), Dublin-Core Science, and the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) consortium. This broad survey of ISO and other standards provides some guidance for the development information systems. The development of the SPASE data model is reviewed and provides some insights into the value of applying appropriate standards and is used to illustrate how quasi-standards efforts can effectively evolve towards robust standards compliance. New efforts may benefit from the lessons learned.

  20. Open Source and Open Standard based decision support system: the example of lake Verbano floods management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Antonovic, Milan; Pozzoni, Maurizio; Graf, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The Locarno area (Switzerland, Canton Ticino) is exposed to lacual floods with a return period of about 7-8 years. The risk is of particular concern because the area is located in a floodplain that registered in the last decades a great increase in settlement and values of the real estates. Moreover small differences in lake altitude may produce a significant increase in flooded area due to the very low average slope of the terrain. While fatalities are not generally registered, several important economic costs are associated, e.g.: damages to real estates, interruption of activities, evacuation and relocation and environmental damages. While important events were registered in 1978, 1993, 2000, 2002 and 2014 the local stakeholder invested time and money in the set-up of an up-to-date decision support system that allows for the reduction of risks. Thanks to impressive technological advances the visionary concept of the Digital Earth (Gore 1992, 1998) is being realizing: geospatial coverages and monitoring systems data are increasingly available on the Web, and more importantly, in a standard format. As a result, today is possible to develop innovative decision support systems (Molinari et al. 2013) which mesh-up several information sources and offers special features for risk scenarios evaluation. In agreement with the exposed view, the authors have recently developed a new Web system whose design is based on the Service Oriented Architecture pattern. Open source software (e.g.: Geoserver, PostGIS, OpenLayers) has been used throughout the whole system and geospatial Open Standards (e.g.: SOS, WMS, WFS) are the pillars it rely on. SITGAP 2.0, implemented in collaboration with the Civil protection of Locarno e Vallemaggia, combines a number of data sources such as the Federal Register of Buildings and Dwellings, the Cantonal Register of residents, the Cadastral Surveying, the Cantonal Hydro-meteorological monitoring observations, the Meteoswiss weather forecasts, and others. As a result of this orchestration of data, SITGAP 2.0 serves features that allows, for example, to be informed on active alarms, to visualize lake level forecasts and associated flooding areas, to evaluate and map exposed elements and people, to plan and manage evacuation by searching for people living in particular areas or buildings, by registering evacuation actions and by searching for evacuated people. System architecture and functionalities, and consideration on the integration and accessibility of the beneath information together with the lesson learnt during the usage of the system during the last floods of November 2014, provides interesting discussion points for the identification of current and future needs.

  1. ACSYNT - A standards-based system for parametric, computer aided conceptual design of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaram, S.; Myklebust, A.; Gelhausen, P.

    1992-01-01

    A group of eight US aerospace companies together with several NASA and NAVY centers, led by NASA Ames Systems Analysis Branch, and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory agreed, through the assistance of Americal Technology Initiative, in 1990 to form the ACSYNT (Aircraft Synthesis) Institute. The Institute is supported by a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement to continue the research and development in computer aided conceptual design of aircraft initiated by NASA Ames Research Center and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory. The result of this collaboration, a feature-based, parametric computer aided aircraft conceptual design code called ACSYNT, is described. The code is based on analysis routines begun at NASA Ames in the early 1970's. ACSYNT's CAD system is based entirely on the ISO standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System and is graphics-device independent. The code includes a highly interactive graphical user interface, automatically generated Hermite and B-Spline surface models, and shaded image displays. Numerous features to enhance aircraft conceptual design are described.

  2. The Ethical Limitations of Online Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulda, Joseph S.

    2006-01-01

    If we take as a given that faculty are their own moral agents, and not mere agents of the educational institutions at which they work, online grading systems, which are increasingly popular and mandatory, compromise their ability to act ethically. This is because such systems reduce the nuances of a complex and challenging reality to the…

  3. Education system Indonesia There is some variation in the grading systems used for individual subjects in Indonesia. These variations include number grade or

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Education system ­ Indonesia There is some variation in the grading systems used for individual subjects in Indonesia. These variations include number grade or point systems, description grades, letter

  4. A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contino, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…

  5. Alignment of Two Grading Systems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohner, Margaret; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    For the past number of years, a Canadian university has been offering its business degree program in universities located in Tianjin and Shanghai, China. This paper examines the alignment of the two grading systems and its implications on the grade distribution of graduates from the programs. An attempt is made to find an exchange rate of the two…

  6. Concepts for a standard based cross-organisational information security management system in the context of a nationwide EHR.

    PubMed

    Mense, Alexander; Hoheiser-Pförtner, Franz; Schmid, Martin; Wahl, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Working with health related data necessitates appropriate levels of security and privacy. Information security, meaning ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability, is more organizational, than technical in nature. It includes many organizational and management measures, is based on well-defined security roles, processes, and documents, and needs permanent adaption of security policies, continuously monitoring, and measures assessment. This big challenge for any organization leads to implementation of an information security management system (ISMS). In the context of establishing a regional or national electronic health record for integrated care (ICEHR), the situation is worse. Changing the medical information exchange from on-demand peer-to-peer connections to health information networks requires all organizations participating in the EHR system to have consistent security levels and to follow the same security guidelines and rules. Also, the implementation must be monitored and audited, establishing cross-organizational information security management systems (ISMS) based on international standards. This paper evaluates requirements and defines basic concepts for an ISO 27000 series-based cross-organizational ISMS in the healthcare domain and especially for the implementation of the nationwide electronic health record in Austria (ELGA). PMID:23920615

  7. Experimental performance study of wireless ad hoc system utilizing 802.11a standard base on different routing protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiao F.; Wang, You-Zheng; Mei, Shunliang; Wang, Jing

    2002-08-01

    The wireless ad hoc network technology provides a flexible infrastructure for next generation mobile telecommunication. In this paper, the performances of the networks based on IEEE802.11a standard, including packets successful delivery rate, average end-to-end delay and system throughput, have been studied with different routing protocols (AODV, WRP, and FISHEYE) using GloMoSim to evaluate the effects of various factors, such as node mobility, node density, and node radio transmission range. The simulation results show that adaptive routing protocol will be more suitable for the variation ad hoc network and the results are helpful for the optimum design and deployment of an actual network.

  8. Social Studies, Grade 3. Teaching Systems II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    The overall social studies recommended program is described in SO 000 675; the nature of this guide, and the emphasis and organization of the units are described in SO 000 679. The three units in this part of the third grade course are: Tropical Rainforest, Mountain Communities, and Grassland Communities involving the typical climatic conditions,…

  9. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Comparing grades under different pay systems. 536.105 Section 536.105...Comparing grades under different pay systems. (a) General. An agency...movement from a position under a covered pay system to a lower-graded position...

  10. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Comparing grades under different pay systems. 536.105 Section 536.105...Comparing grades under different pay systems. (a) General. An agency...movement from a position under a covered pay system to a lower-graded position...

  11. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Comparing grades under different pay systems. 536.105 Section 536.105...Comparing grades under different pay systems. (a) General. An agency...movement from a position under a covered pay system to a lower-graded position...

  12. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Comparing grades under different pay systems. 536.105 Section 536.105...Comparing grades under different pay systems. (a) General. An agency...movement from a position under a covered pay system to a lower-graded position...

  13. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Comparing grades under different pay systems. 536.105 Section 536.105...Comparing grades under different pay systems. (a) General. An agency...movement from a position under a covered pay system to a lower-graded position...

  14. ON-LINE PREDICTION OF YIELD GRADE, LONGISSIMUS MUSCLE AREA, PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, ADJUSTED PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, AND MARBLING SCORE USING THE MARC BEEF CARCASS IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the MARC Beef Carcass Image Analysis System to predict calculated yield grade, longissimus area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score under commercial beef processing conditions. In two commerci...

  15. The Solar System Presentation for SRS 5th Grade

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    The Solar System Presentation for SRS 5th Grade Prof. David Cohen, Swarthmore College #12;What astronomers try to answer: ·What are the things in the solar system like? Planets, moons, comets, asteroids, the Sun... ·Are there good conditions for life anywhere in the solar system? ·How did the solar system

  16. Grading NASA's Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Committee on Assessing the Solar System Exploration Program has reviewed NASA's progress to date in implementing the recommendations made in the National Research Council's (NRC's) solar system exploration decadal survey covering the period 2003-2013, New Frontiers in the Solar System, and in its Mars Architecture report, Assessment of NASA s Mars Architecture 2007-2016. The committee assessed NASA's progress with respect to each individual recommendation in these two reports, assigning an academic-style grade, explaining the rationale for the grade and trend, and offering recommendations for improvement. The committee generally sought to develop recommendations in cases where it determined that the grade, the trend, or both were worrisome and that the achievement of a decadal survey recommendation would require some kind of corrective action on NASA's part. This usually meant that the committee sought to offer a recommendation when the grade was a "C" or lower. However, the committee did offer recommendations in connection with some higher grades when it believed that minor corrective action was possible and desirable. More importantly, the committee did not offer recommendations for some of the activities given lower grades, particularly in the enabling technologies area (Chapter 6), because the committee determined that only the restoration of funding and the development of a strategic technology development program would solve these problems.

  17. Markov property and strong additivity of von Neumann entropy for graded quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Hajime

    2006-03-01

    The quantum Markov property is equivalent to the strong additivity of von Neumann entropy for graded quantum systems. The additivity of von Neumann entropy for bipartite graded systems implies the statistical independence of states. However, the structure of Markov states for graded systems is different from that for tensor-product systems which have trivial grading. For three-composed graded systems we have U(1)-gauge invariant Markov states whose restriction to the marginal pair of subsystems is nonseparable.

  18. Cultural Influences on Number Preferences: Christmas and Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stieger, Stefan; Krizan, Zlatan

    2013-01-01

    People consistently prefer numbers associated with themselves (e.g., birth dates) over other numbers. We argue that such number preferences are also shaped by cultural influences, such as customs regarding the day on which Christmas is celebrated and customs regarding ranking of numerals used in national school's grading system. Across 6 different…

  19. Curriculum Development for Enhancing Grade Nine Students' Systems Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernthaisong, Preeyanan; Sitti, Somsong; Sonsupap, Kanyarat

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the development of a curriculum for enhancing grade 9 students' cognitive skills using a curriculum based on Systems Thinking Process. There were 3 phases: 1) studying of the problem; 2) development of tentative curriculum; and 3) implementation of the curriculum in a pilot study. The samples were 32…

  20. Groups graded by root systems and property (T)

    PubMed Central

    Ershov, Mikhail; Jaikin-Zapirain, Andrei; Kassabov, Martin; Zhang, Zezhou

    2014-01-01

    We establish property (T) for a large class of groups graded by root systems, including elementary Chevalley groups and Steinberg groups of rank at least 2 over finitely generated commutative rings with 1. We also construct a group with property (T) which surjects onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank at least two. PMID:25425669

  1. The Point System of Grading: A Critical Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madgic, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    Assigning points to denote student achievement levels and converting point totals to semester grades is a common practice. This article reviews the advantages of point systems and discusses certain problems, including misplaced emphasis on learning objectives and reduction of teacher judgment and responsibility. Teachers should downplay the…

  2. Tumor Grade

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Richardson grading system) for breast cancer ( 1 ). This system grades breast tumors based on the following features: Tubule formation: how much of the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : an evaluation of the size and shape ...

  3. Continuous-Flow System Produces Medical-Grade Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-flow system utilizes microwave heating to sterilize water and to thermally inactivate endotoxins produced in the sterilization process. The system is designed for use in converting potable water to medical-grade water. Systems like this one could be used for efficient, small-scale production of medical- grade water in laboratories, clinics, and hospitals. This system could be adapted to use in selective sterilization of connections in ultra-pure-water-producing equipment and other equipment into which intrusion by microorganisms cannot be tolerated. Lightweight, port - able systems based on the design of this system could be rapidly deployed to remote locations (e.g., military field hospitals) or in response to emergencies in which the normal infrastructure for providing medical-grade water is disrupted. Larger systems based on the design of this system could be useful for industrial production of medical-grade water. The basic microwave-heating principle of this system is the same as that of a microwave oven: An item to be heated, made of a lossy dielectric material (in this case, flowing water) is irradiated with microwaves in a multimode microwave cavity. The heating is rapid and efficient because it results from absorption of microwave power throughout the volume of the lossy dielectric material. In this system, a copper tube having a length of 49.5 cm and a diameter of 2.25 cm serves as both the microwave cavity and the sterilization chamber. Microwave power is fed via a coaxial cable to an antenna mounted inside the tube at mid-length (see figure). Efficient power transfer occurs due to the shift in wavelength associated with the high permittivity of water combined with the strong coupling of 2.45-GHz microwaves with rotational-vibrational transitions of the dipolar water molecule.

  4. Automatic Short -Answer Grading System (ASAGS)

    E-print Network

    Selvi, P

    2010-01-01

    Automatic assessment needs short answer based evaluation and automated assessment. Various techniques used are Ontology, Semantic similarity matching and Statistical methods. An automatic short answer assessment system is attempted in this paper. Through experiments performed on a data set, we show that the semantic ASAGS outperforms methods based on simple lexical matching; resulting is up to 59 percent with respect to the traditional vector-based similarity metric.

  5. Functionally graded alumina-based thin film systems

    DOEpatents

    Moore, John J.; Zhong, Dalong

    2006-08-29

    The present invention provides coating systems that minimize thermal and residual stresses to create a fatigue- and soldering-resistant coating for aluminum die casting dies. The coating systems include at least three layers. The outer layer is an alumina- or boro-carbide-based outer layer that has superior non-wettability characteristics with molten aluminum coupled with oxidation and wear resistance. A functionally-graded intermediate layer or "interlayer" enhances the erosive wear, toughness, and corrosion resistance of the die. A thin adhesion layer of reactive metal is used between the die substrate and the interlayer to increase adhesion of the coating system to the die surface.

  6. A New Perspective in Evaluating Clinical Effectiveness: The UWO Clinical Grading System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla J.; Shewan, Cynthia M.

    1988-01-01

    The University of Western Ontario's Clinical Grading System was developed to improve assessment of speech-language pathology students' performance in clinical practicum. The system permits flexibility in weighting the contribution of particular skills to the final grade, allows for grading over an entire practicum, and provides profiles of…

  7. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOEpatents

    Kuznetsov, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel. 4 figs.

  8. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOEpatents

    Kuznetsov, Stephen B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel.

  9. Eight Steps to Meaningful Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deddeh, Heather; Main, Erin; Fulkerson, Sharon Ratzlaff

    2010-01-01

    A group of teachers at Clifford Smart Middle School in Michigan's Walled Lake Consolidated School District have broken free from traditional grading in order to embrace a more meaningful grading practice. Using standards-based grading practices, they believe their grading now accurately communicates to students and parents the student's mastery…

  10. Markov property and strong additivity of von Neumann entropy for graded quantum systems

    E-print Network

    Hajime Moriya

    2006-03-16

    It is easy to verify the equivalence of the quantum Markov property and the strong additivity of entropy for graded quantum systems as well. However, the structure of Markov states for graded systems is different from that for tensor product systems. For three-composed graded systems there are U(1)-gauge invariant Markov states whose restriction to the pair of marginal subsystems is non-separable.

  11. A Standards-Based Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In standards-based science fairs, children learn more about what they are interested in. They deepen understandings of how science works and improve inquiry skills--including the ability to communicate and share research results. Parents learn more about science inquiry and their child's science abilities. The standards-based science fair builds…

  12. LIE SUPERALGEBRAS GRADED BY THE ROOT SYSTEM B(m,n)

    E-print Network

    root system has proved to be a very useful one for studying many important classes of Lie algebras-nilpotent element (or equivalently a copy of sl2) is a Lie algebra graded by a finite root system (see [S]). Thus- duced root systems BCr. The others have some similarities with the Lie algebras graded by the reduced

  13. Graded-simple Lie algebras of type B2 and Jordan systems covered by a triangle

    E-print Network

    Neher, Erhard

    algebras, which generalize affine Lie algebras and toroidal Lie algebras. If the root system in question. In this note we will consider the case of the root system B2. A centre- less B2-graded Lie algebra is the Tits. Root-graded Lie algebra, Jordan system, idempotent 1 Address: Department of Mathematics and Statistics

  14. Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, B. D.; Giller, C. A.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of consciousness. However, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in such patients may be quite different from that of healthy individuals, particularly when assessed during the rapidly changing hemodynamic conditions associated with neurocardiogenic syncope. To be able to interpret the pathophysiological significance of these observations, a clear understanding of the normal responses of the cerebral circulation to orthostatic stress must be obtained, particularly in the context of the known changes in systemic and regional distributions of blood flow and vascular resistance during orthostasis. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in the cerebral circulation during graded reductions in central blood volume in the absence of systemic hypotension in healthy humans. We hypothesized that cerebral vasoconstriction would occur and CBF would decrease due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. We further hypothesized, however, that the magnitude of this change would be small compared with changes in systemic or skeletal muscle vascular resistance in healthy subjects with intact autoregulation and would be unlikely to cause syncope without concomitant hypotension. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test this hypothesis, we studied 13 healthy men (age, 27 +/- 7 years) during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP). We measured systemic flow (Qc is cardiac output; C2H2 rebreathing), regional forearm flow (FBF; venous occlusion plethysmography), and blood pressure (BP; Finapres) and calculated systemic (SVR) and forearm (FVR) vascular resistances. Changes in brain blood flow were estimated from changes in the blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) using transcranial Doppler. Pulsatility (systolic minus diastolic/mean velocity) normalized for systemic arterial pressure pulsatility was used as an index of distal cerebral vascular resistance. End-tidal PACO2 was closely monitored during LBNP. From rest to maximal LBNP before the onset of symptoms or systemic hypotension, Qc and FBF decreased by 29.9% and 34.4%, respectively. VMCA decreased less, by 15.5% consistent with a smaller decrease in CBF. Similarly, SVR and FVR increased by 62.8% and 69.8%, respectively, whereas pulsatility increased by 17.2%, suggestive of a mild degree of small-vessel cerebral vasoconstriction. Seven of 13 subjects had presyncope during LBNP, all associated with a sudden drop in BP (29 +/- 9%). By comparison, hyperventilation alone caused greater changes in VMCA (42 +/- 2%) and pulsatility but never caused presyncope. In a separate group of 3 subjects, superimposition of hyperventilation during highlevel LBNP caused a further decrease in VMCA (31 +/- 7%) but no change in BP or level of consciousness. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in healthy humans during graded reductions in central blood volume caused by LBNP. However, the magnitude of this response is small compared with changes in SVR or FVR during LBNP or other stimuli known to induce cerebral vasoconstriction (hypocapnia). We speculate that this degree of cerebral vasoconstriction is not by itself sufficient to cause syncope during orthostatic stress. However, it may exacerbate the decrease in CBF associated with hypotension if hemodynamic instability develops.

  15. LIE SUPERALGEBRAS GRADED BY THE ROOT SYSTEM A(m,n)

    E-print Network

    extension of work on the problem of classifying Lie algebras graded by finite root systems. Many important affine Lie algebras of [AABGP], exhibit a grading by a finite (possibly nonreduced) root system simple Lie algebra g over a field F of characteristic zero having a root space decomposition g = h µ gµ

  16. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  17. Optical system components for navigation grade fiber optic gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Marcus; Liesegang, Maximilian; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2013-10-01

    Interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes belong to the class of inertial sensors. Due to their high accuracy they are used for absolute position and rotation measurement in manned/unmanned vehicles, e.g. submarines, ground vehicles, aircraft or satellites. The important system components are the light source, the electro optical phase modulator, the optical fiber coil and the photodetector. This paper is focused on approaches to realize a stable light source and fiber coil. Superluminescent diode and erbium doped fiber laser were studied to realize an accurate and stable light source. Therefor the influence of the polarization grade of the source and the effects due to back reflections to the source were studied. During operation thermal working conditions severely affect accuracy and stability of the optical fiber coil, which is the sensor element. Thermal gradients that are applied to the fiber coil have large negative effects on the achievable system accuracy of the optic gyroscope. Therefore a way of calculating and compensating the rotation rate error of a fiber coil due to thermal change is introduced. A simplified 3 dimensional FEM of a quadrupole wound fiber coil is used to determine the build-up of thermal fields in the polarization maintaining fiber due to outside heating sources. The rotation rate error due to these sources is then calculated and compared to measurement data. A simple regression model is used to compensate the rotation rate error with temperature measurement at the outside of the fiber coil. To realize a compact and robust optical package for some of the relevant optical system components an approach based on ion exchanged waveguides in thin glass was developed. This waveguides are used to realize 1x2 and 1x4 splitter with fiber coupling interface or direct photodiode coupling.

  18. Enabling Better Interoperability for HealthCare: Lessons in Developing a Standards Based Application Programing Interface for Electronic Medical Record Systems.

    PubMed

    Kasthurirathne, Suranga N; Mamlin, Burke; Kumara, Harsha; Grieve, Grahame; Biondich, Paul

    2015-11-01

    We sought to enable better interoperability and easy adoption of healthcare applications by developing a standardized domain independent Application Programming Interface (API) for an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system. We leveraged the modular architecture of the Open Medical Record System (OpenMRS) to build a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) based add-on module that could consume FHIR resources and requests made on OpenMRS. The OpenMRS FHIR module supports a subset of FHIR resources that could be used to interact with clinical data persisted in OpenMRS. We demonstrate the ease of connecting healthcare applications using the FHIR API by integrating a third party Substitutable Medical Apps & Reusable Technology (SMART) application with OpenMRS via FHIR. The OpenMRS FHIR module is an optional component of the OpenMRS platform. The FHIR API significantly reduces the effort required to implement OpenMRS by preventing developers from having to learn or work with a domain specific OpenMRS API. We propose an integration pathway where the domain specific legacy OpenMRS API is gradually retired in favor of the new FHIR API, which would be integrated into the core OpenMRS platform. Our efforts indicate that a domain independent API is a reality for any EMR system. These efforts demonstrate the adoption of an emerging FHIR standard that is seen as a replacement for both Health Level 7 (HL7) Version 2 and Version 3. We propose a gradual integration approach where our FHIR API becomes the preferred method for communicating with the OpenMRS platform. PMID:26446013

  19. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students…

  20. Connections: Water, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Catherine R.

    Natural Resources for Grade 3 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of Learning for…

  1. A Leader's Journey: The Challenges of Implementing Standards-Based Student Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Linda R.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the actions of district and school leaders in changing from a traditional age-based grade-level structure to a standards-based student grouping model in a Western school district. Based on interview, observation, and artifact data collected over 5 years, the findings identify specific leadership actions that…

  2. 14. Site D57C, Improved NIKEHercules System, Grading Plan, U.S. Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Site D-57-C, Improved NIKE-Hercules System, Grading Plan, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 18 January 1962. - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  3. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy

    E-print Network

    Yang, Yuan

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the ...

  4. An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy

    E-print Network

    Lee, Seok Woo

    Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low ...

  5. Is It a System?: Building a Global Perspective in the Elementary and Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Ann V.

    1988-01-01

    Uses the stereo and the human body systems as models to help intermediate grade (3-6) students understand the world as a global system. Provides a teaching script for "Is It a System?" a lesson plan for teaching systems models. Provides objectives, instructional materials, and procedures. (NL)

  6. Multi-phase functionally graded materials for thermal barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.R.; Ritter, A.M.; Gigliotti, M.F.; Kaya, A.C.; Gallo, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    Jet engine and gas turbine hot section components can be protected from the 1,350--1,650 C combustion gases by thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Metallic candidates for functionally graded material (FGM) coatings have been evaluated for potential use in bonding zirconia to a single crystal superalloy. Properties for four materials were studied for the low-expansion layer adjacent to the ceramic. Ingots were produced for these materials, and oxidation, expansion and modulus were determined. A finite element model was used to study effects of varying the FGM layers. Elastic modulus dominated stress generation, and a 20--25% reduction in thermal stress generated within the zirconia layer may be possible.

  7. Simplified 2-tier histologic grading system accurately predicts outcomes in goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lawrence H; McConnell, Yarrow J; Tsang, Erica; Zerhouni, Siham; Speers, Caroline; Kennecke, Hagen; Schaeffer, David F

    2015-12-01

    Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) is a rare appendiceal malignancy with both neuroendocrine and glandular features. Clinical outcomes of patients with GCC vary widely and a histology-based 3-tiered prognostic scheme has been previously suggested; however, this scheme is subjective and challenging to apply in day-to-day practice. We sought to construct a simplified and prognostic grading system based on objective histologic features with specific criteria. A continuous population-based cohort of GCC with clinical outcome data and archival tissue available for review was extracted from regional databases. For the 78 patients with confirmed appendiceal GCC, specific histologic features, including cytologic atypia, peritumoral stromal desmoplasia, and solid growth pattern, were recorded, and a scoring system was devised, which separates patients with GCC into low-grade (n = 55; 71%) or high-grade (n = 23; 29%) histology. Correspondingly, clinical follow-up data show good prognosis in those with low-grade histology with median and 10-year overall survival of 51.0 months and 80.5%, respectively, whereas those with high-grade histology have a poor prognosis with median and 10-year overall survival of 16.5 months (P = .006) and 0% (P < .001), respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling demonstrates that this 2-tier histologic system remains predictive of overall survival when controlled for TNM clinicopathological stage. These data show that a simple and objective histologic scoring system separates GCC into low- and high-grade histology with divergent clinical outcomes. PMID:26433702

  8. Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

    This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

  9. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  10. Starting the Conversation about Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    As they attempt to make the transition to standards-based grading, many schools go off track or get swamped by side issues, writes Brookhart. They waste energy having hard discussions about grading practice details that, by themselves, cannot accomplish real reform. Instead, schools should focus discussion on major questions: What meaning do we…

  11. Assessment of a cytology grading system for head and neck masses.

    PubMed

    Draper, M R; Pfleiderer, A G; Smith, W

    2003-02-01

    A grading system for Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy Cytology (FNAC) has been in routine use in Peterborough since 1994 for reporting on fine needle aspiration biopsies of neck lumps. The records of all 276 patients who had neck lump fine needle aspiration biopsies performed between 1994 and 1999 were reviewed retrospectively. The 193 patients who had definitive histology available were included in the study of whom 154 (80.2%) were considered adequate for grading. A learning curve for adequacy of specimens obtained is demonstrated, with adequacy rate increasing with increasing experience or seniority of the sampler. The grading system produced an overall accuracy rate of 73.3% with a predictive value for malignancy of 88.6% and a predictive value for benign conditions of 67.3%. Individual grades were assessed for predictive value of benign or malignant disease. Grade 5 proved completely reliable, with a predictive value for malignancy of 100%. The shortcomings of the other grades and the difficulties in diagnosing lymphoma by FNAC are discussed. PMID:12580878

  12. A multi-resolution image analysis system for computer-assisted grading of neuroblastoma differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jun; Sertel, Olcay; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Boyer, Kim L.; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin N.

    2008-03-01

    Neuroblastic Tumor (NT) is one of the most commonly occurring tumors in children. Of all types of NTs, neuroblastoma is the most malignant tumor that can be further categorized into undifferentiated (UD), poorly-differentiated (PD) and differentiating (D) types, in terms of the grade of pathological differentiation. Currently, pathologists determine the grade of differentiation by visual examinations of tissue samples under the microscope. However, this process is subjective and, hence, may lead to intra- and inter-reader variability. In this paper, we propose a multi-resolution image analysis system that helps pathologists classify tissue samples according to their grades of differentiation. The inputs to this system are color images of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue samples. The complete image analysis system has five stages: segmentation, feature construction, feature extraction, classification and confidence evaluation. Due to the large number of input images, both parallel processing and multi-resolution analysis were carried out to reduce the execution time of the algorithm. Our training dataset consists of 387 images tiles of size 512x512 in pixels from three whole-slide images. We tested the developed system with an independent set of 24 whole-slide images, eight from each grade. The developed system has an accuracy of 83.3% in correctly identifying the grade of differentiation, and it takes about two hours, on average, to process each whole slide image.

  13. ROOT-GRADED LIE ALGEBRAS WITH COMPATIBLE GRADINGS

    E-print Network

    Yoshii, Yoji

    ROOT-GRADED LIE ALGEBRAS WITH COMPATIBLE GRADINGS Yoji Yoshii Abstract. Lie algebras graded by a finite irreducible reduced root system will be generalized as predivision G-graded Lie algebras graded by a finite irreducible reduced root system or a -graded Lie algebra was introduced by Berman

  14. A New MRI Grading System for Cervical Foraminal Stenosis Based on Axial T2-Weighted Images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin; Chai, Jee Won; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kang, Yusuhn; Seo, Jiwoon; Ahn, Joong Mo; Kang, Heung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grading system for cervical neural foraminal stenosis (NFS). Materials and Methods Cervical NFS at bilateral C4/5, C5/6, and C6/7 was classified into the following three grades based on the T2-weighted axial images: Grade 0 = absence of NFS, with the narrowest width of the neural foramen greater than the width of the extraforaminal nerve root (EFNR); Grade 1 = the narrowest width of the neural foramen the same or less than (but more than 50% of) the width of the EFNR; Grade 2 = the width of the neural foramen the same or less than 50% of the width of the EFNR. The MRIs of 96 patients who were over 60 years old (M:F = 50:46; mean age 68.4 years; range 61-86 years) were independently analyzed by seven radiologists. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements were analyzed using the percentage agreement, kappa statistics, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results For the distinction among the three individual grades at all six neural foramina, the ICC ranged from 0.68 to 0.73, indicating fair to good reproducibility. The percentage agreement ranged from 60.2% to 70.6%, and the kappa values (? = 0.50-0.58) indicated fair to moderate agreement. The percentages of intraobserver agreement ranged from 85.4% to 93.8% (? = 0.80-0.92), indicating near perfect agreement. Conclusion The new MRI grading system shows sufficient interobserver and intraobserver agreement to reliably assess cervical NFS. PMID:26576119

  15. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Crictor"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coblin, Mary Payne; Huss, Dorothy; Kirk, Bonnie; Lonneman, Melissa; Melville, Claire

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  16. Inquiry-based science in the middle grades: Assessment of learning in urban systemic reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Ronald W.; Blumenfeld, Phyllis C.; Krajcik, Joseph S.; Fishman, Barry; Soloway, Elliot; Geier, Robert; Tali Tal, Revital

    2004-12-01

    Science education standards established by American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the National Research Council (NRC) urge less emphasis on memorizing scientific facts and more emphasis on students investigating the everyday world and developing deep understanding from their inquiries. These approaches to instruction challenge teachers and students, particularly urban students who often have additional challenges related to poverty. We report data on student learning spanning 3 years from a science education reform collaboration with the Detroit Public Schools. Data were collected from nearly 8,000 students who participated in inquiry-based and technology-infused curriculum units that were collaboratively developed by district personnel and staff from the University of Michigan as part of a larger, district-wide systemic reform effort in science education. The results show statistically significant increases on curriculum-based test scores for each year of participation. Moreover, the strength of the effects grew over the years, as evidenced by increasing effect size estimates across the years. The findings indicate that students who historically are low achievers in science can succeed in standards-based, inquiry science when curriculum is carefully developed and aligned with professional development and district policies. Additional longitudinal research on the development of student understanding over multiple inquiry projects, the progress of teacher enactment over time, and the effect of changes in the policy and administrative environment would further contribute to the intellectual and practical tools necessary to implement meaningful standards-based systemic reform in science.

  17. A Modular, Standards-based Digital Object Repository

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-08-01

    The aDORe repository architecture, designed and implemented for ingesting, storing, and accessing a vast collection of Digital Objects. aDORe was originally created for use at the Research Library of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aDORe architecture is highly modular and standards-based. In the architecture, the MPEG-21 Digital Item Declaration Language is used as the XML-based format to represent Digital Objects that can consist of multiple datastreams as Open Archival Information System Archival Information Packagesmore »(OAIS AIPs).« less

  18. A Modular, Standards-based Digital Object Repository

    SciTech Connect

    2005-08-01

    The aDORe repository architecture, designed and implemented for ingesting, storing, and accessing a vast collection of Digital Objects. aDORe was originally created for use at the Research Library of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aDORe architecture is highly modular and standards-based. In the architecture, the MPEG-21 Digital Item Declaration Language is used as the XML-based format to represent Digital Objects that can consist of multiple datastreams as Open Archival Information System Archival Information Packages (OAIS AIPs).

  19. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  20. Design of an Automated Essay Grading (AEG) System in Indian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Siddhartha; Fatima, Sameen S.

    2007-01-01

    Automated essay grading or scoring systems are no more a myth, but they are a reality. As of today, the human written (not hand written) essays are corrected not only by examiners/teachers but also by machines. The TOEFL exam is one of the best examples of this application. The students' essays are evaluated both by human and web based automated…

  1. The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Sami

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

  2. The Rationale and Design of a Primary Grades Reading System for an Individualized Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Isabel L.; Mitroff, Donna D.

    The staff of the Reading Project of the Learning Research and Development Center at the University of Pittsburgh, having previously experimented with beginning reading programs, adapted commercially available materials for use in an individualized elementary school environment. Their activities culminated in The New Primary Grades Reading System

  3. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

  4. A real-time apple grading system using multicolor space.

    PubMed

    Toylan, Hayrettin; Kuscu, Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter "a" of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

  5. Photoneutron logging system for direct uranium ore-grade determination

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.P.; Marks, T.

    1982-06-01

    A prototype photoneutron probe for direct uranium assay in exploratory boreholes has been built and field tested. An approx. 10-Ci /sup 124/Sb gamma-ray source together with a beryllium converter is used to produce neutrons that diffuse into the surrounding formation and cause fissions in any /sup 235/U present. The fission neutrons that return to the probe are energy analyzed and counted by a high-pressure helium detector, thus indicating the concentration of uranium. The response of the probe was measured in concrete models at the US Department of Energy (Grand Junction, Colorado) calibration facility and found to be approx. 35 counts/s for an 1% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ concentration in an 11.4-cm-diam water-filled borehole (4.5 in.). The response is linear up to a concentration of at least 0.25% by weight U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Effects resulting from changes in formation density, porosity, and neutron absorber content were also quantified, as well as the tool response as a function of borehole diameter and fluid. A logging vehicle was outfitted, and the photoneutron-based logging system was field tested at an exploration site near Canon City, Colorado. Logging data obtained in several open holes at this site are presented and compared to core chemical analyses and results obtained in the same holes using other logging methods. In about 1 month of field testing, the photoneutron-based uranium exploration system has proved to be simple to use and very reliable. 22 figures, 12 tables.

  6. A simple and accurate grading system for orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the assessment of post-transplant renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Zaki, S.K.; Bretan, P.N.; Go, R.T.; Rehm, P.K.; Streem, S.B.; Novick, A.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Orthoiodohippurate renal scanning has proved to be a reliable, noninvasive method for the evaluation and followup of renal allograft function. However, a standardized system for grading renal function with this test is not available. We propose a simple grading system to distinguish the different functional phases of hippurate scanning in renal transplant recipients. This grading system was studied in 138 patients who were evaluated 1 week after renal transplantation. There was a significant correlation between the isotope renographic functional grade and clinical correlates of allograft function such as the serum creatinine level (p = 0.0001), blood urea nitrogen level (p = 0.0001), urine output (p = 0.005) and need for hemodialysis (p = 0.007). We recommend this grading system as a simple and accurate method to interpret orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the evaluation and followup of renal allograft recipients.

  7. The Utility of Curriculum-Based Measurement within a Multitiered Framework: Establishing Cut Scores as Predictors of Student Performance on the Alaska Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between student performance on Reading Curriculum-based Measures (R-CBM) and student performance on the Alaska's standards based assessment (SBA) administered to students in Studied School District (SSD) Grade 3 through Grade 5 students in the Studied School District as required by…

  8. 76 FR 11992 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...FRA is proposing amendments to its primary regulations on grade crossing safety. The major amendments proposed would require a railroad that dispatches a train through a public or private highway- rail or pathway grade crossing to establish and maintain a system that allows a member of the public to call the railroad and report an emergency or other unsafe condition at the crossing. Upon......

  9. Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaafar, Hussain F.; Nandi, Asoke K.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

  10. A thermodynamic model for heat transport and thermal wave propagation in graded systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, D.; Carlomagno, I.; Cimmelli, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    We study the effects of a composition gradient and of a non-vanishing heat flux on the phase velocity of thermal waves along a graded system. We take into account non-local and non-linear effects by applying a generalized heat transport equation. We compare the results for high-frequency and low-frequency waves. For low frequency, we discuss the conditions in which thermal waves may propagate in Six Ge1-x and (Bi1-x Sbx) 2 Te3 systems. For high frequency, we discuss the influence of the relaxation of the flux of the heat flux on the heat wave propagation.

  11. Symposium: Language Assessment in Standards-Based Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menken, Kate; Hudson, Thom; Leung, Constant

    2014-01-01

    This symposium article, to which three authors contribute distinct parts, presents the rationale for standards-based language assessment and examines both the uses and misuses of language assessments in English-speaking countries that are engaged in standards-based education reform. Specifically, they focus on the assessment of emergent bilinguals…

  12. The Iatrogenic Consequences of Standards-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence A.; Stanley, Gregory Kent

    2006-01-01

    Standards-based assessments were prescribed as the cure for the poor accountability of public schools. Billions of dollars have been spent on curricula, tests, and scoring rubrics so that federal and state agencies can rank schools in terms of student achievement. Over the past twenty years, standards-based education has become the defacto, only…

  13. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)63?/4? redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas. PMID:25404325

  14. The clinical relevance of non-classified dysganglionoses and implications for a new grading system.

    PubMed

    Berger, S; Linke, F; Tiling, S v; Kap-herr, S Hofmann-v

    2002-09-01

    In addition to the classified types of dysganglionosis, certain non-classified dysganglionoses (NCD) (types 1-4) were introduced by Meier-Ruge in 1992. Clinical data on these conditions are limited. Among 134 children with intestinal dysganglionoses (ID) treated from 1979 to 1999, 12 were identified to have a NCD. Their clinical course is presented. The existence of mild ID (type 1) is difficult to demonstrate. Current definitions and data on clinical relevance are not convincing. An indication for surgical treatment is not present. Isolated hypogenesis of the submucous plexus (SMP) (type 2, n = 8) is clinically a more severe kind of intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B and often requires early surgical intervention, but not resection. When associated with aganglionosis, its recognition is important for surgical strategy, to avoid complicated clinical courses, which are frequent if total or nearly-total resection is not performed. Hypogenesis of the myenteric plexus (MP) (type 5, n = 1) has received little attention so far. The sporadic appearance of heterotopic nerve cells of the SMP in the mucosa (type 3, n = 1) is physiologic; clusters of such cells, however, are probably of pathologic value, especially in combination with other types of ID in the same patient. Heterotopic nerve cells of the MP (type 4, n = 3) in the circular and longitudinal muscle layers are highly pathologic. This clearly-defined type is of major clinical relevance and requires complete resection. A severe disturbance of the migration process is the underlying cause. To simplify the terminology of IDs, a grading system based on the anatomic structures and clinical findings is proposed: innervation disturbances of the mucosa (grade I) are of limited clinical significance. Isolated malformations of the SMP (grade II) may require an enterostomy, but do not require resection except in certain cases associated with distal aganglionosis. Dysganglionosis of the MP (grade III) usually exhibits more severe symptoms and resection is indicated, especially with associated hypo- or aganglionosis. In aganglionic bowel (grade IV) resection is mandatory. PMID:12415356

  15. Portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fan; Yang, Renfu; Nian, Feng; Zhang, Zhenwei; Cui, Yongshun; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Nuanrang; Feng, Keming

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping is designed and demonstrated. To achieve a portable prototype, in the system, a single transverse mode 795nm VCSEL modulated by a 3.4GHz RF source is used as a pump laser which generates coherent light fields. The pump beams pass through a vapor cell containing atom gas and buffer gas. This vapor cell is surrounded by a magnetic shield and placed inside a solenoid which applies a longitudinal magnetic field to lift the Zeeman energy levels' degeneracy and to separate the resonance signal, which has no first-order magnetic field dependence, from the field-dependent resonances. The electrical control system comprises two control loops. The first one locks the laser wavelength to the minimum of the absorption spectrum; the second one locks the modulation frequency and output standard frequency. Furthermore, we designed the micro physical package and realized the locking of a coherent population trapping atomic frequency standard portable prototype successfully. The short-term frequency stability of the whole system is measured to be 6×10-11 for averaging times of 1s, and reaches 5×10-12 at an averaging time of 1000s.

  16. The Weaknesses and Shortcomings of the Junior High School in Israel: Some Insights into Grade Configurations of Educational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar; Tubin, Dorit

    2009-01-01

    The current study aimed to explore the weaknesses of the junior high school system in Israel, a country whose first junior high schools (Grades 7-9) were established in the early 1970s and whose educational system differs from the systems of Europe and North America in terms of structure, ideology, and control. Based on semistructured interviews…

  17. California teachers' perceptions of standards-based reform in middle school science: A mixed-methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, Allison Gail Wilson

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 presented one of the most significant and comprehensive literacy reforms in many years (McDonnell, 2005; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). The era of school accountability and standards based reform has brought many challenges and changes to public schools. Increasingly, public officials and educational administrators are asked to use standards based assessments to make high-stakes decisions, such as whether a student will move on to the next grade level or receive a diploma (American Psychological Association, 2005). It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' perceptions and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement standards-based reform. This mixed-methods study was designed to assess teachers' perceptions of changes related to standards-based reform as supported by Fullan's (2001) change theory and transformational leadership theory. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated standards-based reform and began focusing on preparing students for the California Standards Test in Science (CSTS). Using descriptive statistical analysis and in-depth interviews, results show favorable insight towards standards-based reform. The survey was distributed to 30 middle school science teachers from 10 low-performing schools in Los Angeles, California. Results were analyzed using Spearman rank-ordered correlations. Interviews were conducted on middle school teachers represented by each grade level. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the CSTS as measured in this study. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

  18. ROOT-GRADED LIE ALGEBRAS WITH COMPATIBLE GRADING Yoji Yoshii

    E-print Network

    ROOT-GRADED LIE ALGEBRAS WITH COMPATIBLE GRADING Yoji Yoshii Department of Mathematics irreducible reduced root system will be generalized to predivision (, G)-graded Lie algebras for an abelian by a finite irreducible reduced root system or a -graded Lie algebra was introduced by Berman and Moody [3

  19. ROOT-GRADED LIE ALGEBRAS WITH COMPATIBLE GRADING Yoji Yoshii

    E-print Network

    ROOT-GRADED LIE ALGEBRAS WITH COMPATIBLE GRADING Yoji reduced root system will be ge* *neralized to predivision ( , G)-graded Lie algebras for an abelian of a Lie algebra over a field F of characteristic 0 graded by a * *finite irreducible reduced root system

  20. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    A number of large-scale research projects are currently under way exploring the various components of citizen observatories, e.g. CITI-SENSE (http://www.citi-sense.eu), Citclops (http://citclops.eu), COBWEB (http://cobwebproject.eu), OMNISCIENTIS (http://www.omniscientis.eu), and WeSenseIt (http://www.wesenseit.eu). Common to all projects is the motivation to develop a platform enabling effective participation by citizens in environmental projects, while considering important aspects such as security, privacy, long-term storage and availability, accessibility of raw and processed data and its proper integration into catalogues and international exchange and collaboration systems such as GEOSS or INSPIRE. This paper describes the software architecture implemented for setting up crowdsourcing campaigns using standardized components, interfaces, security features, and distribution capabilities. It illustrates the Citizen Observatory Toolkit, a software suite that allows defining crowdsourcing campaigns, to invite registered and unregistered participants to participate in crowdsourcing campaigns, and to analyze, process, and visualize raw and quality enhanced crowd sourcing data and derived products. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is not a single software product. Instead, it is a framework of components that are built using internationally adopted standards wherever possible (e.g. OGC standards from Sensor Web Enablement, GeoPackage, and Web Mapping and Processing Services, as well as security and metadata/cataloguing standards), defines profiles of those standards where necessary (e.g. SWE O&M profile, SensorML profile), and implements design decisions based on the motivation to maximize interoperability and reusability of all components. The toolkit contains tools to set up, manage and maintain crowdsourcing campaigns, allows building on-demand apps optimized for the specific sampling focus, supports offline and online sampling modes using modern cell phones with built-in sensing technologies, automates the upload of the raw data, and handles conflation services to match quality requirements and analysis challenges. The strict implementation of all components using internationally adopted standards ensures maximal interoperability and reusability of all components. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is currently developed as part of the COBWEB research project. COBWEB is partially funded by the European Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n° 308513; part of the topic ENV.2012.6.5-1 "Developing community based environmental monitoring and information systems using innovative and novel earth observation applications.

  1. Food grade microemulsion systems: Canola oil/lecithin:n-propanol/water.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Soleiman; Radi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the capability of a natural surfactant, lecithin, and the influence of ionic strength, pH, and temperature on some properties of a food grade microemulsion system were evaluated. For this purpose, the pseudoternary phase diagrams of canola oil/lecithin:n-propanol/water microemulsions in the presence of different salts (NaCl and CaCl2), ionic strengths, pHs, and temperatures were constructed. Our findings showed that the presence of salts slightly increased the W/O areas on the phase diagrams, whereas pH variation was not effective on the microemulsion formation. The expansion of microemulsion areas with temperature indicated the greater triglycerides solubilization capacity of lecithin based microemulsions at higher temperatures. These findings revealed the efficiency of lecithin-based microemulsion system for solubilization of triglycerides which can potentially be used for extraction of edible vegetable oils particularly canola oil. PMID:26471642

  2. Construction of a new food-grade expression system for Bacillus subtilis based on theta replication plasmids and auxotrophic complementation.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yu; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Jianxin; Tian, Fengwei; Zhang, Hao; Ding, Xiaolin

    2007-09-01

    A new food-grade expression system was constructed for Bacillus subtilis based on replicative food-grade expression plasmids and auxotrophic complementation. The food-grade B. subtilis host FG01 was created by knockout of the dal locus from the chromosome of B. subtilis 168. Two food-grade expression plasmids pXFGT03 and pXFGT05 were constructed by combining a novel theta-type Bacillus replicon with the B. subtilis endogenous gene dal and P43 promoter; while pXFGT05 was derived from pXFGT03 by deletion of two open reading frames (ORFs) from the original replicon. Upon transformation of FG01 with pXFGT03 or pXFGT05, the host phenotype was complemented on Luria-Bertani agar plates by the plasmid-coded dal gene, which served as a food-grade selection marker for recombinants. Results showed that deletion of the two ORFs had no impact on plasmid replication. A reporter gene bgaB was cloned into pXFGT03 and pXFGT05, respectively, under control of the P43 promoter, and it was successfully expressed in this food-grade expression system. Segregational stabilities of two recombinant plasmids were investigated, and they were fully stable. PMID:17602222

  3. Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

  4. How Have State Level Standards-Based Tests Related to Norm-Referenced Tests in Alaska?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    This overview of the Alaska system for test development, scoring, and reporting explored differences and similarities between norm-referenced and standards-based tests. The current Alaska testing program is based on legislation passed in 1997 and 1998, and is designed to meet the requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Legislation. In…

  5. The Impact of Standards-Based Reform in Duval County, Florida: 1999-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan A.; Taylor, Brooke Snyder

    2003-01-01

    The major challenge that school districts face is to improve the learning of all students, not just in individual schools, but across the entire system of schools. Duval County, Florida has embarked on a remarkable journey to implement standards-based reform in schools throughout the district with the intent to systematically improve teaching and…

  6. Grading-System-Dependent Volume Effects for Late Radiation-Induced Rectal Toxicity After Curative Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Laan, Hans Paul van der

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the association between the dose distributions in the rectum and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC), Late Effects of Normal Tissue SOMA, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 graded rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer treated with RT. Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 124 patients who received three-dimensional conformal RT for prostate cancer to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. All patients completed questionnaires regarding rectum complaints before RT and during long-term follow-up. Late rectum Grade 2 or worse toxicity, according to RTOG/EORTC, LENT SOMA, and CTCAE v3.0 criteria, was analyzed in relation to rectal dose and volume parameters. Results: Dose-volume thresholds (V40 {>=}65%, V50 {>=}55%, V65 {>=}45%, V70 {>=}20%, and a rectum volume {<=}140 cm{sup 3}), significantly discriminated patients with late Grade 0-1 and Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity, particularly using the LENT SOMA and CTCAE v3.0 systems. The rectum volume receiving {>=}70 Gy (V70) was most predictive for late Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity with each of the grading systems. The associations were strongest, however, with use of the LENT SOMA system. Conclusions: Volume effects for late radiation-induced rectal toxicity are present, but their clinical significance depends on the grading system used. This should be taken into account in the interpretation of studies reporting on radiation-induced rectal toxicity.

  7. Investigation of denitrifying microbial communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs.

    PubMed

    Baker, Beth H; Kröger, Robert; Brooks, John P; Smith, Renotta K; Prince Czarnecki, Joby M

    2015-12-15

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. A major objective of utilizing low-grade weirs as a BMP includes fostering environments suitable for the biogeochemical removal of nitrogen via denitrification. This study examined the spatial resolution of microbial communities involved in denitrification in agricultural drainage systems fitted with low-grade weirs. Appropriate sampling scales of microbial communities were investigated using 16S rRNA and denitrification functional genes nosZ, nirS, and nirK via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Genes 16S rRNA, nosZ, and nirS were all successfully detected in soil samples, while nirK was below the detection limit throughout the study. Utilizing a combination of three sampling regimes (management, reach, catchment) was found to be effective in capturing microbial community patterns, as ANOVA results revealed nosZ gene abundance was significantly greater at the management rather than reach scale (p = 0.045; F = 3.311), although, no significant differences were observed in 16S rRNA or nirS between sampling scales (p > 0.05). A Pearson correlation matrix confirmed that 16S rRNA and nosZ gene abundances were positively correlated with soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and moisture, while nirS abundance was only positively correlated with soil C and soil moisture. This highlights the potential for wetland-like characteristics to be recovered in agricultural drainage systems, as weir proximity is observed to enhance soil moisture and conditions for N remediation. This study provides the basis for additional investigations of these unique environments in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and a starting point for adaptive management to enhance agricultural drainage systems for microbial communities towards nutrient remediation goals. PMID:26414296

  8. Class policies and grading system Your grade in this course will be based on attendance, 3 hour tests, a final exam, hand-in

    E-print Network

    Nyikos, Peter J.

    tests, a final exam, hand-in homework, quizzes and a grade on your Monday labs. Attendance will be taken in each class and affects your grade as explained below. Each hour test contributes 131 3 % to the point have a privacy concern about your grades on quizzes, tests, or homework, fold the papers lengthwise

  9. Crack mechanics of functionally graded coating/substrate systems. Final report, 1 February 1995--31 January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, G.

    1998-01-01

    This 3-year research program focuses on micromechanics and fracture mechanics analyses of cracking in functionally graded coating/substrate systems used in turbine engines and wear-related applications. Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are new advanced composites whose composition varies from place to place according to performance requirements. Recent developments of FGMs have demonstrated that functionally graded materials have the potential to enjoy a wide range of thermal and structural applications including thermal barrier coatings, wear, oxidation and corrosion resistant coatings and metal/ceramic joining. The objectives of the study include: establishing a fundamental understanding of the relationship between coating composition and performance, quantifying the influence of coating gradation, evaluating the effect of metal plasticity and crack bridging, and predicting the fracture driving forces and fracture resistance curves. Emphases in this study is placed on delamination fracture and multiple cracking in FGM coatings. The fundamental understanding gained from this study may enable one to select coatings at the component design stage. The systematic model predictions and design charts for the thermomechanical behavior of the coating/substrate systems may provide guidance to the gradation design of functionally graded coatings. This study thus can have a significant impact on the developments of functionally graded materials in turbine engine and wear related applications.

  10. Upgrading and Downgrading of Prostate Cancer from Biopsy to Radical Prostatectomy: Incidence and Predictive Factors Using the Modified Gleason Grading System and Factoring in Tertiary Grades

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Jonathan I.; Feng, Zhaoyong; Trock, Bruce J.; Pierorazio, Phillip M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior studies assessing the correlation of Gleason score (GS) at needle biopsy and corresponding radical prostatectomy (RP) predated the use of the modified Gleason scoring system and did not factor in tertiary grade patterns. Objective To assess the relation of biopsy and RP grade in the largest study to date. Design, setting, and participants A total of 7643 totally embedded RP and corresponding needle biopsies (2004–2010) were analyzed according to the updated Gleason system. Interventions All patients underwent prostate biopsy prior to RP. Measurements The relation of upgrading or downgrading to patient and cancer characteristics was compared using the chi-square test, Student t test, and multivariable logistic regression. Results and limitations A total of 36.3% of cases were upgraded from a needle biopsy GS 5–6 to a higher grade at RP (11.2% with GS 6 plus tertiary). Half of the cases had matching GS 3 + 4 = 7 at biopsy and RP with an approximately equal number of cases downgraded and upgraded at RP. With biopsy GS 4 + 3 = 7, RP GS was almost equally 3 + 4 = 7 and 4 + 3 = 7. Biopsy GS 8 led to an almost equal distribution between RP GS 4 + 3 = 7, 8, and 9–10. A total of 58% of the cases had matching GS 9–10 at biopsy and RP. In multivariable analysis, increasing age (p < 0.0001), increasing serum prostate-specific antigen level (p < 0.0001), decreasing RP weight (p < 0.0001), and increasing maximum percentage cancer/core (p < 0.0001) predicted the upgrade from biopsy GS 5–6 to higher at RP. Despite factoring in multiple variables including the number of positive cores and the maximum percentage of cancer per core, the concordance indexes were not sufficiently high to justify the use of nomograms for predicting upgrading and downgrading for the individual patient. Conclusions Almost 20% of RP cases have tertiary patterns. A needle biopsy can sample a tertiary higher Gleason pattern in the RP, which is then not recorded in the standard GS reporting, resulting in an apparent overgrading on the needle biopsy. PMID:22336380

  11. The Uncomplicated Elementary Career Education System for the "Real" Classroom. Grades K-6 Factivities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield. Div. of Adult Vocational and Technical Education.

    Prepared by classroom teachers for the infusion of career education into existing curriculum, these teacher materials are designed to accompany the "Career Capers" for grades 4-6 (CE 023 598). Monthly distribution to the classroom teacher by an administrator is suggested for these supplemental materials. Factivities for grades K-3 emphasize career…

  12. Urban African-American middle school science students: Does standards-based teaching make a difference?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler Kahle, Jane; Meece, Judith; Scantlebury, Kathryn

    2000-11-01

    The current reform movement in science education promotes standards-based teaching, including the use of inquiry, problem solving, and open-ended questioning, to improve student achievement. This study examines the influence of standards-based teaching practices on the achievement of urban, African-American, middle school science students. Science classes of teachers who had participated in the professional development (n = 8) of Ohio's statewide systemic initiative (SSI) were matched with classes of teachers (n = 10) who had not participated. Data were gathered using group-administered questionnaires and achievement tests that were specifically designed for Ohio's SSI. Analyses indicate that teachers who frequently used standards-based teaching practices positively influenced urban, African-American students' science achievement and attitudes, especially for boys. Additionally, teachers' involvement in the SSI's professional development was positively related to the reported use of standards-based teaching practices in the classroom. The findings support the efficacy of high-quality professional development to change teaching practices and to enhance student learning.

  13. The Impact of a Standards-Based Mathematics Curriculum on Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Case of Investigations in Number, Data, and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budak, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of a Standards-based elementary mathematics curriculum on third grade students' mathematics performance. A total of 707 students participated in this study. Of this total, 368 students were from eight schools located within the same school district in a racially and ethnically diverse large…

  14. Examining the Validity and Fairness of a State Standards-Based Assessment of English-Language Arts for Deaf or Hard of Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Jonathan; Cline, Frederick; Ling, Guangming; Cook, Linda; Tognatta, Namrata

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the appropriateness of a large-scale state standards-based English-Language Arts (ELA) assessment for students who are deaf or hard of hearing by comparing the internal test structures for these students to students without disabilities. The Grade 4 and 8 ELA assessments were analyzed via a series of parcel-level exploratory…

  15. Outcome Measurement in Postgraduate Year One of Graduates from a Medical School with a Pass/Fail Grading System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosti, Kenneth L.; Jacobs, Charlotte D.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the clinical preparedness of 144 Stanford University (California) medical school graduates in 11 areas, comparing it with peers from graded medical schools and rating the accuracy of the dean's letter in representing graduates' capabilities. Results indicate that graduates from Stanford's two-interval, pass/fail system

  16. The Consistency between Human Raters and an Automated Essay Scoring System in Grading High School Students' English Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Min-hsiu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the consistency between human raters and an automated essay scoring system in grading high school students' English compositions. A total of 923 essays from 23 classes of 12 senior high schools in Taiwan (Republic of China) were obtained and scored manually and electronically. The results show that the consistency between…

  17. Evaluating Early Childhood Educators: Prekindergarten through Third Grade. Supplement to the "Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Educator Evaluation Systems"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martella, Jana; Connors-Tadros, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood educators play a critical role in preparing students for success later in their school experience. The instructional techniques, emotional supports, and assessment approaches for early childhood settings are different from classroom settings in later grades. How can states and districts develop evaluation systems that are tuned to…

  18. Evaluating the Effects of a Systemic Intervention on First-Grade Teachers' Explicit Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Smolkowski, Keith; Smith, Jean Louise M.; Baker, Scott K.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the efficacy of a multitiered systemic reading intervention for increasing the intensity and quality of explicit literacy instruction that teachers provide in first-grade classrooms. Schools ("j" = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or comparison condition. In both conditions, teachers ("i" = 42)…

  19. The O'Neill grading system for evaluation of the tympanic membrane: A practical approach for clinical hyperbaric patients.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Owen J; Weitzner, Erica D

    2015-01-01

    Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) and middle ear barotrauma (MEB) are the two most common complications of clinical hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatment. The current grading system, the Teed's Classification, was first described in 1944 with modifications to this system over the years, but none are specific for the evaluation and treatment of patients undergoing clinical HBO2 therapy. Currently, the standard of care is a baseline otoscopic examination performed prior to starting HBO2 therapy. Repeat otoscopy is required for patients having ETD, pain or other symptoms during the compression and/or decompression phase of the treatment. Results from these examinations are used to determine the proper course of treatment for the ETD or MEB. The Teed's classification was not intended to correlate with the consistency of diagnosis, the clinical approach to relieving symptoms or the treatment of the inflicted trauma. It is not a practical tool for the modern hyperbaric team. We describe a newer grading system, the O'Neill Grading System (OGS), which allows simple, practical and consistent classification of ETD and MEB by all members of the clinical hyperbaric medicine team. Based on the O'Neill Grade assigned, evidence supported suggestions for appropriate actions and medical interventions are offered. PMID:26152108

  20. Implementation of an Automated Grading System with an Adaptive Learning Component to Affect Student Feedback and Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kevin; Janicki, Thomas; He, Ling; Patterson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on the development and implementation of an adaptive learning and grading system with a goal to increase the effectiveness and quality of feedback to students. By utilizing various concepts from established learning theories, the goal of this research is to improve the quantity, quality, and speed of feedback as it pertains…

  1. Collaborative, Standards-Based Approaches to Improving Cybersecurity

    E-print Network

    Collaborative, Standards-Based Approaches to Improving Cybersecurity AHIP Webinar May 7, 2015 Kevin (NIST) Advanced Manufacturing IT and Cybersecurity Healthcare Forensic Science Disaster Resilience Cyber Communications ­ NCCoE #12;Executive Order: Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity "It is the policy

  2. The Assumptions and Possible Futures of Standards-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Boyce

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based education is the most important and widely implemented education reform idea of the last several decades in the USA, one supported by the full weight of the mainstream bipartisan educational establishment. Motivated by "global economic competitiveness" as the ideological driver and big business as the empirical driver, it…

  3. Writing Women in Modern China: Five Standards Based Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Iris D.

    This packet contains five standards-based lessons, intended to be used at the high school level in English language arts and/or English-as-a-Second-Language advanced-level classes. Each of the five lessons has a series of vocabulary, active reading, critical thinking, and interpreting activities, and each lesson gives explicit teaching procedures.…

  4. A Novel Hyper-Spectral Imaging System : Application on in-vivo Detection and Grading of Cervical Precancers and of Pigmented Skin Lesions

    E-print Network

    Trahanias, Panos

    System : Application on in-vivo Detection and Grading of Cervical Precancers and of Pigmented Skin and of pigmented skin lesions. In the case of cervical diagnosis we have succeeded to detect in vivoA Novel Hyper-Spectral Imaging System : Application on in-vivo Detection and Grading of Cervical

  5. Monitoring cerebral venous blood oxygenation in neonates with a medical-grade optoacoustic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Richardson, C. J.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Andrey; Wynne, Karon E.; Westermann, Stephan; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2015-03-01

    Premature, very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; <=1500 g) and low-birth-weight (LBW; 1500-2499 g) infants are at increased risk for severe neurological disability. 25-50% of the 63,000 VLBW infants born annually in the USA have major longterm cognitive or neurobehavioral deficits in which cerebral hypoxia plays an important role. At present, no technology is capable of noninvasive, accurate monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in newborns. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive cerebral hypoxia monitoring by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Recently, we developed and built a medical grade, multi-wavelength, near-infrared optoacoustic system suitable for neonatal applications. We designed and built an adjustable patient interface for neonates with VLBW, LBW, and normal weight (NBW) that provides single or continuous measurements of the SSS blood oxygenation in both the reflection and transmission modes. We performed pilot clinical tests of the system in VLBW, LBW, and NBW hemodynamically stable infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The system was capable of detecting SSS signals through the open anterior and posterior fontanelles and through the skull and allowed for monitoring of the SSS blood oxygenation in both modes. To the best of our knowledge this paper reports for the first time detection of optoacoustic signals from human cerebral blood vessels in both the transmission mode and the reflection mode. Analysis of the signals allows for noninvasive measurement of cerebral venous blood oxygenation in newborns in both modes. The transmission mode can be used for accurate measurement of the total hemoglobin concentration as well. The method and system proposed in this study can be used for optoacoustic human brain imaging, tomography, and mapping.

  6. Development and characterization of food-grade tracers for the global grain tracing and recall system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Armstrong, Paul R; Thomasson, J Alex; Sui, Ruixiu; Casada, Mark; Herrman, Timothy J

    2010-10-27

    Tracing grain from the farm to its final processing destination as it moves through multiple grain-handling systems, storage bins, and bulk carriers presents numerous challenges to existing record-keeping systems. This study examines the suitability of coded caplets to trace grain, in particular, to evaluate methodology to test tracers' ability to withstand the rigors of a commercial grain handling and storage systems as defined by physical properties using measurement technology commonly applied to assess grain hardness and end-use properties. Three types of tracers to dispense into bulk grains for tracing the grain back to its field of origin were developed using three food-grade substances [processed sugar, pregelatinized starch, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC)] as a major component in formulations. Due to a different functionality of formulations, the manufacturing process conditions varied for each tracer type, resulting in unique variations in surface roughness, weight, dimensions, and physical and spectroscopic properties before and after coating. The applied two types of coating [pregelatinized starch and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] using an aqueous coating system containing appropriate plasticizers showed uniform coverage and clear coating. Coating appeared to act as a barrier against moisture penetration, to protect against mechanical damage of the surface of the tracers, and to improve the mechanical strength of tracers. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed the type of tracer, coating material, conditioning time, and a theoretical weight gain significantly influenced the morphological and physical properties of tracers. Optimization of these factors needs to be pursued to produce desirable tracers with consistent quality and performance when they flow with bulk grains throughout the grain marketing channels. PMID:20883029

  7. Investigating the potential value of individual parameters of histological grading systems in a sheep model of cartilage damage: the Modified Mankin method.

    PubMed

    Moody, Hayley R; Heard, Bryan J; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G; Oloyede, Adekunle O

    2012-07-01

    A total histological grade does not necessarily distinguish between different manifestations of cartilage damage or degeneration. An accurate and reliable histological assessment method is required to separate normal and pathological tissue within a joint during treatment of degenerative joint conditions and to sub-classify the latter in meaningful ways. The Modified Mankin method may be adaptable for this purpose. We investigated how much detail may be lost by assigning one composite score/grade to represent different degenerative components of the osteoarthritic condition. We used four ovine injury models (sham surgery, anterior cruciate ligament/medial collateral ligament instability, simulated anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and meniscal removal) to induce different degrees and potentially 'types' (mechanisms) of osteoarthritis. Articular cartilage was systematically harvested, prepared for histological examination and graded in a blinded fashion using a Modified Mankin grading method. Results showed that the possible permutations of cartilage damage were significant and far more varied than the current intended use that histological grading systems allow. Of 1352 cartilage specimens graded, 234 different manifestations of potential histological damage were observed across 23 potential individual grades of the Modified Mankin grading method. The results presented here show that current composite histological grading may contain additional information that could potentially discern different stages or mechanisms of cartilage damage and degeneration in a sheep model. This approach may be applicable to other grading systems. PMID:22591160

  8. Effect of a functionally graded soft middle layer on Love waves propagating in layered piezoelectric systems.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Issam; Ben Amor, Morched; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi

    2015-08-01

    Numerical examples for wave propagation in a three-layer structure have been investigated for both electrically open and shorted cases. The first order differential equations are solved by both methods ODE and Stiffness matrix. The solutions are used to study the effects of thickness and gradient coefficient of soft middle layer on the phase velocity and on the electromechanical coupling factor. We demonstrate that the electromechanical coupling factor is substantially increased when the equivalent thickness is in the order of the wavelength. The effects of gradient coefficients are plotted for the first mode when electrical and mechanical gradient variations are applied separately and altogether. The obtained deviations in comparison with the ungraded homogenous film are plotted with respect to the dimensionless wavenumber. The impact related to the gradient coefficient of the soft middle layer, on the mechanical displacement and the Poynting vector, is carried out. The numericals results are illustrated by a set of appropriate curves related to various profiles. The obtained results set guidelines not only for the design of high-performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, but also for the measurement of material properties in a functionally graded piezoelectric layered system using Love waves. PMID:25964239

  9. Investment-Grade Compressed Air System Audit, Analysis, and Upgrade in a Pulp and Paper Mill 

    E-print Network

    Parekh, P. S.

    2000-01-01

    An investment-grade compressed air audit, analysis, design, and upgrade in an industrial facility requires a thorough understudying of original design basis, current problem definition, goal settings, load assessment, base case model development...

  10. Optical Frequency Standards Based on Neutral Atoms and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Fritz; Helmcke, Juergen

    The current status and prospects of optical frequency standards based on neutral atomic and molecular absorbers are reviewed. Special attention is given to an optical frequency standard based on cold Ca atoms which are interrogated with a pulsed excitation scheme leading to resolved line structures with a quality factor Q > 10^12. The optical frequency was measured by comparison with PTB's primary clock to be ?Ca = 455 986 240 494.13 kHz with a total relative uncertainty of 2.5 x10^-13. After a recent recommendation of the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM), this frequency standard now represents one of the most accurate realizations of the length unit.

  11. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  12. Free vibration analysis of a rotating hub-functionally graded material beam system with the dynamic stiffening effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Zhang, D. G.; Zhu, W. D.

    2014-02-01

    A comprehensive dynamic model of a rotating hub-functionally graded material (FGM) beam system is developed based on a rigid-flexible coupled dynamics theory to study its free vibration characteristics. The rigid-flexible coupled dynamic equations of the system are derived using the method of assumed modes and Lagrange's equations of the second kind. The dynamic stiffening effect of the rotating hub-FGM beam system is captured by a second-order coupling term that represents longitudinal shrinking of the beam caused by the transverse displacement. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system with the chordwise bending and stretching (B-S) coupling effect are calculated and compared with those with the coupling effect neglected. When the B-S coupling effect is included, interesting frequency veering and mode shift phenomena are observed. A two-mode model is introduced to accurately predict the most obvious frequency veering behavior between two adjacent modes associated with a chordwise bending and a stretching mode. The critical veering angular velocities of the FGM beam that are analytically determined from the two-mode model are in excellent agreement with those from the comprehensive dynamic model. The effects of material inhomogeneity and graded properties of FGM beams on their dynamic characteristics are investigated. The comprehensive dynamic model developed here can be used in graded material design of FGM beams for achieving specified dynamic characteristics.

  13. Development of a cost-effective machine vision system for in-field sorting and grading of apples: Fruit orientation and size estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop an in-field apple presorting and grading system to separate undersized and defective fruit from fresh market-grade apples. To achieve this goal, a cost-effective machine vision inspection prototype was built, which consisted of a low-cost color camera, L...

  14. Quasi-isentropic compression using functionally graded materials in gas gun and explosive driven systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Aditi; Menon, S. V. G.

    2009-03-01

    Results of hydrodynamic simulations of dynamic compression experiments performed by impact loading of materials are reported. The simulations pertain to a new approach for generating quasi-isentropic compression using functionally graded materials (FGM). First of all, we focus on quasi-isentropic compression waves generated by a constant velocity impactor (similar to that from a gas gun). Quasi-isentropic compression is characterized from the temporal profiles of pressure at target surface and fluid velocity at target-window interface generated from different functional forms of density variation along the FGM flyer. It is shown that quadratic FGM is the best option for increasing rise time of pressure pulse. Secondly, FGM induced quasi-isentropic compressions are studied by accelerating the impactor with high explosive (HE) driven shocks in both the cases when impactor is in contact with the target (contact geometry) and separated from target by air gap (flyer geometry). The study reveals that nearly isentropic pressure profiles can be realized with quadratic FGM impactor in flyer geometry. Contact geometry produces a distinct initial pressure jump which is undesirable for isentropic compression. Finally, quasi-isentropic compressions are observed for spherically symmetric FGM flyers driven by HE. Here also it is seen that quadratic FGM impactor serves better in improving the peak impact velocity at shell target. Thus, based on the study, we conclude that quadratic FGM is the right choice for generating quasi-isentropic compression. The parameters of the FGM impactors, optimized using a genetic algorithm code, are also presented for both planar and spherical systems.

  15. The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas 

    E-print Network

    Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Beckett Heat Recovery is a series of techniques for recovering low-grade waste heat from flue gas. Until the cost of fossil fuels began rising rapidly, flue gas below 600 F was considered economically unworthy of reclaim. This paper...

  16. Energy Systems - Present, Future: Extra Terrestrials, Grades 7, 8, 9,/Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

    The 12 lessons presented in this guide are structured so that they may be integrated into science lessons in 7th-, 8th-, or 9th-grades. Suggestions are made for extension of study. Lessons are approached through classroom role-playing of outer space visitors who seek to understand energy conversion principles used on Earth. Major emphasis is…

  17. Goal: A Grading System That Demands Excellence on the Playing Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the vast array of educational practices that are present in today's society, grading is one practice that has established a historical foundation and one that will continue to be an important aspect to the profession of education. This small scale study determined that both undergraduate and graduate learners, in one college instructor's…

  18. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yi

    blue analog | nanomaterials | batteries Avast amount of low-grade heat ( conversion (4­7) and organic Rankine cycles (1, 8), are being actively pursued but face their own challenges to electricity, the electrochemical cell is discharged from A+B to C+D at T1 and recharged at a differ- ent

  19. Qualitatively Different Ways of Differentiating Student Achievement: A Phenomenographic Study of Academics' Conceptions of Grade Descriptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kelvin H. K.; Prosser, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The term "grade descriptors" has commonly been used to refer to the practice of describing for students characteristic work that would merit different grades. This paper reports the results of a phenomenographic study on the different ways that academic staff understood and practised grade descriptors as forms of standards-based assessment. Four…

  20. A Standards-based Semantic Metadata Repository to Support EHR-driven Phenotype Authoring and Execution.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Kiefer, Richard; Rasmussen, Luke V; Mo, Huan; Speltz, Peter; Thompson, William K; Denny, Joshua C; Chute, Christopher G; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2015-01-01

    This study describes our efforts in developing a standards-based semantic metadata repository for supporting electronic health record (EHR)-driven phenotype authoring and execution. Our system comprises three layers: 1) a semantic data element repository layer; 2) a semantic services layer; and 3) a phenotype application layer. In a prototype implementation, we developed the repository and services through integrating the data elements from both Quality Data Model (QDM) and HL7 Fast Healthcare Inteoroperability Resources (FHIR) models. We discuss the modeling challenges and the potential of our system to support EHR phenotype authoring and execution applications. PMID:26262397

  1. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Joe H; Olson, Tammy Y; Kuntz, Joshua D; Rose, Klint A

    2015-03-03

    In one embodiment, an aerogel includes a layer of shaped particles having a particle packing density gradient in a thickness direction of the layer, wherein the shaped particles are characterized by being formed in an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using an impurity. In another embodiment, a method for forming a functionally graded porous nanostructure includes adding particles of an impurity and a solution to an EPD chamber, applying a voltage difference across the two electrodes of the EPD chamber to create an electric field in the EPD chamber, and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form shaped particles of the material. Other functionally graded materials and methods are described according to more embodiments.

  2. Utilization of the graded universal testing system to increase the efficiency for assessing aerobic and anaerobic capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Sandra L.

    1992-01-01

    The in-flight exercise test performed by cosmonauts as part of the Russian Exercise Countermeasure Program is limited to 5 minutes due to communication restrictions. During a recent graded exercise test on a U.S. Shuttle flight, the test was terminated early due to an upcoming loss of signal (LOS) with the ground. This exercise test was a traditional test where the subject's exercise capacity dictates the length of the test. For example, one crew member may take 15 minutes to complete the test, while another may take 18 minutes. The traditional exercise test limits the flight schedulers to large blocks of space flight time in order to provide medical and research personnel information on the fitness capacity (maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max) of crew members during flight. A graded exercise test that would take a finite amount of time and a set preparation and recovery time would ease this problem by allowing flight schedulers to plan exercise tests in advance of LOS. The Graded Universal Testing System (GUTS) was designed to meet this goal. Fitness testing of astronauts before and after flight provides pertinent data on many variables. The Detailed Supplemental Objective (DSO608) protocol (6) is one of the graded exercise tests (GXT) currently used in astronaut testing before and after flight. Test times for this protocol have lasted from 11 to 18 minutes. Anaerobic capacity is an important variable that is currently not being evaluated before and after flight. Recent reports (1,2,5) from the literature have suggested that the oxygen deficit at supramaximal exercise is a measure of anaerobic capacity. We postulated that the oxygen deficit at maximal exercise would be an indication of anaerobic capacity. If this postulate can be accepted, then the efficiency of acquiring data from a graded exercise test would increase at least twofold. To examine this hypothesis anaerobic capacity was measured using a modified treadmill test (3,4) designed to exhaust the anaerobic systems in approximately 45 to 75 seconds. Lactate concentration in the blood was analyzed after all tests, since lactate is the end-product of anaerobic energy production. Therefore, the peak lactate response is an additional indication of anaerobic capacity. A preliminary comparison of the GUTS and the DSO608 suggests that the GUTS protocol would increase the efficiency of VO2max testing of astronauts before and after flight. Results for anaerobic capacity have not been tabulated.

  3. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Jean de la Lune"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Eileen; Magurn, Lisa; Schwester, Jennifer Applegate

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  4. The impact of state-mandated standard-based 

    E-print Network

    Denny, III, Davis McCall

    2009-05-15

    secondary principals strongly support the following statements: 1. No high-stakes decision such as grade retention or graduation should be based on the results of a single test. 2. Educators are making use of student performance data generated by highstakes...

  5. Instituting a Standards-Based K--12 Science Curriculum Supplement Program at the National Institutes of Health: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherly, Jeffre

    2010-01-01

    Research on student achievement indicates the U.S. K-12 education system is not adequately preparing American students to compete in the 21st century global economy in the areas of science and mathematics. Congress has asked the scientific entities of the federal government to help increase K-12 science learning by creating standards-based

  6. Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

  7. The Effects of the Maryland Online Individualized Education Program Goal Wizard on Writing Standards Based Annual Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kimberly A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of the Maryland Online Individualized Education Program Goal Wizard on writing standards based annual goals. Specifically, 100 novice special education teachers form a large urban school system in Maryland were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The experimental group received one…

  8. Science Grades K-4 Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document explains the Arkansas science benchmarks for grades K-4 which were developed to provide guidance to science teachers. The content standards for three strands--physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems--were identified based on grade levels. (YDS)

  9. Earth Science for Educators: Preparing 7-12 Teachers for Standards-based, Inquiry Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, H.

    2002-05-01

    "Earth Science for Educators" is an innovative, standards-based, graduate level teacher education curriculum that presents science content and pedagogic technique in parallel. The curriculum calls upon the resources and expertise of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) to prepare novice New York City teachers for teaching Earth Science. One of the goals of teacher education is to assure and facilitate science education reform through preparation of K-12 teachers who understand and are able to implement standard-based instruction. Standards reflect not only the content knowledge students are expected to attain but also the science skills and dispositions towards science they are expected to develop. Melding a list of standards with a curriculum outline to create inquiry-based classroom instruction that reaches a very diverse population of learners is extremely challenging. "Earth Science for Educators" helps novice teachers make the link between standards and practice by constantly connecting standards with instruction they receive and activities they carry out. Development of critical thinking and enthusiasm for inquiry is encouraged through engaging experience and contact with scientists and their work. Teachers are taught Earth systems science content through modeling of a wide variety of instruction and assessment methods based upon authentic scientific inquiry and aimed at different learning styles. Use of fieldwork and informal settings, such as the Museum, familiarizes novice teachers with ways of drawing on community resources for content and instructional settings. Metacognitive reflection that articulates standards, practice, and the teachers' own learning experience help draw out teachers' insights into their students' learning. The innovation of bring science content together with teaching methods is key to preparing teachers for standards-based, inquiry instruction. This curriculum was successfully piloted with a group of 28 novice teachers as part of the AMNH-City University of New York partnership and the CUNY Teaching Opportunity Program Scholarship. Reactions and feedback from program coordinators and teachers have been extremely positive during the year and a half since its implementation.

  10. Grading Adaptations for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Melissa; Munk, Dennis D.; Bursuck, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Issues surround grading for all students, especially those with disabilities, who are at increased risk for grades that are low, inaccurate, and lacking in meaning. Teachers often recognize grading issues and will exercise judgment in making informal adaptations to the regular grading system. When chosen collaboratively and implemented…

  11. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.772 Grades. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of canned red tart pitted cherries that have at least the following attributes: (1) At least a reasonably... system outlined in this subpart. Canned red tart pitted cherries of this grade may contain not more...

  12. Standard-based integration profiles for clinical research and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Christel; Erturkmen, Gokce Banu Laleci; Sinaci, Ali Anil; Delaney, Brendan C; Curcin, Vasa; Bain, Landen

    2013-01-01

    EHRs can now be adapted to integrate seamlessly with existing research platforms. However, key challenges need to be overcome in order to provide a platform that functions across many EHR systems. The IHE Quality, Research and Public Health (QRPH) domain addresses the information exchange standards necessary to share information relevant to quality improvement in patient care and clinical research. In collaboration with CDISC's Healthcare Link initiative, IHE QRPH has developed a set of integration profiles that specifically address EHR-enabled research. The panel participants from three European projects will present how subsets of existing IHE QRPH profiles can be pulled together (and extended when necessary) to form a super profile which will standardize and automate the clinical trial process flow. The EHR4CR project is providing adaptable, reusable and scalable tools and services for reusing data from hospital EHRs for Clinical Research. TRANSFoRm is developing an informatics infrastructure to support the learning healthcare system in European Primary Care. SALUS project is providing scalable, standard based interoperability framework for sustainable proactive post market safety studies. Overall, the panel will discuss the key steps towards realizing a joint EHR4CR/TRANSFoRm/SALUS European projectathon demonstrating EHR-enabled clinical research across Europe using standard-based integration and content profiles. PMID:24303234

  13. Impact of Writing Interventions Informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics with a Focus on Tenor, on Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Katherine Hayes

    2012-01-01

    This action research study examines the impact instruction informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) with a particular focus on tenor and socio-cultural theory has on sixth, seventh and eighth grade English language learners in an urban school. Over the course of seven and 1/2 months I used Systemic Functional Linguistics with a focus on…

  14. The Minnesota Grading System Using Fundus Autofluorescence of Eye Bank Eyes: A Correlation To Age-Related Macular Degeneration (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Timothy W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To establish a grading system of eye bank eyes using fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and identify a methodology that correlates FAF to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with clinical correlation to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Methods Two hundred sixty-two eye bank eyes were evaluated using a standardized analysis of FAF. Measurements were taken with the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO). First, high-resolution, digital, stereoscopic, color images were obtained and graded according to AREDS criteria. With the neurosensory retina removed, mean FAF values were obtained from cSLO images using software analysis that excludes areas of atrophy and other artifact, generating an FAF value from a grading template. Age and AMD grade were compared to FAF values. An internal fluorescence reference standard was tested. Results Standardization of the cSLO machine demonstrated that reliable data could be acquired after a 1-hour warm-up. Images obtained prior to 1 hour had falsely elevated levels of FAF. In this initial analysis, there was no statistical correlation of age to mean FAF. There was a statistically significant decrease in FAF from AREDS grade 1, 2 to 3, 4 (P < .0001). An internal fluorescent standard may serve as a quantitative reference. Conclusions The Minnesota Grading System (MGS) of FAF (MGS-FAF) establishes a standardized methodology for grading eye bank tissue to quantify FAF compounds in the retinal pigment epithelium and correlate these findings to the AREDS. Future studies could then correlate specific FAF to the aging process, histopathology AMD phenotypes, and other maculopathies, as well as to analyze the biochemistry of autofluorescent fluorophores. PMID:19277247

  15. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standby Power System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    DEHKORDI, N.H.

    2000-04-12

    PFP's Standby Power System consists of the diesel generators, the generator control system, Rm 308 UPS, switchgear batteries, and the electrical equipment used to distribute this power. Due to the nature of the equipment and its use throughout general industry, the majority of the system falls within the CGI definition HNF-PRO-268, ''Control of Purchased Items and Services'' and HNF-PRO-1819, ''PHMC Engineering Requirements'' require that the critical characteristics of CGI-procured equipment be established in an engineering document prior to placing the order. HNF-5043 established these critical characteristics for the Standby Power System. This modification adds several items to the document.

  16. An Integrated Learning System: Impact on At-Risk Students' Ninth Grade TAKS Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Tina D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an integrated learning system on students who were considered at-risk of academic failure on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment. Voyager Math (VMath), an integrated learning system had been implemented to address the needs of students at-risk of…

  17. Special Automotive Repair Service Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Vehicle Emission Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins Associates, Hadlyme, CT.

    This curriculum is intended to serve as a guide for high school instructors teaching a basic course on emission control systems on General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler products. The material may also be incorporated on an engine system basis and inserted into an overall tune-up curriculum. Other uses of the curriculum include specialized training…

  18. Assessing the performance of four different categories of histological criteria in brain tumours grading by means of a computer-aided diagnosis image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, S; Konstandinou, C; Sidiropoulos, K; Ravazoula, P; Kalatzis, I; Asvestas, P; Cavouras, D; Glotsos, D

    2015-10-01

    Brain tumours are considered one of the most lethal and difficult to treat forms of cancer, with unknown aetiology and lack of any realistic screening. In this study, we examine, whether the combination of descriptive criteria, used by expert histopathologists in assessing histologic tissue samples, and quantitative image analysis features may improve the diagnostic accuracy of brain tumour grading. Data comprised 61 cases of brain cancers (astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, meningiomas) collected from the archives of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. Incorporating physician's descriptive criteria and image analysis's quantitative features into a discriminant function, a computer-aided diagnosis system was designed for discriminating low-grade from high-grade brain tumours. Physician's descriptive features, when solely used in the system, proved of high discrimination accuracy (93.4%). When verbal descriptive features were combined with quantitative image analysis features in the system, discrimination accuracy improved to 98.4%. The generalization of the proposed system to unseen data converged to an overall prediction accuracy of 86.7% ± 5.4%. Considering that histological grading affects treatment selection and diagnostic errors may be notable in clinical practice, the utilization of the proposed system may safeguard against diagnostic misinterpretations in every day clinical practice. PMID:25974641

  19. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standby Power System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    BUSCH, M.S.

    1999-09-16

    PEP's Standby Power System consists of the diesel generators, the generator control system, Rm 308 UPS, switchgear batteries, and the electrical equipment used to distribute this power. Due to the nature of the equipment and its use throughout general industry, the majority of the system falls within the CGI definition HNF-PRO-268. ''Control of Purchased Items and Services'' and HNF-PRO-1819, ''PHMC Engineering Requirements'' require that the critical characteristics of CGI-procured equipment be established in an engineering document prior to placing the order. HNF-5043 establishes these critical characteristics for the Standby Power System. Equipment will be added to the list as required to support future CGI procurements.

  20. Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Education 101: Exploration Begins Here [Grades 9-12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

  1. Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO): Exploration Begins Here [Grades K-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

  2. A Failing Grade for the German End-of-Life Vehicles Take-Back System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Nina; Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2005-01-01

    The German end-of-life vehicle take-back system is described and analyzed in terms of its impact on the environment and the car companies involved. It is concluded that although this system is often cited as an example of a successful take-back scheme, it is not one that maximizes the value recovered from end-of-life vehicles. As a result,…

  3. Institutional experience of paediatric high-grade central nervous system tumours: an analysis of 74 patients and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Aynur; Karadeniz, Ceyda; Okur, Arzu; Sarac, Avni; Baykaner, Kemali; Bora, Huseyin; Poyraz, Aylar

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study Although the survival for children with certain central nervous system (CNS) tumour types has improved through current surgical and adjuvant treatment modalities, the prognosis of many high-grade tumours remains poor despite aggressive treatment. The aim of this study is to analyse patients with high-grade brain tumours in our institution to determine the histopathology, clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and survival. Material and methods A total of 74 patients with a diagnosis of high-grade brain tumour were analysed. There were a total of 31 patients with embryonal tumours, 27 patients with high-grade glial tumours, 12 patients with brain stem gliomas and 4 patients with other high-grade brain tumours. Results There were 48 (65%) boys and 26 (35%) girls (ratio: 1.85) with a median age of 99.7 months (range = 2-204 months). The median follow-up period was 19 months (range = 1-204 months). Tumour recurrence was observed in 38 patients (51.4%). The overall survival rate and event-free survival rate of our patients were 27% and 19.5%, respectively. Conclusions Pediatric high-grade CNS tumours have a very aggressive behaviour and a significant number of children eventually succumb to disease despite multimodal treatment. There is a need of more effective therapeutic approaches for these tumours with poor prognosis. The future improvement in childhood high-grade brain tumour management depends on a better understanding of the molecular genetics and biology of brain tumours. PMID:23788851

  4. Middle School Math Acceleration and Equitable Access to Eighth-Grade Algebra: Evidence from the Wake County Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Shaun M.; Goodman, Joshua S.; Hill, Darryl V.; Litke, Erica G.; Page, Lindsay C.

    2015-01-01

    Taking algebra by eighth grade is considered an important milestone on the pathway to college readiness. We highlight a collaboration to investigate one district's effort to increase middle school algebra course-taking. In 2010, the Wake County Public Schools began assigning middle school students to accelerated math and eighth-grade algebra based…

  5. The Development and Technical Adequacy of Seventh-Grade Reading Comprehension Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System. Technical Report #1102

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical report describes the process of development and piloting of reading comprehension measures that are appropriate for seventh-grade students as part of an online progress screening and monitoring assessment system, http://easycbm.com. Each measure consists of an original fictional story of approximately 1,600 to 1,900 words with 20…

  6. Multi-tiered Systems of Supports: An Investigative Study of Their Impact on Third Grade Reading Test Scores in an Urban District

    E-print Network

    Haynes, Heather

    2012-05-31

    schoolwide, with all students and addressing academic and/or behavioral curricular instruction, it is often termed a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS). Analyzing 3rd grade reading school mean scale scores on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills...

  7. A Study of Constant Errors in Subtraction and in the Application of Selected Principles of the Decimal Numeration System Made by Third and Fourth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Charles Winston, Jr.

    Reported are the results of a study to determine if specific errors in subtraction occur when students demonstrate ability to apply selected decimal numeration system principles. A secondary purpose was to examine and compare errors made by various subsets of the sample population characterized by grade level, arithmetic achievement, mental…

  8. AN INVESTIGATION OF ACHIEVEMENT GRADING BASED ON SCHOLASTIC ABILITY DISTRIBUTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MASON, GEOFFREY

    IN A STUDY OF GRADING METHODS PRACTICED BY TEACHERS OF 103 SIXTH GRADE CLASSES, IT WAS FOUND THAT USE OF THE I.Q. SYSTEM AS A BASIS FOR ACHIEVEMENT GRADING PRODUCES APPROXIMATELY THE SAME RESULTS AS PERMITTING TEACHERS TO USE THEIR OWN JUDGMENT IN ASSIGNING ACHIEVEMENT GRADES. TWO HYPOTHESES WERE TESTED--(1) THE AVERAGE I.Q. LETTER GRADE OF A…

  9. Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2014-06-01

    All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

  10. Dynamic Bilingualism as the Norm: Envisioning a Heteroglossic Approach to Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Nelson; Schissel, Jamie L.

    2014-01-01

    Standards-based reforms in many Anglophone nations have been informed by "monoglossic language ideologies" that marginalize the dynamic bilingualism of emergent bilinguals. Recent developments in applied linguistics that advocate for "heteroglossic language ideologies" offer an alternative for standards-based reform. This…

  11. On How to Perform a Gold Standard Based Evaluation of Ontology Learning

    E-print Network

    TAGora project

    On How to Perform a Gold Standard Based Evaluation of Ontology Learning Klaas Dellschaft success of ontology learning requires an analogous scheme for evaluation with gold standards, too. Examples of gold standard-based evaluations of ontology learning can be found in [1], [2] and [3] ­ to name

  12. Transformative Shifts in Art History Teaching: The Impact of Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormond, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article examines pedagogical shifts in art history teaching that have developed as a response to the implementation of a standards-based assessment regime. The specific characteristics of art history standards-based assessment in the context of New Zealand secondary schools are explained to demonstrate how an exacting form of assessment has…

  13. System design considerations for a production-grade, ESR-based x-ray lithography beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Stephen; Melore, Dan; Cerrina, Franco; Cole, Richard K.

    1991-08-01

    As electron storage ring (ESR) based x-ray lithography technology moves closer to becoming an industrial reality, more and more attention has been devoted to studying problem areas related to its application in the production environment. A principle component is the x-ray lithography beamline (XLBL) and its associated design requirements. XLBL, an x-ray radiation transport system, is one of the three major subunits in the ESR-based x-ray lithography system (XLS) and has a pivotal role in defining performance characteristics of the entire XLS. Its major functions are to transport the synchrotron orbital radiation (SOR) to the lithography target area with defined efficiency and to modify SOR into the spectral distribution defined by the lithography process window. These functions must be performed reliably in order to satisfy the required high production rate and ensure 0.25 micron resolution lithography conditions. In this paper the authors attempt to answer some specific questions that arise during the formulation of an XLBL system design. Three principle issues that are essential to formulating a design are (1) Radiation transport efficiency, (2) X-ray optical configurations in the beamline, (3) Beamline system configurations. Some practical solutions to thee problem areas are presented, and the effects of these parameters on lithography production rate are examined.

  14. Using Case-Based Reasoning to Improve the Quality of Feedback Provided by Automated Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrilov, Angelo; Noelle, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Information technology is now ubiquitous in higher education institutions worldwide. More than 85% of American universities use e-learning systems to supplement traditional classroom activities while some have started offering Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs), which are completely online. An obvious benefit of these online tools is their…

  15. THE FOOD INTAKE RECORDING SOFTWARE SYSTEM (FIRSST) IS VALID AMONG 4TH GRADE CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to assess how accurately the Food Intake Recording Software System (FIRSSt) enabled children to report what they ate the previous day as compared to a dietitian conducted diet recall; and to test the effects of several procedures on accuracy of dietary report. We u...

  16. Follicular lymphoma grade 3: review and updates.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Gayatri; Czuczman, Myron S

    2014-12-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL), Grade 3, is recognized as a distinct entity in the World Health Organization classification of lymphoma. It is further classified into Grade 3a and Grade 3b depending on the Bernard cell counting system and percentage of centroblasts. Grade 3 has molecular and genetic characteristics that distinguish it from other grades of FL. There is confusion and misunderstanding about the natural history and clinical course of Grade 3a and 3b because some studies indicate them as having indolent behavior and others describe more aggressive biology. The purpose of this article is to understand the concept of Grade 3 FL, especially the fundamental differences between Grade 3a and Grade 3b FL. Grade 3 FL is still an evolving subclass in FL and the practicing physician should understand the aggressive nature of Grade 3b, which typically requires timely attention, compared with Grade 3a. Grade 3a FL has more indolent characteristics but can possibly progress to Grade 3b and/or transform to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at a future time. Nevertheless, large prospective studies are missing for an optimal evidence-based management approach for patients with Grade 3 FL at this time. PMID:25066038

  17. Designing a graded index depressed clad non-zero dispersion shifted optical fiber for wide band transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Dipankar; Ghosh, Debashri; Basu, Mousumi

    2008-02-01

    Non-zero dispersion shifted fibers (NZ-DSFs) find extensive use in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) system as it reduces the non-linear effects like four-wave mixing (FWM) generation. A depressed clad graded index fiber with a central dip in the refractive index profile, as well as without dip, has been modeled to perform as an NZ-DSF using the spot size optimization technique. The performance characteristics of the proposed NZ-DSF have been studied by changing different fiber parameters; such as inner core radius (a), relative refractive index differences ([Delta]+), normalized end position of depressed clad (C), depression parameter ([rho]), etc. for a given value of Petermann-2 spot size . By suitably adjusting the fiber parameters, the effective core areas (Aeff) as simulated here are very large (~80 [mu]m2) so that the effect of non-linearities upon them can be minimized. These NZ-DSFs have also been optimized for WDM transmission system. The dispersion slopes of the proposed fibers with and without dip have been estimated which are comparable with the reported results.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Aron; Jon Gore, Roger Dalton; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Owen Thomas; Tim Jarman

    2003-07-01

    This report describes progress, experiments, and results for a project to develop a pipeline inline inspection tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). There is a brief introduction that gives background material about EMATs and relevant previous Tuboscope work toward a tool. This work left various choices about the modes and transducers for this project. The experimental section then describes the lab systems, improvements to these systems, and setups and techniques to narrow the choices. Improvements, which involved transducer matching networks, better magnetic biasing, and lower noise electronics, led to improved signal to noise (SNR) levels. The setups permitted transducer characterizations and interaction measurements in plates with man-made cracks, pipeline sections with SCC, and a full pipe with SCC. The latter were done with a moveable and compact EMAT setup, called a lab mouse, which is detailed. Next, the results section justifies the mode and transducer choices. These were for magnetostrictive EMATs and the use of EMAT launched modes: SH0 (at 2.1 MHz-mm) and SV1 (at 3.9 MHz-mm). This section then gives details of measurements on these modes. The measurements consisted of signal to noise ratio, insertion loss, magnetic biasing sensitivities crack reflection and transmission coefficients, beam width, standoff and tilt sensitivities. For most of the measurements the section presents analysis curves, such as reflection coefficient versus crack depth. Some notable results for the chosen modes are: that acceptable SNRs were generated in a pipe with magnetostrictive EMATs, that optimum bias for magnetostrictive transmitters and receivers is magnetic saturation, that crack reflection and transmission coefficients from crack interactions agree with 2 D simulations and seem workable for crack grading, and that the mouse has good waveform quality and so is ready for exhaustive measurement EMAT scans of SCC interactions. This section also reviews further coil optimization and implementation requirements. These involve transmitter and receiver power, acquisition parameters, and magnetic configuration. At this time all these seem reasonable for an ILI tool.

  19. Industry-Grade Seismic Processing System for Controlled- (and Passive-) Source Research in Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubak, G.; Morozov, I.

    2004-05-01

    Open-source seismic processing provides flexibility, functionality and value that are not found in commercial packages. A seismic processing system called SIA, initially developed at the University of Wyoming and continued at the University of Saskatchewan, represents one of the most extensive efforts to integrate the flexibility of academic seismic data analysis with polish and performance of a commercial processor. At present, SIA offers capabilities for nearly complete reflection processing, combined with built-in support for multicomponent, variable-format seismic data, extensive database capabilities, input/output in several data formats accepted in exploration and earthquake seismology (e.g., SEG-Y, SEG-2, Seismic UNIX, PASSCAL-SEGY, GSE3.0, SAC), original inversion codes (e.g., 2-D and 3-D reflection and receiver function migration, genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks), software and documentation maintenance, and interfaces to popular packages such as Datascope, GMT, rayinvr, reflectivity, and Seismic UNIX. Recently, we included in the system a modern graphical user interface (GUI) based on the open-source, platform-independent QT technology by TrollTech. The interface organizes project data while hiding the system structure from the user and generally resembles that of ProMAX (by Landmark Graphics). Nearly 200 tools are arranged into packages (e.g., reflection, travel-time, earthquake data processing, or graphics), and processing flows are constructed by dragging these tools and dropping them in the flows. Multiple processing flows may be opened simultaneously allowing the user to edit and execute concurrent jobs. Context-sensitive help can be accessed through the interface, in addition to the full HTML documentation automatically generated by the system. Context-dependent color highlighting is used to improve readability of the parameters. Processing jobs are submitted through the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) which allows multiple processes to be initiated and controlled from a single interface. Jobs may be executed either locally or on a single or multiple remote systems in a heterogeneous computing environment. The GUI includes tools for run-time control of both local and remote processes.. The GUI also includes provisions for cluster scheduling, allowing processes to be executed on Beowulf clusters. Depending on their design, individual tools or flows can be parallelized using either PVM or MPI (Message Passing Interface). With the decentralized processing concept implemented in SIA, grid computing and seamless data exchange could become a reality without any effort from the users. In passive-source work, which is quickly adopting reflection processing techniques, this industry-style processing could provide sophisticated, inexpensive, and high performance approaches to data retrieval and access to hundreds of signal enhancement tools developed in reflection seismics.

  20. Enhanced Access to Earth Science Data through Standards-based Web Services and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, S. H.; Hashimoto, H.; Melton, F. S.; Michaelis, A.; Milesi, C.; Nemani, R. R.; Votava, P.; Wang, W.

    2009-12-01

    The Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) at NASA Ames Research Center's Ecological Forecasting Lab generates a suite of gridded data products in near real-time that are designed to enhance management decisions related to floods, droughts, forest fires, human health, as well as crop, range, and forest production. Derived from the synthesis of satellite imagery, ground observations, and specialized ecosystem models, our data products hold great potential for supporting research and practical applications across a wide range of disciplines. In order to provide enhanced access to our data and to promote multidisciplinary collaboration we implement standards-based web services. We serve TOPS data conforming to the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP) which allows subsetting and distribution of large HDF or NetCDF datasets, complete with standards-based metadata. Additionally, we implement a standard Web Map Service (WMS) for visualization of geospatial data. To further extend the use of our data to a wider audience we build upon these web services to develop browser-based visualization and analysis tools. We use Asynchronous Javascript and XML (AJAX) techniques to build interactive web applications leveraging our web services. For example, our WMS provides the map image tiles used in our mapping client. Users can click on the map to query TOPS datasets and regional summaries via OPeNDAP, producing time-series charts allowing temporal analysis of environmental trends and associated phenomena. We present the TOPS Data Gateway and its components, highlighting how the use of open protocols and standards provides improved data access for our clients and research partners, encouraging data interoperability and multidisciplinary collaboration.

  1. Prom Night in Mississippi: A Teacher's Guide with Standards-Based Lessons for Grades 7 and up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holladay, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    When Morris Dees was a young man in Alabama, the law said that black people couldn't drink from the same water fountain as white people, or sit at the same lunch counter. Back then, the government created and sanctioned divisions between human beings. The Civil Rights Movement changed all of that, of course, and ended state-mandated apartheid in…

  2. Zebrafish as a Model System for Environmental Health Studies in the Grade 9–12 Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Hesselbach, Renee; Carvan, Michael John; Goldberg, Barbara; Berg, Craig A.; Petering, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Developing zebrafish embryos were used as a model system for high school students to conduct scientific investigations that reveal features of normal development and to test how different environmental toxicants impact the developmental process. The primary goal of the module was to engage students from a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds, with particular focus on underserved inner-city high schools, in inquiry-based learning and hands-on experimentation. In addition, the module served as a platform for both teachers and students to design additional inquiry-based experiments. In this module, students spawned adult zebrafish to generate developing embryos, exposed the embryos to various toxicants, then gathered, and analyzed data obtained from control and experimental embryos. The module provided a flexible, experimental framework for students to test the effects of numerous environmental toxicants, such as ethanol, caffeine, and nicotine, on the development of a model vertebrate organism. Students also observed the effects of dose on experimental outcomes. From observations of the effects of the chemical agents on vertebrate embryos, students drew conclusions on how these chemicals could impact human development and health. Results of pre-tests and post-tests completed by participating students indicate statistically significant changes in awareness of the impact of environmental agents on fish and human beings In addition, the program's evaluator concluded that participation in the module resulted in significant changes in the attitude of students and teachers toward science in general and environmental health in particular. PMID:24941301

  3. Strategic Plan for Standards-Based Reform. Report of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of the Superintendent.

    This report summarizes the expectations, mission, guiding principles, standards, assessments, and time line for standards implementation for the state of Hawai'i. Implementation was scheduled for completion by August 2000. A technical reference matrix tracks the development of the assessment and accountability system. The completion of specific…

  4. Conceptualizing Teaching to the Test under Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; Eastwood, Melissa; D'Agostino, Jerome V.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and school accountability systems based on high-stakes tests are ubiquitous throughout the United States and appear to be growing as a catalyst for reform. As a result, educators have increased the proportion of instructional time devoted to test preparation. Although guidelines for what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate test…

  5. Two RFID standard-based security protocols for healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Bagheri, Nasour; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2013-10-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in access control, transportation, real-time inventory and asset management, automated payment systems, etc. Nevertheless, the use of this technology is almost unexplored in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, asset traceability and drug administration systems, to mention just a few. RFID technology can offer more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before its adoption. This is even more dramatical in healthcare applications where very sensitive information is at stake and patient safety is paramount. In Wu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 37:19, 43) recently proposed a new RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments. In this paper we show that this protocol puts location privacy of tag holders at risk, which is a matter of gravest concern and ruins the security of this proposal. To facilitate the implementation of secure RFID-based solutions in the medical sector, we suggest two new applications (authentication and secure messaging) and propose solutions that, in contrast to previous proposals in this field, are fully based on ISO Standards and NIST Security Recommendations. PMID:23949845

  6. Comparison of two classification systems in predicting the outcome of diabetic foot ulcers: the Wagner grade and the Saint Elian Wound score systems.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao; Xie, Ting; Cao, Yemin; Wu, MinJie; Yu, LeiLei; Lu, ShuLiang; Xu, Gang; Hu, Jiale; Ruan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare two systems of classification in a consecutive population with diabetic foot ulcers: the Wagner grade and the Saint Elian Wound Score System (SEWSS). Sociodemographic information, patient-related and ulcer-related data at first presentation was recorded, and the patients were followed up until wound healing or accepting major amputation or for 24 weeks. One hundred eighty-six patients were included in the study, of which 172 patients were completely followed up. Among the remaining 172 patients, 53.5% (n?=?92) were healed without minor amputation, 32% (n?=?55) were healed with minor amputation, 9.3% (n?=?16) were not healed at study termination, 3.5% (n?=?6) died and 1.7% (n?=?3) underwent major amputation. The median healing time for Wagner 1, Wagner 2, Wagner 3, and Wagner 4 were 23, 50, 54, 119 days, respectively. The log-rank test showed significant differences in healing time for Wagner 1, Wagner 2, Wagner 3, and Wagner 4; The median healing time for SEWSS I, SEWSS II and SEWSS III were 12, 51, and 150 days, respectively. The log-rank test showed significant differences in healing time for SEWSS I, SEWSS II and SEWSS III. Cox regression analysis showed a decreasing probability of healing with or without minor amputation with a higher SEWSS value, an increase in the SEWSS by one score reduced the probability for healing by 24%. ROC analysis showed Wagner 3 and a cut-point 17 of SEWSS had the highest Youden's index. Both the Wagner grade and SEWSS system were associated with the ulcer healing time for the patients with active DFUs. The SEWSS score makes it a better prediction tool of DFU outcome synthetically. PMID:25817047

  7. The Project MACULA Retinal Pigment Epithelium Grading System for Histology and Optical Coherence Tomography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zanzottera, Emma C.; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Ach, Thomas; Smith, R. Theodore; Freund, K. Bailey; Curcio, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To seek pathways of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fate in age-related macular degeneration via a morphology grading system; provide nomenclature, visualization targets, and metrics for clinical imaging and model systems. Methods. Donor eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and one GA eye with previous clinical spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) imaging were processed for histology, photodocumented, and annotated at predefined locations. Retinal pigment epithelial cells contained spindle-shaped melanosomes, apposed a basal lamina or basal laminar deposit (BLamD), and exhibited recognizable morphologies. Thicknesses and unbiased estimates of frequencies were obtained. Results. In 13 GA eyes (449 locations), ‘Shedding,’ ‘Sloughed,’ and ‘Dissociated’ morphologies were abundant; 22.2% of atrophic locations had ‘Dissociated’ RPE. In 39 CNV eyes (1363 locations), 37.3% of locations with fibrovascular/fibrocellular scar had ‘Entombed’ RPE; ‘Sloughed,’ ‘Dissociated,’ and ‘Bilaminar’ morphologies were abundant. Of abnormal RPE, CNV and GA both had ?35% ‘Sloughed’/‘Intraretinal,’ with more Intraretinal in CNV (9.5% vs. 1.8%). ‘Shedding’ cells associated with granule aggregations in BLamD. The RPE layer did not thin, and BLamD remained thick, with progression. Granule-containing material consistent with three morphologies correlated to SDOCT hyperreflective foci in the previously examined GA patient. Conclusions. Retinal pigment epithelium morphology indicates multiple pathways in GA and CNV. Atrophic/scarred areas have numerous cells capable of transcribing genes and generating imaging signals. Shed granule aggregates, possibly apoptotic, are visible in SDOCT, as are ‘Dissociated’ and ‘Sloughed’ cells. The significance of RPE phenotypes is addressable in longitudinal, high-resolution imaging in clinic populations. Data can motivate future molecular phenotyping studies. PMID:25813989

  8. Composition-graded nanowire solar cells fabricated in a single process for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Derek; Liu, Zhicheng; Shelhammer, David; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Nanomaterials such as semiconductor nanowires have unique features that could enable novel optoelectronic applications such as novel solar cells. This paper aims to demonstrate one such recently proposed concept: Monolithically Integrated Laterally Arrayed Multiple Band gap (MILAMB) solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems. Two cells with different band gaps were fabricated simultaneously in the same process on a single substrate using spatially composition-graded CdSSe alloy nanowires grown by the Dual-Gradient Method in a chemical vapor deposition system. CdSSe nanowire ensemble devices tested under 1 sun AM1.5G illumination achieved open-circuit voltages up to 307 and 173 mV and short-circuit current densities as high as 0.091 and 0.974 mA/cm(2) for the CdS- and CdSe-rich cells, respectively. The open-circuit voltages were roughly three times those of similar CdSSe film cells fabricated for comparison due to the superior optical quality of the nanowires. I-V measurements were also performed using optical filters to simulate spectrum-splitting. The open-circuit voltages and fill factors of the CdS-rich subcells were uniformly larger than the corresponding CdSe-rich cells for similar photon flux, as expected. This suggests that if all wires can be contacted, the wide-gap cell is expected to have greater output power than the narrow-gap cell, which is the key to achieving high efficiencies with spectrum-splitting. This paper thus provides the first proof-of-concept demonstration of simultaneous fabrication of MILAMB solar cells. This approach to solar cell fabrication using single-crystal nanowires for spectrum-splitting photovoltaics could provide a future low-cost high-efficiency alternative to the conventional high-cost high-efficiency tandem cells. PMID:25203692

  9. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Any practical WSN deployment must contend with a number of difficulties in its radio frequency (RF) environment. Multi-path reflections can distort signals, limit data rates, and cause signal fades that prevent nodes from having clear access to channels, especially in a closed environment such as a spacecraft. Other RF signal sources, such as wireless internet, voice, and data systems may contend with the sensor nodes for bandwidth. Finally, RF noise from electrical systems and periodic scattering from moving objects such as crew members will all combine to give an incredibly unpredictable, time-varying communication environment.

  10. Clinical Validation of the 2005 ISUP Gleason Grading System in a Cohort of Intermediate and High Risk Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Sheila F; Bezerra, Stephania M; Yousefi, Kasra; Fedor, Helen; Glavaris, Stephanie; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Tosoian, Jeffrey; Johnson, Michael H; Davicioni, Elai; Trock, Bruce J; Schaeffer, Edward M; Ross, Ashley E; Netto, George J

    2016-01-01

    In 2005, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced several modifications to the original Gleason system that were intended to enhance the prognostic power of Gleason score (GS). The objective of this study was to clinically validate the 2005 ISUP Gleason grading system for its ability to detect metastasis. We queried our institutional RP database for men with NCCN clinically localized intermediate to high-risk disease undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1992 and 2010 with no additional treatment until the time of metastatic progression. A case-cohort design was utilized. A total of 333 available RP samples were re-reviewed and GS was reassigned per the 2005 ISUP Gleason system. Cumulative incidence of metastasis was 0%, 8.4%, 24.5% and 44.4% among specimens that were downgraded, unchanged, had one point GS increase and two point GS increase, respectively. The hazard ratio for metastasis raised in GS 8 and 9 compared to GS 7 from 2.77 and 5.91 to 3.49 and 9.31, respectively. The survival c-index of GS increased from 0.70 to 0.80 when samples were re-graded at 5 years post RP. The c-index of the reassigned GS was higher than the original GS (0.77 vs 0.64) for predicting PCSM at 10 years post RP. The regraded GS improved the prediction of metastasis and PCSM. This validates the updated Gleason grading system using an unambiguous clinical endpoint and highlights the need for reassignment of Gleason grading according to 2005 ISUP system when considering comparisons of novel biomarkers to clinicopathological variables in archival cohorts. PMID:26731672

  11. Motion Imagery and Robotics Application (MIRA): Standards-Based Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Lindolfo; Rich, Thomas; Lucord, Steven; Diegelman, Thomas; Mireles, James; Gonzalez, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This technology development originated from the need to assess the debris threat resulting from soil material erosion induced by landing spacecraft rocket plume impingement on extraterrestrial planetary surfaces. The impact of soil debris was observed to be highly detrimental during NASA s Apollo lunar missions and will pose a threat for any future landings on the Moon, Mars, and other exploration targets. The innovation developed under this program provides a simulation tool that combines modeling of the diverse disciplines of rocket plume impingement gas dynamics, granular soil material liberation, and soil debris particle kinetics into one unified simulation system. The Unified Flow Solver (UFS) developed by CFDRC enabled the efficient, seamless simulation of mixed continuum and rarefied rocket plume flow utilizing a novel direct numerical simulation technique of the Boltzmann gas dynamics equation. The characteristics of the soil granular material response and modeling of the erosion and liberation processes were enabled through novel first principle-based granular mechanics models developed by the University of Florida specifically for the highly irregularly shaped and cohesive lunar regolith material. These tools were integrated into a unique simulation system that accounts for all relevant physics aspects: (1) Modeling of spacecraft rocket plume impingement flow under lunar vacuum environment resulting in a mixed continuum and rarefied flow; (2) Modeling of lunar soil characteristics to capture soil-specific effects of particle size and shape composition, soil layer cohesion and granular flow physics; and (3) Accurate tracking of soil-borne debris particles beginning with aerodynamically driven motion inside the plume to purely ballistic motion in lunar far field conditions.

  12. Flat-plate solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The process technology for the manufacture of semiconductor-grade silicon in a large commercial plant by 1986, at a price less than $14 per kilogram of silicon based on 1975 dollars is discussed. The engineering design, installation, checkout, and operation of an Experimental Process System Development unit was discussed. Quality control of scaling-up the process and an economic analysis of product and production costs are discussed.

  13. Low cost solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and installation of an experimental process system development unit (EPSDU) were analyzed. Supporting research and development were performed to provide an information data base usable for the EPSDU and for technological design and economical analysis for potential scale-up of the process. Iterative economic analyses were conducted for the estimated product cost for the production of semiconductor grade silicon in a facility capable of producing 1000-MT/Yr.

  14. Increasing On-Task Behavior in Every Student in a Second-Grade Classroom during Transitions: Validating the Color Wheel System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fudge, Daniel L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Jacqueline L.; Cowden, Dan; Clark, Janice; Bliss, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A single-case (B-C-B-C) experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel classroom management system (CWS) on on-task (OT) behavior in an intact, general-education, 2nd-grade classroom during transitions. The CWS included three sets of rules, posted cues to indicate the rules students are expected to be following at that…

  15. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-06-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the 'increases in grade point average' definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all. PMID:25288826

  16. 77 FR 35163 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... at the grade crossing, that display the information necessary for the public to report an unsafe... personal information. Please see the Privacy Act heading in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document for Privacy Act information related to any submitted comments or materials. Docket: For access...

  17. An Exercise in Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Hazard Ranking System: A Simulation. Grades 8-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    The educational objective of this exercise is for students to use a risk assessment tool to evaluate a hazardous release site and for students in grades 8-12 to increase their experience with geology, aquifers, soils, land use, pollution, data analysis, and map concepts. Students use background information on hazardous materials, the Environmental…

  18. A Study of Two Approaches to the Teaching of Spelling in the Seventh Grade of a Bicultural School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, James F.

    This study attempted to determine the relative effectiveness of the conventional teacher-directed approach to spelling instruction when compared to a self-directed student-centered approach for 7th-grade students, many of whom spoke Spanish. Spelling achievement was measured by two forms of the same test, while language I. Q., non-language I. Q.,…

  19. The effectiveness of the Invisalign appliance in extraction cases using the the ABO model grading system: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihong; Wang, Shimei; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess treatment outcomes of the Invisalign and compare results with braces. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two adult orthodontic patients, referred to two Orthodontic Specialist Clinics, were randomized to receive either invisalign or brace treatment. All patients were evaluated by using methods from the American Board of Orthodontics Phase III examination. The discrepancy index was used to analyze pretreatment records to control for initial severity of malocclusion. The objective grading system was used to systematically grade posttreatment records. The Wilcoxon 2-sample tests were used to evaluate treatment outcome of Invisalign and braces. Results: The total mean scores of the objective grading system categories were improved after treatment in both groups. The improvements were not statistically significant in scores for alignment, marginal ridges, occlusal relations, over jet, inter-proximal contacts, and root angulation. Invisalign scores were consistently lower than braces scores for buccolingual inclination and occlusal contacts. Conclusions: The overall improvement in OGS scores indicate that both Invisalign and fixed appliances were successful in treating Class I adult extraction cases in this sample. PMID:26221410

  20. Method and system using power modulation for maskless vapor deposition of spatially graded thin film and multilayer coatings with atomic-level precision and accuracy

    DOEpatents

    Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Folta, James Allen (Livermore, CA); Tan, Swie-In (San Jose, CA); Reiss, Ira (New City, NY)

    2002-07-30

    A method and system for producing a film (preferably a thin film with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) on a flat or graded substrate (such as concave or convex optics), by sweeping the substrate across a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. In preferred embodiments, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. A user selects a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a predetermined desired thickness profile of the deposited film. The method relies on precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

  1. Eighth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for eighth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, eighth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  2. Fifth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fifth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fifth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  3. First Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for first grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, first grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  4. Fourth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fourth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fourth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  5. Seventh Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for seventh grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, seventh grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  6. Science Grades 5-8 Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document explains the Arkansas science benchmarks for grades 5-8 which were developed to provide guidance to science teachers. The content standards for three strands--physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems--were identified based on grade levels. (YDS)

  7. Second Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for second grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, second grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  8. Third Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for third grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, third grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  9. Sixth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for sixth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, sixth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

    2005-02-01

    This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length and depth could be determined for deep enough cracks. Defect shadow and short length effects were apparent but may be taken into account. The SH0 scan was done with the mule prototype circuits and permanent magnet EMATs. These gave good enough results that this hardware and the processing techniques are very encouraging for use in a practical ILI tool.

  11. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and noncognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades and undermines their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge…

  12. Performance Investigation of a Hospital-grade X-ray Tube-based Differential Phase-contrast Cone Beam CT System.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Ning, Ruola; Cai, Weixing; Liu, Jiangkun; Conover, David

    2012-02-12

    Differential phase contrast technique could be the next breakthrough in the field of CT imaging. While traditional absorption-based X-ray CT imaging is inefficient at differentiating soft tissues, phase-contrast technique offers great advantage as being able to produce higher contrast images utilizing the phase information of objects. Our long term goal is to develop a gantry-based hospital-grade X-ray tube differential phase contrast cone-beam CT (DPC-CBCT) technology which is able to achieve higher contrast noise ratio (CNR) in soft tissue imaging without increasing the dose level. Based on the micro-focus system built last year, a bench-top hospital-grade X-ray tube DPC-CBCT system is designed and constructed. The DPC-CBCT system consists of an X-ray source, i.e. a hospital-grade X-ray tube and a source grating, a high-resolution detector, a rotating phantom holder, a phase grating and an analyzer grating. Three-dimensional (3-D) phase-coefficients are reconstructed, providing us with images enjoying higher CNR than, yet equivalent dose level to, a conventional CBCT scan. Three important aspects of the system are investigated: a) The The system's performance in term of CNR of the reconstruction image with regard to dose levels, b) the impacts of different phase stepping schemes, i.e. 5 steps to 8 steps, in term of CNR on the reconstruction images, and c) the influence of magnification or position of the phantom on image quality, chiefly CNR. The investigations are accomplished via phantom study. PMID:24386537

  13. Performance investigation of a hospital-grade x-ray tube-based differential phase-contrast cone beam CT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Ning, Ruola; Cai, Weixing; Liu, Jiangkun; Conover, David

    2012-03-01

    Differential phase contrast technique could be the next breakthrough in the field of CT imaging. While traditional absorption-based X-ray CT imaging is inefficient at differentiating soft tissues, phase-contrast technique offers great advantage as being able to produce higher contrast images utilizing the phase information of objects. Our long term goal is to develop a gantry-based hospital-grade X-ray tube differential phase contrast cone-beam CT (DPC-CBCT) technology which is able to achieve higher contrast noise ratio (CNR) in soft tissue imaging without increasing the dose level. Based on the micro-focus system built last year, a bench-top hospital-grade X-ray tube DPC-CBCT system is designed and constructed. The DPC-CBCT system consists of an X-ray source, i.e. a hospital-grade X-ray tube and a source grating, a high-resolution detector, a rotating phantom holder, a phase grating and an analyzer grating. Threedimensional (3-D) phase-coefficients are reconstructed, providing us with images enjoying higher CNR than, yet equivalent dose level to, a conventional CBCT scan. Three important aspects of the system are investigated: a) The The system's performance in term of CNR of the reconstruction image with regard to dose levels, b) the impacts of different phase stepping schemes, i.e. 5 steps to 8 steps, in term of CNR on the reconstruction images, and c) the influence of magnification or position of the phantom on image quality, chiefly CNR. The investigations are accomplished via phantom study.

  14. Graded zooming

    DOEpatents

    Coffland, Douglas R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-04-25

    A system for increasing the resolution in the far field resolution of video or still frame images, while maintaining full coverage in the near field. The system includes a camera connected to a computer. The computer applies a specific zooming scale factor to each of line of pixels and continuously increases the scale factor of the line of pixels from the bottom to the top to capture the scene in the near field, yet maintain resolution in the scene in the far field.

  15. Using First-Grade Teacher Ratings to Predict Third-Grade English Language Arts and Mathematics Achievement on a High-Stakes Statewide Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Dorinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood professional organizations support teachers as the best assessors of students' academic, social, emotional, and physical development. This study investigates the predictive nature of teacher ratings of first-grade students' performance on a standards-based curriculum-embedded performance assessment within the context of a state…

  16. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  17. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  18. Appraisal of the Need for Human Capital Development for Standards-Based Curriculum in Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enemuo, J. Obiageli; Onwuka, Lilian N.

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify primary school teachers' perception on the need for human capital development for standards-based curriculum in primary schools in Anambra State. Simple random sampling was used to draw a sample of 630 teachers. Four research questions were used for the study and a 41-item questionnaire was used to collect data. Data…

  19. The Social Organization of School Counseling in the Era of Standards-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    The reform policies of standards-based accountability, as outlined in NCLB, impede the functioning of school counseling programs and the delivery of services to students. Although recent studies have focused on the transformation of the school counseling profession, a gap exists in the literature with regard to how the experiences of school…

  20. Got Health? The Hawaii Partnership for Standards-based School Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pateman, Beth; Irvin, Lola Hiroko; Nakasato, Steve; Serna, Kuulei; Yahata, Dan K.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Hawaii Partnership for Standards-Based School Health Education, which includes various state agencies, a university, local businesses, and the American Cancer Society, highlighting: the development of the standards; the history of the partnership; partnership activities to date; concurrent supporting efforts; future plans; and…

  1. Aspiring Principal Perceptions: Are Mentor Principals Modeling Standards-Based Leadership?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Sandra; Ballenger, Julia; Leonard, John

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how often 159 practicing teachers enrolled in a university Master's degree principal preparation program observed their mentor principals model the four mandated Texas standards-based instructional leadership competencies for the principalship. The competencies focus on leadership through curriculum and…

  2. A Professional Learning Community at Work: Developing a Standards-Based Principal Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackmann, Donald G.; Walker, Janice M.; Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the state's recent adoption of the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium standards, all leadership preparation programs are required to develop a standards-based curriculum emphasizing the principal's responsibility to lead schools committed to student success. The Midwest State University (MSU) educational leadership faculty,…

  3. "Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics achievement.…

  4. Towards Standards-based Interoperability across Volumetric Data Resources in the Virtual Physiological Human

    E-print Network

    Riera, Jesús Bisbal

    Towards Standards-based Interoperability across Volumetric Data Resources in the Virtual Physiological Human Albert Burger1,2, , Jesus Bisbal3 , Bernard de Bono4 , Duncan Davidson1 , Peter Hunter5 , Federico Sukno3 and Richard Baldock1 , 1 MRC Human Genetics Unit, 2 Heriot-Watt University, 3 Universitat

  5. Tech-Know: Integrating Engaging Activities through Standards-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Taylor, Jerianne S.; Peterson, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2001, North Carolina State University received a four-year grant from the National Science Foundation to develop standards-based instructional materials for 20 Technology Student Association (TSA) activities. The TECH-know Project represents a significant collaboration between selected state departments, universities, businesses, and…

  6. The Impact of Standards-Based Reform: Applying Brantlinger's Critique of "Hierarchical Ideologies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Jessica; Ferri, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Brantlinger's [2004b. "Ideologies Discerned, Values Determined: Getting past the Hierarchies of Special Education." In "Ideology and the Politics of (in)Exclusion," edited by L. Ware, 11-31. New York: Peter Lang Publishing] critique of hierarchical ideologies lays bare the logics embedded in standards-based reform. Drawing…

  7. Historicizing and Contextualizing Global Policy Discourses: Test- and Standards-Based Accountabilities in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This paper in commenting on the contributions to this special number demonstrates the necessity of historicizing and contextualizing the rise of test- and standards-based modes of accountability in contemporary education policy globally. Both are imperative for understanding specific national manifestations of what has become a globalized…

  8. Development and Evaluation of a Standards-Based Approach to Instruction in General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Eugene P.; DiBiase, Warren J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Operation CHEM1251, an on-going project designed to implement a standards-based approach to instruction in the general chemistry curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Results indicate that this is the first time in five years that any day-time first semester general chemistry course section scored significantly…

  9. Standards-Based Evaluation and Teacher Career Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; Muncey, Donna E.; You, Sukkyung

    2005-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of a conceptual model specifying hypothesized linkages among perceptions of characteristics of standards-based evaluation, work environment mediators, and career satisfaction and other outcomes. Four comprehensive high schools located in two neighboring counties in southern…

  10. Changes in the aromatic profile of espresso coffee as a function of the grinding grade and extraction time: a study by the electronic nose system.

    PubMed

    Severini, C; Ricci, I; Marone, M; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2015-03-01

    The changes in chemical attributes and aromatic profile of espresso coffee (EC) were studied taking into account the extraction time and grinding level as independent variables. Particularly, using an electronic nose system, the changes of the global aromatic profile of EC were highlighted. The results shown as the major amounts of organic acids, solids, and caffeine were extracted in the first 8 s of percolation. The grinding grade significantly affected the quality of EC probably as an effect of the particle size distribution and the percolation pathways of water through the coffee cake. The use of an electronic nose system allowed us to discriminate the fractions of the brew as a function of the percolation time and also the regular coffee obtained from different grinding grades. Particularly, the aromatic profile of a regular coffee (25 mL) was significantly affected by the grinding level of the coffee grounds and percolation time, which are two variables under the control of the bar operator. PMID:25665600

  11. Lower Grade Glioma

    Cancer.gov

    Lower grade glioma is a type of cancer that develops in the glial cells of the brain. Glial cells support the brain’s nerve cells and keep them healthy. Tumors are classified into grades I, II, III or IV based on standards set by the World Health Organization. TCGA is including grades II and III in this specific study, as opposed to the more common and higher grade brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme, which was studied in a separate project.

  12. Grading and Student Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, David S.

    In the Spring of 1968, a joint study group called an Ad Hoc Committee on Grades and Evaluation was created to examine current methods of student evaluation. Several members of the group believed that letter grading on the undergraduate and graduate levels was counterproductive, because grades do not accurately reflect either student performance or…

  13. Conversations about Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullen, Kristine; Gullen, James; Erickson-Guy, Nickolas

    2012-01-01

    Grades often are determined by the unspoken values and beliefs of an autonomous teacher, but technology is making grading practices more transparent to parents, students, and educators. The ability to view the grade books of teachers who are teaching the same course in the same district is increasingly raising questions and challenges to what were…

  14. Bias in Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John

    2008-01-01

    Bias in grading can be conscious or unconscious. The author describes different types of bias, such as those based on student attractiveness or performance in prior courses, and a variety of methods of reducing bias, including keeping students anonymous during grading and using detailed criteria for subjective grading.

  15. Should Grade Retention Decisions Be Indicators-Based or Model-Driven? CSE Technical Report 716

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia; Wang, Haiwen

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates a large urban district's standards-based promotion policy decisions against a model-driven classification. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to explore factors related to grade retention at both the student and school level. Statistical results indicate that using students' next year achievement test scores as…

  16. A Standards-Based Content Analysis of Selected Biological Science Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled…

  17. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  18. THE CENTROID OF EXTENDED AFFINE AND ROOT GRADED LIE ALGEBRAS

    E-print Network

    Neher, Erhard

    THE CENTROID OF EXTENDED AFFINE AND ROOT GRADED LIE ALGEBRAS GEORGIA BENKARTA,1 AND ERHARD NEHERB,2 algebras, and Lie algebras graded by finite root systems. 1. Introduction Our main focus.13), extended affine Lie algebras (Cor. 4.13), Lie algebras graded by finite root systems (Thm. 5.15 and Thm. 5

  19. THE CENTROID OF EXTENDED AFFINE AND ROOT GRADED LIE ALGEBRAS

    E-print Network

    THE CENTROID OF EXTENDED AFFINE AND ROOT GRADED LIE ALGEBRAS GEORGIA BENKARTA,1 AND ERHARD NEHERB,2-like and Kac-Moody Lie algebras, and Lie algebras graded by finite root systems. 1. Introduction Our main focus, loop algebras, Lie algebras graded by finite root systems, and Kac-Moody Lie algebras, which

  20. Metric Measurement: Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection is comprised of 63 objectives and corresponding sample test items for evaluation of students in grades K-8. Correct answers or criteria for judging the adequacy of student responses are provided. Major categories in the collection are: (1) preparing to use the metric system--decimal and fractional notation; (2) measurement--length,…

  1. 5 CFR 532.419 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 532.419 Section 532.419... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.419 Grade and pay retention. (a) In accordance with...

  2. 5 CFR 532.419 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 532.419 Section 532.419... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.419 Grade and pay retention. (a) In accordance with...

  3. 5 CFR 532.419 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 532.419 Section 532.419... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.419 Grade and pay retention. (a) In accordance with...

  4. 5 CFR 532.419 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 532.419 Section 532.419... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.419 Grade and pay retention. (a) In accordance with...

  5. 5 CFR 532.419 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 532.419 Section 532.419... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.419 Grade and pay retention. (a) In accordance with...

  6. Survival Analyses for Patients With Surgically Resected Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors by World Health Organization 2010 Grading Classifications and American Joint Committee on Cancer 2010 Staging Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Ke, Neng-wen; Zeng, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Chun-lu; Zhang, Hao; Mai, Gang; Tian, Bo-le; Liu, Xu-bao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2010, World Health Organization (WHO) reclassified pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) into 4 main groups: neuroendocrine tumor G1 (NET G1), neuroendocrine tumor G2 (NET G2), neuroendocrine carcinoma G3 (NEC G3), mixed adeno and neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Clinical value of these newly updated WHO grading criteria has not been rigorously validated. The authors aimed to evaluate the clinical consistency of the new 2010 grading classifications by WHO and the 2010 tumor-node metastasis staging systems by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) on survivals for patients with surgically resected p-NETs. Moreover, the authors would validate the prognostic value of both criteria for p-NETs. The authors retrospectively collected the clinicopathologic data of 120 eligible patients who were all surgically treated and histopathologically diagnosed as p-NETs from January 2004 to February 2014 in our single institution. The new WHO criteria were assigned to 4 stratified groups with a respective distribution of 62, 35, 17, and 6 patients. Patients with NET G1 or NET G2 obtained a statistically better survival compared with those with NEC G3 or MANEC (P?systems were respectively defined in 61, 36, 12, and 11 patients for each stage. Differences of survivals of stage I with stage III and IV were significant (P?systems were both significant in univariate and multivariate analysis (P?grading classifications and the AJCC 2010 staging systems could consistently reflect the clinical outcome of patients with surgically resected p-NETs. Meanwhile, both criteria could be independent predictors for survival analysis of p-NETs. PMID:26632896

  7. Optical frequency standard based on a two-photon transition in calcium

    E-print Network

    Vutha, Amar C

    2015-01-01

    A two-photon transition in laser-cooled and trapped calcium atoms is proposed as the atomic reference in an optical frequency standard. An efficient scheme for interrogation of the frequency standard is described, and the sensitivity of the clock transition to systematic effects is estimated. Frequency standards based on this transition could lead to compact and portable devices that are capable of rapidly averaging down to $< 10^{-16}$.

  8. Student and Faculty Perceptions of Plus/Minus Grading and Its Effect on Course Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Graham, Donna L.; Dixon, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2005, the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences at the University of Arkansas authorized the optional use of a plus/minus grading system. Since 2005, approximately one-half of courses have been graded using plus/minus and one-half using the straight letter grade system. This study examined student (n = 338) and…

  9. 49 CFR 236.53 - Track circuit feed at grade crossing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track circuit feed at grade crossing. 236.53 Section...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.53 Track circuit feed at grade crossing. At grade...

  10. 49 CFR 236.53 - Track circuit feed at grade crossing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Track circuit feed at grade crossing. 236.53 Section...APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.53 Track circuit feed at grade crossing. At grade...

  11. Establishing an appropriate mode of comparison for measuring the performance of marbling score output from video image analysis beef carcass grading systems.

    PubMed

    Moore, C B; Bass, P D; Green, M D; Chapman, P L; O'Connor, M E; Yates, L D; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2010-07-01

    A beef carcass instrument grading system that improves accuracy and consistency of marbling score (MS) evaluation would have the potential to advance value-based marketing efforts and reduce disparity in quality grading among USDA graders, shifts, and plants. The objectives of this study were to use output data from the Video Image Analysis-Computer Vision System (VIA-CVS, Research Management Systems Inc., Fort Collins, CO) to develop an appropriate method by which performance of video image analysis MS output could be evaluated for accuracy, precision, and repeatability for purposes of seeking official USDA approval for using an instrument in commerce to augment assessment of quality grade, and to use the developed standards to gain approval for VIA-CVS to assist USDA personnel in assigning official beef carcass MS. An initial MS output algorithm was developed (phase I) for the VIA-CVS before 2 separate preliminary instrument evaluation trials (phases II and III) were conducted. During phases II and III, a 3-member panel of USDA expert graders independently assigned MS to 1,068 and 1,242 stationary carcasses, respectively. Mean expert MS was calculated for each carcass. Additionally, a separate 3-member USDA expert panel developed a consensus MS for each carcass in phase III. In phase II, VIA-CVS stationary triple-placement and triple-trigger instrument repeatability values (n = 262 and 260, respectively), measured as the percentage of total variance explained by carcasses, were 99.9 and 99.8%, respectively. In phases II and III, 95% of carcasses were assigned expert MS for which differences between individual expert MS, and for which the consensus MS in phase III only, was < or = 96 MS units. Two differing approaches to simple regression analysis, as well as a separate method-comparability analysis that accommodates error in both dependent and independent variables, were used to assess accuracy and precision of instrument MS predictions vs. mean expert MS. Method-comparability analysis was more appropriate in assessing the bias and precision of instrument MS predictions. Ether-extractable fat percentages (n = 257; phase II) differed among MS (P < 0.05) but were not suitable to predict or validate assigned MS. The performance and reproducibility of expert MS assignment in future evaluations was considered, and an official USDA performance standard was established, to which an instrument must conform to be approved for official on-line MS assessment. The VIA-CVS subsequently was approved to assign MS to carcasses on-line after completion of a 2006 USDA instrument approval trial conducted according to methods developed during completion of this study. PMID:20348376

  12. A Grading System To Evaluate Objectively the Strength of Pre-Clinical Data of Acute Neuroprotective Therapies for Clinical Translation in Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Elena B.; Tsai, Eve; Beattie, Michael S.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Magnuson, David K.; Reier, Paul J.; McTigue, Dana M.; Popovich, Phillip G.; Blight, Andrew R.; Oudega, Martin; Guest, James D.; Weaver, Lynne C.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The past three decades have seen an explosion of research interest in spinal cord injury (SCI) and the development of hundreds of potential therapies that have demonstrated some promise in pre-clinical experimental animal models. A growing number of these treatments are seeking to be translated into human clinical trials. Conducting such a clinical trial, however, is extremely costly, not only for the time and money required to execute it, but also for the limited resources that will then no longer be available to evaluate other promising therapies. The decision about what therapies have sufficient pre-clinical evidence of efficacy to justify testing in humans is therefore of utmost importance. Here, we have developed a scoring system for objectively grading the body of pre-clinical literature on neuroprotective treatments for acute SCI. The components of the system include an evaluation of a number of factors that are thought to be important in considering the “robustness” of a therapy's efficacy, including the animal species and injury models that have been used to test it, the time window of efficacy, the types of functional improvements effected by it, and whether efficacy has been independently replicated. The selection of these factors was based on the results of a questionnaire that was performed within the SCI research community. A modified Delphi consensus-building exercise was then conducted with experts in pre-clinical SCI research to refine the criteria and decide upon how to score them. Finally, the grading system was applied to a series of potential neuroprotective treatments for acute SCI. This represents a systematic approach to developing an objective method of evaluating the extent to which the pre-clinical literature supports the translation of a particular experimental treatment into human trials. PMID:20507235

  13. A grading system to evaluate objectively the strength of pre-clinical data of acute neuroprotective therapies for clinical translation in spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Brian K; Okon, Elena B; Tsai, Eve; Beattie, Michael S; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C; Magnuson, David K; Reier, Paul J; McTigue, Dana M; Popovich, Phillip G; Blight, Andrew R; Oudega, Martin; Guest, James D; Weaver, Lynne C; Fehlings, Michael G; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2011-08-01

    The past three decades have seen an explosion of research interest in spinal cord injury (SCI) and the development of hundreds of potential therapies that have demonstrated some promise in pre-clinical experimental animal models. A growing number of these treatments are seeking to be translated into human clinical trials. Conducting such a clinical trial, however, is extremely costly, not only for the time and money required to execute it, but also for the limited resources that will then no longer be available to evaluate other promising therapies. The decision about what therapies have sufficient pre-clinical evidence of efficacy to justify testing in humans is therefore of utmost importance. Here, we have developed a scoring system for objectively grading the body of pre-clinical literature on neuroprotective treatments for acute SCI. The components of the system include an evaluation of a number of factors that are thought to be important in considering the "robustness" of a therapy's efficacy, including the animal species and injury models that have been used to test it, the time window of efficacy, the types of functional improvements effected by it, and whether efficacy has been independently replicated. The selection of these factors was based on the results of a questionnaire that was performed within the SCI research community. A modified Delphi consensus-building exercise was then conducted with experts in pre-clinical SCI research to refine the criteria and decide upon how to score them. Finally, the grading system was applied to a series of potential neuroprotective treatments for acute SCI. This represents a systematic approach to developing an objective method of evaluating the extent to which the pre-clinical literature supports the translation of a particular experimental treatment into human trials. PMID:20507235

  14. Power Conversion and Transmission Systems: A 9th and/or 10th Grade Industrial Education Curriculum Designed To Fulfill the Kansas State Department of Vocational Education's Level 2 Course Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Harvey R., Ed.

    The document is a guide to a 9th and 10th grade industrial education course investigating the total system of power--how man controls, converts, transmits, and uses energy; the rationale is that if one is to learn of the total system of industry, the subsystem of power must be investigated. The guide provides a "body of knowledge" chart…

  15. The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Information Display in an Electronic Portfolio System on Information Processing and Retention in a Fifth-Grade Science Class Covering the Earth's Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Paul; Olaciregui, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    An electronic portfolio system, designed to serve as a resource-based learning space, was tested in a fifth-grade science class. The control-group students accessed a traditional folder-based information display in the system and the experimental-group students accessed a concept map-based information display to review a science portfolio. The…

  16. Developing Knowledgeable Teachers: A Framework for Standards-Based Teacher Education Supported by Institutional Collaboration. The STEP Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin, Patty, Ed.

    This collection of papers describes the process of creating a standards-based teacher education program through strong collaboration among arts and science, education, and P-12 faculty members and administrators. The Standards-based Teacher Education Project (STEP) was designed to help teacher education programs ensure that their graduates know…

  17. Accessing the Common Core Standards for Students with Learning Disabilities: Strategies for Writing Standards-Based IEP Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruana, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    Since the reauthorization of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 2004, standards-based individualized education plans (IEPs) have been an expectation for serving students with disabilities in the K-12 public school setting. Nearly a decade after the mandates calling for standards-based IEPs, special educators still struggle…

  18. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  19. 40 CFR 1036.620 - Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...Compliance Provisions § 1036.620 Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...your compression-ignition engines to the CO2 standards of this section instead of...

  20. 40 CFR 1036.620 - Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...Compliance Provisions § 1036.620 Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...your compression-ignition engines to the CO2 standards of this section instead of...

  1. 40 CFR 1036.620 - Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...Compliance Provisions § 1036.620 Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...your compression-ignition engines to the CO2 standards of this section instead of...

  2. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

  3. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

  4. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum >grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

  5. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

  6. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

  7. Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ca.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system

    DOEpatents

    Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5.mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photovoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of the growing layer.

  8. Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system

    DOEpatents

    Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5 .mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photolvoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of growing layer.

  9. An Analysis of the Education Systems in Mexico and the United States from Pre-Kinder to 12 Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Luis A.; Hellawell, Marisa; Zamora, Ezequiel Benedicto

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the public school system in Mexico from early childhood to high school, and compares it with the American education system. It also identifies educational terminology and concepts unique to the Mexican system that can become possible sources of conflict and confusion for American educators. (Contains 7…

  10. Evidence for Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation in Individuals with Agoraphobia from a Population-Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, En-Young N.; Wagner, Jan T.; Glaus, Jennifer; Vandeleur, Caroline L.; Castelao, Enrique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F.; Vollenweider, Peter; Preisig, Martin; von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders have been linked to an increased risk of incident coronary heart disease in which inflammation plays a key pathogenic role. To date, no studies have looked at the association between proinflammatory markers and agoraphobia. Methods In a random Swiss population sample of 2890 persons (35-67 years, 53% women), we diagnosed a total of 124 individuals (4.3%) with agoraphobia using a validated semi-structured psychiatric interview. We also assessed socioeconomic status, traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., body mass index, hypertension, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio), and health behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity), and other major psychiatric diseases (other anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, drug dependence) which were treated as covariates in linear regression models. Circulating levels of inflammatory markers, statistically controlled for the baseline demographic and health-related measures, were determined at a mean follow-up of 5.5 ± 0.4 years (range 4.7 – 8.5). Results Individuals with agoraphobia had significantly higher follow-up levels of C-reactive protein (p = 0.007) and tumor-necrosis-factor-? (p = 0.042) as well as lower levels of the cardioprotective marker adiponectin (p = 0.032) than their non-agoraphobic counterparts. Follow-up levels of interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 did not significantly differ between the two groups. Conclusions Our results suggest an increase in chronic low-grade inflammation in agoraphobia over time. Such a mechanism might link agoraphobia with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, and needs to be tested in longitudinal studies. PMID:25875094

  11. Power-grade butanol recovery and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Noon, R.

    1982-02-12

    As an alternative to the traditional recovery systems, it was proposed in a previous publication that the n-butanol/acetone/ethanol fermentation products could be recovered as a power grade fuel blend and used directly as a fuel. This would affect a savings in process energy requirements because each chemical component would not have to be processed individually to technical grade purity. Further, some residual water could be tolerated in the fuel blend. To develop such a power grade fuel recovery scheme beyond the conceptual stage, the Energy Research and Resource Division of the Kansas Energy Office undertook a two-fold program to demonstrate and test a power grade butanol/acetone/ethanol fuel recovery system, and further to demonstrate the feasibility of using the fuel blend in a standard type engine. A development program was initiated to accomplish the following objectives: design and test an operational power grade butanol recovery plant that would operate at one liter per hour output; and test and assess the performance of power grade butanol in a spark ignition automotive engine. This project has demonstrated that recovery of a power grade butanol fuel blend is simple and can be accomplished at a considered energy advantage over ethanol. It was further demonstrated that such a power grade blend works well in a typical spark ignition engine.

  12. Grading of oral epithelial dysplasia: Points to ponder

    PubMed Central

    Geetha, KM; Leeky, M; Narayan, TV; Sadhana, S; Saleha, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over the years many grading systems have been put forward in an attempt to obtain objectivity in grading oral epithelial dysplasia (OED). However, despite these efforts variability remains unresolved. Our study aimed to evaluate the intra- and inter-observer variability in grading OED, using World Health Organization (WHO), Smith and Pindborg and Ljubljana grading systems and discuss the possible reasons for this variability if any. Materials and Methods: Three oral pathologists graded 50 slides of OED independently twice at a time interval of 3 months. Variability was evaluated by multivariate kappa analysis. Results: Intra-observer reproducibility ranged from moderate to good in WHO system, fair to moderate in Smith and Pindborg system and moderate to poor in Ljubljana grading system. Inter-observer agreement was found to be fair in WHO, poor in Smith and Pindborg system and poor to fair in Ljubljana grading systems. Intra-observer reproducibility of the dysplastic features in WHO system was good for all except the loss of polarity and basilar hyperplasia for first observer and enlarged nucleoli for the third observer. Inter-observer agreement was good for increased number of mitosis and nuclear hyperchromatism. Intra-observer reproducibility and inter-observer agreement were found to be best in the WHO grading system though variability within this system still existed. Conclusion: There is a need for an International body of pathologists to come to a consensus on a more definable grading system to resolve the issue of variability in grading dysplasia. PMID:26604497

  13. Standards-based publication and sharing of time series information in the DRIHM project: a EU-US collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Richard; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Parodi, Antonio; Gochis, David; Jha, Shantenu; Whitenack, Thomas; Valentine, David; Caumont, Olivier; Dekic, Ljiljana; Ivkovic, Marija; Molini, Luca; Bedrina, Tatiana; Gijsbers, Peter J. A.; de Rooij, Erik; Rebora, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    To enable a plug-and-play infrastructure, the European DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project aims to develop a comprehensive data publication and sharing system presenting uniform standards-based data discovery and access interfaces for hydrometeorological data collected by DRIHM partners in several European countries. This is a challenging task due to heterogeneity in types of data being collected and organized for modeling, and different semantic and structural conventions adopted by different data publishers. To meet this goal, the DRIHM project, and its DRIHM2US extension, collaborates with the recently funded US SCIHM (Standards-based Cyberinfrastructure for HydroMeteorology) project to develop a data sharing infrastructure for time series information. We report initial results of the application of the data integrating technologies developed by the NSF-funded CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Data, Inc., Hydrologic Information System) project, to information collected within DRIHM. The CUAHSI HIS system has been widely used in the US; it provides access to about a hundred water data collections that can be queried via uniform web services. The DRIHM partners initially implementing the system, include the CIMA Research Foundation (Italy), the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. The collected time series information was ingested into CUAHSI Observations Data Model databases, and water data services were created for each of the partners. At the time of writing, the water data services include SOAP and REST endpoints that provide access to the time series in WaterML 1 and WaterML 2.0 formats. The former encoding, developed by CUAHSI HIS, has been adopted by a number of federal agencies and research groups in the US, while the latter, created by an international group of experts under the aegis of the Hydrology Domain Working Group of the Open Geospatial Consortium and the World Meteorological Organization, has been recently adopted as an international standard for exchanging hydrologic data. The services are registered at the central catalog, which supports discovery of time series based on their spatio-temporal characteristics and on variable semantics. The semantics of the measurements is aligned , in the process of publication and service registration, with a set of centrally managed controlled vocabularies and a parameter vocabulary. Data from multiple collections can be discovered, accessed, visualized and analyzed using CUAHSI HydroDesktop software, or other clients that support water data service interfaces. While HydroDesktop relies on WaterML 1 format, the Delft FEWS system, maintained by a DRIHM partner Deltares, is already capable of ingesting WaterML 2.0 services, which enables interfacing WaterML 2.0-formatted streams with forecast models. Development of a consistent data sharing system is one of the first steps in realizing DRIHM objectives. Next steps include further integration of water data services with simulation models, WRF and WRF-Hydro in particular, and integrating point time series with gridded information to be used as model input. We discuss these additional steps and associated challenges, and demonstrate the complementarity and benefits of US-EU collaboration in the development of global standards-based infrastructure for hydrometeorological data.

  14. Grading Homework to Emphasize Problem-Solving Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process-based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.

  15. 5 CFR 532.409 - Grading or regrading of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grading or regrading of positions. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.409 Grading or regrading of positions. Except as provided in... the employee's position shall be effective on the date the grading or regrading action is...

  16. 5 CFR 532.409 - Grading or regrading of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grading or regrading of positions. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.409 Grading or regrading of positions. Except as provided in... the employee's position shall be effective on the date the grading or regrading action is...

  17. 5 CFR 532.409 - Grading or regrading of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grading or regrading of positions. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.409 Grading or regrading of positions. Except as provided in... the employee's position shall be effective on the date the grading or regrading action is...

  18. 5 CFR 532.409 - Grading or regrading of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grading or regrading of positions. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.409 Grading or regrading of positions. Except as provided in... the employee's position shall be effective on the date the grading or regrading action is...

  19. 5 CFR 532.409 - Grading or regrading of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grading or regrading of positions. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.409 Grading or regrading of positions. Except as provided in... the employee's position shall be effective on the date the grading or regrading action is...

  20. Grassmann-graded Lagrangian theory of even and odd variables

    E-print Network

    G. Sardanashvily

    2012-06-12

    Graded Lagrangian formalism in terms of a Grassmann-graded variational bicomplex on graded manifolds is developed in a very general setting. This formalism provides the comprehensive description of reducible degenerate Lagrangian systems, characterized by hierarchies of non-trivial higher-order Noether identities and gauge symmetries. This is a general case of classical field theory and Lagrangian non-relativistic mechanics.

  1. The Arguments and Data in Favor of Minimum Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; Carey, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The arguments and for and against minimum grading systems have grown increasingly more intense and acrimonious in the past decade. However, there has been an absence of empirical data, theory and clear comparative analyses of conflicting points of view. Critics of minimum grading contend that the practice will produce grade inflation and social…

  2. Longitudinally graded optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evert, A.; James, A.; Hawkins, T.; Foy, P.; Dong, L.; Stolen, R.; Ballato, J.; Dragic, P.; Rice, R.

    2013-03-01

    Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are results on optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along its length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight % GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. The method employed is very straight-forward and provides for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, which could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high-energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

  3. Achieving Standards in Urban Systemic Reform: An Example of a Sixth Grade Project-Based Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivet, Ann E.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    A challenge for urban systemic reform initiatives in science education has been to achieve local, state, and national standards for teaching and learning. We have collaborated with teachers in the Detroit Public School System to design project-based curriculum materials that contextualize the learning of science in meaningful real-world problems,…

  4. Hybrid pressure retarded osmosis-membrane distillation system for power generation from low-grade heat: thermodynamic analysis and energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shihong; Yip, Ngai Yin; Cath, Tzahi Y; Osuji, Chinedum O; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 °C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance optimization. PMID:24724732

  5. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis-Membrane Distillation System for Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat: Thermodynamic Analysis and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, SH; Yip, NY; Cath, TY; Osuji, CO; Elimelech, M

    2014-05-06

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 degrees C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 degrees C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance optimization.

  6. Analyzing standards-based science instructional materials: An opportunity for professional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, James Bennett

    This phenomenological study focused on a group of teachers who applied the Analyzing Instructional Materials (AIM) Process and Tools to select standards-based instructional materials for science curriculum reform. The purpose of this study was to identify, based on teachers' beliefs, perceptions, and experiences, the conditions for supporting professional development that involve standards-based reform and the use of instructional materials that were developed with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). The design of this qualitative study involved a series of three separate in-depth interviews with six participants. A first person narrative profile of each participant was constructed from the interviews and analyzed. Three themes were represented in the data: a focus on teaming, professional development and the change and reform process. Teachers in this study believed that instructional materials needed to explicitly support concept development and students doing science in order to learn about inquiry. Participants thought NSF-funded instructional materials supported inquiry-based learning and the teacher as a facilitator of learning. Based on this study, one finding about standards-based reform is that selecting instructional materials can be a structured professional development opportunity. A second finding is that teachers' beliefs about standards-based reform and the use of materials can be influenced during the selection of high quality instructional materials. Participants in this study believed that selecting NSF-funded instructional materials was critical to changing the learning and teaching of science in their district. A third finding is that professional development can push teachers to think critically about the materials they use to teach students science. Teachers in this study believed that their experiences associated with learning and using AIM provided them opportunities for reflection and dialogue about how instructional materials could better support concept development and inquiry-based learning and teaching. Three implications for teacher learning and professional development based on this study include: structures and facilitation are needed to guide the change and reform process because of the time needed for adult learning, reform-oriented instructional materials can be used to support adult learning experiences, and the use of outside experts can be critical to supporting reform efforts within a district.

  7. Fabrication of Functionally Graded SOFC by APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. Z.; Zhang, H. O.; Wang, G. L.; Xia, W. S.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric plasma spray (APS) was used to prepare the planar positive/electrolyte/negative (PEN) and mono-block layer built (MOLB) type PEN solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). On the basis of the spraying conditions optimized previously and the self-developed functionally graded powder feeder system, two types of PEN cells were fabricated. Then the microstructure and material composition of the PEN cells were analyzed. The results show that graded layers formed between the electrodes and electrolyte. Moreover, the material composition and the porosity of the graded layers vary gradually. In particular, the porosities of the resultant anode and cathode reach 32.74 and 32.24%, respectively. Using the AC complex impedance technique, the conductivity of the MOLB type composite electrode is tested. The electrical conductivity of the MOLB type composite electrode with the graded layers is larger than that without the graded layers.

  8. oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades

    E-print Network

    Oklahoma, University of

    oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades Exporting/Importing Grades in oZONE The new - Log in to ozone.ou.edu using your OU Net ID (4+4) as you would in any other OU system. Click Importing Grades from a Exported oZONE template If you exported a course template from the oZONE grading

  9. Beef grading by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  10. GRADE SEPARATION Description

    E-print Network

    GRADE SEPARATION Description Intersections that must serve vehicles, pedestrians, and possibly separation--at these crossing points allows traffic to flow freely. This in turn makes conditions safer road and rail traffic. Target Market Grade separations work well on roads that have heavy volumes

  11. The Grades Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleenor, Andy; Lamb, Sarah; Anton, Jennifer; Stinson, Todd; Donen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    It can be quite alarming (and eye-opening) to see exactly how many of the grades students receive are based on their behaviors rather than their learning. Students should be assessed on what they know and can use rather than on their behavior. The reality, unfortunately, is that the opposite is often the case. Grades for students who work hard are…

  12. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  13. Grades out, Badges in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Grades are broken. Students grub for them, pick classes where good ones come easily, and otherwise hustle to win the highest scores for the least learning. As a result, college grades are inflated to the point of meaninglessness--especially to employers who want to know which diploma-holder is best qualified for their jobs. An alternative is to…

  14. Teaching Middle Grades Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    Background information and exemplary units for teaching science in Georgia's middle school grades are provided. Discussed in the first section are: (1) the rationale for including science in middle school grades, focusing on science/society/technology, science/social issues, scientific reasoning, and scientific literacy; (2) role of science…

  15. Controlling Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanoyevitch, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    In this article concerning grade inflation, the author restricts his attention to the college and university level, although many of the tools and ideas developed here should be useful for high schools as well. The author considers the relationships between grades instructors assign and scores they receive on end-of-the semester student…

  16. Longitudinally Graded Optical Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evert, Alexander George

    Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along their length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight percent GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported for fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. Fibers with longitudinally uniform (i.e., not gradient) refractive index profiles but differing chemical compositions among various core layers were also fabricated to determine acoustic effects of the core slug method. The refractive index of the resulting preform varies by about +/- 0.00013 from the average. Upon core drilling, it was found that the core slugs had been drilled off-center from the parent preform, resulting in semi-circular core cross sections that were unable to guide light. As a result, optical analysis could not be conducted. Chemical composition data was obtained, however, and is described herein. A third fiber produced was actively doped with ytterbium (Yb3 ) and fabricated similarly to the previous fibers. The preforms were doped via the solution doping method with a solution of 0.015 M Yb 3 derived from ytterbium chloride hexahydrate and 0.30 M Al 3 derived from aluminum chloride hexahydrate. The doped preform was engineered to have two core layers of differing chemical composition, resulting in both a gradient refractive index profile as well as a gradient acoustic profile. While exhibiting higher loss than the original LGF, the Yb 3-doped fiber showed slightly better SBS suppression with preliminary calculations showing at least 6 dB reduction in Brillouin gain. Lastly, reported here is a straight-forward and flexible method to fabricate silica optical fibers of circular cladding cross-section and rectilinear cores whose aspect ratio and refractive index profile changes with position along the fiber in a deterministic way. Specifically, a modification to the process developed to produce longitudinally-graded optical fibers, was employed. Herein reported are MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers with rectangular cores where the aspect ratio changes by nearly 200 % and the average refractive index changed by about 5 %. Fiber losses were measured to be about 50 dB/km. Such rectangular core fibers are useful for a variety of telecommunication and biomedical applications and the dimensional and optical chirp provides a deterministic way to control further the modal properties of the fiber. Possible applications of longitudinally graded optical fibers and future improvements are also discussed. The methods employed are very straight-forward and technically simple, providing for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, that could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

  17. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  18. Faculty/Staff Perceptions of a Standards-Based Exit Portfolio System for Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tena L.; Bailey, Rita L.

    2006-01-01

    New standards for certification were recently developed for speech-language pathology graduate training programs by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. The new standards are outcomes-based rather than process-based. Using a collective case study approach, this article highlights the perceptions of faculty and staff regarding use of a…

  19. Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple…

  20. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  1. Impact of Toxicity Grade and Scoring System on the Relationship Between Mean Lung Dose and Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in a Large Cohort of Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Susan L.; Jin Hekun; Wei Xiong

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To compute the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with RP scored using three grading systems and analyzed at four threshold levels of toxicity in a large cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: On the basis of medical records and radiographic images, RP was scored retrospectively in 442 patients with NSCLC who had {>=}6 months of follow-up after the end of RT. The severity of RP was scored for each patient using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0 (CTC2.0); the NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0 (CTCAE3.0); and the grading system of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). For each grading system and for each of four levels of toxicity (Grade {>=}1, {>=}2, {>=}3, {>=}4), the Lyman, logistic, and log-logistic normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were fitted to the data as functions of MLD. The parameter estimates from the model fits are listed in table form, and the RP risk estimates are presented graphically for the Lyman and log-logistic NTCP models. Results: The results presented here illustrate the impact of scoring system and level of toxicity on the relationship between MLD and RP risk. Conclusions: These results facilitate quantitative comparisons between our data and studies of RP risk reported by others, and several examples of such comparisons are provided.

  2. Learning about Body Systems. Superific Science Book IX. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    This document offers an explanation and drawings of each of the major systems of the human body and of the five senses. It provides teachers with classroom activities, demonstrations, and experiments which are intended to involve students in the acquisition of knowledge concerning the structure and function of their bodies. The drawings of the…

  3. Development of a Media Driven Online Assessment System: Improving Quality, Frequency, and Deployment of Grades and Feedback in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaurez, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Information communication technologies (ICT) in education is an expanding field, and within this field there is a need for development of effective systems for faculty and learners to communicate feedback and assess performance. The increasing migration of many academic disciplines and courses to an online format has prompted an increased need for…

  4. Messages from Space: The Solar System and Beyond. Grades 508. Teacher's Guide. Great Explorations in Science (GEMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Kevin; Erickson, John; Sneider, Cary

    Building on collaborative work between the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute and the Lawrence Hall of Science, this curriculum takes advantage of humans' fascination with extraterrestrials to catalyze the study of the solar system and beyond. The unit begins when students attempt to decode a fictitious message from outer…

  5. Physical properties of normal grade biodiesel and winter grade biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Moksin, Mohd Maarof; Nang, Harrison Lau Lik; Norozi, Monir; Yunus, W Mahmood Mat; Zakaria, Azmi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C(16:0) content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel. PMID:21731429

  6. Creation of a functional graded nanobiomembrane using a new electrospinning system for drug release control and an in vitro validation of drug release behavior of the coating membrane.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Hee; Chung, Min-Young; Unnithan, Afeesh Rajan; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2015-05-01

    Functional graded nanobiomembranes (FGMs) with multiple layers were created by a single process using a novel electrospinning system equipped with a generator and a PCI type motion board as a controller in order to control the drug release rate. By varying physical apparatus-related parameters such as nozzle-to-collector distance via a robot and the collector moving velocity the FGMs were formed. For the membrane base layer, poly-(?-caprolactone) (PCL) with paclitaxel (PTX) was dissolved in a solvent (dichloromethane, N,N-dimethylformamide) and electrospun. For the top layers, the PCL solution was electrospun according to the distance and FGM system parameters, which can move the collector location at a constant ratio. It was observed that pore size, porosity, and permeability were higher when the membrane was spun at the far distance. The top surface of FGM is more porous, rougher, more permeable, and more hydrophilic so as to be active to the surrounding tissue cells. Meanwhile, the porous inside membrane was as low as the membrane spun at a close distance. Thus it induced a slow drug release due to the internal structure of FGM, which is considered to be very effective for slow drug release as well as bioactivity and bioconductivity. PMID:25746254

  7. Functionally graded boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

    1998-12-31

    Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

  8. Portable optical frequency standard based on sealed gas-filled hollow-core fiber using a novel encapsulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triches, Marco; Brusch, Anders; Hald, Jan

    2015-09-01

    A portable stand-alone optical frequency standard based on a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is developed to stabilize a fiber laser to the ^{13}{C}_2{H}_2 P(16) (? _1 + ? _3 ) transition at 1542 nm using saturated absorption. A novel encapsulation technique is developed to permanently seal the hollow-core fiber with easy light coupling, showing negligible pressure increase over two months. The locked laser shows a fractional frequency instability below 8 × 10^{-12} for an averaging time up to 104 s. The lock-point repeatability over one month is 2.6 × 10^{-11} , corresponding to a standard deviation of 5.3 kHz. The system is also assembled in a more compact and easy-to-use configuration (Plug&Play), showing comparable performance with previously published work. The real portability of this technology is proved by shipping the system to a collaborating laboratory, showing unchanged performance after the return.

  9. The Math We Need to Know and Do in Grades 6-9: Concepts, Skills, Standards, and Assessments. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Pearl Gold

    2007-01-01

    In a new edition of her standards-based math workbook, author Pearl Gold Solomon covers essential concepts and skills as defined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics for learners in middle schools. Designed as a comprehensive resource for planning curriculum, instruction, and assessment, The Math We Need to Know and Do in Grades 6-9,…

  10. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "La Mujer Que Brillaba Aun Mas Que el Sol"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullitt, Leslie Kay; Gonzalez, Augusta C.; Luna, Boni

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  11. The Impact of Standards-Based Reform on Special Education and the Creation of the 'Dividual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    An urban Pre-K through 5th grade school referred to as Westvale Elementary School was the focal point for this research study. Westvale was located within an urban district in New York State that was host to approximately 20,000 students. Both the school and the district were labeled as failing under the No Child Left Behind Act. Foucauldian…

  12. Students' Knowledge about Chemical Reactions--Development and Analysis of Standard-Based Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpuski, Maik; Ropohl, Mathias; Sumfleth, Elke

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 national educational standards for chemistry were implemented in Germany. While the standards describe different competencies to be reached after grade 10, no compulsory contents are defined. The contents are defined by the different German states individually. This means that there are no defined common topics taught in all states that…

  13. Fuhrman grading is not appropriate for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; Sika-Paotonu, Dianne; Bethwaite, Peter B; McCredie, Margaret R E; Martignoni, Guido; Eble, John N; Jordan, T William

    2007-06-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the prognostic effectiveness of Fuhrman nuclear grading and the individual components of this grading system, in a series of chromophobe renal cell carcinomas. Eighty-seven cases of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma were investigated. There were 47 males and 40 females, 28 to 78 years of age. The carcinomas ranged from 25 to 180 mm in size and on TNM staging there were 38 stage I, 25 stage II, 22 stage III, and 2 stage IV tumors. Whole tumor Fuhrman grading was grade 1, 6 cases; grade 2, 72 cases; grade 3, 8 cases; and grade 4, 1 case, whereas focal (single high power field) grading was grade 1, 1 case; grade 2, 62 cases; grade 3, 21 cases; and grade 4, 3 cases. On assignment of nucleolar grading using Fuhrman criteria there were 37 grade 1, 44 grade 2, and 4 grade 3 tumors on whole tumor assessment and 3 grade 1, 63 grade 2, and 21 grade 3 tumors on assessment of the high power field showing the greatest degree of nuclear pleomorphism. Measurements of nuclear size showed nuclear area to range from 26.14 to 100.74 microm2, nuclear perimeter from 19.73 to 39.28 microm, and nuclear major axis from 6.49 to 13.21 microm, whereas the ranges of measures of nuclear shape were; shape factor 0.798 to 0.890, compactness 14.260 to 15.843, and feret diameter 5.694 to 11.242. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 150 months and 8 patients died of tumor-related causes 5 to 53 months from diagnosis. On log rank testing against survival, only patient age (P=0.016) and tumor maximum diameter (P=0.0055) were significant, whereas patient sex and TNM stage were not significant. Whole tumor and focal Fuhrman grading, as well as all measures of nucleolar prominence, nuclear size, and nuclear shape showed no significant association with outcome. It is concluded that neither Fuhrman grading, nor any of the components of the Fuhrman grading system, is useful as prognostic indicators for this tumor type. PMID:17527087

  14. Standards-based reform and its unintended consequences: Implications for science education within America's urban schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settlage, John; Meadows, Lee

    2002-02-01

    This conceptual article examines the influence of the current standards-based reform upon science education policies and practices within urban schools. We identify four negative yet unforeseen effects of the reform movement: undermining urban teachers' professionalism, eroding teacher-student relationships, diluting the science curriculum, and disparate instruction based on predicted individual test performance. Our awareness of these nuisances emerged from our first-hand engagement with urban science teaching and through our collegial relationships with exemplary urban teachers. In closing, we propose mechanisms by which university-based science educators might address these issues by assisting exemplary urban teachers to resist the reform-induced perils and by incorporating the urban milieu as a substantive aspect of science teacher education.

  15. Compact Frequency Standard Based on an Intra-cavity Sample Cold Cesium Atoms

    E-print Network

    Stella Torres Muller; Daniel Varela Magalhaes; Renato Ferracini Alves; Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato

    2011-08-22

    We have demonstrated the possibility for a compact frequency standard based on a sample of cold cesium atoms. In a cylindrical microwave cavity, the atoms are cooled and interrogated during a free expansion and then detected. The operation of this experiment is different from conventional atomic fountains, since all the steps are sequentially performed in the same position of space. In this paper we report the analysis of a Ramsey pattern observed to present a 47 Hz linewidth and a stability of 5x10^-13 for an integration time longer than 100s. Some of the main limitations of the standard are analyzed. This present report demonstrates considerable improvement of our previous work (S. T. Muller et al, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, v.25, p.909, 2008) where the atoms were in a free space and not inside a microwave cavity.

  16. Assessment of STR Typing Success Rate in Soft Tissues from Putrefied Bodies Based on a Quantitative Grading System for Putrefaction.

    PubMed

    Courts, Cornelius; Sauer, Eva; Hofmann, Yaiza; Madea, Burkhard; Schyma, Christian

    2015-07-01

    To date, there is no systematic investigation of the association of short tandem repeat (STR) typing success rate in soft tissues with different signs of putrefaction. Herein, putrefaction was rated using a newly developed 19-parameter system in soft tissues from a collective of 68 decaying bodies, and DNA yield was determined in 408 samples. DNA integrity was rated using a self-devised pentaplex PCR generating an "integrity score" (Si). STR typing success rate was then assessed for selected cases. DNA yield and Si differed significantly between tissues with kidney on average exhibiting the highest Si values. Statistical analysis revealed that nine parameters were significantly and positively correlated with Si . The observed values for each of these nine parameters were summed up to generate a putrefaction score (Sp) for each sample. Our results show that STR typing success rate can be predicted based on Sp before expensive multiplex STR profiling is performed. PMID:25808732

  17. Functionally Graded Media

    E-print Network

    Cedric M. Campos; Marcelo Epstein; Manuel de Leon

    2007-11-16

    The notions of uniformity and homogeneity of elastic materials are reviewed in terms of Lie groupoids and frame bundles. This framework is also extended to consider the case Functionally Graded Media, which allows us to obtain some homogeneity conditions.

  18. Assigning Grades More Fairly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheshier, Stephen R.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a simplified method for converting raw scores to standard scores and transforming them to "T-scores" for easy comparison of performance. Obtaining letter grades from T-scores is discussed. A reading list is included. (GH)

  19. Meat standards and grading: a world view.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

    2010-09-01

    This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure both carcass yield and eating quality have the potential to underpin the development and implementation of transparent value-based payment systems which will encourage improved production efficiency throughout the supply chain. PMID:20541325

  20. Improving performance of Zambia Defence Force antiretroviral therapy providers: evaluation of a standards-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Mi; Banda, Joseph; Kanjipite, Webby; Sarkar, Supriya; Bazant, Eva; Hiner, Cyndi; Tholandi, Maya; Reinhardt, Stephanie; Njobvu, Panganani Dalisani; Kols, Adrienne; Benavides, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Zambia Defence Force (ZDF) has applied the Standards-Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R®) approach, which uses detailed performance standards, at some health facilities to improve HIV-related services offered to military personnel and surrounding civilian communities. This study examines the effectiveness of the SBM-R approach in improving facility readiness and provider performance at ZDF facilities. Methods: We collected data on facility readiness and provider performance before and after the 2010–2012 intervention at 4 intervention sites selected for their relatively poor performance and 4 comparison sites. Assessors observed whether each facility met 16 readiness standards and whether providers met 9 performance standards during consultations with 354 returning antiretroviral therapy (ART) clients. We then calculated the percentages of criteria achieved for each readiness and performance standard and conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses of provider performance data. Results: Facilities' ART readiness scores exceeded 80% before the intervention at both intervention and comparison sites. At endline, scores improved on 4 facility readiness standards in the intervention group but on only 1 standard in the comparison group. Multivariate analysis found that the overall provider performance score increased significantly in the intervention group (from 58% to 84%; P<.01) but not in the comparison group (from 62% to 70%). The before-and-after improvement in scores was significantly greater among intervention sites than among comparison sites for 2 standards—initial assessment of the client's condition and nutrition counseling. Conclusion: The standards-based approach, which involved intensive and mutually reinforcing intervention activities, showed modest improvements in some aspects of providers' performance during ART consultations. Further research is needed to determine whether improvements in provider performance affect client outcomes such as adherence to ART. PMID:25276534

  1. Cardiac Troponin Testing in Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies and Systemic Sclerosis-Spectrum Disorders: Biomarkers to Distinguish between Primary Cardiac Involvement and Low Grade Skeletal Muscle Disease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michael; Lilleker, James B; Herrick, Ariane L; Chinoy, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, an under-recognised manifestation of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and systemic sclerosis (SSc)-spectrum disorders, is associated with significant mortality. Within these two conditions, traditional skeletal muscle enzyme testing may not effectively distinguish between skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement, especially in patients with subclinical cardiac disease. Accurate biomarkers are thus required to screen for cardiac disease, to better inform both therapeutic decision-making and treatment response. The widespread uptake of cardiac troponin testing has revolutionised the management of acute coronary syndromes. Whereas cardiac troponin I (cTnI) appears specific to the myocardium, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is also expressed by skeletal muscle, including regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There is increasing interest about the role of cardiac troponins as a putative biomarker of primary cardiac involvement in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders. Herewith we discuss subclinical cardiac disease in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders, the respective roles of cTnI and cTnT testing, and the re-expression of cTnT within regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There remains wide variation in access to cardiac troponin testing nationally and internationally. We propose two pragmatic clinical pathways using cardiac troponins, preferably measuring concomitant cTnT followed by confirmatory (cardiac) cTnI to screen patients for subclinical cardiac disease and/or low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity, and also an agenda for future research, and also an agenda for future research. PMID:25732174

  2. Cardiac troponin testing in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and systemic sclerosis-spectrum disorders: biomarkers to distinguish between primary cardiac involvement and low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael; Lilleker, James B; Herrick, Ariane L; Chinoy, Hector

    2015-05-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, an under-recognised manifestation of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and systemic sclerosis (SSc)-spectrum disorders, is associated with significant mortality. Within these two conditions, traditional skeletal muscle enzyme testing may not effectively distinguish between skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement, especially in patients with subclinical cardiac disease. Accurate biomarkers are thus required to screen for cardiac disease, to better inform both therapeutic decision-making and treatment response. The widespread uptake of cardiac troponin testing has revolutionised the management of acute coronary syndromes. While cardiac troponin I (cTnI) appears specific to the myocardium, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is also expressed by skeletal muscle, including regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There is increasing interest about the role of cardiac troponins as a putative biomarker of primary cardiac involvement in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders. Herewith we discuss subclinical cardiac disease in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders, the respective roles of cTnI and cTnT testing, and the re-expression of cTnT within regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There remains wide variation in access to cardiac troponin testing nationally and internationally. We propose two pragmatic clinical pathways using cardiac troponins, preferably measuring concomitant cTnT followed by confirmatory (cardiac) cTnI to screen patients for subclinical cardiac disease and/or low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity, and also an agenda for future research. PMID:25732174

  3. Passive atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping in {sup 87}Rb using injection-locked lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Han Seb; Park, Sang Eon; Park, Young-Ho; Lee, Lim; Kim, Jung Bog

    2006-11-15

    We present a microwave frequency standard based on coherent population trapping (CPT) in the {sup 87}Rb D{sub 1} line. The CPT spectrum is obtained using two Raman lasers with a 6.8 GHz frequency offset by injection locking of a master laser to a slave laser. We have constructed an atomic clock employing a 5 cm long Rb vapor cell confined with 6.67 kPa neon buffer gas at 70 degree sign C. Using this system, we improve the CPT contrast through the elimination of undesired off-resonant fields created by the direct modulation method. We measured the frequency shift of the CPT signal as a function of the temperature of the Rb cell and estimated it to be approximately 1.3x10{sup -9}/K. The frequency of a 10 MHz crystal oscillator has been stabilized to the CPT spectrum between the two ground states in {sup 87}Rb. The relative frequency stability is approximately 2.3x10{sup -12} for an average time of 68 s.

  4. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades

  5. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  6. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  7. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades

  8. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

  9. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  10. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  11. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  12. Research of data quality control based on quality grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang Hong; Yu, Jian Guo; Yu, Yong Ling

    2011-12-01

    To solve the problem of data quality in data warehouse, the process of data stream in data warehouse and the factors influencing data quality were analyzed; a method for controlling data quality based on quality grading was proposed and the frame of data quality grading system was established. In each process of ETL, the data quality grading system would execute script to calculate values, such as total, component and standard measures in accordance with the definition of Unit Measure, so as to get representation indexes; and then the quality report would be generated according to the indexes and the quality would be graded. The method is applicable to various data warehouse systems.

  13. Research of data quality control based on quality grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang Hong; Yu, Jian Guo; Yu, Yong Ling

    2012-01-01

    To solve the problem of data quality in data warehouse, the process of data stream in data warehouse and the factors influencing data quality were analyzed; a method for controlling data quality based on quality grading was proposed and the frame of data quality grading system was established. In each process of ETL, the data quality grading system would execute script to calculate values, such as total, component and standard measures in accordance with the definition of Unit Measure, so as to get representation indexes; and then the quality report would be generated according to the indexes and the quality would be graded. The method is applicable to various data warehouse systems.

  14. High-Grading Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Carlton; Sellar, Glenn; Nunez, Jorge; Mosie, Andrea; Schwarz, Carol; Parker, Terry; Winterhalter, Daniel; Farmer, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts on long-duration lunar missions will need the capability to high-grade their samples to select the highest value samples for transport to Earth and to leave others on the Moon. We are supporting studies to define the necessary and sufficient measurements and techniques for high-grading samples at a lunar outpost. A glovebox, dedicated to testing instruments and techniques for high-grading samples, is in operation at the JSC Lunar Experiment Laboratory. A reference suite of lunar rocks and soils, spanning the full compositional range found in the Apollo collection, is available for testing in this laboratory. Thin sections of these samples are available for direct comparison. The Lunar Sample Compendium, on-line at http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm, summarizes previous analyses of these samples. The laboratory, sample suite, and Compendium are available to the lunar research and exploration community. In the first test of possible instruments for lunar sample high-grading, we imaged 18 lunar rocks and four soils from the reference suite using the Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) developed by Arizona State University and JPL (see Farmer et. al. abstract). The MMI is a fixed-focus digital imaging system with a resolution of 62.5 microns/pixel, a field size of 40 x 32 mm, and a depth-of-field of approximately 5 mm. Samples are illuminated sequentially by 21 light emitting diodes in discrete wavelengths spanning the visible to shortwave infrared. Measurements of reflectance standards and background allow calibration to absolute reflectance. ENVI-based software is used to produce spectra for specific minerals as well as multi-spectral images of rock textures.

  15. Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM) and Teacher Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.; Schmidt, C.; Metzger, E. P.; Cordero, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA-funded project, Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM), is designed to improve the climate literacy of California's 450,000 6th-grade students through teacher professional development that presents climate change as an engaging context for teaching earth science standards. The project fosters experience-based interaction among learners and encourages expressive creativity and idea-exchange via the web and social media. The heart of the CLINM project is the development of an online educator-friendly experience that provides content expert-reviewed, teacher-tested, standards-based educational resources, classroom activities and lessons that make meaningful connections to NASA data and images as well as new media tools (videos, web, and phone applications) based on the Green Ninja, a climate-action superhero who fights global warming by inspiring personal action (www.greenninja.info). In this session, we will discuss this approach to professional development and share a collection of teacher-tested CLINM resources. CLINM resources are grounded in earth system science; classroom activities and lessons engage students in exploration of connections between natural systems and human systems with a particular focus on how climate change relates to everyone's need for food, water, and energy. CLINM uses a team-based approach to resource development, and partners faculty in San José State University's (SJSU) colleges of Science, Education, and Humanities and the Arts with 6th-grade teachers from local school districts, a scientist from NASA Ames Research Center and climate change education projects at Stanford University, the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, and the University of Idaho. Climate scientists and other content experts identify relevant concepts and work with science educators to develop and/or refine classroom activities to elucidate those concepts; activities are piloted in pre-service science methods courses at SJSU and in teacher professional development workshops offered through the Bay Area Earth Science Institute (BAESI); workshop attendees frame the activities as lessons appropriate for their 6th grade students; participants who use the lessons and resources in their classrooms provide iterative feedback, which is used to improve the resources for other teachers involved in the project.

  16. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  17. A study of science leadership and science standards in exemplary standards-based science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Wendy Renae

    The purpose for conducting this qualitative study was to explore best practices of exemplary standards-based science programs and instructional leadership practices in a charter high school and in a traditional high school. The focus of this study included how twelve participants aligned practices to National Science Education Standards to describe their science programs and science instructional practices. This study used a multi-site case study qualitative design. Data were obtained through a review of literature, interviews, observations, review of educational documents, and researcher's notes collected in a field log. The methodology used was a multi-site case study because of the potential, through cross analysis, for providing greater explanation of the findings in the study (Merriam, 1988). This study discovered six characteristics about the two high school's science programs that enhance the literature found in the National Science Education Standards; (a) Culture of expectations for learning-In exemplary science programs teachers are familiar with a wide range of curricula. They have the ability to examine critically and select activities to use with their students to promote the understanding of science; (b) Culture of varied experiences-In exemplary science programs students are provided different paths to learning, which help students, take in information and make sense of concepts and skills that are set forth by the standards; (c) Culture of continuous feedback-In exemplary science programs teachers and students work together to engage students in ongoing assessments of their work and that of others as prescribed in the standards; (d) Culture of Observations-In exemplary science programs students, teachers, and principals reflect on classroom instructional practices; teachers receive ongoing evaluations about their teaching and apply feedback towards improving practices as outlined in the standards; (e) Culture of continuous learning-In exemplary science programs teachers value continuous personal development, teachers are provided on-going science professional development opportunities to improve instructional practices, teachers reflect and share professional practices, and teachers establish professional learning communities within their classrooms; and (f) Culture of shared leadership-In exemplary science programs instructional leadership purposes and values are consistently shared among all stakeholders which are outlined in the standards. These results are potentially useful for understanding exemplary standards-based science programs and science instructional leadership practices as a model for science programs trying to improve science education so that all students can have a true scientific learning experience.

  18. An Automated Grade Prediction System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Chris; Van Staveren, Arie

    2004-01-01

    At the end of a lecturing period examinations are used to take a snapshot of the level of knowledge of a student. It is essential that this snapshot be taken at the right moment. Particularly when a student fails, it is important to make sure that it is because his level of knowledge is not adequate, not because, for example, he had a severe…

  19. Clinical validation of the gastrointestinal NET grading system: Ki67 index criteria of the WHO 2010 classification is appropriate to predict metastasis or recurrence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the WHO 2010 classification, the neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are subdivided by their mitotic index or Ki67 index into either G1 or G2 NETs. Tumors with a Ki67 index of <2% are classified as G1 and those with 3—20% are classified as G2. However, the assessment of tumors with Ki67 index of greater than 2% and less than or equal to 3% is still unclear. To resolve the problem, we validated the Ki67 index criteria of gastrointestinal NETs of the WHO 2010 classification. Methods The medical records of 45 patients who were pathologically diagnosed as having NET G1/G2 of the gastrointestinal tract were analyzed retrospectively. According to the WHO 2010 classification, Ki67 index were calculated. Computer-assisted cytometrical analysis of Ki67 immunoreactivity was performed using the WinRooF image processing software. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine the best discriminating Ki67 index. To clarify the assessment of tumors with Ki67 index between 2—3%, the calculated cutoff of Ki67 index was evaluated using Fisher’s exact test. Results ROC curve analysis confirmed that 2.8% was the best Ki67 index cutoff value for predicting metastasis or recurrence. The sensitivity of the new Ki67 index cutoff was 42.9%, and the specificity was 86.8%. Conclusions Division of NETs into G1/G2 based on Ki67 index of 3% was appropriate to predict metastases or recurrences. The WHO grading system may be the most useful classification to predict metastases or recurrences. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1553036118943799 PMID:23607525

  20. The effect of pressure on the combustion synthesis of a functionally-graded material: TiB[sub 2]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Al ceramic-metal composite system

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, H.J.; Moore, J.J. . Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    This article describes some recent research on the synthesis of functionally-graded materials (FGM) using combustion synthesis or self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). A model ceramic-metal SHS system was investigated. The effects of combustion mode, reactant stoichiometry (xAl), green density, and applied loads on the stability of the SHS reaction and density of the FGM product are described.

  1. Standards-based sensor interoperability and networking SensorWeb: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolling, Sam

    2012-06-01

    The War fighter lacks a unified Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) environment to conduct mission planning, command and control (C2), tasking, collection, exploitation, processing, and data discovery of disparate sensor data across the ISR Enterprise. Legacy sensors and applications are not standardized or integrated for assured, universal access. Existing tasking and collection capabilities are not unified across the enterprise, inhibiting robust C2 of ISR including near-real time, cross-cueing operations. To address these critical needs, the National Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) Office (NMO), and partnering Combatant Commands and Intelligence Agencies are developing SensorWeb, an architecture that harmonizes heterogeneous sensor data to a common standard for users to discover, access, observe, subscribe to and task sensors. The SensorWeb initiative long term goal is to establish an open commercial standards-based, service-oriented framework to facilitate plug and play sensors. The current development effort will produce non-proprietary deliverables, intended as a Government off the Shelf (GOTS) solution to address the U.S. and Coalition nations' inability to quickly and reliably detect, identify, map, track, and fully understand security threats and operational activities.

  2. Direct frequency comb optical frequency standard based on two-photon transitions of thermal atoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. Y.; Wu, J. T.; Zhang, Y. L.; Leng, J. X.; Yang, W. P.; Zhang, Z. G.; Zhao, J. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Optical clocks have been the focus of science and technology research areas due to their capability to provide highest frequency accuracy and stability to date. Their superior frequency performance promises significant advances in the fields of fundamental research as well as practical applications including satellite-based navigation and ranging. In traditional optical clocks, ultrastable optical cavities, laser cooling and particle (atoms or a single ion) trapping techniques are employed to guarantee high stability and accuracy. However, on the other hand, they make optical clocks an entire optical tableful of equipment, and cannot work continuously for a long time; as a result, they restrict optical clocks used as very convenient and compact time-keeping clocks. In this article, we proposed, and experimentally demonstrated, a novel scheme of optical frequency standard based on comb-directly-excited atomic two-photon transitions. By taking advantage of the natural properties of the comb and two-photon transitions, this frequency standard achieves a simplified structure, high robustness as well as decent frequency stability, which promise widespread applications in various scenarios. PMID:26459877

  3. Direct frequency comb optical frequency standard based on two-photon transitions of thermal atoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S Y; Wu, J T; Zhang, Y L; Leng, J X; Yang, W P; Zhang, Z G; Zhao, J Y

    2015-01-01

    Optical clocks have been the focus of science and technology research areas due to their capability to provide highest frequency accuracy and stability to date. Their superior frequency performance promises significant advances in the fields of fundamental research as well as practical applications including satellite-based navigation and ranging. In traditional optical clocks, ultrastable optical cavities, laser cooling and particle (atoms or a single ion) trapping techniques are employed to guarantee high stability and accuracy. However, on the other hand, they make optical clocks an entire optical tableful of equipment, and cannot work continuously for a long time; as a result, they restrict optical clocks used as very convenient and compact time-keeping clocks. In this article, we proposed, and experimentally demonstrated, a novel scheme of optical frequency standard based on comb-directly-excited atomic two-photon transitions. By taking advantage of the natural properties of the comb and two-photon transitions, this frequency standard achieves a simplified structure, high robustness as well as decent frequency stability, which promise widespread applications in various scenarios. PMID:26459877

  4. Direct frequency comb optical frequency standard based on two-photon transitions of thermal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. Y.; Wu, J. T.; Zhang, Y. L.; Leng, J. X.; Yang, W. P.; Zhang, Z. G.; Zhao, J. Y.

    2015-10-01

    Optical clocks have been the focus of science and technology research areas due to their capability to provide highest frequency accuracy and stability to date. Their superior frequency performance promises significant advances in the fields of fundamental research as well as practical applications including satellite-based navigation and ranging. In traditional optical clocks, ultrastable optical cavities, laser cooling and particle (atoms or a single ion) trapping techniques are employed to guarantee high stability and accuracy. However, on the other hand, they make optical clocks an entire optical tableful of equipment, and cannot work continuously for a long time; as a result, they restrict optical clocks used as very convenient and compact time-keeping clocks. In this article, we proposed, and experimentally demonstrated, a novel scheme of optical frequency standard based on comb-directly-excited atomic two-photon transitions. By taking advantage of the natural properties of the comb and two-photon transitions, this frequency standard achieves a simplified structure, high robustness as well as decent frequency stability, which promise widespread applications in various scenarios.

  5. Economics of Grade Reduction

    E-print Network

    Neff, Paul J.

    1914-02-10

    resistance formulae as applied to the making up of trains in hot and cold weather, and with other physical conditions, but these have very little bearing on the general results. The method of railroad accounting will probably be changed by the Interstate... Rating. Discussion of the Locomotive Engine, and Derivation of Formulae for De- termining Tractive Effort.and Drawbar Pull 190-220 Tonnage Rating 220-227 Discussion of Economical Rate of Grade- 227-235 Tabulation of Economical Rate of Grade For All...

  6. 4 CFR 5.2 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 5.2 Section...ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.2 Grade and pay retention. (a) Change...employee is covered by a merit pay system. (4) For such other...

  7. 4 CFR 5.2 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 5.2 Section...ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.2 Grade and pay retention. (a) Change...employee is covered by a merit pay system. (4) For such other...

  8. 4 CFR 5.2 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 5.2 Section...ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.2 Grade and pay retention. (a) Change...employee is covered by a merit pay system. (4) For such other...

  9. 4 CFR 5.2 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 true Grade and pay retention. 5.2 Section...ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.2 Grade and pay retention. (a) Change...employee is covered by a merit pay system. (4) For such other...

  10. 4 CFR 5.2 - Grade and pay retention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Grade and pay retention. 5.2 Section...ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM COMPENSATION § 5.2 Grade and pay retention. (a) Change...employee is covered by a merit pay system. (4) For such other...

  11. Comparison of Dimension Reduction Methods for Automated Essay Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakkonen, Tuomo; Myller, Niko; Sutinen, Erkki; Timonen, Jari

    2008-01-01

    Automatic Essay Assessor (AEA) is a system that utilizes information retrieval techniques such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA), and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) for automatic essay grading. The system uses learning materials and relatively few teacher-graded essays for calibrating the scoring…

  12. Evolutionary etiology of high-grade astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Song, Yurong; Zhang, Qian; Kutlu, Burak; Difilippantonio, Simone; Bash, Ryan; Gilbert, Debra; Yin, Chaoying; O'Sullivan, T Norene; Yang, Chunyu; Kozlov, Serguei; Bullitt, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Ken D; Kafri, Tal; Louis, David N; Miller, C Ryan; Hood, Leroy; Van Dyke, Terry

    2013-10-29

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common brain malignancy, remains fatal with no effective treatment. Analyses of common aberrations in GBM suggest major regulatory pathways associated with disease etiology. However, 90% of GBMs are diagnosed at an advanced stage (primary GBMs), providing no access to early disease stages for assessing disease progression events. As such, both understanding of disease mechanisms and the development of biomarkers and therapeutics for effective disease management are limited. Here, we describe an adult-inducible astrocyte-specific system in genetically engineered mice that queries causation in disease evolution of regulatory networks perturbed in human GBM. Events yielding disease, both engineered and spontaneous, indicate ordered grade-specific perturbations that yield high-grade astrocytomas (anaplastic astrocytomas and GBMs). Impaired retinoblastoma protein RB tumor suppression yields grade II histopathology. Additional activation of v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) network drives progression to grade III disease, and further inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) yields GBM. Spontaneous missense mutation of tumor suppressor Trp53 arises subsequent to KRAS activation, but before grade III progression. The stochastic appearance of mutations identical to those observed in humans, particularly the same spectrum of p53 amino acid changes, supports the validity of engineered lesions and the ensuing interpretations of etiology. Absence of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation, asymptomatic low grade disease, and rapid emergence of GBM combined with a mesenchymal transcriptome signature reflect characteristics of primary GBM and provide insight into causal relationships. PMID:24114272

  13. Evolutionary etiology of high-grade astrocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yurong; Zhang, Qian; Kutlu, Burak; Difilippantonio, Simone; Bash, Ryan; Gilbert, Debra; Yin, Chaoying; O’Sullivan, T. Norene; Yang, Chunyu; Kozlov, Serguei; Bullitt, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Ken D.; Kafri, Tal; Louis, David N.; Miller, C. Ryan; Hood, Leroy; Van Dyke, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common brain malignancy, remains fatal with no effective treatment. Analyses of common aberrations in GBM suggest major regulatory pathways associated with disease etiology. However, 90% of GBMs are diagnosed at an advanced stage (primary GBMs), providing no access to early disease stages for assessing disease progression events. As such, both understanding of disease mechanisms and the development of biomarkers and therapeutics for effective disease management are limited. Here, we describe an adult-inducible astrocyte-specific system in genetically engineered mice that queries causation in disease evolution of regulatory networks perturbed in human GBM. Events yielding disease, both engineered and spontaneous, indicate ordered grade-specific perturbations that yield high-grade astrocytomas (anaplastic astrocytomas and GBMs). Impaired retinoblastoma protein RB tumor suppression yields grade II histopathology. Additional activation of v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) network drives progression to grade III disease, and further inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) yields GBM. Spontaneous missense mutation of tumor suppressor Trp53 arises subsequent to KRAS activation, but before grade III progression. The stochastic appearance of mutations identical to those observed in humans, particularly the same spectrum of p53 amino acid changes, supports the validity of engineered lesions and the ensuing interpretations of etiology. Absence of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation, asymptomatic low grade disease, and rapid emergence of GBM combined with a mesenchymal transcriptome signature reflect characteristics of primary GBM and provide insight into causal relationships. PMID:24114272

  14. Methods of practice and guidelines for using survey-grade global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) to establish vertical datum in the United States Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rydlund, Paul H.; Densmore, Brenda K.

    2012-01-01

    Geodetic surveys have evolved through the years to the use of survey-grade (centimeter level) global positioning to perpetuate and post-process vertical datum. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) uses Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) technology to monitor natural hazards, ensure geospatial control for climate and land use change, and gather data necessary for investigative studies related to water, the environment, energy, and ecosystems. Vertical datum is fundamental to a variety of these integrated earth sciences. Essentially GNSS surveys provide a three-dimensional position x, y, and z as a function of the North American Datum of 1983 ellipsoid and the most current hybrid geoid model. A GNSS survey may be approached with post-processed positioning for static observations related to a single point or network, or involve real-time corrections to provide positioning "on-the-fly." Field equipment required to facilitate GNSS surveys range from a single receiver, with a power source for static positioning, to an additional receiver or network communicated by radio or cellular for real-time positioning. A real-time approach in its most common form may be described as a roving receiver augmented by a single-base station receiver, known as a single-base real-time (RT) survey. More efficient real-time methods involving a Real-Time Network (RTN) permit the use of only one roving receiver that is augmented to a network of fixed receivers commonly known as Continually Operating Reference Stations (CORS). A post-processed approach in its most common form involves static data collection at a single point. Data are most commonly post-processed through a universally accepted utility maintained by the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), known as the Online Position User Service (OPUS). More complex post-processed methods involve static observations among a network of additional receivers collecting static data at known benchmarks. Both classifications provide users flexibility regarding efficiency and quality of data collection. Quality assurance of survey-grade global positioning is often overlooked or not understood and perceived uncertainties can be misleading. GNSS users can benefit from a blueprint of data collection standards used to ensure consistency among USGS mission areas. A classification of GNSS survey qualities provide the user with the ability to choose from the highest quality survey used to establish objective points with low uncertainties, identified as a Level I, to a GNSS survey for general topographic control without quality assurance, identified as a Level IV. A Level I survey is strictly limited to post-processed methods, whereas Level II, Level III, and Level IV surveys integrate variations of a RT approach. Among these classifications, techniques involving blunder checks and redundancy are important, and planning that involves the assessment of the overall satellite configuration, as well as terrestrial and space weather, are necessary to ensure an efficient and quality campaign. Although quality indicators and uncertainties are identified in post-processed methods using CORS, the accuracy of a GNSS survey is most effectively expressed as a comparison to a local benchmark that has a high degree of confidence. Real-time and post-processed methods should incorporate these "trusted" benchmarks as a check during any campaign. Global positioning surveys are expected to change rapidly in the future. The expansion of continuously operating reference stations, combined with newly available satellite signals, and enhancements to the conterminous geoid, are all sufficient indicators for substantial growth in real-time positioning and quality thereof.

  15. Packing Up for the Moon: Human Exploration Project Engineering Design Challenge. Design, Build and Evaluate. A Standards-Based Middle School Unit Guide. Engineering By Design: Advancing Technological Literacy--A Standards-Based Program Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASA Educator Resource Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Human Exploration Project (HEP) units have several common characteristics. All units: (1) Are based upon the Technological Literacy standards (ITEA, 2000/2002); (2) Coordinate with Science (AAAS, 1993) and Mathematics standards (NCTM, 2000); (3) Utilize a standards-based development approach (ITEA, 2005); (4) Stand alone and coordinate with…

  16. Clicking for Grades? Really? Investigating the Use of Clickers for Awarding Grade-Points in Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter; Syncox, David; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Using classroom response systems (clickers) to accumulate grade-points has become a controversial practice as response systems have become more widely used in the last decade. Although some instructors opt to use clickers on a non-grades basis, it has become quite common to reward students for (a) correct answers, (b) participating in clicker…

  17. Early Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents computer-oriented teaching suggestions suitable for early grades. They include creating houses and stained glass ornaments using Logo, recording class activities with a database management program, making mazes with graphics programs, making drawings with a KoalaPad, and using a program to introduce computers to non-English speaking…

  18. Grades as Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Darren

    2007-01-01

    We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior coursework,…

  19. Cooperation, First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchener, Kathy

    This is a first-grade unit of study about the concept of cooperation. The content covers the concept of cooperation and the context in which it is illustrated: through rules in sports, at home and at school; through teamwork in games and projects; and through individual efforts of helping, trusting and sharing. Additional content focuses on how…

  20. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  1. Grade Uploa Faculty Cen

    E-print Network

    Angenent, Lars T.

    CUNIV CUNIV Upload th y Center, cli and select th button. Upload but column head le to a secur k server, ag with columns 2 2 2 Review Im rade Upload you created Page 3 of 4 ain making s s (but 1234567 9876543 Grades: start the file he file name (comma deli stitution, te 9 A+ 7 V 3 SX e upload

  2. Career Awareness: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade five, performance…

  3. American Megalopolises, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Judy

    This is a third-grade teaching unit on large cities (megalopolises) in the United States. The components of the unit are: (1) a content outline, (2) unit goals, (3) unit objectives, (4) activities, (5) unit evaluation, and (6) bibliography. The content of the unit focuses on defining a megalopolis, noting what can be found in it, its special…

  4. Health, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui Van Bao; And Others

    This is the fifth and last of the Vietnamese series of elementary health textbooks. This one was designed for fifth grade students in Vietnam. The thirty-five lessons are presented in the form of short stories with illustrations and a short summary. The four chapters cover the ordinary symptoms of illness, elementary notions of microbes and…

  5. Alternatives to Grade Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    1998-01-01

    The negative effects of grade retention should not become an argument for social promotion. Four complementary alternative strategies include enhancing professional development for teachers, employing redesigned school structures (like multiage grouping) that support more intensive learning, providing targeted supports and services when needed,…

  6. Career Awareness: Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade two, performance…

  7. Code-Switching and Symbolic Power in a Second-Grade Two-Way Classroom: A Teacher's Motivation System Gone Awry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Deborah K.

    2009-01-01

    Code-switching is a natural part of being bilingual. Yet two-way immersion programs are known to insist upon separation of languages, discouraging both teachers and students from drawing on both linguistic codes at once. Drawing on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic power, I examine one second-grade classroom in which the teacher instituted a…

  8. "Missing in Action" A Study of the Underrepresentation of African American Male Kindergarten through Grade 12 Educators in Public School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boswell, Darold S.

    2010-01-01

    There is an underrepresentation of African American males in the kindergarten through Grade 12 public education teaching profession. A number of research studies have been conducted to try and understand why African American males fail to enter this career field in large numbers. This research study sought to understand why a select group of…

  9. Examining the Technical Adequacy of Second-Grade Reading Comprehension Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System. Technical Report # 08-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Liu, Kimy; Tindal, Gerald

    2008-01-01

    This technical report describes the development of reading comprehension assessments designed for use as progress monitoring measures appropriate for 2nd Grade students. The creation, piloting, and technical adequacy of the measures are presented. The following are appended: (1) Item Specifications for MC [Multiple Choice] Comprehension - Passage…

  10. The Development of a Strategic Plan for Networking the Kindergarten to Grade Eight School Library Media Centers in the Taunton School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schene, Carol

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the current status of the Taunton Public School's (Massachusetts) kindergarten to grade eight library program in terms of networking and resource sharing. It uses Diane Kester's model of the three stages of library networking in four key areas--human support, financial support, technological support, and…

  11. The Effect of Teacher-Support Programs on Teacher Attrition in a Rural Pre-Kindergarten through Twelfth Grade Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Carol R.

    2013-01-01

    Many new teachers are leaving the profession during their first 3 years in a rural pre-kindergarten through 12th grade public school classroom in the southeastern United States. This study reviewed the teacher-support programs typically used in this school that assisted new teachers and encouraged their retention. This work is important because…

  12. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  13. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  14. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades. (a) Combinations of the above grades may... permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the higher grade in the combination....

  15. Cultivating Common Ground: Integrating Standards-Based Visual Arts, Math and Literacy in High-Poverty Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunnington, Marisol; Kantrowitz, Andrea; Harnett, Susanne; Hill-Ries, Aline

    2014-01-01

    The "Framing Student Success: Connecting Rigorous Visual Arts, Math and Literacy Learning" experimental demonstration project was designed to develop and test an instructional program integrating high-quality, standards-based instruction in the visual arts, math, and literacy. Developed and implemented by arts-in-education organization…

  16. Piles, Number of Grade Categories, and Theme Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; And Others

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the use of piles on the reliability and level of theme grades; and the effects of the number of grading categories on the reliability and level of theme grades, awarded to undergraduate English compositions. (CS)

  17. Grade Inflation: Metaphor and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Richard; Biggs, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Grade inflation has become a general term for teachers and administrators in recent times and is an ambiguous denomination which needs to be identified. The allegory and reality of grade inflation is discussed.

  18. ili G d C l i h hFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizerGrade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate Recovery Phillip Barak, PhDAmanda Boyce, MSc Phillip Barak, PhDAmanda Boyce, MSc

    E-print Network

    Barak, Phillip

    ili G d C l i h hFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizerGrade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate Recovery Phillip Barak, PhDAmanda Boyce, MSc F W T Pl Phillip endeavored to improve on this recovery system by producing calcium phosphates from p p y fl idi d b d t i d

  19. How Accurate Is Peer Grading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Scott; Parks, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Previously we showed that weekly, written, timed, and peer-graded practice exams help increase student performance on written exams and decrease failure rates in an introductory biology course. Here we analyze the accuracy of peer grading, based on a comparison of student scores to those assigned by a professional grader. When students graded

  20. Narrowing the Achievement Gap in Second-Grade Social Studies and Content Area Literacy: The Promise of a Project-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Duke, Nell K.; Brugar, Kristy A.; Block, Meghan K.; Strachan, Stephanie L.; Berka, Meghan B.; Brown, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the question: Do second-grade students from low- socioeconomic-status (SES) schools taught with an iteratively designed project-based approach to social studies and content literacy instruction: (a) make statistically significant gains on standards-based social studies and content area literacy assessments, and (b) reach a…

  1. Narrowing the Achievement Gap in Second-Grade Social Studies and Content Area Literacy: The Promise of a Project-Based Approach. Working Paper #26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Duke, Nell K.; Brugar, Kristy; Block, Meghan; Strachan, Stephanie; Berka, Meghan; Brown, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This design experiment addresses the question: How can second-grade students from low-SES schools attain the same levels of achievement as students from high-SES schools on standards-based social studies and content area literacy assessments? Students from two high-SES school districts were assessed in order to establish target levels of…

  2. Low-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Forst, Deborah A.; Nahed, Brian V.; Loeffler, Jay S.

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are a diverse group of primary brain tumors that often arise in young, otherwise healthy patients and generally have an indolent course with longer-term survival in comparison with high-grade gliomas. Treatment options include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combined approach, and management is individualized based on tumor location, histology, molecular profile, and patient characteristics. Moreover, in this type of brain tumor with a relatively good prognosis and prolonged survival, the potential benefits of treatment must be carefully weighed against potential treatment-related risks. We review in this article current management strategies for LGG, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In addition, the importance of profiling the genetic and molecular properties of LGGs in the development of targeted anticancer therapies is also reviewed. Finally, given the prevalence of these tumors in otherwise healthy young patients, the impact of treatment on neurocognitive function and quality of life is also evaluated. PMID:24664484

  3. An assessment of standards-based reform in Florida's middle school science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart Hammer, Kathryn Elizabeth

    The era of school accountability and standards based reform (SBR) has brought many challenges and changes to Florida's public schools. It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' attitudes and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement SBR. The study was designed to assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions of changes related to SBR and the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in middle school science programs in Florida. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated the Sunshine State Standards (SSS) for science and began focusing on preparing students for the science FCAT. The survey was distributed to 265 randomly selected middle school science teachers throughout the State of Florida. Seventy-six and ninety-two percent of teachers reported increased levels of stress as a result of SBR and the science FCAT, respectively. Eighty-six percent of teachers reported loss of autonomy and control over what goes on in their classrooms, and fifty-four percent of teachers reported loss of freedom and creativity regarding curriculum and lessons. Eighty-three percent of teachers believe that increased time spent on test preparation has come at the expense of other important curricular items. By contrast, only nineteen percent of teachers believe that the science FCAT has brought about improvement in curriculum, instruction and student learning in science. Yet, twenty-five percent of teachers believe that reform efforts will improve their school. An important finding is that teachers' attitudes toward reform efforts are strongly influenced by their attitudes toward the administration at their school. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the science FCAT measured in this study. Although the majority of teachers reported negative attitudes toward the reform process, a small minority that report working under supportive administrators believe that reform efforts are working well or will soon show positive effects. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

  4. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  5. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  6. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  7. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum >grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  8. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S. Nos. 1 1 2 3...

  9. Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related Yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7

    PubMed Central

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Age-normed tests of Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression were administered in grades 1 (n=128), 3, and 5 or 3 (n=113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared one- and four- factor models at each grade level and supported a four- factor model of Language by Ear, Mouth, Eye, and Hand. Multiple regressions identified which of the three other language skills explained unique variance in each of the four language skill outcomes and provided additional evidence that language is not a single skill. Individuals’ ipsative scores (amount that the standard score for age on each language measure deviated from individual’s mean for all four measures) showed that 25% to 30% of individuals showed relative strengths or weaknesses (+ or ? 1 SD) in specific language skills, but only 7% were stable across grades 3 and 5. Findings are discussed in reference to (a) theoretical implications for idea comprehension and expression via language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand, and (b) educational applications of observed developmental and individual differences for general, special, and gifted education. PMID:21461140

  10. Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related Yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7.

    PubMed

    Berninger, Virginia W; Abbott, Robert D

    2010-08-01

    Age-normed tests of Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression were administered in grades 1 (n=128), 3, and 5 or 3 (n=113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared one- and four- factor models at each grade level and supported a four- factor model of Language by Ear, Mouth, Eye, and Hand. Multiple regressions identified which of the three other language skills explained unique variance in each of the four language skill outcomes and provided additional evidence that language is not a single skill. Individuals' ipsative scores (amount that the standard score for age on each language measure deviated from individual's mean for all four measures) showed that 25% to 30% of individuals showed relative strengths or weaknesses (+ or - 1 SD) in specific language skills, but only 7% were stable across grades 3 and 5. Findings are discussed in reference to (a) theoretical implications for idea comprehension and expression via language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand, and (b) educational applications of observed developmental and individual differences for general, special, and gifted education. PMID:21461140

  11. Graded Course of Study, Mathematics (K-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euclid City Schools, OH.

    This course of study specifies skills and concepts in mathematics that are to be taught in the various grades of the Euclid (Ohio) City School System. It is based on the philosophy that the purpose of the mathematics program of the Euclid City Schools is to provide students with the kinds of skills they will need to become productive members of…

  12. OIMB GK12 CURRICULUM Grade 60 Minutes

    E-print Network

    Concepts: ! The ocean is divided into zones that correspond with the physical features and types of animalsOIMB GK12 CURRICULUM 5th Grade 60 Minutes OCEAN ZONATION AND DEEP SEA CREATURES Oregon Science and non- living systems. 5.2L.1 Explain the interdependence of plants, animals, and environment, and how

  13. Science Curriculum. Kindergarten through Grade Twelve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchburg State Coll., MA. Dept. of Special Education.

    This science curriculum guide provides a framework for science teachers of grades K-12 in the Leominster Public School System, Massachusetts. It represents the efforts of teachers and higher education faculty. An introductory section provides a philosophical statement on the nature of science and perspectives in the learning and teaching of…

  14. Infandango: Automated Grading for Student Programming 

    E-print Network

    Hull, Michael; Powell, Dan; Klein, Ewan

    Infandango is an open source web-based system for automated grading of Java code submitted by students. Uploaded Java files are compiled and run against a set of unit tests on a central server, with results being stored in a database. Students gain...

  15. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  16. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  17. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  18. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  19. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  20. Ohio Ag in the Classroom. Fourth Grade Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Agriculture, Columbus.

    Adapted from Idaho's fourth grade agricultural education curriculum guide, this manual was created because there were insufficient resources available to Ohio students about the systems that provide human beings with food and fiber. Economically Ohio's largest industry, agriculture, serves as a basis for providing fourth-grade teachers with…

  1. Developing a Standard Based Advanced Lab Course that Fulfills COM3 Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, Rudi

    2015-03-01

    An advanced physics lab has been developed into a course that fulfills the requirements for a university studies program `COM3' course using Standard Teaching (ST) methods. The COM3 course is a capstone course under the new USP2015 study requirements for all majors. It replaces the WC writing requirement, typically filled in the English Dept., and adds the teaching of oral and digital communication skills. ST is a method that replaces typical assessments (homework / exam grades) with new assessments that measure certain specified learning outcomes. In combination with oral assessments and an oral final exam, the ST proves an efficient tool to implement the USP Learning Outcomes into a physics course. COM3 requires an unprecedented seven learning outcomes in a single course. Variety of learning outcomes: interdisciplinary goals, levels of writing (with drafting steps), organizational structure, standard language metrics, research and presentation deliverance skills, appropriate addressing of a variety of audiences, etc. With other assessment approaches than ST this variety would be difficult to meet in a physics course. An extended ST rubric has been developed for this course and will be presented and discussed in some detail.

  2. Grading the teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Clifford E.

    2000-04-01

    Several fads ago there was a movement to grade teachers in terms of their competency — competency-based testing. Everyone knows that there are good teachers and there are bad teachers. The trouble is, it's hard to define the categories. It's like the Supreme Court justice who couldn't define pornography, but knew it when he saw it. In New York State, prospective teachers must take tests in both pedagogy and subject material. That seems reasonable. There ought to be some minimum standards, so I thought that I would try my hand at setting up such requirements.

  3. A Study of the Results of the Implementation of a Non-Punitive Grading Practice at Mattatuck Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, James

    Mattatuck Community College implemented non-punitive grading practices into its grading system in the Fall 1973 semester. These practices centered about the elimination of plus and minus grades, elimination of the grade of F, and liberalizing the course withdrawal policy to allow for withdrawal without penalty throughout the semester. A comparison…

  4. Preparation, Practice, and Performance: An Empirical Examination of the Impact of Standards-Based Instruction on Secondary Students' Math and Science Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    For almost two decades proponents of educational reform have advocated the use of standards-based education in maths and science classrooms for improving teacher practices, increasing student learning, and raising the quality of maths and science instruction. This study empirically examined the impact of specific standards-based teacher…

  5. Standards-based teaching and educational digital libraries as innovations: Undergraduate science faculty in the adoption process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Judith Sulkes

    This study describes undergraduate science faculty in terms of their feelings of preparedness for and their use of standards-based teaching methods, their stages of concern related to Educational Digital Libraries (EDLs), and their adoption and diffusion of both innovations. These innovations may have a synergistic relationship that may result in enhanced adoption of both. The investigation began with a series of group meetings with life science, chemistry, physics, and geology faculty from a 2-year and a 4-year institution. Faculty were introduced to dimensions of standards-based teaching and examples of EDLs. Faculty completed the Demographics and Experience Questionnaire, the Standards-Based Teaching Instrument, and the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ). Semi-structured interviews containing literature-based questions were conducted with one faculty member from each discipline from the 2-year and 4-year institutions. Document analyses were performed on mission/goal web-based statements for the institutions and their science departments. Triangulated data were used to construct individual faculty case studies based on four facets: background, standards-based teaching profile, EDLs profile, and rate of innovation diffusion. The individual case studies were used to perform cross-case analyses by type of institution, discipline, and locus of control. Individual case studies and cross-case analyses suggest the following conclusions: (a) faculty felt prepared to use and frequently used textbooks as a reference, (b) feelings of preparedness and frequency of use of standards-based teaching categories may be related to discipline, (c) all faculty had relatively high awareness and informational EDL concerns, and (d) faculty central to the locus of control were more likely to use methods to develop student conceptual understanding, use inquiry methods, and be agents of change. A grounded theoretical model connects study results with literature related to educational change and innovation adoption. The model suggests undergraduate science faculty professional developers and innovation developers should establish a shared understanding of vocabulary related to innovations, conduct national innovation awareness and informational campaigns, consider faculty pre-existing understanding of the innovations, align with organizational norms, and clarify the relationship between institutional mission/goal statements and the innovations. The study protocols and instruments may be valuable tools for others studying educational change and innovations.

  6. Neural network approaches to grade adult depression.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Subhagata; Kaur, Preetisha; Rabhi, Fethi; Acharya, U Rajendra

    2012-10-01

    Depression is a common but worrying psychological disorder that adversely affects one's quality of life. It is more ominous to note that its incidence is increasing. On the other hand, screening and grading of depression is still a manual and time consuming process that might be biased. In addition, grades of depression are often determined in continuous ranges, e.g., 'mild to moderate' and 'moderate to severe' instead of making them more discrete as 'mild', 'moderate', and 'severe'. Grading as a continuous range is confusing to the doctors and thus affecting the management plan at large. Given this practical issue, the present paper attempts to differentiate depression grades more accurately using two neural net learning approaches-'supervised', i.e., classification with Back propagation neural network (BPNN) and Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) classifiers, and 'unsupervised', i.e., 'clustering' technique with Self-organizing map (SOM), built in MATLAB 7. The reason for using the supervised and unsupervised learning approaches is that, supervised learning depends exclusively on domain knowledge. Supervision may induce biasness and subjectivities related to the decision-making. Finally, the performance of BPNN and ANFIS are compared and discussed. It was observed that ANFIS, being a hybrid system, performed much better compared to the BPNN classifier. On the other hand, SOM-based clustering technique is also found useful in constructing three distinct clusters. It also assists visualizing the multidimensional data clusters into 2-D. PMID:21833604

  7. Computational hepatocellular carcinoma tumor grading based on cell nuclei classification

    PubMed Central

    Atupelage, Chamidu; Nagahashi, Hiroshi; Kimura, Fumikazu; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Tokiya, Abe; Hashiguchi, Akinori; Sakamoto, Michiie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common histological type of primary liver cancer. HCC is graded according to the malignancy of the tissues. It is important to diagnose low-grade HCC tumors because these tissues have good prognosis. Image interpretation-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been developed to automate the HCC grading process. Generally, the HCC grade is determined by the characteristics of liver cell nuclei. Therefore, it is preferable that CAD systems utilize only liver cell nuclei for HCC grading. This paper proposes an automated HCC diagnosing method. In particular, it defines a pipeline-path that excludes nonliver cell nuclei in two consequent pipeline-modules and utilizes the liver cell nuclear features for HCC grading. The significance of excluding the nonliver cell nuclei for HCC grading is experimentally evaluated. Four categories of liver cell nuclear features were utilized for classifying the HCC tumors. Results indicated that nuclear texture is the dominant feature for HCC grading and others contribute to increase the classification accuracy. The proposed method was employed to classify a set of regions of interest selected from HCC whole slide images into five classes and resulted in a 95.97% correct classification rate. PMID:26158066

  8. Grade 10 to Grade 12 Mathematics Resources: Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Canadian Protocol for Collaboration in Basic Education, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This annotated bibliography identifies English language resources endorsed by all Western Canadian Protocol (WCP) jurisdictions implementing The Common Curriculum Framework for K-12 Mathematics Grade 10 to Grade 12. Resources in this annotated bibliography were selected through a collaborative review process based on their high level of fidelity…

  9. The Impact of High-Stakes Testing in Chicago on Student Achievement in Promotional Gate Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderick, Melissa; Jacob, Brian A.; Bryk, Anthony S.

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed the impact of high-stakes testing in Chicago, Illinois, on student achievement in grades targeted for promotional decisions using data from the school system for grades 3, 6, and 8. Findings show that student achievement increased substantially following the introduction of high stakes tests in Chicago, especially at grades 6 and 8. (SLD)

  10. Making the Grade: A History of the A-F Marking Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jack; Hutt, Ethan

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a historical interpretation of one of the defining features of modern schooling: grades. As a central element of schools, grades--their origins, uses and evolution--provide a window into the tensions at the heart of building a national public school system in the United States. We argue that grades began as an intimate…

  11. LIE TORI OF TYPE B2 AND GRADED-SIMPLE JORDAN STRUCTURES COVERED BY A TRIANGLE

    E-print Network

    This paper deals with two related algebraic objects, Lie algebras graded by the root system B2 and Jordan Classification. Primary 17B70; Secondary 17B60, 17C10, 17C50 Key words and phrases. Root-graded Lie algebras, Lie/twisted loop algebra centreless Lie torus centreless predivision-root-graded Lie algebra In fact

  12. Functionally graded materials for thermal barrier coatings in advanced gas turbine systems research. Semi-annual report, May 1--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    A combination of two new production methods, reaction-bonded metal oxide (RBMO) and electrochemical processing, have been utilized to create a functionally graded thermal barrier coating. Electrochemical processing, which includes both electrodeposition (EDEP) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD), has been used to deposit both the metallic and ceramic layers of the coating. EPD has been used to deposit the RBMO precursor powders, which exhibit the dual properties of both a metal and ceramic due to its composite nature. A summary of the FGM production methods and resulting characterization of the produced coatings for the eleventh and twelfth quarters (5/96--12/96), as well as a project summary, are outlined in this final report.

  13. Physical Education, Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, CT.

    GRADES OR AGES: K-8. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into two parts, one each for grades K-4 and 5-8, each with the same format. The guide is xeroxed and spiral bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: General objectives for physical education are developed in the…

  14. Science: Grade 7. Interim Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

  15. Grade Inflation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    The topic of grade inflation, the awarding of too many "A's" and "B's", is frequently mentioned in the literature on higher education. Many educational philosophies have suggested ways to evaluate students fairly. Some professors have used the bell-shaped curve as a model, giving grades according to the normal distribution curve regardless of the…

  16. Science Grade 7, Long Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

    The Grade 7 Science course of study was prepared in two parallel forms. A short form designed for students who had achieved a high measure of success in previous science courses; the long form for those who have not been able to maintain the pace. Both forms contain similar content. The Grade 7 guide is the first in a three-year sequence for…

  17. Graded infinite order jet manifolds

    E-print Network

    G. Sardanashvily

    2007-08-17

    The relevant material on differential calculus on graded infinite order jet manifolds and its cohomology is summarized. This mathematics provides the adequate formulation of Lagrangian theories of even and odd variables on smooth manifolds in terms of the Grassmann-graded variational bicomplex.

  18. Teaching Literacy in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Diane; Flood, James; Moore, Kelly; Nichols, Maria

    2005-01-01

    First grade is a year of important new experiences for students and teachers alike. Some students will arrive knowing how to read, others will know a few letters of the alphabet, and most will be somewhere in between. Including dozens of reproducibles, this book guides first-grade teachers in the many decisions they face about how to orchestrate…

  19. Grading Exceptional and Struggling Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    How can you ensure that you are grading your exceptional students fairly? Teachers receive very little guidance for grading students with disabilities, English learners, and those receiving services through a response-to-intervention (RTI) process. This practitioner-friendly book provides teachers and administrators with an effective framework for…

  20. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  1. Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

    This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

  2. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cattaneo, A. S.; Zambon, M.

    2009-02-02

    The main result extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result.

  3. Clinical Grading in Psychiatric Clerkships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Gregory W.; Carlson, David L.; Fore Arcand, Lisa; Levine, Ruth E.; Cohen, Mitchell J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The clinical grade assessment is the most frequently used and heavily weighted component in the overall assessment of U.S. psychiatry clerkship students, yet the topic is understudied. The authors aimed to learn more about the nature, perceived virtues, and deficiencies of the clinical grade evaluation. Methods: A 26-item questionnaire…

  4. RTP AREA ROAD GRADE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grade data collection with GPS equipment is important because the load model component of the MEASURE model uses grade to predict the vehicle load. To date, data collection has been conducted for high priority roads and this task will include other roads not included in the firs...

  5. Pten haploinsufficiency accelerates formation of high-grade astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Chang-Hyuk; Zhao, Dawen; Chen, Jian; Alcantara, Sheila; Li, Yanjiao; Burns, Dennis K; Mason, Ralph P; Lee, Eva Y-H P; Wu, Hong; Parada, Luis F

    2008-05-01

    We previously reported that central nervous system (CNS) inactivation of Nf1 and p53 tumor suppressor genes in mice results in the development of low-grade to high-grade progressive astrocytomas. When the tumors achieve high grade, they are frequently accompanied by Akt activation, reminiscent of the frequent association of PTEN mutations in human high-grade glioma. In the present study, we introduced CNS heterozygosity of Pten into the Nf1/p53 astrocytoma model. Resulting mice had accelerated morbidity, shortened survival, and full penetrance of high-grade astrocytomas. Haploinsufficiency of Pten accelerated formation of grade 3 astrocytomas, whereas loss of Pten heterozygosity and Akt activation coincided with progression into grade 4 tumors. These data suggest that successive loss of each Pten allele may contribute to de novo formation of high-grade astrocytoma and progression into glioblastoma, respectively, thus providing insight into the etiology of primary glioblastoma. The presence of ectopically migrating neural stem/progenitor lineage cells in presymptomatic Pten-deficient mutant brains supports the notion that these tumors may arise from stem/progenitor cells. PMID:18451155

  6. Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

    2013-10-01

    Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

  7. Grading a Large Organic Laboratory Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Marjorie

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problems of grading an organic laboratory course. Proposes that the grade should be based as: products--30 percent of the grade; notebooks--30 percent of the grade; exams and final report--40 percent of the grade. Gives an exception policy for special considerations. (MVL)

  8. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades...) Combinations other than these are not permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the...

  9. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination grades...) Combinations other than these are not permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the requirements of the...

  10. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.772 Grades. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of canned red tart pitted cherries that have.... Canned red tart pitted cherries of this grade may contain not more than eight cherries per sample...

  11. Towards a Standards-Based Approach to E-Learning Personalization Using Reusable Learning Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlan, Owen; Dagger, Declan; Wade, Vincent

    E-Learning systems that produce personalized course offerings for the learner are often expensive, both from a time and financial perspective, to develop and maintain. Learning content personalized to a learners' cognitive preferences has been shown to produce more effective learning, however many approaches to realizing this form of…

  12. 7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements ...Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to...

  13. 7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements ...Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to...

  14. 7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements ...Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to...

  15. 7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements ...Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to...

  16. 7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements ...Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to...

  17. 7 CFR 810.405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Flint corn. Corn that consists of 95 percent or more of flint corn....

  18. 7 CFR 810.405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Flint corn. Corn that consists of 95 percent or more of flint corn....

  19. 7 CFR 810.405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Flint corn. Corn that consists of 95 percent or more of flint corn....

  20. 7 CFR 810.405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Flint corn. Corn that consists of 95 percent or more of flint corn....

  1. 7 CFR 810.405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Flint corn. Corn that consists of 95 percent or more of flint corn....

  2. Validation of International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading for prostatic adenocarcinoma in thin core biopsies using TROG 03.04 'RADAR' trial clinical data.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, B; Egevad, L; Srigley, J R; Steigler, A; Murray, J D; Atkinson, C; Matthews, J; Duchesne, G; Spry, N A; Christie, D; Joseph, D; Attia, J; Denham, J W

    2015-10-01

    In 2014 a consensus conference convened by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) adopted amendments to the criteria for Gleason grading and scoring (GS) for prostatic adenocarcinoma. The meeting defined a modified grading system based on 5 grading categories (grade 1, GS 3+3; grade 2, GS 3+4; grade 3, GS 4+3; grade 4, GS 8; grade 5, GS 9-10). In this study we have evaluated the prognostic significance of ISUP grading in 496 patients enrolled in the TROG 03.04 RADAR Trial. There were 19 grade 1, 118 grade 2, 193 grade 3, 88 grade 4 and 79 grade 5 tumours in the series, with follow-up for a minimum of 6.5 years. On follow-up 76 patients experienced distant progression of disease, 171 prostate specific antigen (PSA) progression and 39 prostate cancer deaths. In contrast to the 2005 modified Gleason system (MGS), the hazards of the distant and PSA progression endpoints, relative to grade 2, were significantly greater for grades 3, 4 and 5 of the 2014 ISUP grading scheme. Comparison of predictive ability utilising Harrell's concordance index, showed 2014 ISUP grading to significantly out-perform 2005 MGS grading for each of the three clinical endpoints. PMID:26325671

  3. Axisymmetrical analysis of functionally graded circular piezoelectric plate by graded element using MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, B. L.; Xu, R. Q.

    2009-07-01

    Circular piezoelectric bimorph has been successfully used in numerous types of microdevices, such as actuators for flowcontrol applications, transducers for acoustic applications, and in locomotion of robotic systems, energy harvesting and active structural health monitoring applications. Recently, the concept of the functionally graded material (FGM) is introduced to improve properties and increase lifetime by selectively grading the elastic, piezoelectric, and/or dielectric properties along the thickness of a piezoceramic. However, even for the simple case of homogeneous circular piezoelectric geometry, analytical treatments are severely limited. This study established an axisymmetric and isoparametric graded element to model the functionally graded circular piezoelectric plates. All the material properties including elastic coefficients, piezoelectric coefficients, dielectric parameters and mass density are graded in the element and interpolated using the shape functions, which is also used to render the displacements and electric potential distribution in the element. Both static and dynamic cases can be considered in this element. MATLAB is used to implement the whole FEM code and gives some numerical examples to demonstrate the presented method.

  4. Comparison between teacher grading and student self-grading in different modules of agronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez, A.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Guerrero, F.; Gascó, J. M.; Saá, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gascó, G.

    2012-04-01

    The adaptation of the Universities to European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves changes in the learning system. Students must obtain specific capabilities in the different degrees or masters. For example, in the degree of Agronomy at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain), they must command mathematics, English informatics or crop production. Moreover, students must attain personal skills such as leadership, team work, a critical spirit and a social, environmental and ethical commitment with the environment and the society. A way to evaluate the critical spirit of the students is to compare the grade obtained in a specific module with the grade that the students think he should get. The aim of this work is to evaluate the differences between teacher and student grading in different subjects related to soil science in different degrees and masters courses at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.

  5. Histopathological grading of soft tissue tumours. Prognostic significance in a prospective study of 278 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Jensen, O M; Høgh, J; Ostgaard, S E; Nordentoft, A M; Sneppen, O

    1991-01-01

    A consecutive 10-year series of 278 soft tissue sarcomas was prospectively graded, using a system based on the number of mitoses and taking into account parameters such as cellularity, anaplasia, necrosis, and histogenetic type and subtype of tumour. Prognostic factors in relation to metastasis-free survival were studied by uni- and multivariate analysis. Fifty-seven (20.5 per cent) were low-grade tumours, 43 (15.5 per cent) were intermediate, and 178 (64 per cent) were high grade. High-grade tumours were divided into two groups; 80 (29 per cent) grade 3A (= 5-20 mitoses per 10 high power fields (HPF)) and 78 grade 3B (28 per cent) (= more than 20 mitoses/10 HPF); 10 HPF corresponds to 2.5 mm2. Twenty (7.2 per cent) high-grade tumours could not be further subdivided. Grading was found to be the prognostic factor associated with the strongest predictive value. Five-year survival in low-grade and intermediate tumours (95 and 86 percent, respectively) differed significantly (P less than 0.0001) from high grade (50 per cent) and (p = 0.0018) between grade 3A (64 per cent) and grade 3B (41 per cent). Other prognostic indicators of importance in high-grade tumours were age, local recurrence at presentation (primary operation outside the Centre), and localization (superficial vs. deep). PMID:2002420

  6. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

  7. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

  8. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

  9. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

  10. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

  11. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according to the grading specifications...

  12. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according to the grading specifications...

  13. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according to the grading specifications...

  14. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according to the grading specifications...

  15. 7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according to the grading specifications...

  16. 7 CFR 966.9 - Grading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Handling Definitions § 966.9 Grading. Grading is synonymous with preparation for market and means the sorting or separation of tomatoes into grades, sizes, maturities, and packs for market purposes....

  17. Course Grading for Instructors Moodle to PeopleSoft Grade Entry

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, Robin

    Soft Pages 9-13 Upload the Grades text file to PeopleSoft. #12;1 Part I PeopleSoft Peoplesoft is located documents about the grade entry and approval process. 1. Grade Entry ­ Using Spreadsheet Upload Throughout upload grades from a spreadsheet directly to the grade roster and the Grade Roster will be marked as "Not

  18. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  19. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  20. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  1. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  2. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  3. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  4. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  5. 7 CFR 810.1604 - Grades and grade requirements for soybeans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. 810.1604... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Soybeans Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.1604 Grades and grade requirements for soybeans. Grading factors Grades...

  6. Running WRF on various distributed computing infrastructures through a standard-based Science Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Roberto; Bruno, Riccardo; La Rocca, Giuseppe; Markussen Lunde, Torleif; Pehrson, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelling system is a widely used meso-scale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both atmospheric research and operational forecasting needs. WRF has a large worldwide community counting more than 20,000 users in 130 countries and it has been specifically designed to be the state-of-the-art atmospheric simulation system being portable and running efficiently on available parallel computing platforms. Although WRF can be executed in many different environments ranging form the single core inside a stand-alone machine up to the most sophisticated HPC platforms, there are no solutions yet to match the e-Science paradigm where software, data and users are "linked" together by the network as components of distributed computing infrastructures. The topmost component of the typical e-Science model consists of Science Gateways, defined as community-developed sets of tools, applications, and data collections that normally are integrated via a portal to get access to a distributed infrastructure. One of the many available Science Gateway solutions is the Catania Science Gateway Framework (CSGF - www.catania-science-gateways.it) whose most descriptive keywords are: standard adoption, interoperability and standard adoption. The support of standards such as SAGA and SAML allows any CSGF user to seamlessly access and use both Grid and Cloud-based resources. In this work we present the CSGF and how it has been used in the context of the eI4frica project (www.ei4africa.eu) to implement the Africa Grid Science Gateway (http://sgw.africa-grid.org), which allows to execute WRF simulations on various kinds of distributed computing infrastructures at the same time, including the EGI Federated Cloud.

  7. Lunar Plant Growth Chamber: Human Exploration Project STS-118 Design Challenge. A Standards-Based High School Unit Guide. Engineering by Design: Advancing Technological Literacy. A Standards-Based Program Series. EP-2007-08-94-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Daniel W.; Fuller, Jeremy; Watson, Janice; St. Hilaire, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In May 2005, the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) was funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop curricular units for Grades K-12 on Space Exploration. The units focus on aspects of the themes that NASA Engineers and Scientists--as well as future generations of explorers--must consider, such…

  8. Colorectal carcinoma grading by quantifying poorly differentiated cell clusters is more reproducible and provides more robust prognostic information than conventional grading.

    PubMed

    Barresi, Valeria; Reggiani Bonetti, Luca; Branca, Giovanni; Di Gregorio, Carmela; Ponz de Leon, Maurizio; Tuccari, Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    The most widely used system to define the histological grade of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is based on the degree of gland formation. This system suffers from significant interobserver variability which may limit its prognostic value and consequently better standardized criteria for the assessment of histological grading of CRC are needed. The present study aims to evaluate and to compare, in a cohort of postsurgical pTNM stage I CRC, conventional histological grading, and a novel grading system based on the number of poorly differentiated clusters of neoplastic cells, in terms of interobserver reproducibility, prognostic significance on progression-free survival, and association with other clinicopathological characteristics. Grading with both systems was performed by two pathologists independently and blinded to the clinicopathological data. Interobserver agreement was higher when grade was assessed by counting poorly differentiated clusters than by assessing the relative proportion of the glandular component. Contrary to conventional grading, the novel system provided significant prognostic information in terms of progression-free survival and was significantly associated with budding, invasive growth, lymphatic invasion, and occult nodal metastases of CRC. In conclusion, our findings suggest that a tumor grading system based on the number of poorly differentiated clusters is more reproducible and provides better prognostic stratification of pTNM stage I CRC patients than conventional grading. PMID:23093109

  9. Noncommutative epsilon-graded connections

    E-print Network

    Axel de Goursac; Thierry Masson; Jean-Christophe Wallet

    2010-07-20

    We introduce the new notion of epsilon-graded associative algebras which takes its root into the notion of commutation factors introduced in the context of Lie algebras. We define and study the associated notion of epsilon-derivation-based differential calculus, which generalizes the derivation-based differential calculus on associative algebras. A corresponding notion of noncommutative connection is also defined. We illustrate these considerations with various examples of epsilon-graded algebras, in particular some graded matrix algebras and the Moyal algebra. This last example permits also to interpret mathematically a noncommutative gauge field theory.

  10. Fuzzy logic and a risk-based graded approach for developing S/RIDs: An introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wayland, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    A Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is the set of expressed performance expectations, or standards, for a facility. Critical to the development of an integrated standards-based management is the identification of a set of necessary and sufficient standards from a selected set of standards/requirements. There is a need for a formal, rigorous selection process for the S/RIDs. This is the first of three reports that develop a fuzzy logic selection process. In this report the fundamentals of fuzzy logic are discussed as they apply to a risk-based graded approach.

  11. Standards-based approaches to 3D and multiview video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Gary J.

    2009-08-01

    The extension of video applications to enable 3D perception, which typically is considered to include a stereo viewing experience, is emerging as a mass market phenomenon, as is evident from the recent prevalence of 3D major cinema title releases. For high quality 3D video to become a commonplace user experience beyond limited cinema distribution, adoption of an interoperable coded 3D digital video format will be needed. Stereo-view video can also be studied as a special case of the more general technologies of multiview and "free-viewpoint" video systems. The history of standardization work on this topic is actually richer than people may typically realize. The ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG), in particular, has been developing interoperability standards to specify various such coding schemes since the advent of digital video as we know it. More recently, the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG) has been involved as well in the Joint Video Team (JVT) work on development of 3D features for H.264/14496-10 Advanced Video Coding, including Multiview Video Coding (MVC) extensions. This paper surveys the prior, ongoing, and anticipated future standardization efforts on this subject to provide an overview and historical perspective on feasible approaches to 3D and multiview video coding.

  12. Preemption strategy for traffic signals at intersections near highway-railroad grade crossings 

    E-print Network

    Cho, Hanseon

    2004-09-30

    Because the operational characteristics of signalized intersections near highway-railroad grade crossings (IHRGCs) are different from those of signalized intersections located elsewhere in the traffic system, standard ...

  13. Prostate cancer staging and grading

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to how fast your cancer may spread. For prostate cancer, the Gleason score is used. The term "stage" ... the prostate: Scores 2 through 5: Low-grade prostate cancer. Scores 6 through 7: Intermediate- (or in the ...

  14. Jiggling Jellyfish Grade Level: Fifth

    E-print Network

    Jiggling Jellyfish Grade Level: Fifth Developers: Kim Banta, Steve Heyer, Shari Main (teachers jellyfish data accurately !" Analyze data to answer questions Oregon State Science Standards addressed. Material list for the unit: !" Thermometers !" Salinity gauges (constructed by students) !" Jellyfish nets

  15. A Collaborative Approach to Preparing Field-Based Teachers/Supervisors for Standards-Based Accountability Systems in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Beverlee-Ann; Szlosek, Peggy; Flaherty, Thomas; Ryan, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    Preparing college supervisors/cooperating teachers to support teacher candidates' performance using standards is a challenge for teacher preparation programs. This paper will describe a professional development program collaboratively developed by representatives of the state department of education, institutions of higher education, and K-12…

  16. The GeoDataPortal: A Standards-based Environmental Modeling Data Access and Manipulation Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, D. L.; Kunicki, T.; Booth, N.; Suftin, I.; Zoerb, R.; Walker, J.

    2010-12-01

    Environmental modelers from fields of study such as climatology, hydrology, geology, and ecology rely on many data sources and processing methods that are common across these disciplines. Interest in inter-disciplinary, loosely coupled modeling and data sharing is increasing among scientists from the USGS, other agencies, and academia. For example, hydrologic modelers need downscaled climate change scenarios and land cover data summarized for the watersheds they are modeling. Subsequently, ecological modelers are interested in soil moisture information for a particular habitat type as predicted by the hydrologic modeler. The USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics Geo Data Portal (GDP) project seeks to facilitate this loose model coupling data sharing through broadly applicable open-source web processing services. These services simplify and streamline the time consuming and resource intensive tasks that are barriers to inter-disciplinary collaboration. The GDP framework includes a catalog describing projects, models, data, processes, and how they relate. Using newly introduced data, or sources already known to the catalog, the GDP facilitates access to sub-sets and common derivatives of data in numerous formats on disparate web servers. The GDP performs many of the critical functions needed to summarize data sources into modeling units regardless of scale or volume. A user can specify their analysis zones or modeling units as an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard Web Feature Service (WFS). Utilities to cache Shapefiles and other common GIS input formats have been developed to aid in making the geometry available for processing via WFS. Dataset access in the GDP relies primarily on the Unidata NetCDF-Java library’s common data model. Data transfer relies on methods provided by Unidata’s Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Distribution System Data Server (TDS). TDS services of interest include the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP) standard for gridded time series, the OGC’s Web Coverage Service for high-density static gridded data, and Unidata’s CDM-remote for point time series. OGC WFS and Sensor Observation Service (SOS) are being explored as mechanisms to serve and access static or time series data attributed to vector geometry. A set of standardized XML-based output formats allows easy transformation into a wide variety of “model-ready” formats. Interested users will have the option of submitting custom transformations to the GDP or transforming the XML output as a post-process. The GDP project aims to support simple, rapid development of thin user interfaces (like web portals) to commonly needed environmental modeling-related data access and manipulation tools. Standalone, service-oriented components of the GDP framework provide the metadata cataloging, data subset access, and spatial-statistics calculations needed to support interdisciplinary environmental modeling.

  17. Grading Students in Performing Groups: A Comparison of Principals' Recommendations with Directors' Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Claire Wehr

    1991-01-01

    Reports a study comparing Illinois high school band and choral directors' grading systems with systems proposed by principals. Concludes that principals placed more value on cognitive criteria and performance technique but less on concert attendance and behavior than did directors. Suggests that music educators develop course and grading systems

  18. When Students Repeat Grades or Are Transferred out of School: What Does It Mean for Education Systems? PISA in Focus. No. 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    School systems handle the challenges of diverse student populations in different ways. Some countries have non-selective and comprehensive school systems that seek to provide all students with similar opportunities, leaving it to individual schools and teachers to meet the particular needs of every student. Other countries group students, whether…

  19. On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seldow, Adam Lowell

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

  20. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination...permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the...

  1. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination...permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the...

  2. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination...permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the...

  3. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination...permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the...

  4. 7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination...permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the...

  5. ASTM A-710 GRADE B High Performance

    E-print Network

    NUCu STEEL ASTM A-710 GRADE B High Performance Copper-Precipitation-Strengthened Steel With Low in Lake Villa, Illinois, build with NUCu 70W (ASTM A710 Grade B) Steel Right: NUCu 70W (ASTM A710 Grade BW (ASTM A710 Grade B) without pre-heat. #12;#12;WHAT IS NUCu STEEL? 3 for welding. As a result, its

  6. Does Competition among Schools Encourage Grade Inflation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers whether high schools in competitive environments use grade inflation to attract and retain families, perhaps in addition to more constructive responses. Two measures of grade inflation are used: the cutoffs used by each school to assign a letter grade to a percent score and high school grade point average after controlling for…

  7. Graded Achievement, Tested Achievement, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight studies of grades, over a century, were reviewed using the argument-based approach to validity suggested by Kane as a theoretical framework. The review draws conclusions about the meaning of graded achievement, its relation to tested achievement, and changes in the construct of graded achievement over time. "Graded

  8. Food-grade gene expression in lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Peterbauer, Clemens; Maischberger, Thomas; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2011-09-01

    In the 1990s, significant efforts were invested in the research and development of food-grade expression systems in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). At this time, Lactococcus lactis in particular was demonstrated to be an ideal cell factory for the food-grade production of recombinant proteins. Steady progress has since been made in research on LAB, including Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus, in the areas of recombinant enzyme production, industrial food fermentation, and gene and metabolic pathway regulation. Over the past decade, this work has also led to new approaches on chromosomal integration vectors and host/vector systems. These newly constructed food-grade gene expression systems were designed with specific attention to self-cloning strategies, food-grade selection markers, plasmid replication and chromosomal gene replacements. In this review, we discuss some well-characterized chromosomal integration and food-grade host/vector systems used in LAB, with a special focus on sustainability, stability and overall safety, and give some attractive examples of protein expression that are based on these systems. PMID:21858927

  9. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight...

  10. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight...

  11. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight...

  12. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight...

  13. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for triticale. 810.2004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight...

  14. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for triticale. 810.2004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight...

  15. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for triticale. 810.2004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight...

  16. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for triticale. 810.2004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight...

  17. 7 CFR 810.2004 - Grades and grade requirements for triticale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for triticale. 810.2004... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Triticale Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2004 Grades and grade requirements for triticale. Grade Minimum test weight...

  18. Grading Instructions in PeopleSoft Grade Entry using Spreadsheet Upload

    E-print Network

    Fletcher, Robin

    Grading Instructions in PeopleSoft Grade Entry using Spreadsheet Upload Grade Entry ­ using Spreadsheet Upload Demo March, 2011 3/22/2011 1 All grade entry will be done either on-line or via spreadsheets. Grades may also be uploaded from a spreadsheet by both instructors and administrative staff

  19. 7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight...

  20. Effective use of e-grading in the dental simulation clinic.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Jay A; Pulido, M Teresa; Smith, P Bradford; McDaniel, Thomas F; Willcox, Austin B

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the development and implementation of a grading software system, accessible from any platform, that engages today's generation of students and replaces paper grading. Set up at one U.S. dental school in an all-access, anytime (24/7) web-based program accessed through tablets, the software allows for a comparison between students' self-grading and instructor grading. This comparison facilitates student-faculty interaction, promoting discussion and student learning. The software can also be used for practical examination grading in which blinded grading between instructors is possible. The data gathered can produce descriptive reports students can draw upon to encourage self-learning and guided learning, propelling students to a better understanding of critical principles as they progress through multiple psychomotor skill sets. Other reports generated by the software allow for instructor calibration, exporting of grades directly into the university grading report system, and visual analysis of trends within each class. In a post-course survey, students (56 percent response rate) and faculty (79 percent response rate) agreed that the electronic grading was more efficient and allowed more time for faculty-student interaction than the previous grading system, thus creating an environment more conducive to learning. Overall, the software has improved students' perception of enhanced kinetic skills, while facilitating administration of preclinical projects and practical examinations. PMID:24882768