These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

The relationship between standards-based reporting systems and third-grade mathematics and science achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, accountability has been the driving force for many changes in education in the United States. One major educational reform effort is the standards-based movement with a focus of combining a number of processes that involve aligning curriculum, instruction, assessment and feedback to specific standards that are measureable and indicative of student achievement. The purpose of this study is to determine if the type of report card is a possible predictor of third grade student achievement on standardized tests in mathematics and science for the 2012 Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). The results of this study concluded that the difference in test scores in mathematics and science for students in the traditional report card group was not statistically significant when compared to the scores of students in the standards-based report card group when controlling for poverty level, school locale, and school district. However, students in the traditional report card group scored an average of 1.01 point higher in mathematics and 2.27 points higher in science than students in the standards-based report card group.

Prejean-Harris, Rose M.

2

Being Fair: Teachers’ Interpretations of Principles for Standards-Based Grading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowing that grades can have long-term consequences for students, teachers voice concern about being fair in the grading process. However, their interpretations of fairness are varied and sometimes contradictory. This study looked at how teachers in one standards-based educational system determined secondary students’ grades, focusing specifically on the extent to which they followed a specific set of principles for grading.

Robin D. Tierney; Marielle Simon; Julie Charland

2011-01-01

3

Standards-Based Grading in Introductory University Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards-based grading (SBG) is an approach to assessment and reporting in which scores are attached to the specific learning objectives of a course, rather than to assignments or tests. Each score represents a student's mastery of that learning objective, and may change over time in response to evidence that her level of understanding has…

Beatty, Ian D.

2013-01-01

4

Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades K-4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades K-4 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates the titles of the…

Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

5

Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades 5-8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades 5-8 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates the titles of the…

Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

6

Implementation of Standards-Based Grading at the Middle School Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to learn about the experiences of teachers as they transition from traditional grading practices to standards-based reporting (SBR). In order to achieve this overall objective, the following research questions framed this qualitative study: (1) What understandings related to practices do middle school teachers have as…

Urich, Laura Jill

2012-01-01

7

Exemplary Science in Grades PreK-4: Standards-Based Success Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since their release in 1996, the National Science Education Standards have provided the vision for science education reform. But has that reform actually taken hold in elementary school? "Yes!," reports Robert Yager, editor of Exemplary Science in Grades PreK-4: Standards-Based Success Stories. "Probably the Standards have done more to change science in elementary schools than has occurred at the other grade levels." Evidence of change is apparent in this fourth volume of the Exemplary Science monograph series, an essay collection featuring educators in PreK-4 describing programs they've developed to fulfill the Standards' More Emphasis guidelines. The 14 programs are real-life examples you can learn from in carrying out reforms in teaching, assessment, professional development, and content. Among the topics covered: "Adapting Science Curricula in the Kindergarten Classroom," "Building on the Natural Wonder Inherent in Us All," "Guiding Students in Active and Extended Scientific Inquiry," "Active, Integrated Inquiry in an Afterschool Setting," and "Thinking Outside the Box: No Child Left Inside!" As Yager writes in the book's introduction, "The 14 exemplary programs can be seen as models for other teachers--not just to copy, but as ways of approaching science and encouraging their students to do more of what they like�. When both teachers and students are enthused, curious, and involved, science becomes central to the lives of students and others in the community and can tie the whole school experience together.

2006-01-01

8

The Bohr Model and the Fifth Grade: A New Standards-Based Hands-On Physics Curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semester-long, standards-based, hands-on physics curriculum appropriate for the fifth grade was developed. Previously available curricula were successful in using hands-on activities to teach basic fifth-grade physics skills and concepts, but did not attempt to foster understanding of the fundamental underlying physics. We expanded the role of inquiry-based instruction to expose students to the fundamental physics behind electricity, forces, energy,

Jeff Brock; Russell Springer; Bennett Goldberg

2004-01-01

9

Grades that Mean Something: Kentucky Develops Standards-Based Report Cards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nearly all states have standards for student learning and they have assessment programs to measure students' proficiency on those standards. But schools within each state nonetheless are left to develop their own standards-based student report cards as the primary means of communicating information about students' performance. To address the…

Guskey, Thomas R.; Swan, Gerry M.; Jung, Lee Ann

2011-01-01

10

Exemplary Science in Grades 5-8: Standards-Based Success Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do the Standards really matter in middle school? Nine years after the National Science Education Standards' release, just how well do science teachers in grades 5 to 8 actually use them to plan content, define improved teaching, and assess real learning? Find out the answers to these key questions in this groundbreaking collection of 15 essays by teachers, researchers, and professors whose specialty is middle school. Nine years after the release of the Standards, these educators describe what they're doing to achieve the visions for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content. All the visions correspond to the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Among this collection's wide-ranging essay topics: "Teaching Science With Student Thinking in Mind," "The Relationship Between a Professional Development Model and Student Achievement," "Creating a Classroom Culture of Scientific Practices," "Traveling the Inquiry Continuum: Learning Through Teacher Action Research," "What Do We Get to Do Today? The Middle School Full Option Science System Program," and "Teach Them to Fish." This volume is the third in NSTA Press's Exemplary Science monograph series, which provides the results of an unprecedented national search to assess how well the Standards' vision has been realized.

2006-01-01

11

Exemplary Science in Grades 5-8: Standards-Based Success Stories (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do the Standards really matter in middle school? Nine years after the National Science Education Standards' release, just how well do science teachers in grades 5 to 8 actually use them to plan content, define improved teaching, and assess real learning? Find out the answers to these key questions in this groundbreaking collection of 15 essays by teachers, researchers, and professors whose specialty is middle school. Nine years after the release of the Standards, these educators describe what they're doing to achieve the visions for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content. All the visions correspond to the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Among this collection's wide-ranging essay topics: "Teaching Science With Student Thinking in Mind," "The Relationship Between a Professional Development Model and Student Achievement," "Creating a Classroom Culture of Scientific Practices," "Traveling the Inquiry Continuum: Learning Through Teacher Action Research," "What Do We Get to Do Today? The Middle School Full Option Science System Program," and "Teach Them to Fish." This volume is the third in NSTA Press's Exemplary Science monograph series, which provides the results of an unprecedented national search to assess how well the Standards' vision has been realized.

2009-05-18

12

Fourth-Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-Based Lunar Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth-grade students' knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change.…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

2007-01-01

13

Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

2006-01-01

14

Implementing an integrated standards-based management system to ensure compliance at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) is developing and implementing a comprehensive, Integrated Standards-Based Management System (ISBMS) to enhance environmental, safety, and health (ESH) compliance efforts and streamline management of ESH throughout the Laboratory. The Laboratory recognizes that to be competitive in today`s business environment and attractive to potential Partnerships, Laboratory operations must be efficient and cost-effective. The

D. Hjeresen; S. Roybal; P. Bertino; C. Gherman; B. Hosteny

1995-01-01

15

The standard-based open workflow system in GeoBrain (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GeoBrain is an Earth science Web-service system developed and operated by the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems, George Mason University. In GeoBrain, a standard-based open workflow system has been implemented to accommodate the automated processing of geospatial data through a set of complex geo-processing functions for advanced production generation. The GeoBrain models the complex geoprocessing at two levels, the conceptual and concrete. At the conceptual level, the workflows exist in the form of data and service types defined by ontologies. The workflows at conceptual level are called geo-processing models and cataloged in GeoBrain as virtual product types. A conceptual workflow is instantiated into a concrete, executable workflow when a user requests a product that matches a virtual product type. Both conceptual and concrete workflows are encoded in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). A BPEL workflow engine, called BPELPower, has been implemented to execute the workflow for the product generation. A provenance capturing service has been implemented to generate the ISO 19115-compliant complete product provenance metadata before and after the workflow execution. The generation of provenance metadata before the workflow execution allows users to examine the usability of the final product before the lengthy and expensive execution takes place. The three modes of workflow executions defined in the ISO 19119, transparent, translucent, and opaque, are available in GeoBrain. A geoprocessing modeling portal has been developed to allow domain experts to develop geoprocessing models at the type level with the support of both data and service/processing ontologies. The geoprocessing models capture the knowledge of the domain experts and are become the operational offering of the products after a proper peer review of models is conducted. An automated workflow composition has been experimented successfully based on ontologies and artificial intelligence technology. The GeoBrain workflow system has been used in multiple Earth science applications, including the monitoring of global agricultural drought, the assessment of flood damage, the derivation of national crop condition and progress information, and the detection of nuclear proliferation facilities and events.

Di, L.; Yu, G.; Zhao, P.; Deng, M.

2013-12-01

16

Standard-based Data and Service Interoperability in eHealth Systems Kamran Sartipi and Mohammad H. Yarmand  

E-print Network

Standard-based Data and Service Interoperability in eHealth Systems Kamran Sartipi and Mohammad H different information organizations, namely semantic interoperability. This necessitates a differ- ent type, yarmanmh}@mcmaster.ca Abstract International standardization in information representa- tion, organization

Sartipi, Kamran

17

The Development and Implementation of a National, Standards-Based, Multi-Method Teacher Performance Assessment System in Chile  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessing teaching performance is a contentious issue in current educational policy in many countries. In Chile, a national, standards-based, multi-method, mandatory teacher evaluation system has been in place since 2003 to assess the performance of about 70, 000 public school teachers from pre-school to high school and adult education. The…

Taut, Sandy; Sun, Yulan

2014-01-01

18

Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

19

Building Standards based Science Information Systems: A Survey of ISO and other standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science Information systems began with individual researchers maintaining personal collec-tions of data and managing them by using ad hoc, specialized approaches. Today information systems are an enterprise consisting of federated systems that manage and distribute both historical and contemporary data from distributed sources. Information systems have many components. Among these are metadata models, metadata registries, controlled vocabularies and ontologies which are used to describe entities and resources. Other components include services to exchange information and data; tools to populate the system and tools to utilize available resources. When constructing information systems today a variety of standards can be useful. The benefit of adopting standards is clear; it can shorten the design cycle, enhance software reuse and enable interoperability. We look at standards from the International Stan-dards Organization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), American National Standards Institute (ANSI) which have influenced the develop-ment of information systems in the Heliophysics and Planetary sciences. No standard can solve the needs of every community. Individual disciplines often must fill the gap between general purpose standards and the unique needs of the discipline. To this end individual science dis-ciplines are developing standards, Examples include the International Virtual Observatory Al-liance (IVOA), Planetary Data System (PDS)/ International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), Dublin-Core Science, and the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) consortium. This broad survey of ISO and other standards provides some guidance for the development information systems. The development of the SPASE data model is reviewed and provides some insights into the value of applying appropriate standards and is used to illustrate how quasi-standards efforts can effectively evolve towards robust standards compliance. New efforts may benefit from the lessons learned.

King, Todd; Walker, Raymond

20

Student Achievement, Personal Achievement Goal Orientations, and Perceptions of Classroom Goal Structures in a Standards-Based Reporting System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze student achievement growth and motivational goal orientations in a standards-based reporting environment in a rural SC school district. More specifically, this study sought to determine if student achievement growth is related to the number of years students received standards-based reports in middle…

Ballard, Amy Copeland

2010-01-01

21

Perceptions of Teacher and Administrators in a Massachusetts Suburban School District regarding the Implementation of a Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher evaluation systems have tremendous potential in helping teachers grow in their profession. A standards-based teacher evaluation system with a rubric and multiple sources of data has the potential to create a collaborative environment that focuses on the continuous improvement of each teacher in the district. This ultimately leads to an…

Doherty, John F.

2009-01-01

22

A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…

Contino, Julie

2013-01-01

23

Advancing hydrometeorological prediction capabilities through standards-based cyberinfrastructure development: The community WRF-Hydro modeling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for improved assessments and predictions of many key environmental variables is driving a multitude of model development efforts in the geosciences. The proliferation of weather and climate impacts research is driving a host of new environmental prediction model development efforts as society seeks to understand how climate does and will impact key societal activities and resources and, in turn, how human activities influence climate and the environment. This surge in model development has highlighted the role of model coupling as a fundamental activity itself and, at times, a significant bottleneck in weather and climate impacts research. This talk explores some of the recent activities and progress that has been made in assessing the attributes of various approaches to the coupling of physics-based process models for hydrometeorology. One example modeling system that is emerging from these efforts is the community 'WRF-Hydro' modeling system which is based on the modeling architecture of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). An overview of the structural components of WRF-Hydro will be presented as will results from several recent applications which include the prediction of flash flooding events in the Rocky Mountain Front Range region of the U.S. and along the Ligurian coastline in the northern Mediterranean. Efficient integration of the coupled modeling system with distributed infrastructure for collecting and sharing hydrometeorological observations is one of core themes of the work. Specifically, we aim to demonstrate how data management infrastructures used in the US and Europe, in particular data sharing technologies developed within the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and UNIDATA, can interoperate based on international standards for data discovery and exchange, such as standards developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium and adopted by GEOSS. The data system we envision will help manage WRF-Hydro prediction model data flows, enabling discovery and flexible configuration of model inputs, and managing provenance for selected model outputs. The talk will end with a discussion on the opportunities for fostering open, standards-based approaches for code development, model interoperability and data and metadata structures as well as the need for multi-scale and multi-physics model structures.

gochis, David; Parodi, Antonio; Hooper, Rick; Jha, Shantenu; Zaslavsky, Ilya

2013-04-01

24

Study Materials Relating to Grades and Grading Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of traditional grading practices is currently under study at Grossmont College. This report was undertaken as a working base for a committee to study the grading policy. Arguments both for and against traditional grading methods are presented in outline form. The arguments are taken from pertinent journal articles or books that are…

Smith, Lawrence G., Comp.

25

Automated fruit grading system using image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the operations and performance of an automated quality verification system for agricultural products and its main features. The system utilizes improved engineering designs and image-processing techniques to convey and grade products. Basically two inspection stages of the system can be identified: external fruit inspection and internal fruit inspection. Surface inspection is accomplished through processing of color CCD

John B. Njoroge; Kazunori Ninomiya; Naoshi Kondo; H. Toita

2002-01-01

26

Cytological grading of breast cancers and comparative evaluation of two grading systems  

PubMed Central

Aim: To evaluate and compare the cytograding of breast cancers using Robinson’s and Mouriquand’s grading methods. Materials and Methods: A 5-year retrospective (from Oct 2000 to Sept 2005) and 1-year prospective study (from Oct 2005 to Oct 2006). A total of 110 fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) cases of breast cancers were studied. These were graded according to Robinson’s and Mouriquand’s grading methods (grade I–III) followed by comparison of the two methods. Results: Of the 110 cases graded according to Robinson’s method, 28 (25.45%) cases were grade I, 46 (41.81%) grade II, and 36 (32.72%) were grade III, whereas using Mouriquand’s grading methods, 28 (25.45%), 42 (38.18%), and 40 (36.36%) cases were graded as grade I, II, and III, respectively. A high degree of concordance was observed between the two grading methods (90.9%). A highly significant relationship between the scores obtained by two methods was also observed (P=0.004). Conclusions: A comprehensive cytological grading of breast cancers is possible by using two different methods proposed by Robinson and Mouriquand. In spite of a high degree of concordance between the two methods, the Robinson’s grading system has been found to be easier and better because of more objective set of criteria and easy reproducibility. PMID:21157550

Wani, Farooq Ahmed; Bhardwaj, Subhash; Kumar, Dinesh; Katoch, Pervez

2010-01-01

27

Grading  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many criticisms have been launched against grades in general because of their perceived failure to portray student achievement accurately. In many instances, these criticisms are just. But, if student grades are reflections of measurable instructional obj

Christmann, Edwin P.; Badgett, John L.

2008-11-01

28

THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR SHIITAKE GRADING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A grading system was developed to classify shiitake automatically into various grades of quality in terms of size, shape and color. A shiitake is scanned with a color charge-coupled-device camera and then various geometrical and color characteristics are determined by image processing. The online grading procedure includes the following sequences in processing dried shiitake: (a) color abnormality is eliminated by

HO-HSIEN CHEN; CHING-HUA TING

2004-01-01

29

Reproducibility of grading systems in oral epithelial dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess inter and intra observer variability in grading oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) using Smith and Pindborg grading system, WHO classification system and Brothwell DJ et al. classification system. Study design: In the study 45 histological tissues of dysplasia, 15 each of mild, moderate and severe dysplasia were coded and blindly graded by three observers in three grading systems. Further on the same observers graded 15 slides again of the previous 45 for analyzing the reproducibility in the three grading systems. The individual significance of various indicators of dysplasia among various grades of dysplasia was also assessed. Result: Inter observer agreement was significantly higher in Brothwell system as compared to WHO and Smith and Pindborg system. Intra observer agreement was significantly higher in Smith and Pindborg system, but the predictability and the probability index was distributed over a larger range in this system. Each indicator of dysplasia was also found to be statistically significant (P<0.05) for grading dysplasia. Conclusion: The present study puts forth the inherent intricacies in the grading of oral premalignant lesions. Key words:Carcinoma, dysplasia, grading systems, reproducibility. PMID:22549675

Shetty, Devi-Charan

2012-01-01

30

Perceptions of Standards-based Electronic Prescribing Systems as Implemented in Outpatient Primary Care: A Physician Survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare the experiences of e-prescribing users and nonusers regarding prescription safety and workload and to assess the use of information from two e-prescribing standards (for medication history and formulary and benefit information), as they are implemented. Design Cross-sectional survey of physicians who either had installed or were awaiting installation of one of two commercial e-prescribing systems. Measurements Perceptions about medication history and formulary and benefit information among all respondents, and among e-prescribing users, experiences with system usability, job performance impact, and amount of e-prescribing. Results Of 395 eligible physicians, 228 (58%) completed the survey. E-prescribers (n = 139) were more likely than non-e-prescribers (n = 89) to perceive that they could identify clinically important drug–drug interactions (83 versus 67%, p = 0.004) but not that they could identify prescriptions from other providers (65 versus 60%, p = 0.49). They also perceived no significant difference in calls about drug coverage problems (76 versus 71% reported getting 10 or fewer such calls per week; p = 0.43). Most e-prescribers reported high satisfaction with their systems, but 17% had stopped using the system and another 46% said they sometimes reverted to handwriting for prescriptions that they could write electronically. The volume of e-prescribing was correlated with perceptions that it enhanced job performance, whereas quitting was associated with perceptions of poor usability. Conclusions E-prescribing users reported patient safety benefits but they did not perceive the enhanced benefits expected from using standardized medication history or formulary and benefit information. Additional work is needed for these standards to have the desired effects. PMID:19390106

Wang, C. Jason; Patel, Mihir H.; Schueth, Anthony J.; Bradley, Melissa; Wu, Shinyi; Crosson, Jesse C.; Glassman, Peter A.; Bell, Douglas S.

2009-01-01

31

A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the standards. This study reports an analysis of the alignment between the National Science Education Standards (NSES), New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Core Curriculum (Core Curriculum) and New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Regents Examination (Regents Exam)—the sources teachers use for creating Earth Science curricula in New York State. The NSES were found to have a 49 % overlap with the Core Curriculum and a 27 % overlap with the Regents Exam. The Core Curriculum and Regents Exam, represented by matrices consisting of performance indicators and cognitive demands, were compared using the Porter Alignment Index. The alignment was 0.35, categorized as slightly aligned, due to the different emphases on cognitive levels. The Core focused on cognitive skills of Understand and Apply while the Regents concentrated more on Apply followed by Understand and Remember. It is suggested that the NSES be revised and the Core updated to include quantifiable emphasis on the major understandings such as percentage of time.

Contino, Julie

2013-02-01

32

A new CT grading system for hip osteoarthritis  

E-print Network

most popular, although it has evolved into multiple interpretations. For example, grade two knee osteoarthritis has been described in at least five different ways with different threshold criteria for disease(13,14). This is, in part, because Kellgren... JSN 3 Moderate Definite osteophytes, definite JSN, sclerosis, cysts, possible deformity 4 Severe Grade 3 plus definite deformity (with or without severe sclerosis) Table 3 Interpretation of the K&L grading system applied to DRRs. TABLE 4...

Turmezei, T. D.; Fotiadou, A.; Lomas, D. J.; Hopper, M. A.; Poole, K. E. S.

2014-03-15

33

Social Studies, Grade 3. Teaching Systems II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall social studies recommended program is described in SO 000 675; the nature of this guide, and the emphasis and organization of the units are described in SO 000 679. The three units in this part of the third grade course are: Tropical Rainforest, Mountain Communities, and Grassland Communities involving the typical climatic conditions,…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

34

Effectively Implementing Standards-Based Mathematics Curricula in Middle Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces standards-based middle grades mathematics instructional materials designed to engage and challenge students in mathematical investigation. Details the challenges of change for teachers, administrators, parents, and students. Highlights a study of the Missouri Middle School Mathematics Project, which implemented one of the NSF curricula,…

Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.; Reys, Barbara J.; Reys, Robert E.

2003-01-01

35

Hierarchy of evidence and appraisal of limitations (HEAL) grading system.  

PubMed

Despite more than 30 years of effort that has been dedicated to the improvement of grading systems for evaluating the quality of research study designs considerable shortcomings continue. These shortcomings include the failure to define key terms, provide a comprehensive list of design flaws, demonstrate the reliability of such grading systems, properly value non-randomized controlled trials, and develop theoretically-derived systems for penalizing and promoting the evidence generated by a study. Consequently, in light of the importance of grading guidelines in evidence-based medicine, steps must be taken to remedy these deficiencies. This article presents two methods - a grading system and a measure of methodological bias - for evaluating the quality of evidence produced by an efficacy study. PMID:25245705

Gugiu, P Cristian

2015-02-01

36

Grading NASA's Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Committee on Assessing the Solar System Exploration Program has reviewed NASA's progress to date in implementing the recommendations made in the National Research Council's (NRC's) solar system exploration decadal survey covering the period 2003-2013, New Frontiers in the Solar System, and in its Mars Architecture report, Assessment of NASA s Mars Architecture 2007-2016. The committee assessed NASA's progress with respect to each individual recommendation in these two reports, assigning an academic-style grade, explaining the rationale for the grade and trend, and offering recommendations for improvement. The committee generally sought to develop recommendations in cases where it determined that the grade, the trend, or both were worrisome and that the achievement of a decadal survey recommendation would require some kind of corrective action on NASA's part. This usually meant that the committee sought to offer a recommendation when the grade was a "C" or lower. However, the committee did offer recommendations in connection with some higher grades when it believed that minor corrective action was possible and desirable. More importantly, the committee did not offer recommendations for some of the activities given lower grades, particularly in the enabling technologies area (Chapter 6), because the committee determined that only the restoration of funding and the development of a strategic technology development program would solve these problems.

2008-01-01

37

Positive and Negative Incentives in the Classroom: An Analysis of Grading Systems and Student Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how particular grading systems motivate students. Since competency-based grading and point systems are most prevalent (Hendrickson and Gable, 1999), the current study is modeled around these systems. The grading systems used for this study were divided into two categories and defined as those students who earned their grades

Docan, Tony N.

2006-01-01

38

Exam Preparation and Grades: A System for Addressing Questions, Challenges and Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The system presented solves questions, challenges, and problems with preparing exams and grading. It includes detailed instructions, rationales, web pages, examples, and EXCEL spreadsheet templates. Use these components to keep grades, show grade distributions, calculate cumulative grades, make grade predictions based on assumptions of student performance, and inform students

PhD Augustine G DiGiovanna (Salisbury University Biological Sciences)

2004-06-15

39

Groups graded by root systems and property (T).  

PubMed

We establish property (T) for a large class of groups graded by root systems, including elementary Chevalley groups and Steinberg groups of rank at least 2 over finitely generated commutative rings with 1. We also construct a group with property (T) which surjects onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank at least two. PMID:25425669

Ershov, Mikhail; Jaikin-Zapirain, Andrei; Kassabov, Martin; Zhang, Zezhou

2014-12-16

40

UP-GRADED RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.  

SciTech Connect

The design of the RHIC injection systems anticipated the possibility of filling and operating the rings with a 120 bunch pattern, corresponding to 110 bunches after allowing for the abort gap. Beam measurements during the 2002 run confirmed the possibility, although at the expense of severe transverse emittance growth and thus not on an operational basis. An improvement program was initiated with the goal of reducing the kicker rise time from 110 to {approx}95 ns and of minimizing pulse timing jitter and drift. The major components of the injection system are 4 kicker magnets and Blmlein pulsers using thyratron switches. The kicker terminating resistor and operating voltage was increased to reduce the rise time. Timing has been stabilized by using commercial trigger units and extremely stable dc supplies for the thyratron reservoir. A fiber optical connection between control room and the thyratron trigger unit has been provided, thereby allowing the operator to adjust timing individually for each kicker unit. The changes were successfully implemented for use in the RHIC operation.

HAHN,H.FISCHER,W.SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.WARBURTON,D.S.

2003-05-12

41

A Standards-Based Science Fair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In standards-based science fairs, children learn more about what they are interested in. They deepen understandings of how science works and improve inquiry skills--including the ability to communicate and share research results. Parents learn more about science inquiry and their child's science abilities. The standards-based science fair builds…

Rillero, Peter

2011-01-01

42

Key Note Lecture: KN05 THE UPDATED GLEASON GRADING SYSTEM: MAKING IT RELEVANT TO CONTEMPORARY PRACTICE.  

PubMed

The talk will briefly cover why there was a need for modifying the original Gleason grading system. Multiple images will be presented covering the variations of different Gleason grade patterns and certain pitfalls in grading. Grading of variants of prostate cancer, such as foamy gland cancer, pseudohyperplastic cancer, ductal adenocarcinoma, cancer with vacuoles, mucinous carcinomas, and small cell carcinoma will be presented. The grading of cancer with mucinous fibroplasia as Gleason pattern 3 in most cases and cancer with glomeruloid features as Gleason pattern 4 will be discussed. Issues relating to grading needle biopsy when there is either a lower grade or higher present to a limited extent will be covered, as will the topic of tertiary grade patterns on needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy. Finally, the presentation will end with a brief review of prognostic information relating to the different Gleason grade patterns including a new Prognostic Grade Grouping. PMID:25188086

Epstein, Jonathan I

2014-10-01

43

Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems  

DOEpatents

A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel. 4 figs.

Kuznetsov, S.B.

1986-04-01

44

Stimulation of systemic low-grade inflammation by psychosocial stress.  

PubMed

Psychosocial stress is an important precursor of disease and reduced quality of life in humans. The biological pathways between stress exposure and pathophysiological processes underlying disease have received substantial scientific attention, although the roles of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system remain insufficiently understood. Recent attention has focused on chronic systemic low-grade inflammation as a promising pathway because elevated inflammation often accompanies chronic psychosocial distress. These alterations of inflammatory activity play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases that are adversely affected by chronic distress, such as cardiovascular disease. Transient increases in systemic inflammation are observed in response to acute psychosocial stress, with larger responses among individuals reporting adverse psychosocial states or conditions such as depression, lower self-esteem, or lower self-compassion. Recent evidence shows that lower subjective social status and perceived purpose in life are associated with sensitization of inflammatory stress responses to repeated stress exposure. The aims of this selective review article are to summarize current knowledge of the role of acute and chronic psychosocial stress on low-grade inflammation in humans and to discuss potential relationships between inflammatory responses to acute psychosocial stress and long-term development of disease. PMID:24608036

Rohleder, Nicolas

2014-04-01

45

Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses  

PubMed Central

The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal width of its response options. No study has systematically examined, through modern psychometric approach, whether physicians are able to properly use the Medical Research Council grades. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate physicians’ ability to discriminate among the Medical Research Council categories in patients with different neuromuscular disorders and with various degrees of weakness through thresholds examination using Rasch analysis as a modern psychometric method; (ii) to examine possible factors influencing physicians’ ability to apply the Medical Research Council categories through differential item function analyses; and (iii) to examine whether the widely used Medical Research Council 12 muscles sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy would meet Rasch model's expectations. A total of 1065 patients were included from nine cohorts with the following diseases: Guillain–Barré syndrome (n?=?480); myotonic dystrophy type-1 (n?=?169); chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n?=?139); limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (n?=?105); multifocal motor neuropathy (n?=?102); Pompe's disease (n?=?62) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined related polyneuropathy (n?=?8). Medical Research Council data of 72 muscles were collected. Rasch analyses were performed on Medical Research Council data for each cohort separately and after pooling data at the muscle level to increase category frequencies, and on the Medical Research Council sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Disordered thresholds were demonstrated in 74–79% of the muscles examined, indicating physicians’ inability to discriminate between most Medical Research Council categories. Factors such as physicians’ experience or illness type did not influence these findings. Thresholds were restored after rescoring the Medical Research Council grades from six to four options (0, paralysis; 1, severe weakness; 2, slight weakness; 3, normal strength). The Medical Research Council sum score acceptably fulfilled Rasch model expectations after rescoring the response options and creating subsets to resolve local dependency and item bias on diagnosis. In conclusion, a modified, Rasch-built four response category Medical Research Council grading system is proposed, resolving clinicians’ inability to differentiate among its original response categories and improving clinical applicability. A modified Medical Research Council sum score at the interval level is presented and is recommended for future studies in Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. PMID:22189568

Vanhoutte, Els Karla; Faber, Catharina Gerritdina; van Nes, Sonja Ingrid; Jacobs, Bart Casper; van Doorn, Pieter Antoon; van Koningsveld, Rinske; Cornblath, David Reid; van der Kooi, Anneke Jelly; Cats, Elisabeth Aviva; van den Berg, Leonard Hendrik; Notermans, Nicolette Claudia; van der Pol, Willem Lodewijk; Hermans, Mieke Catharina Elisabeth; van der Beek, Nadine Anna Maria Elisabeth; Gorson, Kenneth Craig; Eurelings, Marijke; Engelsman, Jeroen; Boot, Hendrik; Meijer, Ronaldus Jacobus; Lauria, Giuseppe; Tennant, Alan

2012-01-01

46

A proposed grading system for endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: Buffalo score  

PubMed Central

Background: The Spetzler–Martin arteriovenous malformation (AVM) grading system has proven to be useful in guiding treatment of cerebral AVMs with craniotomy. It is based on anatomical characteristics each of which makes surgical resection of an AVM more difficult, namely, deep venous drainage, eloquence of surrounding tissue, and large nidus size. A higher score correlates with more complications after treatment. Although this grading system has proven reliable over time, it does not reflect the major determinants of risk associated with endovascular treatment. The authors developed a grading system unique to endovascular treatment of cerebral AVMs. Methods: The proposed grading system accounts for the principal AVM anatomical and physiological features that make endovascular embolization more difficult and, thus, the likelihood of complications greater. These include number of arterial pedicles, diameter of arterial pedicles, and eloquent location of AVM nidus. The proposed grading system was retrospectively applied to 50 patients undergoing endovascular AVM embolization, and its ability to predict complications was compared to the Spetzler–Martin grading system. Results: Perioperative complications among the 50 patients included 4 major and 9 minor complications. The proposed grading system was predictive of complication risk, with an increasing rate of perioperative complications associated with an increasing AVM grade. An improved correlation of perioperative complication incidence was noted with the proposed system (P = 0.002), when compared with the Spetzler–Martin grading system (P = 0.33). Conclusion: This grading system for the endovascular treatment of AVMs is simple, easily reproduced, and clinically valuable.

Dumont, Travis M.; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.

2015-01-01

47

Standards-based Instruction in Rehearsal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of standards-based instruction in large ensemble rehearsals and the implementation of the National Standards for Music Education. Provides a sample lesson using "The Ash Grove," a piece arranged for band with notes on lesson preparation and rehearsal strategy. (CMK)

Fallis, Todd L.

1999-01-01

48

Standards-Based Accountability in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The implementation of standards-based accountability (SBA) interventions aimed at improving school performance often focuses on the testing component, at the expense of capacity building. This was the case in South Africa when a SBA programme was instituted by government in 2000, which was accompanied by substantial rises in senior certificate…

Taylor, Nick

2009-01-01

49

Teaching in the Standards-Based Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "ENC Focus" focuses on teaching in the standards-based classroom. Contents include: (1) "Creating Ideals and Making Them Real" (Annette Thorson); (2) "ENC Partners: Eisenhower National Clearinghouse Sites" (Juyong Pae); (3) "Innovators' Forum"; (4) "Using the Internet: Connecting Students through Collaborative Projects" (Kimberly S.…

Thorson, Annette, Ed.

2001-01-01

50

Double-channel on-line automatic fruit grading system based on computer vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology of fruit grading based on computer vision was studied and a double-channel on-line automatic grading system was built. The process of grading included fruit image acquiring, image processing and fruit tracking and separating. In the first section, a new approach of image grabbing by employing an asynchronous reset camera was presented. Three images of the different surfaces of each fruit would be collected by rolling the fruits when they passed through the image-capturing area. To acquire clear images, high-frequency fluorescent lamps supplied by three-phase alternating current were used to illuminate. In the image processing section, the diameter and a color model were used to identify the grade of the fruits. Fruits were graded into four grades by size, and two by color. Each fruit identified was tracked and separated by a novel algorithm which was realized with a PLC (Program Logic Controller). The whole grading system was tested with 1000 citrus. It could work stably when the grading capability was twelve citrus per second and the grading level was nine. The on-line grading results indicated that the accuracy of tracking and separating was higher than 99%, and the ultimate grading error was less than 3%.

Zhang, Junxiong; Xun, Yi; Li, Wei; Zhang, Cong

2007-01-01

51

A Proposed Grading System for Post-Intubation Tracheal Stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background Tracheal stenosis is still a serious consequence of endotracheal intubation. Previous classification systems are commonly descriptive and are not intended to deal with management approach. The aim of this study was to present a classification system for post intubation tracheal stenosis and evaluate its efficacy in distinguishing critically ill patients who need surgical intervention. Materials and Methods This classification system was developed based on size and type of stenosis and associated clinical signs and symptoms. Stenosis was graded based on the results of clinical examination and rigid bronchoscopy. All patients received surgical or conservative treatment based on the judgment of a surgeon experienced in management of post-intubation tracheal stenosis without considering their score. ROC curve analysis was done and cut-off point was established based on the greatest Youden index. Results Sixty patients were studied. Resection and anastomosis were done for 49 patients. The mean score for all samples was 9.18 (range 8.77-9.45). Chosen cutoff point was 8.5 and calculated sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 42%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 83.7% and 54.5%, respectively. A reasonable agreement between the estimated score and surgeon's clinical judgment (kappa = 0.78) was observed. A statistically significant relationship was observed between scores greater than 8.5 and need for surgical intervention (P= 0.007). Conclusion We presented a scoring system for post-intubation and tracheostomy tracheal stenosis using main factors influencing diagnosis and treatment and its efficacy was evaluated prospectively. It seems that this system would be capable of assimilating the treatment interventions and comparing them. PMID:25191422

Ghorbani, Ali; Shadmehr, Mohammad Behgam; Pejhan, Saviz; Saghebi, Seyed Reza; Ghare-Daghi, Aba-saad; Farzanegan, Roya; Jahanshahi, Nahid

2012-01-01

52

Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of consciousness. However, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in such patients may be quite different from that of healthy individuals, particularly when assessed during the rapidly changing hemodynamic conditions associated with neurocardiogenic syncope. To be able to interpret the pathophysiological significance of these observations, a clear understanding of the normal responses of the cerebral circulation to orthostatic stress must be obtained, particularly in the context of the known changes in systemic and regional distributions of blood flow and vascular resistance during orthostasis. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in the cerebral circulation during graded reductions in central blood volume in the absence of systemic hypotension in healthy humans. We hypothesized that cerebral vasoconstriction would occur and CBF would decrease due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. We further hypothesized, however, that the magnitude of this change would be small compared with changes in systemic or skeletal muscle vascular resistance in healthy subjects with intact autoregulation and would be unlikely to cause syncope without concomitant hypotension. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test this hypothesis, we studied 13 healthy men (age, 27 +/- 7 years) during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP). We measured systemic flow (Qc is cardiac output; C2H2 rebreathing), regional forearm flow (FBF; venous occlusion plethysmography), and blood pressure (BP; Finapres) and calculated systemic (SVR) and forearm (FVR) vascular resistances. Changes in brain blood flow were estimated from changes in the blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) using transcranial Doppler. Pulsatility (systolic minus diastolic/mean velocity) normalized for systemic arterial pressure pulsatility was used as an index of distal cerebral vascular resistance. End-tidal PACO2 was closely monitored during LBNP. From rest to maximal LBNP before the onset of symptoms or systemic hypotension, Qc and FBF decreased by 29.9% and 34.4%, respectively. VMCA decreased less, by 15.5% consistent with a smaller decrease in CBF. Similarly, SVR and FVR increased by 62.8% and 69.8%, respectively, whereas pulsatility increased by 17.2%, suggestive of a mild degree of small-vessel cerebral vasoconstriction. Seven of 13 subjects had presyncope during LBNP, all associated with a sudden drop in BP (29 +/- 9%). By comparison, hyperventilation alone caused greater changes in VMCA (42 +/- 2%) and pulsatility but never caused presyncope. In a separate group of 3 subjects, superimposition of hyperventilation during highlevel LBNP caused a further decrease in VMCA (31 +/- 7%) but no change in BP or level of consciousness. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in healthy humans during graded reductions in central blood volume caused by LBNP. However, the magnitude of this response is small compared with changes in SVR or FVR during LBNP or other stimuli known to induce cerebral vasoconstriction (hypocapnia). We speculate that this degree of cerebral vasoconstriction is not by itself sufficient to cause syncope during orthostatic stress. However, it may exacerbate the decrease in CBF associated with hypotension if hemodynamic instability develops.

Levine, B. D.; Giller, C. A.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.

1994-01-01

53

Mathematical Performance of Students with Disabilities in Middle School Standards-Based and Traditional Curricula  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of mathematics curriculum (standards based vs. traditional) on the performance of sixth and seventh grade students with disabilities on multiple-choice and open-ended assessments aligned to one state's number and operations and algebra standards. It also sought to understand factors affecting student performance…

Bouck, Emily C.; Kulkarni, Gauri; Johnson, Linley

2011-01-01

54

PEIRCE GRADINGS OF JORDAN SYSTEMS 1 Jos'e A. Anquela and Teresa Cort'es  

E-print Network

PEIRCE GRADINGS OF JORDAN SYSTEMS 1 Jos'e A. Anquela and Teresa Cort of a Jordan pair or triple system V inherit strong primeness, pri* *mitivity and simplicity from V Peirce gradings V = V2 V1 V0 of a Jordan pair V are introduced in [8, * *11] as a generalization

55

Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

1998-12-31

56

Problems with Standards-based Mathematics Tests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alan Tucker, an Applied Math professor at Stony Brook University took it upon himself to analyze the reliability of the scoring of the Math A test, New York's standards-based exam. Tucker was part of the New York Board of Regents special panel which investigated the high failure rates on the June 2003 exam. He reports here on his findings regarding "flaws in annual math tests mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act." In particular, he is concerned about the likelihood that students scores on standards-based test can be compared over time at the level of precision needed to make decisions that come with high-stakes consequences. A short report and a full report are available from this website, explaining his model and statistical analysis.

57

Optical system components for navigation grade fiber optic gyroscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes belong to the class of inertial sensors. Due to their high accuracy they are used for absolute position and rotation measurement in manned/unmanned vehicles, e.g. submarines, ground vehicles, aircraft or satellites. The important system components are the light source, the electro optical phase modulator, the optical fiber coil and the photodetector. This paper is focused on approaches to realize a stable light source and fiber coil. Superluminescent diode and erbium doped fiber laser were studied to realize an accurate and stable light source. Therefor the influence of the polarization grade of the source and the effects due to back reflections to the source were studied. During operation thermal working conditions severely affect accuracy and stability of the optical fiber coil, which is the sensor element. Thermal gradients that are applied to the fiber coil have large negative effects on the achievable system accuracy of the optic gyroscope. Therefore a way of calculating and compensating the rotation rate error of a fiber coil due to thermal change is introduced. A simplified 3 dimensional FEM of a quadrupole wound fiber coil is used to determine the build-up of thermal fields in the polarization maintaining fiber due to outside heating sources. The rotation rate error due to these sources is then calculated and compared to measurement data. A simple regression model is used to compensate the rotation rate error with temperature measurement at the outside of the fiber coil. To realize a compact and robust optical package for some of the relevant optical system components an approach based on ion exchanged waveguides in thin glass was developed. This waveguides are used to realize 1x2 and 1x4 splitter with fiber coupling interface or direct photodiode coupling.

Heimann, Marcus; Liesegang, Maximilian; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

2013-10-01

58

Ceramic\\/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key

J. J. Petrovic; K. J. McClellan

1998-01-01

59

Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students…

Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

2007-01-01

60

Connections: Water, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural Resources for Grade 3 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of Learning for…

Ney, Catherine R.

61

Assessment of an Industrial Wet Oxidation System for Burning Waste and Low-Grade Fuels  

E-print Network

"Stone & Webster Engineering Corporation, under Department of Energy sponsorship, is developing a wet oxidation system to generate steam for industrial processes by burning industrial waste materials and low-grade fuels. The program involves...

Bettinger, J.; Koppel, P.; Margulies, A.

62

An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy  

E-print Network

Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low ...

Lee, Seok Woo

63

A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Crictor"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

Coblin, Mary Payne; Huss, Dorothy; Kirk, Bonnie; Lonneman, Melissa; Melville, Claire

1998-01-01

64

A field evaluation of experimental passive railroad-highway grade crossing warning systems  

E-print Network

A FIELD EVALUATION OF EKPERIMENTAL PASSIVE RAILROAD-HIGHWAY GRADE CROSSING WARNING SYSTEMS A Thesis MICHAEL MORGAN BEITLER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1993 Major Subject: Civil Engineering )~~I ABSTRACT A Field Evaluation of Experimental Passive Railroad- Highway Grade Crossing Warning Systems. (August 1993) Michael Morgan Beitler, B. S. , University...

Beitler, Michael Morgan

2012-06-07

65

Physical activity, exercise and low-grade systemic inflammation.  

PubMed

Prospective studies have shown that chronic low-grade inflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of the most common chronic diseases and in particular CVD. Obesity has repeatedly been associated with moderately raised levels of inflammation, and this observation has led to the view that obesity is characterised by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. There is now great interest in elucidating how physical activity and exercise modulate inflammation. This review summarises the current research addressing the influence of physical activity and exercise in mitigating the risks of obesity and diseases such as type-II diabetes and CVD, through its action on the low-grade inflammatory state. Most research on this topic hypothesised that the association between physical activity and inflammatory markers is independent of fatness, but very few studies have proven this. Given that physical activity and obesity are often inversely related, it is not clear as to whether the anti-inflammatory health benefits of a physically active lifestyle are due to exercise per se or result from favourable changes in the body composition. PMID:20598198

Wärnberg, Julia; Cunningham, Karen; Romeo, Javier; Marcos, Ascension

2010-08-01

66

Construction and application of a food-grade expression system for Lactococcus lactis.  

PubMed

A food-grade host/vector expression system for Lactococcus lactis was constructed using alanine racemase gene (alr) as the complementation marker. We obtained an alanine racemase auxotrophic mutant L. lactis NZ9000?alr by double-crossover recombination using temperature-sensitive integration plasmid pG(+)host9 and a food-grade vector pALR with entirely lactococcal DNA elements, including lactococcal replicon, nisin-inducible promoter PnisA and the alr gene from Lactobacillus casei BL23 as a complementation marker. By using the new food-grade host/vector system, the green fluorescent protein and capsid protein of porcine circovirus type II were successfully overexpressed under the nisin induction. These results indicate that this food-grade host/vector expression system has application potential as an excellent antigen delivery vehicle, and is also suitable for the use in the manufacture of ingredients for the food industry. PMID:22674186

Lu, Wenwei; Kong, Jian; Kong, Wentao

2013-06-01

67

Is It a System?: Building a Global Perspective in the Elementary and Middle Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses the stereo and the human body systems as models to help intermediate grade (3-6) students understand the world as a global system. Provides a teaching script for "Is It a System?" a lesson plan for teaching systems models. Provides objectives, instructional materials, and procedures. (NL)

Angell, Ann V.

1988-01-01

68

Prostatic adenocarcinoma: reproducibility and correlation with clinical stages of four grading systems.  

PubMed

One hundred cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate were independently examined by light microscopy by three pathologists and graded according to the Gleason, Mostofi, Böcking, and MD Anderson systems (MDAH). The results were compared in order to establish which one of these classifications was the most reproducible and then correlated to the clinical stage in order to determine how accurately each classification can predict the spread of the tumors. The MDAH system, based on the percentage of gland formation in the tumor, was the easiest to use and most reproducible system. On the other hand, the Mostofi and the Böcking systems had the best correlation between grade and stage while the MDAH system had the worst. The Böcking system was the best grading system when reproducibility and accuracy in predicting the prognosis were both taken into account. PMID:3371983

de las Morenas, A; Siroky, M B; Merriam, J; Stilmant, M M

1988-05-01

69

Standards-Based IEP: Implementation Update. inForum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2006, Project Forum published a document entitled "Standards-Based IEPs: Implementation in Selected States" based on staff interviews in 18 states about their use of standards-based individualized education programs (IEPs). The definition of a standards-based IEP as presented in that document is: "a process and document that is framed by…

Ahearn, Eileen

2010-01-01

70

Grading More Accurately  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grades matter. College grading systems, however, are often ad hoc and prone to mistakes. This essay focuses on one factor that contributes to high-quality grading systems: grading accuracy (or "efficiency"). I proceed in several steps. First, I discuss the elements of "efficient" (i.e., accurate) grading. Next, I present analytical results…

Rom, Mark Carl

2011-01-01

71

Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

72

Starting the Conversation about Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As they attempt to make the transition to standards-based grading, many schools go off track or get swamped by side issues, writes Brookhart. They waste energy having hard discussions about grading practice details that, by themselves, cannot accomplish real reform. Instead, schools should focus discussion on major questions: What meaning do we…

Brookhart, Susan M.

2011-01-01

73

Developing Seventh Grade Students’ Systems Thinking Skills in the Context of the Human Circulatory System  

PubMed Central

Developing systems thinking skills in school can provide useful tools to deal with a vast amount of medical and health information that may help learners in decision making in their future lives as citizen. Thus, there is a need to develop effective tools that will allow learners to analyze biological systems and organize their knowledge. Here, we examine junior high school students’ systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. A model was formulated for developing teaching and learning materials and for characterizing students’ systems thinking skills. Specifically, we asked whether seventh grade students, who studied about the human circulatory system, acquired systems thinking skills, and what are the characteristics of those skills? Concept maps were used to characterize students’ systems thinking components and examine possible changes in the students’ knowledge structure. These maps were composed by the students before and following the learning process. The study findings indicate a significant improvement in the students’ ability to recognize the system components and the processes that occur within the system, as well as the relationships between different levels of organization of the system, following the learning process. Thus, following learning students were able to organize the systems’ components and its processes within a framework of relationships, namely the students’ systems thinking skills were improved in the course of learning using the teaching and learning materials. PMID:25520948

Raved, Lena; Yarden, Anat

2014-01-01

74

Radiative transfer equation for graded index medium in cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In graded index medium, the ray goes along a curved path determined by Fermat principle, and the curved ray-tracing is very difficult and complex. To avoid the complicated and time-consuming computation of curved ray trajectory, the methods not based on ray-tracing technique need to be developed for the solution of radiative transfer in graded index medium. For this purpose, in this paper the streaming operator along a curved ray trajectory in original radiative transfer equation for graded index medium is transformed and expressed in spatial and angular ordinates and the radiative transfer equation for graded index medium in cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems are derived. The conservative and the non-conservative forms of radiative transfer equation for three-dimensional graded index medium are given, which can be used as base equations to develop the numerical simulation methods, such as finite volume method, discrete ordinates method, and finite element method, for radiative transfer in graded index medium in cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems.

Liu, L. H.; Zhang, L.; Tan, H. P.

2006-02-01

75

A multi-resolution image analysis system for computer-assisted grading of neuroblastoma differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neuroblastic Tumor (NT) is one of the most commonly occurring tumors in children. Of all types of NTs, neuroblastoma is the most malignant tumor that can be further categorized into undifferentiated (UD), poorly-differentiated (PD) and differentiating (D) types, in terms of the grade of pathological differentiation. Currently, pathologists determine the grade of differentiation by visual examinations of tissue samples under the microscope. However, this process is subjective and, hence, may lead to intra- and inter-reader variability. In this paper, we propose a multi-resolution image analysis system that helps pathologists classify tissue samples according to their grades of differentiation. The inputs to this system are color images of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue samples. The complete image analysis system has five stages: segmentation, feature construction, feature extraction, classification and confidence evaluation. Due to the large number of input images, both parallel processing and multi-resolution analysis were carried out to reduce the execution time of the algorithm. Our training dataset consists of 387 images tiles of size 512x512 in pixels from three whole-slide images. We tested the developed system with an independent set of 24 whole-slide images, eight from each grade. The developed system has an accuracy of 83.3% in correctly identifying the grade of differentiation, and it takes about two hours, on average, to process each whole slide image.

Kong, Jun; Sertel, Olcay; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Boyer, Kim L.; Saltz, Joel H.; Gurcan, Metin N.

2008-03-01

76

Teacher's Guide to the Ninth Grade Course on Our Economic System and Socioeconomic Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide for a ninth grade course on the American economic system includes description of six units of study: 1) The United States: An Affluent Society; 2) The American Economy: How Our Economic System Works; 3) Farm Problems; 4) The Auto Industry; 5) Poverty in the United States; and 6) units on Political Campaigns and Elections and…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

77

Teacher Quality and Educational Equality: Do Teachers with Higher Standards-Based Evaluation Ratings Close Student Achievement Gaps?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using standards-based evaluation ratings for nearly 400 teachers, and achievement results for over 7,000 students from grades 4-6, this study investigated the distribution and achievement effects of teacher quality in Washoe County, a mid-sized school district serving Reno and Sparks, Nevada. Classrooms with higher concentrations of minority,…

Borman, Geoffrey D.; Kimball, Steven M.

2005-01-01

78

Inquiry-based science in the middle grades: Assessment of learning in urban systemic reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science education standards established by American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the National Research Council (NRC) urge less emphasis on memorizing scientific facts and more emphasis on students investigating the everyday world and developing deep understanding from their inquiries. These approaches to instruction challenge teachers and students, particularly urban students who often have additional challenges related to poverty. We report data on student learning spanning 3 years from a science education reform collaboration with the Detroit Public Schools. Data were collected from nearly 8,000 students who participated in inquiry-based and technology-infused curriculum units that were collaboratively developed by district personnel and staff from the University of Michigan as part of a larger, district-wide systemic reform effort in science education. The results show statistically significant increases on curriculum-based test scores for each year of participation. Moreover, the strength of the effects grew over the years, as evidenced by increasing effect size estimates across the years. The findings indicate that students who historically are low achievers in science can succeed in standards-based, inquiry science when curriculum is carefully developed and aligned with professional development and district policies. Additional longitudinal research on the development of student understanding over multiple inquiry projects, the progress of teacher enactment over time, and the effect of changes in the policy and administrative environment would further contribute to the intellectual and practical tools necessary to implement meaningful standards-based systemic reform in science.

Marx, Ronald W.; Blumenfeld, Phyllis C.; Krajcik, Joseph S.; Fishman, Barry; Soloway, Elliot; Geier, Robert; Tali Tal, Revital

2004-12-01

79

MRC: Overview of the Solar System Grades 6-8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about size and scale of the solar system. Learners will review the structure, content and size of the Solar System. This lesson is designed using the 5E instructional model and includes: teacher training, unit pacing guides, essential questions, a black-line master science notebook, a student presentation booklet, supplemental materials, and vocabulary for both students and teachers. This is lesson 1 as part of the Mars Rover Celebration Unit, a six week long curriculum.

80

The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

Ozgur, Sami

2013-01-01

81

An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

82

Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions  

E-print Network

Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, A-16 . Keywords: aluminum, atomic clocks, frequency standards, ion traps, mercury 1. INTRODUCTION Optical frequency standards based on the mercury ion and, more recently, the aluminum ion are under devel- opment

83

Graded Rough Set Approximations based on Nested Neighborhood Systems  

E-print Network

of neighborhood systems is adopted from studies of topological space and its generalization called Frechet (V as an operator from U to 2 2 U , i.e., NS(x) ` 2 U . It determines a Frechet (V)space, written (U; NS

Lin, Tsau Young

84

A real-time apple grading system using multicolor space.  

PubMed

This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter "a" of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

Toylan, Hayrettin; Kuscu, Hilmi

2014-01-01

85

A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space  

PubMed Central

This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

2014-01-01

86

The Fuhrman grading system has no prognostic value in patients with nonsarcomatoid chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

The prognostic value of the Fuhrman nuclear grading system has been questioned for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) because this subtype frequently displays nuclear and nucleolar pleomorphism. The present study reevaluates this grading system in a series of patients with nonsarcomatoid chRCC. We identified 176 patients (3.6%) with nonsarcomatoid chRCC in a total of 4897 patients who underwent surgery for renal cell carcinoma at 5 centers in Germany between 1990 and 2010. The mean follow-up was 51.1 months. The 3 groups (G1 versus G2 versus G3/4) were comparable in terms of age, sex, tumor diameter, and lymph node metastasis. They only differed significantly in tumor stage (P = .01) and the incidence of synchronous visceral metastasis (P = .04). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rates were 84.4% for G1 (n = 32), 84.3% for G2 (n = 108), and 74.1% for G3/4 tumors (n = 33) (P = .58). Accordingly, multivariate analysis including age, sex, tumor stage, and metastatic disease did not identify Fuhrman grading as an independent predictor of cancer-specific survival in patients with chRCC (P = .4). We were able to demonstrate in a large multicenter cohort that the Fuhrman grading system does not qualify as a prognostic tool in patients with chRCC. PMID:25305793

Steffens, Sandra; Janssen, Martin; Roos, Frederik C; Becker, Frank; Steinestel, Julie; Abbas, Mahmoud; Steinestel, Konrad; Wegener, Gerd; Siemer, Stefan; Thüroff, Joachim W; Hofmann, Rainer; Stöckle, Michael; Schrader, Mark; Hartmann, Arndt; Hasenfus, Andrea; Kuczyk, Markus A; Junker, Kerstin; Schrader, Andres J

2014-12-01

87

Technical grade paraffin waxes as phase change materials for cool thermal storage and cool storage systems capital cost estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is confined to the discussion of technical grade paraffin waxes as phase change material (PCM) for cool storage and the cool storage systems capital cost investment. The objective of this study is to determine the potential for using cool storage systems. The thermal properties of technical grade paraffin waxes as PCM are investigated, and static and dynamic

Bo He; Fredrik Setterwall

2002-01-01

88

Characterizations of Mg-W System Graded-Density Impactors for Complex Loading Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed an Mg-W functionally graded-density materials system with two different sequences of density-thickness distributions and fabricated disk-like pellets with the graded-density materials by elaborate stacking of different metal powder layers, followed by a one-step hot-pressure sintering process. The microstructures of the sintered pellets were characterized using a scanning electronic microscope and a scanning acoustic microscope. The pellets were used as graded-density impactors (GDIs) to test their capabilities to produce complex particle-velocity wave profiles along a specified thermodynamic path. The wave profile was obtained from reverse-impact experiments using a two-stage light gas gun in which the GDI flyer impacted a lithium fluoride window. The particle-velocity history at the impact surface of the LiF window was deduced from the interference fringe numbers of the distance interferometer system for any reflector records. For GDIs consisting of nine composition layers of graded-density materials, the particle velocity profiles displayed combined shock loading and quasi-isentropic compressing and release processes. The impactor, consisting of 12 composition layers, produced wave profiles that contained shock loading, quasi-isentropic reloading, controlled releasing, and recompressing and released processes. The wave profiles simulated using a hydrodynamic computer model developed in house agree well with the experimental results as well as other theoretical results.

Luo, Guoqiang; Bai, Jinsong; Tan, Hua; Shen, Qiang; Hu, Jianbo; Wang, Qingsong; Dai, Chengda; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

2010-09-01

89

A Simple Alternative to Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

Potts, Glenda

2010-01-01

90

A simple and accurate grading system for orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the assessment of post-transplant renal function  

SciTech Connect

Orthoiodohippurate renal scanning has proved to be a reliable, noninvasive method for the evaluation and followup of renal allograft function. However, a standardized system for grading renal function with this test is not available. We propose a simple grading system to distinguish the different functional phases of hippurate scanning in renal transplant recipients. This grading system was studied in 138 patients who were evaluated 1 week after renal transplantation. There was a significant correlation between the isotope renographic functional grade and clinical correlates of allograft function such as the serum creatinine level (p = 0.0001), blood urea nitrogen level (p = 0.0001), urine output (p = 0.005) and need for hemodialysis (p = 0.007). We recommend this grading system as a simple and accurate method to interpret orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the evaluation and followup of renal allograft recipients.

Zaki, S.K.; Bretan, P.N.; Go, R.T.; Rehm, P.K.; Streem, S.B.; Novick, A.C. (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (USA))

1990-06-01

91

Standards-Based Accountability: A Design for Student Success. A Position Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

California's continuous-improvement accountability system in which all elements are aligned and work together for the purpose of promoting and improving student learning is presented. The state's comprehensive, standards-based system rests on five key components: (1) student learning and achievement are at the heart of education; (2) standards are…

Association of California School Administrators.

92

The impact of standards?based reform on teachers: the case of ‘No Child Left Behind’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standards?based reform is a trend affecting the educational systems of nations around the world, driven by desires to create educational systems suited to increasing economic productivity. In the USA, The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 includes goals of reducing achievement gaps and getting ‘highly qualified’ teachers in all classrooms. Critics warned the legislation could exacerbate achievement gaps

Jason M. Smith; Philip E. Kovacs

2011-01-01

93

Guidelines for guideline developers: a systematic review of grading systems for medical tests  

PubMed Central

Background A variety of systems have been developed to grade evidence and develop recommendations based on the available evidence. However, development of guidelines for medical tests is especially challenging given the typical indirectness of the evidence; direct evidence of the effects of testing on patient important outcomes is usually absent. We compared grading systems for medical tests on how they use evidence in guideline development. Methods We used a systematic strategy to look for grading systems specific to medical tests in PubMed, professional guideline websites, via personal correspondence, and handsearching back references of key articles. Using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument as a starting point, we defined two sets of characteristics to describe these systems: methodological and process ones. Methodological characteristics are features relating to how evidence is gathered, appraised, and used in recommendations. Process characteristics are those relating to the guideline development process. Data were extracted in duplicate and differences resolved through discussion. Results Twelve grading systems could be included. All varied in the degree to which methodological and process characteristics were addressed. Having a clinical scenario, identifying the care pathway and/or developing an analytical framework, having explicit criteria for appraising and linking indirect evidence, and having explicit methodologies for translating evidence into recommendations were least frequently addressed. Five systems at most addressed these, to varying degrees of explicitness and completeness. Process wise, features most frequently addressed included involvement of relevant professional groups (8/12), external peer review of completed guidelines (9/12), and recommendations on methods for dissemination (8/12). Characteristics least often addressed were whether the system was piloted (3/12) and funder information (3/12). Conclusions Five systems for grading evidence about medical tests in guideline development addressed to differing degrees of explicitness the need for and appraisal of different bodies of evidence, the linking of such evidence, and its translation into recommendations. At present, no one system addressed the full complexity of gathering, assessing and linking different bodies of evidence. PMID:23842037

2013-01-01

94

Grading systems for first-and second-cycle courses and study programmes as of 2011-01-  

E-print Network

to the Higher Education Ordinance in its wording up to December 2010, grades assigned must be either fail, pass, or pass with credit, unless the higher-education institution prescribes another grading system. By virtue to the Higher Education Ordinance in its wording as of January 2011, higher-education institutions are permitted

Uppsala Universitet

95

Making the Grade in a Portfolio-Based System: Student Performance and the Student Perspective  

PubMed Central

Assessment is such an integral part of the educational system that we rarely reflect on its value and impact. Portfolios have gained in popularity, but much attention has emphasized the end-user and portfolio assessment. Here we focus on the portfolio creator (the student) and examine whether their educational needs are met with such an assessment method. This study aims to investigate how assessment practices influence classroom performance and the learning experience of the student in a graduate education setting. Studied were 33 medical students at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, a program utilizing a portfolio-based system. The students may elect to simultaneously enroll in a Masters program; however, these programs employ traditional letter grades. Thus creating a unique opportunity to assess 25 portfolio only (P) students and 8 portfolio and grade (PG) students concurrently taking a course that counts for both programs. Classroom performance was measured via a comprehensive evaluation where the PG students scored modestly better (median total scores, 72% P vs. 76% PG). Additionally, a survey was conducted to gain insight into student’s perspective on how assessment method impacts the learning experience. The students in the PG group (those receiving a grade) reported increased stress but greater affirmation and self-assurance regarding their knowledge and skill mastery. Incorporation of such affirmation remains a challenge for portfolio-based systems and an area for investigation and improvement. PMID:23565103

Nowacki, Amy S.

2013-01-01

96

Road grade quantification based on global positioning system data obtained from real-world vehicle fuel use and emissions measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-world vehicle fuel use and emission rates depend on engine load, which is quantified in terms of Vehicle Specific Power (VSP). VSP depends on vehicle speed, acceleration, and road grade. There is not a standard method for measuring road grade from a moving vehicle. A method for quantifying grade is evaluated based on statistical analysis of multiple runs using low cost consumer grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers with in-built Barometric Altimeter (GPS/BA). The average grade precision is ±0.71, ±0.46, and ±0.31 percentage points, for sample sizes of 9, 18, and 36 GPS/BA runs, respectively, among 2213 individual 0.08 km road segments. In addition, 4 sets of repeated measurements were performed on the same routes using a high cost, high accuracy Differential GPS (DGPS). Both sets of GPS-based grade estimates compared well with those derived from LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data. GPS/BA and DGPS grade estimates were similar, except for high magnitude grades of 8-10 percent for which DGPS estimates are more accurate. DGPS is more sensitive to loss of signal; thus, a hybrid approach for substituting GPS/BA data for missing DGPS data at specific locations along a route is demonstrated. The local and overall effects of road grade on fuel use and emission rates are investigated for an example light duty gasoline vehicle.

Yazdani Boroujeni, Behdad; Frey, H. Christopher

2014-03-01

97

CTCAE v3.0: development of a comprehensive grading system for the adverse effects of cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple systems have been developed for grading the adverse effects (AEs) of cancer treatment. The National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) system has substantially evolved since its inception in 1983. The most recent version, CTCAE v3.0 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) represents the first comprehensive, multimodality grading system for reporting the acute and late effects of

Andy Trotti; A. Dimitrios Colevas; Ann Setser; Valerie Rusch; David Jaques; Volker Budach; Corey Langer; Barbara Murphy; Richard Cumberlin; C. Norman Coleman; Philip Rubin

2003-01-01

98

Evaluation of symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis using the GRADE system  

PubMed Central

Background Symptomatic slow-acting drugs (SYSADOA) have been largely studied over the last decade. The objective of this study is to prepare a document providing recommendations for the use of SYSADOA in osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The following interventions were taken into consideration: avocado/soybean unsaponifiables, chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, hyaluronic acid, oral calcitonin, risedronate, strontium ranelate. Recommendations were based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. The GRADE system is based on a sequential assessment of the quality of evidence, followed by assessment of the balance between benefits versus downsides and subsequent judgment about the strength of recommendations. Results Chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid have demonstrated pain reduction and physical function improvement with very low toxicity, with moderate to high quality evidence. Even if pre-clinical data and some preliminary in vivo studies have suggested that oral calcitonin and strontium ranelate could be of potential interest in OA, additional well-designed studies are needed. Conclusion In the benefit/risk ratio, the use of chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid could be of potential interest for the symptomatic management of OA. PMID:19087296

Bruyère, Olivier; Burlet, Nansa; Delmas, Pierre D; Rizzoli, René; Cooper, Cyrus; Reginster, Jean-Yves

2008-01-01

99

The Impact of Standards-Based Reform in Duval County, Florida: 1999-2002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major challenge that school districts face is to improve the learning of all students, not just in individual schools, but across the entire system of schools. Duval County, Florida has embarked on a remarkable journey to implement standards-based reform in schools throughout the district with the intent to systematically improve teaching and…

Supovitz, Jonathan A.; Taylor, Brooke Snyder

2003-01-01

100

How Have State Level Standards-Based Tests Related to Norm-Referenced Tests in Alaska?.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of the Alaska system for test development, scoring, and reporting explored differences and similarities between norm-referenced and standards-based tests. The current Alaska testing program is based on legislation passed in 1997 and 1998, and is designed to meet the requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Legislation. In…

Fenton, Ray

101

A Standard-Based Model for Adaptive E-Learning Platform for Mauritian Academic Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key aim of this paper is to introduce a standard-based model for adaptive e-learning platform for Mauritian academic institutions and to investigate the conditions and tools required to implement this model. The main forces of the system are that it allows collaborative learning, communication among user, and reduce considerable paper work.…

Kanaksabee, P.; Odit, M. P.; Ramdoyal, A.

2011-01-01

102

Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

2008-01-01

103

Alignment: Its Role in Standards-Based Reform and Prospects for the Common Core  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) of 2010 represent a new chapter in the 25-year history of standards-based reforms (SBR). The CCSS attempts to bring the system back to the principles of its founding--more rigorous, focused, academic content and performance expectations collectively embraced by the nation. The new standards depart…

Massell, Diane; Perrault, Paul

2014-01-01

104

Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy.  

PubMed

Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)6 (3-/4-) redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas. PMID:25404325

Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

2014-12-01

105

Hypoactivation of reward motivational system in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension grade I-II.  

PubMed

In patients with newly diagnosed untreated grade I-II hypertension, EEG oscillations were recorded under conditions activation of the two basic motivational systems, defensive motivational system and positive reinforcement system, evoked by recall of personally meaningful emotional events. The 64-channel EEG and cardiovascular reactivity (beat-by-beat technology) were simultaneously recorded. At rest, hypertensive patients had significantly reduced platelet serotonin concentrations in comparison with healthy individuals. The patients experiencing emotional activation were characterized by significantly lower intensity of positive emotions associated with more pronounced suppression of EEG activity in the delta (2-4 Hz) and theta (ranges of frequency 4-6 and 6-8 Hz) oscillators in the parieto-occipital cortex (zones P and PO) in both hemispheres of the brain. The findings attest to insufficient function of the brain serotonin system and hypoactivation of the reward/reinforcement system in patients with primary hypertension. PMID:25110077

Aftanas, L I; Brak, I V; Gilinskaya, O M; Korenek, V V; Pavlov, S V; Reva, N V

2014-08-01

106

Grade Span.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue reviews grade span, or grade configuration. Catherine Paglin and Jennifer Fager's "Grade Configuration: Who Goes Where?" provides an overview of issues and concerns related to grade spans and supplies profiles of eight Northwest schools with varying grade spans. David F. Wihry, Theodore Coladarci, and Curtis Meadow's "Grade Span and…

Renchler, Ron

2000-01-01

107

Canonical Nlrp3 inflammasome links systemic low grade inflammation to functional decline in aging  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Despite a wealth of clinical data showing an association between inflammation and degenerative disorders in elderly, the immune sensors that causally link systemic inflammation to aging remain unclear. Here we detail a mechanism that the Nlrp3 inflammasome controls systemic low grade age-related ‘sterile’ inflammation in both periphery and brain independently of the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome. Ablation of Nlrp3 inflammasome protected mice from age-related increases in the innate immune activation, alterations in CNS transcriptome and astrogliosis. Consistent with the hypothesis that systemic low grade inflammation promotes age-related degenerative changes, the deficient Nlrp3 inflammasome mediated caspase-1 activity improved glycemic control and attenuated bone loss and thymic demise. Notably, IL-1 mediated only Nlrp3 inflammasome dependent improvement in cognitive function and motor performance in aged mice. These studies reveal Nlrp3 inflammasome as an upstream target that controls age-related inflammation and offer innovative therapeutic strategy to lower Nlrp3 activity to delay multiple age-related chronic diseases. PMID:24093676

Youm, Yun-Hee; Grant, Ryan W.; McCabe, Laura R.; Albarado, Diana C.; Nguyen, Kim Yen; Ravussin, Anthony; Pistell, Paul; Newman, Susan; Carter, Renee; Laque, Amanda; Münzberg, Heike; Rosen, Clifford J.; Ingram, Donald K.; Salbaum, J. Michael; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

2014-01-01

108

Standards-Based Reform: Can We Do Better?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proponents of standards-based reform claim that student achievement testing increases accountability and allows for greater instructional consistency. Performance across schools, boards, provinces, and even countries internationally can be compared and contrasted with the aim of identifying exemplary teaching practices. Teachers can also use…

Volante, Louis

2007-01-01

109

Engineering Successful Inclusion in Standards-Based Urban Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty-two percent of public school teachers teach in classrooms that include students with disabilities. Yet some research has suggested that many teachers feel ill-prepared to implement standards-based reform in heterogeneous learning environments. In a national survey of 400 general education teachers, less than half (37%) reported that they…

Voltz, Deborah L.; Sims, Michele Jean; Nelson, Betty; Bivens, Carmelita

2008-01-01

110

Aligning Transition and Standards-Based Education: Issues and Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven papers address issues in the alignment of standards-based education and individualized transition planning and service development for students with disabilities including differences in assumptions and principles, the transition planning model as a framework for achieving this alignment, and educational practices resulting from this…

Kochhar-Bryant, Carol, Ed.; Bassett, Diane S., Ed.

111

Standards-Based Teaching in Culturally Diverse Schools. Viewers' Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This videotape and viewer's guide kit is designed for use in a teachers' study group that is part of a comprehensive professional development plan. It encourages teachers to critique and inquire about standards and standards-based teaching in their diverse schools and classrooms. The kit was designed based on a 3-year project in which researchers…

Clair, Nancy; Adger, Carolyn Temple

112

Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude…

Yager, Robert E., Ed

2005-01-01

113

Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Essay titles reveal the range of programs--and creativity--this book encompasses. Among the titles are "Technology and Cooperative Learning: The IIT Model for Teaching Authentic Chemistry Curriculum," "Modeling: Changes in Traditional Physics Instruction," "Guided by the Standards: Inquiry and Assessment in Two Rural and Urban Schools," and even "Sing and Dance Your Way to Science Success." The book ends with a summary chapter by editor Robert Yager on successes and continuing challenges in meeting the Standards' visions for improving high school science. As Yager notes, "The exemplary programs described in this monograph give inspiration while also providing evidence that the new directions are feasible and worth the energy and effort needed for others to implement changes.

2005-01-01

114

Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Essay titles reveal the range of programs--and creativity--this book encompasses. Among the titles are "Technology and Cooperative Learning: The IIT Model for Teaching Authentic Chemistry Curriculum," "Modeling: Changes in Traditional Physics Instruction," "Guided by the Standards: Inquiry and Assessment in Two Rural and Urban Schools," and even "Sing and Dance Your Way to Science Success." The book ends with a summary chapter by editor Robert Yager on successes and continuing challenges in meeting the Standards' visions for improving high school science. As Yager notes, "The exemplary programs described in this monograph give inspiration while also providing evidence that the new directions are feasible and worth the energy and effort needed for others to implement changes.

2009-05-18

115

An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu2+ anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60?°C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat.

Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

2014-05-01

116

A study of organic working fluids on system efficiency of an ORC using low-grade energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rankine cycles using organic fluids (as categorized into three groups: wet, dry, and isentropic fluids) as working fluids in converting low-grade energy are investigated in this study. The main purpose is to identify suitable working fluids which may yield high system efficiencies in an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system. Efficiencies of ORC systems are calculated based on an assumption that

T. C. Hung; S. K. Wang; C. H. Kuo; B. S. Pei; K. F. Tsai

2010-01-01

117

The Weaknesses and Shortcomings of the Junior High School in Israel: Some Insights into Grade Configurations of Educational Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study aimed to explore the weaknesses of the junior high school system in Israel, a country whose first junior high schools (Grades 7-9) were established in the early 1970s and whose educational system differs from the systems of Europe and North America in terms of structure, ideology, and control. Based on semistructured interviews…

Oplatka, Izhar; Tubin, Dorit

2009-01-01

118

New generation of a mobile primary frequency standard based on cold atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a mobile primary frequency standard using intra-cavity cold cesium atoms and the results have shown the advantages of using this kind of system compared to cesium beam standards. Based on the first setup with an expanding cloud of atoms, we can plan the construction of a clock more compact since it has no strict size limitations. In order to assemble the new system even smaller, the development of a system containing lasers, microwave source and cavity in a single box has already begun. The mobile atomic standard based on cold atoms is a possible strategic product with a broad range of applications and an important contribution to a primary standard of high relevance.

Müller, S. T.; Júnior, J. de Martin; Pechoneri, R. D.; Santa Catharina, P.; Bagnato, V. S.; Magalhães, D. V.

2015-01-01

119

Student performance and grading changes in a systems-based curriculum  

PubMed Central

Introduction Changing from a conventional discipline-based, basic science medical school curriculum to an integrated systems-based curriculum, which was graded on overall performance not by discipline, was associated with a highly significant improvement in an externally administered comprehensive exam at the end of the 2-year basic science program. The reason for the improvement was unclear, but we hypothesized that it was partly due to a change in student study strategy. Anecdotal evidence suggested that students had changed their study habits to spend less time on previously harder-to-pass courses and more time on courses with previously lower failure rates. If this were so, performance in previously harder disciplines might have deteriorated, while performance in previously easier disciplines could have improved. Methods We examined relative performance in the four discipline-based courses of Systemic Pathology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, and Introductory Clinical Medicine (ICM) in the fourth (and last) semester of the curriculum. We compared failure rates in these four courses for the three cohorts before the change with the three cohorts after. Results Pharmacology and Microbiology which had failure rates over twice as high as Systemic Pathology and ICM in the conventional program before the curriculum change showed a deterioration in performance after the change with an approximately threefold rise in internal failure rate. In contrast, Systemic Pathology showed a dramatic improvement with a more than threefold drop in the failure rate, while the ICM clinical skills course, which was largely assessed by a practical exam in all 6 cohorts, showed no change. Conclusion The improvement in student performance in an external assessment may be due, at least partly, to a change in the school's internal grading policy which led to a more appropriate balancing of student study strategies. Future studies on the effect of curriculum change should include an assessment of the impact on student study strategies. PMID:24434026

Cooles, Philip E.; Harrigan-Vital, Miscilda; Laville, Agnes

2014-01-01

120

Frequency and time standards based on stored ions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of ion storage provides a basis for excellent time and frequency standards. This is due to the ability to confine ions for long periods of time without the usual perturbations associated with confinement (e.g., wall shifts). In addition, Doppler effects can be greatly suppressed. The use of stored ions for microwave frequency standards and the future possibilities for an optical frequency standard based on stored ions are addressed.

Bollinger, J. J.; Wineland, D. J.; Itano, W. M.; Bergquist, J. C.; Prestage, J. D.

1984-01-01

121

Differentiation of primary central nervous system lymphoma from high-grade glioma and brain metastases using susceptibility-weighted imaging  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Conventional MRI is often difficult to distinguish between primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs), high-grade gliomas and brain metastases due to the similarity of their appearance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has higher sensitivity than conventional MRI in detecting hemorrhage between PCNSLs, high-grade gliomas and brain metastases, and can be used to differentiate the diagnosis between these tumors. Methods The number of lesions with hemorrhage was quantified by both the conventional MR imaging and SWI. The number of micro-hemorrhage and vessels within lesions were counted on SWI. Results The detection rate of hemorrhage on SWI was significantly higher than that on the conventional MR imaging. The intralesional hemorrhagic burden and the number of the vessels within lesions detected by SWI were significantly higher in high-grade gliomas and brain metastases than those in PCNSLs. There was no significant difference in these two parameters between high-grade gliomas and brain metastases. The best predictor to differentiate PCNSLs from high-grade gliomas and brain metastases was intralesional vessel number that yielded the best ROC characteristics and highest classification accuracy. Conclusions SWI is useful in differentiating of PCNSLs from high-grade gliomas and brain metastases. PMID:25365807

Ding, Yaling; Xing, Zhen; Liu, Biying; Lin, Xinjian; Cao, Dairong

2014-01-01

122

Histologic grading study of prostate adenocarcinoma: the development of a new system and comparison with other methods--a preliminary study.  

PubMed

A new grading system for adenocarcinoma of the prostate (MDAH System) and its simplified version, both based on the percentage of tumor that is differentiated (gland-forming) or undifferentiated (non-gland-forming), were compared with the grading systems of Mostofi and Gleason. In a study group of 182 patients with Stage C adenocarcinoma of the prostate, the MDAH system identified 84 patients (46%) as Grade 1, 75 (41%) as Grade 2--3, and 23 (13%) as Grade 4. Kaplan-Meier survival curves predicted a 91% five-year survival for Grade 1 patients, a 60% 5-year survival for Grade 2--3 patients, and a 15% five-year survival for Grade 4 patients. Wilcoxon (Gehan modification) tests showed that the survival was significantly different among Grades 1, 2--3, and 4. The MDAH System is an improvement over other grading systems in that it is a simple, low-power microscopic method that depends only on the percentage of gland formation in the tumor and further reflects the biologic behavior of the tumor as measured by the patient's survival. PMID:7037148

Brawn, P N; Ayala, A G; Von Eschenbach, A C; Hussey, D H; Johnson, D E

1982-02-01

123

Common-path optical frequency domain imaging system designed for identifying and grading pearls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a common-path optical frequency domain imaging (CP-OFDI) system for non-invasive evaluation of various pearls. By adopting a high speed ready-to-ship scanning light source and a common-path lensed fiber probe, with the help of a rotation stage, real-time display of whole circumference of a pearl could be achieved. The common-path lensed fiber probe was fabricated by simply forming a focusing lens directly on the tip of an optical fiber, thus the fiber lens acted as a reference reflector as well as a focusing lens. The focal length of the lensed fiber probe was over 600 ?m in free space and the average imaging depth reached up to 3 mm, which was deep enough to examine the internal structure of the pearl. The sensitivity of the system was experimentally obtained as 100dB. With an implemented system, the presence of nucleus and the nacreous laminated pattern were confirmed and analyzed. Experimental results show that the CP-OFDI system has great potential for identifying and grading pearls non-invasively but precisely.

Ju, Myeong Jin; Ryu, Seon Young; Na, Jihoon; Choi, Hae Young; Kim, Hae Yeon; Lee, Byeong Ha

2010-02-01

124

Performance and Attitude of Student Teachers as Affected by Two Grading Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Findings of a study conducted at Iowa State University, Ames, indicated student subjects were not affected by the use of pass-fail grading, and that student teachers were less anxious and more positive about their relationship with their cooperating teachers under pass-fail than under A-F grading. (BP)

Clawson, Barbara N.; Scruggs, M. Marguerite

1974-01-01

125

Implementation of an Automated Grading System with an Adaptive Learning Component to Affect Student Feedback and Response Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research focuses on the development and implementation of an adaptive learning and grading system with a goal to increase the effectiveness and quality of feedback to students. By utilizing various concepts from established learning theories, the goal of this research is to improve the quantity, quality, and speed of feedback as it pertains…

Matthews, Kevin; Janicki, Thomas; He, Ling; Patterson, Laurie

2012-01-01

126

Method and apparatus for using low grade thermal energy to improve efficiency of air conditioning and refrigeration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and apparatus for utilizing low grade thermal energy is shown to reduce the energy required to drive the compressor of a refrigeration or air conditioning system. The thermal energy is used to vaporize a fluid which is used as a motive fluid to drive a thermal compressor, such as a jet compressor or a vapor compression cycle compressor.

Hiser

1984-01-01

127

Translation into Brazilian Portuguese and validation of the "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Post-acne Scarring".  

PubMed

The "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Postacne Scarring" was developed in English for acne scar grading, based on the number and severity of each type of scar. The aims of this study were to translate this scale into Brazilian Portuguese and verify its reliability and validity. The study followed five steps: Translation, Expert Panel, Back Translation, Approval of authors and Validation. The translated scale showed high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability, confirming its reproducibility. Therefore, it has been validated for our population and can be recommended as a reliable instrument to assess acne scarring. PMID:25184939

Cachafeiro, Thais Hofmann; Escobar, Gabriela Fortes; Maldonado, Gabriela; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

2014-01-01

128

Translation into Brazilian Portuguese and validation of the "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Post-acne Scarring" *  

PubMed Central

The "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Postacne Scarring" was developed in English for acne scar grading, based on the number and severity of each type of scar. The aims of this study were to translate this scale into Brazilian Portuguese and verify its reliability and validity. The study followed five steps: Translation, Expert Panel, Back Translation, Approval of authors and Validation. The translated scale showed high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability, confirming its reproducibility. Therefore, it has been validated for our population and can be recommended as a reliable instrument to assess acne scarring. PMID:25184939

Cachafeiro, Thais Hofmann; Escobar, Gabriela Fortes; Maldonado, Gabriela; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

2014-01-01

129

Friction Spinning—New Innovative Tool Systems For The Production of Complex Functionally Graded Workpieces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Friction spinning is a new innovative and promising incremental forming technology implying high potential regarding the manufacturing of complex functionally graded workpieces and enhancing existing forming limits of conventional metal spinning processes. The friction spinning process is based on the integration of thermo-mechanical friction subprocesses in this incremental forming process. By choosing the appropriate process parameters, e.g. axial feed rate or relative motion, the contact conditions between tool and workpiece can be influenced in a defined way and, thus, a required temperature profile can be obtained. Friction spinning allows the extension of forming limits compared to conventional metal spinning in order to produce multifunctional components with locally varying properties and the manufacturing of e.g. complex hollow parts made of tubes, profiles, or sheet metals. In this way, it meets the demands regarding efficiency and the manufacturing of functionally graded lightweight components. There is e.g. the possibility of locally increasing the wall thickness in joining zones and, as a consequence, achieving higher quality of the joint at decreased expense. These products are not or only hardly producible by conventional processes so far. In order to benefit from the advantages and potentials of this new innovative process new tooling systems and concepts are indispensable which fulfill the special requirements of this thermo-mechanical process concerning thermal and tribological loads and which allow simultaneous and defined forming and friction operations. An important goal of the corresponding research work at the Chair of Forming and Machining Technology at the University of Paderborn is the development of tool systems that allow the manufacturing of such complex parts by simple uniaxial or sequential biaxial linear tool paths. In the paper, promising tool systems and geometries as well as results of theoretical and experimental research work (e.g. regarding the influence and interaction of process parameters on the workpiece quality) will be discussed. Furthermore, possibilities regarding the manufacturing of geometries (demonstrator workpieces) which are not or only hardly producible with conventional processes will be presented.

Homberg, Werner; Hornjak, Daniel

2011-05-01

130

Comparison of A-B-C-F and H-P-F Grading Systems in Graduate Education Courses at Herbert H. Lehman College. Final Complete Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional grading was replaced with the Honors-Pass-Fail (H-P-F) grading system in graduate education courses at Herbert H. Lehman College in the fall 1971 semester. The purpose of that action was to determine if the H-P-F system might differentiate more effectively between exceptional and average student achievement. The general findings of the…

Frankel, Edward

131

Development and characterization of food-grade tracers for the global grain tracing and recall system.  

PubMed

Tracing grain from the farm to its final processing destination as it moves through multiple grain-handling systems, storage bins, and bulk carriers presents numerous challenges to existing record-keeping systems. This study examines the suitability of coded caplets to trace grain, in particular, to evaluate methodology to test tracers' ability to withstand the rigors of a commercial grain handling and storage systems as defined by physical properties using measurement technology commonly applied to assess grain hardness and end-use properties. Three types of tracers to dispense into bulk grains for tracing the grain back to its field of origin were developed using three food-grade substances [processed sugar, pregelatinized starch, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC)] as a major component in formulations. Due to a different functionality of formulations, the manufacturing process conditions varied for each tracer type, resulting in unique variations in surface roughness, weight, dimensions, and physical and spectroscopic properties before and after coating. The applied two types of coating [pregelatinized starch and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] using an aqueous coating system containing appropriate plasticizers showed uniform coverage and clear coating. Coating appeared to act as a barrier against moisture penetration, to protect against mechanical damage of the surface of the tracers, and to improve the mechanical strength of tracers. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed the type of tracer, coating material, conditioning time, and a theoretical weight gain significantly influenced the morphological and physical properties of tracers. Optimization of these factors needs to be pursued to produce desirable tracers with consistent quality and performance when they flow with bulk grains throughout the grain marketing channels. PMID:20883029

Lee, Kyung-Min; Armstrong, Paul R; Thomasson, J Alex; Sui, Ruixiu; Casada, Mark; Herrman, Timothy J

2010-10-27

132

Music--A Resource Guide for Standards-Based Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is designed to provide guidance to New York state school districts and teachers to help students achieve the music standards. Teachers throughout New York state met to compile these field-tested lesson plans, teaching strategies, assessments, and resources for teachers of students in pre-kindergarten through grade 12, in all areas of…

New York State Education Dept., Albany.

133

A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Cuadros de Familia"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). In the summer of 1996, the Center offered the Culture and Children's…

Parvis-Condon, Katia; Kleinman, Donna; Brown, Joseph; Roa, Angela

1998-01-01

134

Integrative Food-Grade Expression System Based on the Lactose Regulon of Lactobacillus casei  

PubMed Central

The lactose operon from Lactobacillus casei is regulated by very tight glucose repression and substrate induction mechanisms, which made it a tempting candidate system for the expression of foreign genes or metabolic engineering. An integrative vector was constructed, allowing stable gene insertion in the chromosomal lactose operon of L. casei. This vector was based on the nonreplicative plasmid pRV300 and contained two DNA fragments corresponding to the 3? end of lacG and the complete lacF gene. Four unique restriction sites were created, as well as a ribosome binding site that would allow the cloning and expression of new genes between these two fragments. Then, integration of the cloned genes into the lactose operon of L. casei could be achieved via homologous recombination in a process that involved two selection steps, which yielded highly stable food-grade mutants. This procedure has been successfully used for the expression of the E. coli gusA gene and the L. lactis ilvBN genes in L. casei. Following the same expression pattern as that for the lactose genes, ?-glucuronidase activity and diacetyl production were repressed by glucose and induced by lactose. This integrative vector represents a useful tool for strain improvement in L. casei that could be applied to engineering fermentation processes or used for expression of genes for clinical and veterinary uses. PMID:11055930

Gosalbes, María José; Esteban, Carlos David; Galán, José Luis; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

2000-01-01

135

Investment-Grade Compressed Air System Audit, Analysis, and Upgrade in a Pulp and Paper Mill  

E-print Network

An investment-grade compressed air audit, analysis, design, and upgrade in an industrial facility requires a thorough understudying of original design basis, current problem definition, goal settings, load assessment, base case model development...

Parekh, P. S.

136

40 CFR 268.46 - Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. 268.46 Section...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.46 Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. For the...

2010-07-01

137

Treatment delivery software for a new clinical grade ultrasound system for thermoradiotherapy.  

PubMed

A detailed description of a clinical grade Scanning Ultrasound Reflector Linear Array System (SURLAS) applicator was given in a previous paper [Med. Phys. 32, 230-240 (2005)]. In this paper we concentrate on the design, development, and testing of the personal computer (PC) based treatment delivery software that runs the therapy system. The SURLAS requires the coordinated interaction between the therapy applicator and several peripheral devices for its proper and safe operation. One of the most important tasks was the coordination of the input power sequences for the elements of two parallel opposed ultrasound arrays (eight 1.5 cm x 2 cm elements/array, array 1 and 2 operate at 1.9 and 4.9 MHz, respectively) in coordination with the position of a dual-face scanning acoustic reflector. To achieve this, the treatment delivery software can divide the applicator's treatment window in up to 64 sectors (minimum size of 2 cm x 2 cm), and control the power to each sector independently by adjusting the power output levels from the channels of a 16-channel radio-frequency generator. The software coordinates the generator outputs with the position of the reflector as it scans back and forth between the arrays. Individual sector control and dual frequency operation allows the SURLAS to adjust power deposition in three dimensions to superficial targets coupled to its treatment window. The treatment delivery software also monitors and logs several parameters such as temperatures acquired using a 16-channel thermocouple thermometry unit. Safety (in particular to patients) was the paramount concern and design criterion. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was applied to the applicator as well as to the entire therapy system in order to identify safety issues and rank their relative importance. This analysis led to the implementation of several safety mechanisms and a software structure where each device communicates with the controlling PC independently of the others. In case of a malfunction in any part of the system or a violation of a user-defined safety criterion based on temperature readings, the software terminates treatment immediately and the user is notified. The software development process consisting of problem analysis, design, implementation, and testing is presented in this paper. Once the software was finished and integrated with the hardware, the therapy system was extensively tested. Results demonstrated that the software operates the SURLAS as intended with minimum risk to future patients. PMID:16372408

Novák, Petr; Moros, Eduardo G; Straube, William L; Myerson, Robert J

2005-11-01

138

Instituting a Standards-Based K--12 Science Curriculum Supplement Program at the National Institutes of Health: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on student achievement indicates the U.S. K-12 education system is not adequately preparing American students to compete in the 21st century global economy in the areas of science and mathematics. Congress has asked the scientific entities of the federal government to help increase K-12 science learning by creating standards-based

Witherly, Jeffre

2010-01-01

139

Apprenticeship Training in Ireland: From Time-Served to Standards Based; Potential and Limitations for the Construction Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with construction industry personnel (15 employers, 14 instructors) in Ireland found satisfaction with a new standards-based apprenticeship system that focused on competence rather than length of apprenticeship. Criticisms were related to problems in gaining access to training courses. (SK)

O'Connor, Len; Harvey, Noel

2001-01-01

140

The high-grade Tseel Terrane in SW Mongolia: An Early Paleozoic arc system or a Precambrian sliver?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-grade metamorphic Tseel Terrane in southwestern Mongolia is dominated by a strongly deformed sequence of migmatitic gneisses which has previously been interpreted as an early Precambrian continental sliver. However, the protolith age and timing of high-grade metamorphism remain poorly constrained. To resolve this problem, high-grade gneisses selected from the western Tseel Terrane were dated in the present study. Zircons with oscillatory zoning from three paragneisses predominantly yielded early Paleozoic ages between 450 and 550 Ma, with prominent peaks at 471 and 506 Ma. U-Pb dating of zircons from a granitic gneiss revealed that the protolith was emplaced at 420 Ma. Zircons from a leucocratic granite vein gave a concordant age of 385 ± 3 Ma, close to ages of metamorphic zircons in the gneissic rocks, which is interpreted to record a high-temperature thermal event in the region. These results indicate that the Tseel Terrane principally consists of early Paleozoic rocks which underwent a high-grade metamorphic event in the Middle Devonian. In addition, SHRIMP dating of dominant magmatic zircons from an associated schist yielded a concordant U-Pb age of 495 ± 5 Ma, similar to those of the major zircon group in the high-grade paragneiss. A felsic tuffaceous sample yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 511 ± 4 Ma, documenting early Paleozoic volcanism which probably contributed to the deposition of the sediments in the region. Geochemically, high-grade paragneisses and low-grade schists show close similarities, and their common features suggest that their protoliths may represent significant erosion products of Cambrian arc magmatic rocks with minor old crustal components that were deposited in an active margin setting. The granitic gneiss with subduction-related chemical characteristics further favors an arc setting for the Tseel Terrane. Accordingly, our data combined with previous work suggest that the Tseel Terrane represents the constituent part of an early Paleozoic arc system situated on the southern margin of North Mongolian Domain. This arc system extended from western Mongolia to the Chinese Altai because various geological features of these two regions have close similarities.

Jiang, Yingde; Sun, Min; Kröner, Alfred; Tumurkhuu, Dondov; Long, Xiaoping; Zhao, Guochun; Yuan, Chao; Xiao, Wenjiao

2012-06-01

141

Investigation of the effects of graded models on the biomechanical behavior of a bone-dental implant system under osteoporotic conditions  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the effects of graded models on the biomechanical behavior of a bone-implant system under osteoporotic conditions. Methodology : A finite element model (FEM) of the jawbone segments with a titanium implant is used. Two types of models (a graded model and a non-graded model) are established. The graded model is established based on the graded variation of the elastic modulus of the cortical bone and the non-graded model is defined by homogeneous cortical bone. The vertical and oblique loads are adopted. The max von Mises stresses and the max displacements of the cortical bone are evaluated. Results: Comparing the two types of models, the difference in the maximum von Mises stresses of the cortical bone is more than 20%. The values of the maximum displacements in the graded models are considerably less than in the non-graded models. Conclusions: These results indicate the significance of taking into account the actual graded properties of the cortical bone so that the biomechanical behavior of the bone-implant system can be analyzed accurately. PMID:24353590

Li, Ying; Shuang Liu, Zhong; Ming Bai, Xiao; Zhang, Bin

2013-01-01

142

Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objective Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Materials and methods Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. Results We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. Discussions This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Conclusions Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites. PMID:24699371

Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

2014-01-01

143

The Impact of Classroom Performance System-Based Instruction with Peer Instruction upon Student Achievement and Motivation in Eighth Grade Math Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researcher employed two designs to address the research question for this particular study. This quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group study compared the math achievement of 92 eighth grade students who received Classroom Performance System (CPS)-based instruction using Peer Instruction (PI) to 76 eighth grade students who received…

Allison, Tracy Michelle Hunter

2012-01-01

144

Development of a cost-effective machine vision system for in-field sorting and grading of apples: Fruit orientation and size estimation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research was to develop an in-field apple presorting and grading system to separate undersized and defective fruit from fresh market-grade apples. To achieve this goal, a cost-effective machine vision inspection prototype was built, which consisted of a low-cost color camera, L...

145

A reference standard-based quality assurance program for radiology.  

PubMed

The authors have developed a comprehensive radiology quality assurance (QA) program that evaluates radiology interpretations and procedures by comparing them with reference standards. Performance metrics are calculated and then compared with benchmarks or goals on the basis of published multicenter data and meta-analyses. Additional workload for physicians is kept to a minimum by having trained allied health staff members perform the comparisons of radiology reports with the reference standards. The performance metrics tracked by the QA program include the accuracy of CT colonography for detecting polyps, the false-negative rate for mammographic detection of breast cancer, the accuracy of CT angiography detection of coronary artery stenosis, the accuracy of meniscal tear detection on MRI, the accuracy of carotid artery stenosis detection on MR angiography, the accuracy of parathyroid adenoma detection by parathyroid scintigraphy, the success rate for obtaining cortical tissue on ultrasound-guided core biopsies of pelvic renal transplants, and the technical success rate for peripheral arterial angioplasty procedures. In contrast with peer-review programs, this reference standard-based QA program minimizes the possibilities of reviewer bias and erroneous second reviewer interpretations. The more objective assessment of performance afforded by the QA program will provide data that can easily be used for education and management conferences, research projects, and multicenter evaluations. Additionally, such performance data could be used by radiology departments to demonstrate their value over nonradiology competitors to referring clinicians, hospitals, patients, and third-party payers. PMID:20129274

Liu, Patrick T; Johnson, C Daniel; Miranda, Rafael; Patel, Maitray D; Phillips, Carrie J

2010-01-01

146

Preparation, Placement, Proficiency: Improving Middle Grades Math Performance. Policy and Practice Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Early in 2010, EdSource released a landmark study on middle grades education in California. "Gaining Ground in the Middle Grades" looked at the critical 6th- to 8th-grade years in the context of standards-based education. The analysis identified a comprehensive set of practices that differentiated higher from lower schoolwide academic achievement…

Williams, Trish; Haertel, Edward; Kirst, Michael W.; Rosin, Matthew; Perry, Mary

2011-01-01

147

Mechanical testing and fracture studies of a nickel-alumina functionally graded material system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic modulus and fracture toughness was determined for a layered nickel-alumina functionally graded material (FGM) system. FGM samples with a linear compositional gradient profile were formed by sequentially stacking different Ni-Al 2O3 cermet compositions and bonding together by solid-state sintering. From these bulk samples tensile and compact-tension (C-T) specimen geometries were used to determine the elastic moduli and fracture response within each specific layer of the FGM structure, respectively. Moire interferometry techniques were used extensively to determine the physical displacement across the entire tensile specimen surface and the surface directly adjacent to the crack tip during testing. Interferometry results were used to verify the accuracy of a series of computer simulations calculating the fracture response through a material interface. While the macroscopic effects of residual stress resulting from the layered gradient structure were anticipated for this study, defects within the microstructure were shown to dominate the mechanical and fracture response in this material system. The level of microdamage was illustrated by much lower elastic modulus values measured for cermet layers possessing an interpenetrating network microstructure. These microstructures had considerable contact between the two constituents, nickel and alumina, providing maximum opportunity for microdamage within these cermet interlayers. Using the measured moduli values the elastic fracture response for a crack propagating from an 80%-Al2O3 layer toward a 60%-Al 2O3 layer was both measured experimentally and calculated using finite element modeling techniques. As expected, the fracture toughness of the FGM increased as a crack propagated within the more ductile layer. Relatively straight, brittle fracture was seen in the 80%-Al2O 3 microstructure while crack bridging, deflection, and bifurcation were all observed within the 60%-Al2O3 layer. A gradual rise in fracture toughness as the crack approached the sharp material interface was calculated from computer simulations illustrating the effect on fracture toughness as the material (and thus elastic modulus) is changed in front of the crack tip. Again, microstructural damage dominated the fracture response in the form of significantly reduced elastic moduli while macroscopic residual stresses had only a minimal effect, due in part to the crack propagation direction.

Windes, William E.

148

Reproducibility and Prognostic Value of WHO1973 and WHO2004 Grading Systems in TaT1 Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Background European treatment guidelines of TaT1 urinary bladder urothelial carcinomas depend highly on stage and WHO1973-grade but grading reproducibility is wanting. The newer WHO2004 grading system is still debated and both systems are currently used. Aims To compare reproducibility and prognostic value (of stage progression) of the WHO1973 and WHO2004. Methods One hundred and ninety-three primary urothelial carcinomas were reviewed. Follow-up data were retrieved from the patient records. Kappa statistics and Harrell's C-index were used. Results Median follow-up was 75 months (range 1–127). 17 patients (9%) progressed, 82% of these within and 18% after 60 months. The distribution of WHO73-grades 1, 2 and 3 was 23%, 51% and 26%, interobserver agreement for each individual grade was 66% (kappa?=?0.68), while for grades 1&2 versus 3 89% (kappa?=?0.68). Intraobserver reproducibility was 68–63% for WHO73 and 88–89% for WHO73 as 1&2 vs.3. Progression free survival rates at 5 years were 95% (grade 1), 98% (grade 2) and 82% (grade 3) and 96% and 82% for grades 1&2 versus 3 (Hazard Ratio, HR, 5.4, p?=?0.003). Using WHO2004, 62% were low grade and 38% high grade, inter-observer agreement 87% (kappa?=?0.70), intraobserver reproducibility 93%, and progression free 5-year survival rates 97% and 85% (HR 6.6, p?=?0.004). Positive and negative predictive values for stage progression within 5 years for the WHO73 (1&2 vs. 3) were 18% and 96%, and 15% and 97% for the WHO04. Using Harrell's C-index, none of the grading systems was prognostically superior. Conclusion None of the grading systems is prognostically stronger than the others. Most importantly, inter-observer reproducibility and sensitivities for stage progression of both systems are low and need improvement for optimal treatment. PMID:24409280

Mangrud, Ok Målfrid; Waalen, Rune; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Dalen, Ingvild; Tasdemir, Ilker; Janssen, Emiel A. M.; Baak, Jan P. A.

2014-01-01

149

Evaluation of the WHO 2010 Grading and AJCC/UICC Staging Systems in Prognostic Behavior of Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing incidence and heterogeneous behavior of intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (iNETs) pose a clinicopathological challenge. Our goal was to decribe the prognostic value of the new WHO 2010 grading and the AJCC/UICC TNM staging systems for iNETs. Moreover, outcomes of patients treated with somatostatin analogs were assessed. Methods We collected epidemiological and clinicopathological data from 93 patients with histologically proven iNETs including progression and survival outcomes. The WHO 2010 grading and the AJCC/UICC TNM staging systems were applied for all cases. RECIST criteria were used to define progression. Kaplan-Meier analyses for progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were performed. Results Mean follow-up was 58.6 months (4–213 months). WHO 2010 grading yielded PFS and disease-specific OS of 125.0 and 165.8 months for grade 1 (G1), 100.0 and 144.2 months for G2 and 15.0 and 15.8 months for G3 tumors (p?=?0.004 and p?=?0.001). Using AJCC staging, patients with stage I and II tumors had no progression and no deaths. Stage III and IV patients demonstrated PFS of 138.4 and 84.7 months (p?=?0.003) and disease-specific OS of 210.0 and 112.8 months (p?=?0.017). AJCC staging also provided informative PFS (91.2 vs. 50.0 months, p?=?0.004) and OS (112.3 vs. 80.0 months, p?=?0.005) measures with somatostatin analog use in stage IV patients. Conclusion Our findings underscore the complementarity of WHO 2010 and AJCC classifications in providing better estimates of iNETS disease outcomes and extend the evidence for somatostatin analog benefit in patients with metastatic disease. PMID:23620762

Araujo, Paula B.; Cheng, Sonia; Mete, Ozgur; Serra, Stefano; Morin, Emilie; Asa, Sylvia L.; Ezzat, Shereen

2013-01-01

150

Identification of neuropathic pain in patients with neck/upper limb pain: application of a grading system and screening tools.  

PubMed

The Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group (NeuPSIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain has proposed a grading system for the presence of neuropathic pain (NeP) using the following categories: no NeP, possible, probable, or definite NeP. To further evaluate this system, we investigated patients with neck/upper limb pain with a suspected nerve lesion, to explore: (i) the clinical application of this grading system; (ii) the suitability of 2 NeP questionnaires (Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs pain scale [LANSS] and the painDETECT questionnaire [PD-Q]) in identifying NeP in this patient cohort; and (iii) the level of agreement in identifying NeP between the NeuPSIG classification system and 2 NeP questionnaires. Patients (n = 152; age 52 ± 12 years; 53% male) completed the PD-Q and LANSS questionnaire and underwent a comprehensive clinical examination. The NeuPSIG grading system proved feasible for application in this patient cohort, although it required considerable time and expertise. Both questionnaires failed to identify a large number of patients with clinically classified definite NeP (LANSS sensitivity 22%, specificity 88%; PD-Q sensitivity 64%, specificity 62%). These lowered sensitivity scores contrast with those from the original PD-Q and LANSS validation studies and may reflect differences in the clinical characteristics of the study populations. The diagnostic accuracy of LANSS and PD-Q for the identification of NeP in patients with neck/upper limb pain appears limited. PMID:23973362

Tampin, Brigitte; Briffa, Noelle Kathryn; Goucke, Roger; Slater, Helen

2013-12-01

151

New grading system of cerebral gliomas using positron emisson tomography with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18 (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been reported to be a powerful diagnostic and prognostic tool in patients with primary brain tumors. This study was undertaken to compare the prognostic value of: (1) visual grading of [18]FDG uptake in the tumor, (2) the absolute glucose metabolic rate of the tumor (TMRglc), (3) the ratio of glucose metabolism

Chun K. Kim; Jane B. Alavi; Abass Alavi; Martin Reivich

1991-01-01

152

Properties of broadband depth-graded multilayer mirrors for EUV optical systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The optical properties of a-periodic, depth-graded multilayer mirrors operating at 13.5 nm wavelength are investigated using different compositions and designs to provide a constant reflectivity over an essentially wider angular range than periodic multilayers. A reflectivity of up to about 60% is achieved in these calculation in the [0, 18°] range of the angle of incidence for the structures without

A. E. Yakshin; I. V. Kozhevnikov; E. Zoethout; E. Louis; F. Bijkerk

2010-01-01

153

High-resolution CT scoring system-based grading scale predicts the clinical outcomes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background The 2011 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) guidelines are based on the diagnosis of IPF using only high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, few studies have thus far reviewed the usefulness of the HRCT scoring system based on the grading scale provided in the guidelines. We retrospectively studied 98 patients with respect to assess the prognostic value of changes in HRCT findings using a new HRCT scoring system based on the grading scale published in the guidelines. Methods Consecutive patients with IPF who were diagnosed using HRCT alone between January 2008 and January 2012 were evaluated. HRCT examinations and pulmonary function tests were performed at six-month intervals for the first year after diagnosis. The HRCT findings were evaluated using the new HRCT scoring system (HRCT fibrosis score) over time. The findings and survival rates were analyzed using a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results The HRCT fibrosis scores at six and 12 months after diagnosis were significantly increased compared to those observed at the initial diagnosis (p?system based on the grading scale is useful for predicting the clinical outcomes of IPF and identifying patients with an adverse prognosis when used in combination with spirometry. PMID:24479411

2014-01-01

154

Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations I: Critical appraisal of existing approaches The GRADE Working Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A number of approaches have been used to grade levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations. The use of many different approaches detracts from one of the main reasons for having explicit approaches: to concisely characterise and communicate this information so that it can easily be understood and thereby help people make well-informed decisions. Our objective was to

David Atkins; Martin Eccles; Signe Flottorp; Gordon H Guyatt; David Henry; Suzanne Hill; Alessandro Liberati; Dianne O'Connell; Andrew D Oxman; Bob Phillips; Holger Schünemann; Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer; Gunn E Vist; John W Williams

2004-01-01

155

Utilization of the graded universal testing system to increase the efficiency for assessing aerobic and anaerobic capacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The in-flight exercise test performed by cosmonauts as part of the Russian Exercise Countermeasure Program is limited to 5 minutes due to communication restrictions. During a recent graded exercise test on a U.S. Shuttle flight, the test was terminated early due to an upcoming loss of signal (LOS) with the ground. This exercise test was a traditional test where the subject's exercise capacity dictates the length of the test. For example, one crew member may take 15 minutes to complete the test, while another may take 18 minutes. The traditional exercise test limits the flight schedulers to large blocks of space flight time in order to provide medical and research personnel information on the fitness capacity (maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max) of crew members during flight. A graded exercise test that would take a finite amount of time and a set preparation and recovery time would ease this problem by allowing flight schedulers to plan exercise tests in advance of LOS. The Graded Universal Testing System (GUTS) was designed to meet this goal. Fitness testing of astronauts before and after flight provides pertinent data on many variables. The Detailed Supplemental Objective (DSO608) protocol (6) is one of the graded exercise tests (GXT) currently used in astronaut testing before and after flight. Test times for this protocol have lasted from 11 to 18 minutes. Anaerobic capacity is an important variable that is currently not being evaluated before and after flight. Recent reports (1,2,5) from the literature have suggested that the oxygen deficit at supramaximal exercise is a measure of anaerobic capacity. We postulated that the oxygen deficit at maximal exercise would be an indication of anaerobic capacity. If this postulate can be accepted, then the efficiency of acquiring data from a graded exercise test would increase at least twofold. To examine this hypothesis anaerobic capacity was measured using a modified treadmill test (3,4) designed to exhaust the anaerobic systems in approximately 45 to 75 seconds. Lactate concentration in the blood was analyzed after all tests, since lactate is the end-product of anaerobic energy production. Therefore, the peak lactate response is an additional indication of anaerobic capacity. A preliminary comparison of the GUTS and the DSO608 suggests that the GUTS protocol would increase the efficiency of VO2max testing of astronauts before and after flight. Results for anaerobic capacity have not been tabulated.

Rodgers, Sandra L.

1992-01-01

156

The Dinosaur Education Project: A Curriculum Model for Standards-Based Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This curriculum model represents an entire school district's attempt to use paleontology to implement standards-based education reforms. While most colleges do not have a dinosaur available for student and teacher use, the project provides a template for partnerships between colleges and local school districts. The curriculum can be adopted by teachers to institute standards-based classroom practice and by education professors to model standards-based pedagogy for pre-service teachers. Examples of curriculum activities are included.

Wixom, Jo

157

Dynamic Bilingualism as the Norm: Envisioning a Heteroglossic Approach to Standards-Based Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards-based reforms in many Anglophone nations have been informed by "monoglossic language ideologies" that marginalize the dynamic bilingualism of emergent bilinguals. Recent developments in applied linguistics that advocate for "heteroglossic language ideologies" offer an alternative for standards-based reform. This…

Flores, Nelson; Schissel, Jamie L.

2014-01-01

158

Peers Add a Potent Perspective: Vermont Teachers Combine Forces to Create Standards-Based Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the peer review process in Vermont. Teachers across the state learned lessons of their own in creating standards-based units based on a checklist of criteria and a scorecard. Developing and critiquing lessons helped teachers make connections, internalize, and apply the tenets of high-quality, standards-based classroom…

Carr, Judy F.

2005-01-01

159

Parents' and Teachers' Perceptions of Standards-Based and Traditional Report Cards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine parents' and teachers' perceptions of standards-based and traditional report cards. Participants included 115 parents/guardians of students from a single, midsize school district that had implemented a standards-based report card. During the first two marking periods, all parents/guardians…

Swan, Gerry M.; Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

2014-01-01

160

Enhanced Access to Earth Science Data through Standards-based Web Services and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) at NASA Ames Research Center's Ecological Forecasting Lab generates a suite of gridded data products in near real-time that are designed to enhance management decisions related to floods, droughts, forest fires, human health, as well as crop, range, and forest production. Derived from the synthesis of satellite imagery, ground observations, and specialized ecosystem models, our data products hold great potential for supporting research and practical applications across a wide range of disciplines. In order to provide enhanced access to our data and to promote multidisciplinary collaboration we implement standards-based web services. We serve TOPS data conforming to the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP) which allows subsetting and distribution of large HDF or NetCDF datasets, complete with standards-based metadata. Additionally, we implement a standard Web Map Service (WMS) for visualization of geospatial data. To further extend the use of our data to a wider audience we build upon these web services to develop browser-based visualization and analysis tools. We use Asynchronous Javascript and XML (AJAX) techniques to build interactive web applications leveraging our web services. For example, our WMS provides the map image tiles used in our mapping client. Users can click on the map to query TOPS datasets and regional summaries via OPeNDAP, producing time-series charts allowing temporal analysis of environmental trends and associated phenomena. We present the TOPS Data Gateway and its components, highlighting how the use of open protocols and standards provides improved data access for our clients and research partners, encouraging data interoperability and multidisciplinary collaboration.

Hiatt, S. H.; Hashimoto, H.; Melton, F. S.; Michaelis, A.; Milesi, C.; Nemani, R. R.; Votava, P.; Wang, W.

2009-12-01

161

Two RFID standard-based security protocols for healthcare environments.  

PubMed

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in access control, transportation, real-time inventory and asset management, automated payment systems, etc. Nevertheless, the use of this technology is almost unexplored in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, asset traceability and drug administration systems, to mention just a few. RFID technology can offer more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before its adoption. This is even more dramatical in healthcare applications where very sensitive information is at stake and patient safety is paramount. In Wu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 37:19, 43) recently proposed a new RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments. In this paper we show that this protocol puts location privacy of tag holders at risk, which is a matter of gravest concern and ruins the security of this proposal. To facilitate the implementation of secure RFID-based solutions in the medical sector, we suggest two new applications (authentication and secure messaging) and propose solutions that, in contrast to previous proposals in this field, are fully based on ISO Standards and NIST Security Recommendations. PMID:23949845

Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Bagheri, Nasour; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

2013-10-01

162

Managing Marginal School Employees: Applying Standards-Based Performance Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains a collection of case studies that provide a variety of situations in managing or working with marginal employees in a school system. Managing Marginal School Employees will serve as a primary or companion text for administrator candidates or current administrators that include dilemmas for the student to think about, discuss,…

Fields, Lynette; Reck, Brianne; Egley, Robert

2006-01-01

163

Strategic Plan for Standards-Based Reform. Report of Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the expectations, mission, guiding principles, standards, assessments, and time line for standards implementation for the state of Hawai'i. Implementation was scheduled for completion by August 2000. A technical reference matrix tracks the development of the assessment and accountability system. The completion of specific…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of the Superintendent.

164

Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Any practical WSN deployment must contend with a number of difficulties in its radio frequency (RF) environment. Multi-path reflections can distort signals, limit data rates, and cause signal fades that prevent nodes from having clear access to channels, especially in a closed environment such as a spacecraft. Other RF signal sources, such as wireless internet, voice, and data systems may contend with the sensor nodes for bandwidth. Finally, RF noise from electrical systems and periodic scattering from moving objects such as crew members will all combine to give an incredibly unpredictable, time-varying communication environment.

Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.

2009-01-01

165

Impact of Writing Interventions Informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics with a Focus on Tenor, on Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This action research study examines the impact instruction informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) with a particular focus on tenor and socio-cultural theory has on sixth, seventh and eighth grade English language learners in an urban school. Over the course of seven and 1/2 months I used Systemic Functional Linguistics with a focus on…

Holmgren, Katherine Hayes

2012-01-01

166

[Auricular acupuncture for primary insomnia: a systematic review based on GRADE system].  

PubMed

The clinical efficacy and safety of auricular acupuncture (AA) for treatment of primary insomnia was evaluated. After a comprehensive retrieval in domestic and foreign databases, literatures were strictly screened and Revman 5.2 software was applied to perform a Meta-analysis on eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The evidence quality was assessed with GRADE profiler 3.6 software. As a result, 8 articles were included involving 894 patients. Compared among AA and sham AA, placebo AA, blank control, there was significant difference in Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) [WMD = -3.48, 95% CI (-3.96, -3.00)], sleep latency LWMD = -10.14, 95% CI (-17.16, -3.12)] and sleep awakening times [WMD = -9.98, 95% CI (-1.10,-0.48)]. Compared between AA and western medication, there was significant difference in PSQI [WMD = -3.62, 95% CI (-4.59, -2.65)]. The evidence quality was moderate in AA vs. sham AA, placebo AA or blank control, while that of the rest was extremely low. No reports of adverse events were described in all studies. In conclusion, for the treatment of primary insomnia, AA could effectively improve sleep quality, but due to the low evidence quality, cautious attitude should be taken on this conclusion, and clinical trials with large sample and high quality were needed in the further. PMID:25233674

Tan, Hui-Juan; Lan, Ying; Wu, Fu-Sheng; Zhang, Han-Dan; Wu, Li; Wu, Xi; Liang, Fan-Rong

2014-07-01

167

Educational Product Educators Grades 58  

E-print Network

to a letter from a very frustrated third-grade student requesting help with an unwanted assignment aboutEducational Product Educators Grades 5­8 CLOUDS Investigating the Climate System CLOUDS of the series"Investigating the Climate System."The series includes five modules: Clouds, Energy, Precipitation,Weather

Waliser, Duane E.

168

Combined lowering of low grade systemic inflammation and insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome patients treated with Ginkgo biloba.  

PubMed

In a clinical pilot study with eleven metabolic syndrome patients, a simultaneous decrease in hs-CRP from 8.85 ± 4.09 to 4.92 ± 2.51 mg/L (-44.4%) (p < 0.0436) and HOMA-IR from 3.07 ± 0.63 to 2.60 ± 0.51mU/L × mg/dL (-15.3%) (p < 0.0120) as well as a beneficial change of arteriosclerotic, inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers were detected after 2-month treatment with Ginkgo biloba. Furthermore, both IL-6 (-12.9%, p < 0.0407) and nanoplaque formation (-14.3%, p < 0.0077) were additionally reduced. According to a large clinical trial elucidating the importance of insulin resistance and low-grade systemic inflammation for cardiovascular disease and overall mortality risk, these data might indicate a CVD/total mortality risk reduction. PMID:25463092

Siegel, G; Ermilov, E; Knes, O; Rodríguez, M

2014-12-01

169

Teaching Middle School Physical Education: A Standards-Based Approach for Grades 5-8. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book provides a blueprint for developing environment, curriculum, instruction, and assessment based on high quality physical education guidelines. There are 17 chapters in four parts. Part 1, "Prepare for Your Journey," includes (1) "Physical Education in a Changing World"; (2) "Reform Efforts in the Middle School"; (3) "The Role of Physical…

Mohnsen, Bonnie S.

170

Prom Night in Mississippi: A Teacher's Guide with Standards-Based Lessons for Grades 7 and up  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When Morris Dees was a young man in Alabama, the law said that black people couldn't drink from the same water fountain as white people, or sit at the same lunch counter. Back then, the government created and sanctioned divisions between human beings. The Civil Rights Movement changed all of that, of course, and ended state-mandated apartheid in…

Holladay, Jennifer

2009-01-01

171

Motion Imagery and Robotics Application (MIRA): Standards-Based Robotics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This technology development originated from the need to assess the debris threat resulting from soil material erosion induced by landing spacecraft rocket plume impingement on extraterrestrial planetary surfaces. The impact of soil debris was observed to be highly detrimental during NASA s Apollo lunar missions and will pose a threat for any future landings on the Moon, Mars, and other exploration targets. The innovation developed under this program provides a simulation tool that combines modeling of the diverse disciplines of rocket plume impingement gas dynamics, granular soil material liberation, and soil debris particle kinetics into one unified simulation system. The Unified Flow Solver (UFS) developed by CFDRC enabled the efficient, seamless simulation of mixed continuum and rarefied rocket plume flow utilizing a novel direct numerical simulation technique of the Boltzmann gas dynamics equation. The characteristics of the soil granular material response and modeling of the erosion and liberation processes were enabled through novel first principle-based granular mechanics models developed by the University of Florida specifically for the highly irregularly shaped and cohesive lunar regolith material. These tools were integrated into a unique simulation system that accounts for all relevant physics aspects: (1) Modeling of spacecraft rocket plume impingement flow under lunar vacuum environment resulting in a mixed continuum and rarefied flow; (2) Modeling of lunar soil characteristics to capture soil-specific effects of particle size and shape composition, soil layer cohesion and granular flow physics; and (3) Accurate tracking of soil-borne debris particles beginning with aerodynamically driven motion inside the plume to purely ballistic motion in lunar far field conditions.

Martinez, Lindolfo; Rich, Thomas; Lucord, Steven; Diegelman, Thomas; Mireles, James; Gonzalez, Pete

2012-01-01

172

Grading Congestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students construct a model roadway with congestion and apply their knowledge of level of service (LOS) to assign a grade to the road conditions. The roadway is simply a track outlined with cones or ropes with a few students walking around it to mimic congestion. The remaining students employ both techniques of density and flow to classify the LOS of the track.

STARS GK-12 Program,

173

Integrable dynamical systems with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities related to graded Lie algebras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Practical implementation of two important methods of constructing integrable dynamical systems, the Lax pair method and the Adler-Konstant-Symes theorem, is studied. General considerations are illustrated by several examples that contain multiwave interaction systems and interacting Garnier systems as particular cases.

Jiang, Zhuhan; Rauch-Wojciechowski, S.

1991-07-01

174

Towards a quantum resistance standard based on epitaxial graphene.  

PubMed

The quantum Hall effect allows the international standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the electron charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of R(K) = h/e(2) = 25,812.807557(18) Omega, the resistance quantum. Despite 30 years of research into the quantum Hall effect, the level of precision necessary for metrology--a few parts per billion--has been achieved only in silicon and iii-v heterostructure devices. Graphene should, in principle, be an ideal material for a quantum resistance standard, because it is inherently two-dimensional and its discrete electron energy levels in a magnetic field (the Landau levels) are widely spaced. However, the precisions demonstrated so far have been lower than one part per million. Here, we report a quantum Hall resistance quantization accuracy of three parts per billion in monolayer epitaxial graphene at 300 mK, four orders of magnitude better than previously reported. Moreover, by demonstrating the structural integrity and uniformity of graphene over hundreds of micrometres, as well as reproducible mobility and carrier concentrations across a half-centimetre wafer, these results boost the prospects of using epitaxial graphene in applications beyond quantum metrology. PMID:20081845

Tzalenchuk, Alexander; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kalaboukhov, Alexei; Paolillo, Sara; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Yakimova, Rositza; Kazakova, Olga; Janssen, T J B M; Fal'ko, Vladimir; Kubatkin, Sergey

2010-03-01

175

Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standby Power System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

PFP's Standby Power System consists of the diesel generators, the generator control system, Rm 308 UPS, switchgear batteries, and the electrical equipment used to distribute this power. Due to the nature of the equipment and its use throughout general industry, the majority of the system falls within the CGI definition HNF-PRO-268, ''Control of Purchased Items and Services'' and HNF-PRO-1819, ''PHMC Engineering Requirements'' require that the critical characteristics of CGI-procured equipment be established in an engineering document prior to placing the order. HNF-5043 established these critical characteristics for the Standby Power System. This modification adds several items to the document.

DEHKORDI, N.H.

2000-04-12

176

Digital image analysis in the design and implementation of a visual inspection system for fruit grading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automated vision system to classify fruits according to the visual characteristics of the surface like: size, color, shape, texture and external defects content and distribution is described. The system works with wide range characteristics of citrus that are classified by means of an artificial neural network.

Pencue Fierro, L.; Patino Velasco, M.; Zambrano Velasco, C.; Leon-Tellez, Jaury

2004-10-01

177

Special Automotive Repair Service Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Vehicle Emission Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum is intended to serve as a guide for high school instructors teaching a basic course on emission control systems on General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler products. The material may also be incorporated on an engine system basis and inserted into an overall tune-up curriculum. Other uses of the curriculum include specialized training…

Gubbins Associates, Hadlyme, CT.

178

Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO): Exploration Begins Here [Grades 5-8  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school students of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

Hill, Trudy

2012-01-01

179

Additive manufacturing of graded dielectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the fabrication of graded dielectrics within a structural composite is presented. This system employs an ultrasonic powder deposition head to print high dielectric powders onto a woven fabric composite substrate. It is shown how this system can integrate 3D variations of dielectric properties at millimeter resolution within a mechanically rugged substrate. To conclude, the system’s practical application is demonstrated with experimental results from a graded index lens.

Roper, David A.; Good, Brandon L.; McCauley, Raymond; Yarlagadda, Shridhar; Smith, Jared; Good, Austin; Pa, Peter; Mirotznik, Mark S.

2014-04-01

180

78 FR 16414 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings AGENCY: Federal...or other unsafe condition at highway-rail and pathway grade crossings. This document...implements Section 205 (Sec. 205) of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008...

2013-03-15

181

Flat-plate solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The engineering design, fabrication, assembly, operation, economic analysis, and process support research and development for an Experimental Process System Development Unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the slane-to-silicon process are reported. The design activity was completed. About 95% of purchased equipment was received. The draft of the operations manual was about 50% complete and the design of the free-space system continued. The system using silicon power transfer, melting, and shotting on a psuedocontinuous basis was demonstrated.

1981-01-01

182

ARITHMETIC, GRADE FIVE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

FIFTH GRADE WORK SHOULD CONTINUE THE SEQUENTIAL DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL UNDERSTANDINGS AND COMPUTATIONAL SKILLS. THE PROBLEMS APPROACH SHOULD BE USED SO CHILDREN MAY DISCOVER MATHEMATICAL TRUTHS AND ARRIVE AT GENERALIZATIONS. THE NUMBER SYSTEM UNIT SHOULD EMPHASIZE THE ABILITY TO READ AND WRITE NUMERALS TO SIX PLACES AND THE ABILITY TO READ…

GARBER, CLAIRE N.

183

Graded Hilbert C*-modules  

SciTech Connect

The notion of Hilbert C*-modules graded by a semilattice was first introduced in the study of many-body systems. We show the relationship between these Hilbert C*-modules and their homogeneous subspaces. We study the stability of graded Hilbert C*-modules under tensor products and crossed products.

Wang, Chunxiang, E-mail: wangcx1986@126.com [Institute of Mathematics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)] [Institute of Mathematics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

2014-02-15

184

Grading Practices: The Third Rail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Social Security funds are in decline and no solution is evident, few politicians have the temerity to try to change the system. Why? Because Social Security is the third rail in politics: if one touches it, he or she will die. The field of education has an issue that is equally as lethal: grading. Grading is one of the most private…

Erickson, Jeffrey A.

2010-01-01

185

The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas  

E-print Network

, there are numerous opportunities for using reclaimed energy in the form of hot water such as paint systems, forge furnace make-up air, space heating, boiler feed water and other process water heating systems. Deere's energy management team analysed each... of these opportunities and selected two. The primary "heat sink" chosen was space heating and make-up air tempering for "H" building, a 38,000 square foot machine shop located 500 feet from the steam plant. Preheating of cold city water in the boiler feedwater...

Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

1983-01-01

186

The Relative Merits of Two Methodologies of Teaching the Metric System to Seventh Grade Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether instruction with or without simultaneous conversion to English measures is more effective in improving the ability of students to perform tasks in the metric system. Also investigated was the relationship of mathematical problem solving ability and sex to the ability of students to perform such tasks. Six seventh…

McFee, Evan Earl

187

Overview of Our Political System, Grade Eight. Resource Unit (Unit I).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource unit, developed by the University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies, introduces eighth graders to an overview of the American political system. The unit analyzes political conflict, compromise, and the need for government and law. It examines American political ideals and contrasts them briefly with other political ideologies and…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

188

Reversing Platinum Resistance in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma: Targeting BRCA and the Homologous Recombination System  

PubMed Central

Resistance to platinum chemotherapy is one of the main factors driving ovarian cancer mortality, and overcoming platinum resistance is considered one of the greatest challenges in ovarian cancer research. Genetic and functional evidence points to the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair system, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 in particular, as main determinants of response to platinum therapy. BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers are especially sensitive to platinum, associated with better survival, and amenable to poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor treatment. Here, we discuss a therapeutic concept that seeks to disrupt HR capacity via targeting of BRCA1 and BRCA2 functionality in order to reverse platinum resistance in BRCA-proficient high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC). We review the molecular signaling pathways that converge on BRCA1 and BRCA2, their activation status in ovarian cancer, and therapeutic options to modulate BRCA function. Several recent publications demonstrate efficient chemosensitization of BRCA-proficient cancers by combining targeted therapy with standard platinum-based agents. Due to its inherent genomic heterogeneity, molecularly defined subgroups of HGSOC may require different approaches. We seek to provide an overview of available agents and their potential use to reverse platinum resistance by inhibiting the HR system, either directly or indirectly, by targeting oncogenic activators of HR. PMID:24624361

Wiedemeyer, W. Ruprecht; Beach, Jessica A.; Karlan, Beth Y.

2014-01-01

189

Follicular lymphoma grade 3: review and updates.  

PubMed

Follicular lymphoma (FL), Grade 3, is recognized as a distinct entity in the World Health Organization classification of lymphoma. It is further classified into Grade 3a and Grade 3b depending on the Bernard cell counting system and percentage of centroblasts. Grade 3 has molecular and genetic characteristics that distinguish it from other grades of FL. There is confusion and misunderstanding about the natural history and clinical course of Grade 3a and 3b because some studies indicate them as having indolent behavior and others describe more aggressive biology. The purpose of this article is to understand the concept of Grade 3 FL, especially the fundamental differences between Grade 3a and Grade 3b FL. Grade 3 FL is still an evolving subclass in FL and the practicing physician should understand the aggressive nature of Grade 3b, which typically requires timely attention, compared with Grade 3a. Grade 3a FL has more indolent characteristics but can possibly progress to Grade 3b and/or transform to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at a future time. Nevertheless, large prospective studies are missing for an optimal evidence-based management approach for patients with Grade 3 FL at this time. PMID:25066038

Vaidyanathan, Gayatri; Czuczman, Myron S

2014-12-01

190

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes progress, experiments, and results for a project to develop a pipeline inline inspection tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). There is a brief introduction that gives background material about EMATs and relevant previous Tuboscope work toward a tool. This work left various choices about the modes and transducers for this project. The experimental section then describes the lab systems, improvements to these systems, and setups and techniques to narrow the choices. Improvements, which involved transducer matching networks, better magnetic biasing, and lower noise electronics, led to improved signal to noise (SNR) levels. The setups permitted transducer characterizations and interaction measurements in plates with man-made cracks, pipeline sections with SCC, and a full pipe with SCC. The latter were done with a moveable and compact EMAT setup, called a lab mouse, which is detailed. Next, the results section justifies the mode and transducer choices. These were for magnetostrictive EMATs and the use of EMAT launched modes: SH0 (at 2.1 MHz-mm) and SV1 (at 3.9 MHz-mm). This section then gives details of measurements on these modes. The measurements consisted of signal to noise ratio, insertion loss, magnetic biasing sensitivities crack reflection and transmission coefficients, beam width, standoff and tilt sensitivities. For most of the measurements the section presents analysis curves, such as reflection coefficient versus crack depth. Some notable results for the chosen modes are: that acceptable SNRs were generated in a pipe with magnetostrictive EMATs, that optimum bias for magnetostrictive transmitters and receivers is magnetic saturation, that crack reflection and transmission coefficients from crack interactions agree with 2 D simulations and seem workable for crack grading, and that the mouse has good waveform quality and so is ready for exhaustive measurement EMAT scans of SCC interactions. This section also reviews further coil optimization and implementation requirements. These involve transmitter and receiver power, acquisition parameters, and magnetic configuration. At this time all these seem reasonable for an ILI tool.

Jeff Aron; Jon Gore, Roger Dalton; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Owen Thomas; Tim Jarman

2003-07-01

191

Industry-Grade Seismic Processing System for Controlled- (and Passive-) Source Research in Seismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open-source seismic processing provides flexibility, functionality and value that are not found in commercial packages. A seismic processing system called SIA, initially developed at the University of Wyoming and continued at the University of Saskatchewan, represents one of the most extensive efforts to integrate the flexibility of academic seismic data analysis with polish and performance of a commercial processor. At present, SIA offers capabilities for nearly complete reflection processing, combined with built-in support for multicomponent, variable-format seismic data, extensive database capabilities, input/output in several data formats accepted in exploration and earthquake seismology (e.g., SEG-Y, SEG-2, Seismic UNIX, PASSCAL-SEGY, GSE3.0, SAC), original inversion codes (e.g., 2-D and 3-D reflection and receiver function migration, genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks), software and documentation maintenance, and interfaces to popular packages such as Datascope, GMT, rayinvr, reflectivity, and Seismic UNIX. Recently, we included in the system a modern graphical user interface (GUI) based on the open-source, platform-independent QT technology by TrollTech. The interface organizes project data while hiding the system structure from the user and generally resembles that of ProMAX (by Landmark Graphics). Nearly 200 tools are arranged into packages (e.g., reflection, travel-time, earthquake data processing, or graphics), and processing flows are constructed by dragging these tools and dropping them in the flows. Multiple processing flows may be opened simultaneously allowing the user to edit and execute concurrent jobs. Context-sensitive help can be accessed through the interface, in addition to the full HTML documentation automatically generated by the system. Context-dependent color highlighting is used to improve readability of the parameters. Processing jobs are submitted through the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) which allows multiple processes to be initiated and controlled from a single interface. Jobs may be executed either locally or on a single or multiple remote systems in a heterogeneous computing environment. The GUI includes tools for run-time control of both local and remote processes.. The GUI also includes provisions for cluster scheduling, allowing processes to be executed on Beowulf clusters. Depending on their design, individual tools or flows can be parallelized using either PVM or MPI (Message Passing Interface). With the decentralized processing concept implemented in SIA, grid computing and seamless data exchange could become a reality without any effort from the users. In passive-source work, which is quickly adopting reflection processing techniques, this industry-style processing could provide sophisticated, inexpensive, and high performance approaches to data retrieval and access to hundreds of signal enhancement tools developed in reflection seismics.

Chubak, G.; Morozov, I.

2004-05-01

192

Online evaluation of a commercial video image analysis system (Computer Vision System) to predict beef carcass red meat yield and for augmenting the assignment of USDA yield grades. United States Department of Agriculture.  

PubMed

Objective quantification of differences in wholesale cut yields of beef carcasses at plant chain speeds is important for the application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of a commercial video image analysis system, the Computer Vision System (CVS) to 1) predict commercially fabricated beef subprimal yield and 2) augment USDA yield grading, in order to improve accuracy of grade assessment. The CVS was evaluated as a fully installed production system, operating on a full-time basis at chain speeds. Steer and heifer carcasses (n = 296) were evaluated using CVS, as well as by USDA expert and online graders, before the fabrication of carcasses into industry-standard subprimal cuts. Expert yield grade (YG), online YG, CVS estimated carcass yield, and CVS measured ribeye area in conjunction with expert grader estimates of the remaining YG factors (adjusted fat thickness, percentage of kidney-pelvic-heart fat, hot carcass weight) accounted for 67, 39, 64, and 65% of the observed variation in fabricated yields of closely trimmed subprimals. The dual component CVS predicted wholesale cut yields more accurately than current online yield grading, and, in an augmentation system, CVS ribeye measurement replaced estimated ribeye area in determination of USDA yield grade, and the accuracy of cutability prediction was improved, under packing plant conditions and speeds, to a level close to that of expert graders applying grades at a comfortable rate of speed offline. PMID:12019606

Cannell, R C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Chapman, P L; Scanga, J A; Smith, G C

2002-05-01

193

Zebrafish as a model system for environmental health studies in the grade 9-12 classroom.  

PubMed

Developing zebrafish embryos were used as a model system for high school students to conduct scientific investigations that reveal features of normal development and to test how different environmental toxicants impact the developmental process. The primary goal of the module was to engage students from a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds, with particular focus on underserved inner-city high schools, in inquiry-based learning and hands-on experimentation. In addition, the module served as a platform for both teachers and students to design additional inquiry-based experiments. In this module, students spawned adult zebrafish to generate developing embryos, exposed the embryos to various toxicants, then gathered, and analyzed data obtained from control and experimental embryos. The module provided a flexible, experimental framework for students to test the effects of numerous environmental toxicants, such as ethanol, caffeine, and nicotine, on the development of a model vertebrate organism. Students also observed the effects of dose on experimental outcomes. From observations of the effects of the chemical agents on vertebrate embryos, students drew conclusions on how these chemicals could impact human development and health. Results of pre-tests and post-tests completed by participating students indicate statistically significant changes in awareness of the impact of environmental agents on fish and human beings In addition, the program's evaluator concluded that participation in the module resulted in significant changes in the attitude of students and teachers toward science in general and environmental health in particular. PMID:24941301

Tomasiewicz, Henry G; Hesselbach, Renee; Carvan, Michael John; Goldberg, Barbara; Berg, Craig A; Petering, David H

2014-08-01

194

Low-grade systemic inflammation connects aging, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Aging is associated with immunosenescence and accompanied by a chronic inflammatory state which contributes to metabolic syndrome, diabetes and their cardiovascular consequences. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes overlap, leading to the hypothesis that both share an inflammatory basis. Obesity is increased in the elderly population, and adipose tissue induces a state of systemic inflammation partially induced by adipokines. The liver plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of nutrients and exhibits alterations in the expression of genes associated with inflammation, cellular stress and fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis and its related inflammatory state (steatohepatitis) are the main hepatic complications of obesity and metabolic diseases. Aging-linked declines in expression and activity of endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones and folding enzymes compromise proper protein folding and the adaptive response of the unfolded protein response. These changes predispose aged individuals to CVDs. CVDs and endothelial dysfunction are characterized by a chronic alteration of inflammatory function and markers of inflammation and the innate immune response, including C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, TNF-?, and several cell adhesion molecules are linked to the occurrence of myocardial infarction and stroke in healthy elderly populations and patients with metabolic diseases. PMID:25341516

Guarner, Verónica; Rubio-Ruiz, Maria Esther

2015-01-01

195

Applying open source data visualization tools to standard based medical data.  

PubMed

Presentation of medical data in personal health records (PHRs) requires flexible platform independent tools to ensure easy access to the information. Different backgrounds of the patients, especially elder people require simple graphical presentation of the data. Data in PHRs can be collected from heterogeneous sources. Application of standard based medical data allows development of generic visualization methods. Focusing on the deployment of Open Source Tools, in this paper we applied Java Script libraries to create data presentations for standard based medical data. PMID:24851981

Kopanitsa, Georgy; Taranik, Maxim

2014-01-01

196

Image analysis and grading of prostate adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multitude of grading systems proposed for prostate adenocarcinoma illustrate the putative value of tumor grading as a predictor of prognosis. However, it also indicates the uncertainty and subjectivity of visual grading, as is confirmed by the results of several studies. Recent computer techniques enable fast image processing of microscoping images. Hence, a quantitative assessment of cellular and nuclear features

H. G. van der Poel; J. A. Schalken; F. M. J. Debruyne

1991-01-01

197

7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Identity and Grades...S. Fancy”) is the quality of canned red tart pitted cherries that have at least...system outlined in this subpart. Canned red tart pitted cherries of this grade...

2014-01-01

198

Prospective evaluation of complications using the modified Clavien grading system, and of success rates of percutaneous nephrolithotomy using Guy's Stone Score: A single-center experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Objectives: To prospectively document the perioperative complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) using the modified Clavien grading system. Evaluation of complications and clearance rates according to stone complexity using the validated Guy's Stone Score (GSS) was also done. Materials and Methods: A total of 221 renal units underwent 278 PCNL procedures at a urology resident training center between September 2010 and September 2011 and data were recorded prospectively in our registry. Patients with co-morbidities like diabetes, renal failure, hypertension and cardiopulmonary diseases were excluded. Stone complexity was classified according to the GSS while peri-operative complications were recorded using the modified Clavien grading system. Results: Two hundred and forty-five complications were encountered in 278 PCNL procedures involving 116 renal units (41.72%). Complications of Grades 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b and 5 were seen in 52 (18.7%), 122 (43.8%), 42 (15.1%), 18 (6.4%), 6 (2.1%), 4 (1.4%) and 1 (0.3%) renal units respectively. There were 68, 98, 50 and 5 renal units in GSS I, II, III and IV groups, respectively. All grades of complications were more common in GSS III and IV (P<0.05). For GSS I, II, III and IV 100%, 74%, 56% and 0% of renal units, respectively, were stone-free after one session and 0%, 24%, 44% and 60% respectively needed two sessions to be stone-free. Conclusion: Although the complication rates were higher most were of low grade and self-limiting. Complications were significantly more common with higher GSS and the GSS effectively predicted stone-free rates. PMID:23450640

Mandal, Swarnendu; Goel, Apul; Kathpalia, Rohit; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Singh, Vishwajeet; Sinha, Rahul J.; Singh, Bhupender P.; Dalela, Divakar

2012-01-01

199

State of Nebraska Reading Comprehension/Vocabulary Test and the Local American Literature Criterion-Referenced Test for Public School Eleventh Grade Students: A Correlational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the effectiveness of standards-based testing and was designed to determine the relationship of student scores on the locally constructed, standards-based, criterion-referenced test (CRT) for approximately 280 eleventh grade students at a Midwestern, Class III district, operating a Class A high school, and the scores of those…

Beckmann, Priscilla A.

2010-01-01

200

Guidelines for Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to assist community college instructors in the difficult task of grading students, this seven-part guidebook provides philosophical, theoretical and practical advice. Section I covers common problems associated with grading, the need for grades, and the link between grades and subsequent performance. Section II, "Limitations of Grades,"…

Rubadeau, Duane O.; Rubadeau, Ronald J.

201

Institution Credits Grade  

E-print Network

Institution Foreign Credits ECTS Credits US Credits Grade Grade Conversion University of Neveda - Reno US credits and grades Study Abroad Conversion USAC #12;(Agrentina) Institution Foreign Credits ECTS Credits US Credits Grade Grade Conversion Universidad Catolica Agrentina 4 4.2 10 - Sobresaliente

Duchowski, Andrew T.

202

Envisioning a Standards-Based Methods Course: Preparing Second Language Educators for the 21st Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper envisions what a standards-based second language methods course might look like. In exploring the possibilities, the paper describes a current model for preservice training, generalizations gleaned from a study of a second language methods syllabi archive, and an analysis of and reflection upon a particular second language methods…

Bueno, Kathleen

2000-01-01

203

Tackling the Loss of Control: Standards-based Conjoint Management of Security Requirements for Cloud Services  

E-print Network

Tackling the Loss of Control: Standards-based Conjoint Management of Security Requirements manage security requirements for a Cloud service following the ISO 27001 standard for infor- mation security management. We have developed a security management platform that provides tool support

Schneider, Jean-Guy

204

EconoGrid: A detailed Simulation Model of a Standards-based Grid Compute Economy  

E-print Network

EconoGrid: A detailed Simulation Model of a Standards-based Grid Compute Economy EconoGrid is a detailed simulation model, implemented in SLX1 , of a grid compute economy that implements selected of users. In a grid compute economy, computing resources are sold to users in a market where price

205

Healing the "Unhealthy Native": Encounters with Standards-Based Education in Rural Alaska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A qualitative study examined a rural Alaskan school district's standards-based reform in the sociohistorical context of Alaska Native education. Observations and interviews with 32 district staff members indicate that the district had recast the historical "civilization-savagism" paradigm as an "unhealthy Native" construct to explain Native…

Jester, Timothy E.

2002-01-01

206

Helping Students with Disabilities Participate in Standards-Based Mathematics Curriculum. ERIC/OSEP Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest discusses how selected researchers are informing practice in four key areas relating to the participation of students with disabilities in standards-based mathematics curriculum. The first area focuses on enhancing students' understanding of mathematics and emphasizes the need to make math meaningful for students with disabilities. The…

Warger, Cynthia

207

Leandro: The Merging of Adequacy and Standards-Based Reforms. SERVE Policy Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This policy brief addresses the first two rulings of the North Carolina lawsuit on the state constitutional right to education, commonly referred to as "Leandro." The "Leandro" Supreme Court opinion and subsequent court rulings add a model of adequacy that dovetails almost perfectly with standards-based education reform. Model elements include:…

McColl, Ann

208

Performance Assessment of a Standards-based High School Biology Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study that compares an introductory high school biology curriculum, Biology: A Community Context (BACC), with traditional curricula. Discusses the differences between standards-based BACC and traditional instruction. Identifies the instructional method in BACC as investigative inquiry and the activities proceed from concrete to more…

Leonard, William H.; Speziale, Barbara J.; Penick, John E.

2001-01-01

209

The Social Organization of School Counseling in the Era of Standards-Based Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reform policies of standards-based accountability, as outlined in NCLB, impede the functioning of school counseling programs and the delivery of services to students. Although recent studies have focused on the transformation of the school counseling profession, a gap exists in the literature with regard to how the experiences of school…

Dorsey, Alexander C.

2011-01-01

210

The Impact of Standards-Based Reform: Applying Brantlinger's Critique of "Hierarchical Ideologies"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brantlinger's [2004b. "Ideologies Discerned, Values Determined: Getting past the Hierarchies of Special Education." In "Ideology and the Politics of (in)Exclusion," edited by L. Ware, 11-31. New York: Peter Lang Publishing] critique of hierarchical ideologies lays bare the logics embedded in standards-based reform. Drawing…

Bacon, Jessica; Ferri, Beth

2013-01-01

211

Low cost solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using silane-to-silicon process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and installation of an experimental process system development unit (EPSDU) were analyzed. Supporting research and development were performed to provide an information data base usable for the EPSDU and for technological design and economical analysis for potential scale-up of the process. Iterative economic analyses were conducted for the estimated product cost for the production of semiconductor grade silicon in a facility capable of producing 1000-MT/Yr.

1980-01-01

212

Flat-plate solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process technology for the manufacture of semiconductor-grade silicon in a large commercial plant by 1986, at a price less than $14 per kilogram of silicon based on 1975 dollars is discussed. The engineering design, installation, checkout, and operation of an Experimental Process System Development unit was discussed. Quality control of scaling-up the process and an economic analysis of product and production costs are discussed.

1983-01-01

213

Increasing On-Task Behavior in Every Student in a Second-Grade Classroom during Transitions: Validating the Color Wheel System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A single-case (B-C-B-C) experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel classroom management system (CWS) on on-task (OT) behavior in an intact, general-education, 2nd-grade classroom during transitions. The CWS included three sets of rules, posted cues to indicate the rules students are expected to be following at that…

Fudge, Daniel L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Jacqueline L.; Cowden, Dan; Clark, Janice; Bliss, Stacy L.

2008-01-01

214

Effect of Thin Prep® imaging system on laboratory rate and relative sensitivity of atypical squamous cells, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion not excluded and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion interpretations  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Automated screening of Thin Prep® Papanicolaou Tests has become increasingly common in clinical practice. Increased productivity has initiated laboratory use of the Thin Prep® Imaging System (TIS). Increased sensitivity is a potential additional benefit of TIS. Published studies have shown an increase in discovery of dysplastic cells. This study evaluates the effect of TIS on the incidence of atypical squamous cells high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion not excluded (ASC-H) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) results on Thin Prep® Pap Tests by comparing TIS-assisted and manual screening findings and the diagnoses on subsequent follow-up in a screening population over a 1-year time period. Materials and Methods: A compilation of all ASC-H and HGSIL cases was prepared by conducting a computerized search over a 1-year period (7/06-6/07). The accumulated cases include Thin Prep Pap tests that were both TIS and manually screened. Follow-up results of cytologic and histologic cervical specimens were obtained for a time period extending to 2010. Interpretation utilizing TIS was in place 10 months prior to the study's initiation. Results: During the study period 70,522 Pap tests were performed in our laboratory. One third (33%) of Pap tests were screened with assistance of TIS. Manual screening was performed on 47,380 Pap tests of which 153 (0.32%) were interpreted as ASC-H and 164 (0.35%) were interpreted as HGSIL. During the same time period automated screening (TIS) was performed on 23,111 Pap tests. Interpretation of 62 (0.27%) cases provided an ASC-H result, while 71 (0.31%) were HGSIL. Follow-up cervical dysplasia by colposcopic biopsy and cone biopsy was distributed proportionally between TIS and manual screening for both ASC-H and HGSIL categories. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II/III) was identified on follow-up biopsy of 41% TIS cases and 45% manually screened cases for ASC-H. In the HGSIL subset 71% of TIS cases and 69% manually screened cases showed CIN II/III on follow-up. TIS was 26% less sensitive relative to manual screening for ASC-H cases and 3% less sensitive for HGSIL. Conclusion: The similar rate of detection using TIS with an equal percentage of histologic correlation for ASC-H and HGSIL lesions on follow-up histology suggests patients screened by the TIS method are being sent for appropriate follow-up surveillance and treatment. A high-grade or possible high-grade lesion is as likely to be detected by TIS as by a manual screen. The similarities in relative sensitivity and specificity in a direct comparison between manual and TIS screening methodologies indicate that TIS compared to manual screening does not affect detection in patients with high-grade cervical lesions. PMID:23599725

Koltz, Brooke R.; Russell, Donna K.; Lu, Naiji; Bonfiglio, Thomas A.; Varghese, Sharlin

2013-01-01

215

Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Patients with Hunt and Hess Grade 4 or 5: Treatment Using the Guglielmi Detachable Coil System  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients in poor clinical condition (Hunt and Hess grade 4 or 5) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have historically fared poorly and many often were excluded from aggressive treatment. Early aggressive surgical treatment of SAH can produce good-quality survival for a higher percentage of patients than previously reported. We assessed the outcome of patients with Hunt and Hess

Raymond U. Weir; Mary L. Marcellus; Huy M. Do; Gary K. Steinberg; Michael P. Marks

216

An Exercise in Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Hazard Ranking System: A Simulation. Grades 8-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The educational objective of this exercise is for students to use a risk assessment tool to evaluate a hazardous release site and for students in grades 8-12 to increase their experience with geology, aquifers, soils, land use, pollution, data analysis, and map concepts. Students use background information on hazardous materials, the Environmental…

HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

217

High-grade iron ore deposits of the Mesabi Range, Minnesota-product of a continental-scale proterozoic ground-water flow system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Mesabi Range along the north edge of the Paleoproterozoic Penokean orogen in northern Minnesota has produced 3.6 billion metric tons of ore since its discovery in 1890. Of that amount, 2.3 billion metric tons were extracted from hematite- or geothite-rich deposits generally referred to as 'high-grade' ores. The high-grade ores formed as the Biwabik Iron-Formation was oxidized, hydrated, and leached by solutions flowing along open faults and fractures. The source of the ore-forming solutions has been debated since it was first proposed that the ores were weathering products formed by descending meteoritic ground-water flowing in late Mesozoic time. Subsequently others believed that the ores were better explained by ascending solutions, possbily hydrothermal solutions of pre-Phanerzoic age. Neither Wolff nor Gruner could reconcile their observations with a reasonable source for the solutions. In this paper, I build on modern mapping of the Mesabi Range and mine-specific geologic observations summarized in the literature to propose a conceptual model in which the high-grade ores formed from ascending solutions that were part of continent-scale topographic or gravity-driven ground-water system. I propose that the ground-water system was active during the later stages of the development of a coupled fold and thrust belt and foreland basin that formed during the Penokean orogen.

Morey, G.B.

1999-01-01

218

Method and system using power modulation for maskless vapor deposition of spatially graded thin film and multilayer coatings with atomic-level precision and accuracy  

DOEpatents

A method and system for producing a film (preferably a thin film with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) on a flat or graded substrate (such as concave or convex optics), by sweeping the substrate across a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. In preferred embodiments, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. A user selects a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a predetermined desired thickness profile of the deposited film. The method relies on precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Folta, James Allen (Livermore, CA); Tan, Swie-In (San Jose, CA); Reiss, Ira (New City, NY)

2002-07-30

219

The transcriptomic profile of ovarian cancer grading  

PubMed Central

Ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of gynecological malignancy, with the serous subtype being the most commonly presented subtype. Recent studies have demonstrated that grade does not yield significant prognostic information, independent of TNM staging. As such, several different grading systems have been proposed to reveal morphological characteristics of these tumors, however each yield different results. To help address this issue, we performed a rigorous computational analysis to better understand the molecular differences that fundamentally explain the different grades and grading systems. mRNA abundance levels were analyzed across 334 total patients and their association with each grade and grading system were assessed. Few molecular differences were observed between grade 2 and 3 tumors when using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grading system, suggesting their molecular similarity. In contrast, grading by the Silverberg system reveals that grades 1–3 are molecularly equidistant from one another across a spectrum. Additionally, we have identified a few candidate genes with good prognostic information that could potentially be used for classifying cases with similar morphological appearances. PMID:25314936

Yao, Cindy Q; Nguyen, Francis; Haider, Syed; Starmans, Maud H W; Lambin, Philippe; Boutros, Paul C

2015-01-01

220

Performance Investigation of a Hospital-grade X-ray Tube-based Differential Phase-contrast Cone Beam CT System  

PubMed Central

Differential phase contrast technique could be the next breakthrough in the field of CT imaging. While traditional absorption-based X-ray CT imaging is inefficient at differentiating soft tissues, phase-contrast technique offers great advantage as being able to produce higher contrast images utilizing the phase information of objects. Our long term goal is to develop a gantry-based hospital-grade X-ray tube differential phase contrast cone-beam CT (DPC-CBCT) technology which is able to achieve higher contrast noise ratio (CNR) in soft tissue imaging without increasing the dose level. Based on the micro-focus system built last year, a bench-top hospital-grade X-ray tube DPC-CBCT system is designed and constructed. The DPC-CBCT system consists of an X-ray source, i.e. a hospital-grade X-ray tube and a source grating, a high-resolution detector, a rotating phantom holder, a phase grating and an analyzer grating. Three-dimensional (3-D) phase-coefficients are reconstructed, providing us with images enjoying higher CNR than, yet equivalent dose level to, a conventional CBCT scan. Three important aspects of the system are investigated: a) The The system’s performance in term of CNR of the reconstruction image with regard to dose levels, b) the impacts of different phase stepping schemes, i.e. 5 steps to 8 steps, in term of CNR on the reconstruction images, and c) the influence of magnification or position of the phantom on image quality, chiefly CNR. The investigations are accomplished via phantom study. PMID:24386537

Yu, Yang; Ning, Ruola; Cai, Weixing; Liu, Jiangkun; Conover, David

2012-01-01

221

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length and depth could be determined for deep enough cracks. Defect shadow and short length effects were apparent but may be taken into account. The SH0 scan was done with the mule prototype circuits and permanent magnet EMATs. These gave good enough results that this hardware and the processing techniques are very encouraging for use in a practical ILI tool.

Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

2005-02-01

222

Third Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for third grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, third grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

223

Eighth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for eighth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, eighth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

224

Sixth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for sixth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, sixth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

225

Fifth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fifth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fifth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

226

First Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for first grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, first grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

227

Seventh Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for seventh grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, seventh grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

228

Fourth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fourth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fourth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

229

Second Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for second grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, second grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

230

Optical frequency standard based on a two-photon transition in calcium  

E-print Network

A two-photon transition in laser-cooled and trapped calcium atoms is proposed as the atomic reference in an optical frequency standard. An efficient scheme for interrogation of the frequency standard is described, and the sensitivity of the clock transition to systematic effects is estimated. Frequency standards based on this transition could lead to compact and portable devices that are capable of rapidly averaging down to $< 10^{-16}$.

Vutha, Amar C

2015-01-01

231

Best Practices for Making Scientific Data Discoverable and Accessible through Integrated, Standards-Based Data Portals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists in the fields of hydrology, geophysics, and climatology are increasingly using the vast quantity of publicly-available data to address broadly-scoped scientific questions. For example, researchers studying contamination of nearshore waters could use a combination of radar indicated precipitation, modeled water currents, and various sources of in-situ monitoring data to predict water quality near a beach. In discovering, gathering, visualizing and analyzing potentially useful data sets, data portals have become invaluable tools. The most effective data portals often aggregate distributed data sets seamlessly and allow multiple avenues for accessing the underlying data, facilitated by the use of open standards. Additionally, adequate metadata are necessary for attribution, documentation of provenance and relating data sets to one another. Metadata also enable thematic, geospatial and temporal indexing of data sets and entities. Furthermore, effective portals make use of common vocabularies for scientific methods, units of measure, geologic features, chemical, and biological constituents as they allow investigators to correctly interpret and utilize data from external sources. One application that employs these principles is the National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) Data Portal (http://cida.usgs.gov/ngwmn), which makes groundwater data from distributed data providers available through a single, publicly accessible web application by mediating and aggregating native data exposed via web services on-the-fly into Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant service output. That output may be accessed either through the map-based user interface or through the aforementioned OGC web services. Furthermore, the Geo Data Portal (http://cida.usgs.gov/climate/gdp/), which is a system that provides users with data access, subsetting and geospatial processing of large and complex climate and land use data, exemplifies the application of International Standards Organization (ISO) metadata records to enhance data discovery for both human and machine interpretation. Lastly, the Water Quality Portal (http://www.waterqualitydata.us/) achieves interoperable dissemination of water quality data by referencing a vocabulary service for mapping constituents and methods between the USGS and USEPA. The NGWMN Data Portal, Geo Data Portal and Water Quality Portal are three examples of best practices when implementing data portals that provide distributed scientific data in an integrated, standards-based approach.

Lucido, J. M.

2013-12-01

232

Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and noncognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades and undermines their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge…

Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

2013-01-01

233

Machine Vision Grading of Pistachio Nuts Using Fourier Descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A machine vision system was used to classify pistachio nuts into four grades designated as “Grade 1”, “Grade 2”, “Grade 3” and “unsplit”, respectively. Fourier descriptors and the projected area (pixel count) of the individual nuts were extracted from their two-dimensional images and used as recognition features. The Fisher criterion for feature selection was used in conjunction with the Gaussian

A. Ghazanfari; J. Irudayaraj; A. Kusalik; M. Romaniuk

1997-01-01

234

The formation of high-grade ignimbrites, I: Experiments on high- and low-concentration transport systems containing sticky particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-grade ignimbrites are thought to be deposited by pyroclastic flows at temperatures exceeding minimum welding temperature\\u000a or even solidus temperature. Corresponding pyroclastic-flow particles range from plastic to partially liquid and are able\\u000a to aggregate or coalesce. This contrasts with particles in pyroclastic flows producing unwelded ignimbrite, which are capable\\u000a of elastic grain interactions. The low aspect ratio and great areal

Armin Freundt

1998-01-01

235

Graded zooming  

DOEpatents

A system for increasing the resolution in the far field resolution of video or still frame images, while maintaining full coverage in the near field. The system includes a camera connected to a computer. The computer applies a specific zooming scale factor to each of line of pixels and continuously increases the scale factor of the line of pixels from the bottom to the top to capture the scene in the near field, yet maintain resolution in the scene in the far field.

Coffland, Douglas R. (Livermore, CA)

2006-04-25

236

Lumbosacral epidural lipomatosis: MRI grading.  

PubMed

Lumbosacral epidural lipomatosis (LEL) is characterized by excessive deposition of epidural fat (EF). The purpose of our retrospective study was to quantify normal and pathologic amounts of EF in order to develop a reproducible MRI grading of LEL. In this study of 2528 patients (1095 men and 1433 women; age range 18-84 years, mean age 47.3 years) we performed a retrospective analysis of MRI exams. We obtained four linear measurements at the axial plane parallel and tangent to the superior end plate of S1 vertebral body: antero-posterior diameter of dural sac (A-Pd DuS), A-Pd of EF, located ventrally and dorsally to the DuS, and A-Pd of the spinal canal (Spi C). We calculated (a) DuS/EF index and (b) EF/Spi C index. We developed the following MRI grading of LEL: normal, grade 0: DuS/EF index >or=1.5, EF/Spi C index grade I: DuS/EF index 1.49-1, EF/Spi C index 41-50% (mild EF overgrowth); LEL grade II: DuS/EF index 0.99-0.34, EF/Spi C index 51-74% (moderate EF overgrowth); LEL grade III: DuS/EF index or=75% (severe EF overgrowth). The MRI exams were evaluated independently by three readers. Intra- and interobserver reliabilities were obtained by calculating Kappa statistics. The MRI grading showed the following distribution: grade 0, 2003 patients (79.2%); LEL grade I, 308 patients (12.2%); LEL grade II, 165 patients (6.5%); and LEL grade III, 52 patients (2.1%). The kappa coefficients for intra- and interobserver agreement in a four-grade classification system were substantial to excellent: intraobserver, kappa range 0.79 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65-0.93] to 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70-0.95); interobserver, kappa range 0.76 (95% CI, 0.62-0.91) to 0.85 (95% CI, 0.73-0.97). In LEL grade I, there were no symptomatic cases due to fat hypertrophy. LEL grade II was symptomatic in only 24 cases (14.5%). In LEL grade III, all cases were symptomatic. A subgroup of 22 patients (42.3%) showed other substantial spinal pathologies (e.g., disk herniation). By means of simple reproducible measurements and indexes MRI grading enables a distinction between mild, moderate, and severe EF hypertrophy. Kappa statistics indicate that LEL can be reliably classified into a four-grade system by experienced observers. PMID:12835988

Borré, Daniel G; Borré, Guillermo E; Aude, Flavio; Palmieri, Gladys N

2003-07-01

237

Standards-Based Reform and Rural School Improvement: Similarities, Differences, Prospects for the Future. Rural Education Issue Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comparison of standards-based reform with rural school improvement efforts that emphasize locally responsive, place-based curricula reveals differences and similarities in the two movements. The standards-based movement is focused on setting state and national standards that all students must meet, suggesting a common curricular focus. Most…

Kannapel, Patricia J.

238

Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

1953-01-01

239

Cool Apps: Building Cryospheric Data Applications with Standards-Based Service Oriented Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) holds a large collection of cryospheric data, and is involved in a number of informatics research and development projects aimed at improving the discoverability and accessibility of these data. To develop high- quality software in a timely manner, we have adopted a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach for our core technical infrastructure development. Data services at NSIDC are internally exposed to other tools and applications through standards-based service interfaces. These standards include OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting), various OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards including WMS (Web Map Service) and WFS (Web Feature Service), ESIP (Federation of Earth Sciences Information Partners) OpenSearch, and NSIDC-defined service endpoints which follow a RESTful architecture. By taking a standards-based approach, we are able to use off-the-shelf tools and libraries to consume, translate and broker these data services, and thus develop applications faster. Additionally, by exposing public interfaces to these services we provide valuable data services to technical collaborators; for example, NASA Reverb (http://reverb.echo.nasa.gov) uses NSIDC's WMS services. Our latest generation of web applications consume these data services directly. The most complete example of this is the Operation IceBridge Data Portal (http://nsidc.org/icebridge/ portal) which depends on many of the aforementioned services, retrieving data in several ways. The maps it displays are obtained through the use of WMS and WFS protocols from a MapServer instance hosted at NSIDC. Links to the scientific data collected on Operation IceBridge campaigns are obtained through ESIP OpenSearch requests service providers that encapsulate our metadata databases. These standards-based web services are also developed at NSIDC and are designed to be used independently of the Portal. This poster provides a visual representation of the relationships described above, with additional details and examples, and more generally outlines the benefits and challenges of this SOA approach.

Oldenburg, J.; Truslove, I.; Collins, J. A.; Liu, M.; Lewis, S.; Brodzik, M.

2012-12-01

240

Dick Effect in a Microwave Frequency Standard Based on Laser-Cooled 113Cd+ Ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dick effect is one of the main limits to the frequency stability of a passive frequency standard, especially for the fountain clock and ion clock operated in pulsed mode which require unavoidable dead time during interrogation. Here we measure the phase noise of the interrogation oscillator applied in the microwave frequency standard based on laser-cooled 113Cd+ ions, and analyze the Allan deviation limited by the Dick effect. The results indicate that the Dick effect is one of the key issues for the cadmium ion clock to reach expected frequency stability. This problem can be resolved by interrogating the local oscillator continuously with two ion traps.

Zhang, Jian-Wei; Miao, Kai; Wang, Li-Jun

2015-01-01

241

Standards-based publication and sharing of time series information in the DRIHM project: a EU-US collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enable a plug-and-play infrastructure, the European DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project aims to develop a comprehensive data publication and sharing system presenting uniform standards-based data discovery and access interfaces for hydrometeorological data collected by DRIHM partners in several European countries. This is a challenging task due to heterogeneity in types of data being collected and organized for modeling, and different semantic and structural conventions adopted by different data publishers. To meet this goal, the DRIHM project, and its DRIHM2US extension, collaborates with the recently funded US SCIHM (Standards-based Cyberinfrastructure for HydroMeteorology) project to develop a data sharing infrastructure for time series information. We report initial results of the application of the data integrating technologies developed by the NSF-funded CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Data, Inc., Hydrologic Information System) project, to information collected within DRIHM. The CUAHSI HIS system has been widely used in the US; it provides access to about a hundred water data collections that can be queried via uniform web services. The DRIHM partners initially implementing the system, include the CIMA Research Foundation (Italy), the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. The collected time series information was ingested into CUAHSI Observations Data Model databases, and water data services were created for each of the partners. At the time of writing, the water data services include SOAP and REST endpoints that provide access to the time series in WaterML 1 and WaterML 2.0 formats. The former encoding, developed by CUAHSI HIS, has been adopted by a number of federal agencies and research groups in the US, while the latter, created by an international group of experts under the aegis of the Hydrology Domain Working Group of the Open Geospatial Consortium and the World Meteorological Organization, has been recently adopted as an international standard for exchanging hydrologic data. The services are registered at the central catalog, which supports discovery of time series based on their spatio-temporal characteristics and on variable semantics. The semantics of the measurements is aligned , in the process of publication and service registration, with a set of centrally managed controlled vocabularies and a parameter vocabulary. Data from multiple collections can be discovered, accessed, visualized and analyzed using CUAHSI HydroDesktop software, or other clients that support water data service interfaces. While HydroDesktop relies on WaterML 1 format, the Delft FEWS system, maintained by a DRIHM partner Deltares, is already capable of ingesting WaterML 2.0 services, which enables interfacing WaterML 2.0-formatted streams with forecast models. Development of a consistent data sharing system is one of the first steps in realizing DRIHM objectives. Next steps include further integration of water data services with simulation models, WRF and WRF-Hydro in particular, and integrating point time series with gridded information to be used as model input. We discuss these additional steps and associated challenges, and demonstrate the complementarity and benefits of US-EU collaboration in the development of global standards-based infrastructure for hydrometeorological data.

Hooper, Richard; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Parodi, Antonio; Gochis, David; Jha, Shantenu; Whitenack, Thomas; Valentine, David; Caumont, Olivier; Dekic, Ljiljana; Ivkovic, Marija; Molini, Luca; Bedrina, Tatiana; Gijsbers, Peter J. A.; de Rooij, Erik; Rebora, Nicola

2013-04-01

242

Beach Hopper Bonanza Grade Level: Second Grade  

E-print Network

Beach Hopper Bonanza Grade Level: Second Grade Developers: Jan Ward, Merry Lojkovic, Kara Davidson the characteristics, behavior, and anatomy of beach hoppers. !" Examine the relationships between the beach hopper (transparent) !" 1-2 buckets !" sieves !" shovel !" small plastic container with lid to hold beach hoppers

243

Association Between Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Among Men and Women from the ATTICA Study  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the relationship between low-grade inflammation and several glycemic indices in a population-based sample of men and women. METHODS: The ATTICA study is a population-based cohort that randomly enrolled 1514 men and 1528 women (aged >18 years old), stratified by age and gender, from the Greater Athens area, during 2001-2002. Among several characteristics, inflammation markers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, homocysteine and amyloid A) and glycemic control indices (fasting blood glucose, insulin, HOMA) were measured in the participants. RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetes was 7.8% in men and 6.0% in women. The prevalence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) was 21% in men and 12% in women. Diabetic subjects had 57% higher mean levels of C-reactive protein (p < 0.001), 22% higher mean levels of interleukin-6 (p < 0.001) and 60% higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (p < 0.001) compared to non-diabetic subjects. Homocysteine and serum amyloid A levels did not show significant differences among groups. CONCLUSION: Our study supports a positive association between low-grade inflammation and diabetes in a population-based sample of men and women without any evidence of cardiovascular disease, which is independent of demographic, clinical and lifestyle characteristics, including physical activity and dietary factors. PMID:17823694

Pitsavos, Christos; Tampourlou, Metaxia; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Skoumas, Yannis; Chrysohoou, Christina; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

2007-01-01

244

Faculty/Staff Perceptions of a Standards-Based Exit Portfolio System for Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New standards for certification were recently developed for speech-language pathology graduate training programs by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. The new standards are outcomes-based rather than process-based. Using a collective case study approach, this article highlights the perceptions of faculty and staff regarding use of a…

McNamara, Tena L.; Bailey, Rita L.

2006-01-01

245

thyA as a Selection Marker in Construction of Food-Grade Host-Vector and Integration Systems for Streptococcus thermophilus  

PubMed Central

We constructed food-grade host-vector and integration systems for Streptococcus thermophilus by using a thymidylate synthase gene (thyA) as the selection marker. Two thyA genes, thyASt and thyALb, were cloned from S. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, respectively. Thymidine-requiring mutants of S. thermophilus were obtained after successive cultures in the presence of trimethoprim, and one of them, TM1-1, was used as the host. Food-grade vectors were constructed by using either thyASt or thyALb as the selection marker. Transformants of TM1-1 created by using these vectors were selected for thymidine autotrophy as efficiently as for erythromycin resistance. By using the host-vector system developed in this way, a foreign amylase gene (amyA) was expressed in TM1-1 and was also integrated into the chromosome by use of a temperature-sensitive integration vector constructed with thyALb as the selection marker via a double-crossover event. The results obtained show that thyA is an efficient and safe selection marker for S. thermophilus that is suitable for food applications. PMID:15006818

Sasaki, Yasuko; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Takashi

2004-01-01

246

Lower Grade Glioma  

Cancer.gov

Lower grade glioma is a type of cancer that develops in the glial cells of the brain. Glial cells support the brain’s nerve cells and keep them healthy. Tumors are classified into grades I, II, III or IV based on standards set by the World Health Organization. TCGA is including grades II and III in this specific study, as opposed to higher grade brain tumors such as glioblastoma multiforme, which were studied in a separate project.

247

course schedule grading scheme  

E-print Network

news search image and video search (micro-)blog search product search, federated search social searchwhat is IR course schedule grading scheme 60-538: Information Retrieval September 4, 2014 1 / 48 #12;what is IR course schedule grading scheme Outline 1 what is IR 2 course schedule 3 grading scheme

Lu, Jianguo

248

My Math Grade (percents)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work to calculate their own grades in the class. Students will want to keep all of their returned work so that they have access to the grades they received on tests, homework, etc (a study skill they should likely develop anyway), or if grades are on blackboard they can quickly retrieve their scores.

2010-01-01

249

Metabolic syndrome, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease--the emerging role of systemic low-grade inflammation and adiposity.  

PubMed

The past decade has shed new light on the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the consequence of interactions between numerous lesions. There is a growing body of evidence that the most beneficial effects of treatment might only be achieved in the preclinical stage of dementia, prior to the immense hallmarks of neurodegeneration. In view of this, several studies have focused on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a state, which represents a less severe form of the neuropathological process. However, early treatment interventions initiated in MCI have failed to slow down progression of the disease. Thus, great effort has been made to indicate modifiable risk factors for MCI. Consistent with the role of vascular malfunction in AD, this approach has shown the predictive value of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is a multidimensional entity and includes visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Despite the positive results of several epidemiological studies, the exact mechanisms underlying the connection between MetS and AD remain uncertain and various theories are being assessed. MetS, similarly to AD, has been attributed to a low-grade chronic inflammation. There is a general consensus that the aberrant inflammatory response underlying MetS may arise from a deregulation of the endocrine homeostasis of adipose tissue. Hence, it might be assumed that the subclinical inflammation of adipose tissue may interact with the impaired central inflammatory response, leading to neurodegeneration. This article reviews the role of low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue in the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment and translates several considerable and unexplored findings from studies focused on subjects with MetS and animal models mimicking the phenotype of MetS into the etiology of AD. PMID:22921944

Misiak, Blazej; Leszek, Jerzy; Kiejna, Andrzej

2012-11-01

250

"Traditional" Graduate Grading and the "Gold Star Syndrome."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impetus for modifying or eliminating the A-F grading system has come primarily from students. Faculty reaction has been more one of bowing to pressure than that of a carefully considered response. Arguments for and against the traditional grading systems each have merit. It seems illogical, however, to repeat on the graduate level a grading

Kent, Leonard J.

251

Metric Activities, Grades K-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet presents worksheets for use in fifteen activities or groups of activities designed for teaching the metric system to children in grades K through 6. The approach taken in several of the activities is one of conversion between metric and English units. The majority of the activities concern length, area, volume, and capacity. A…

Draper, Bob, Comp.

252

A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "El Canto de las Palomas"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). In the summer of 1996, the Center offered the Culture and Children's…

Montgomery, Cherice; Sederberg, Brenda; Tyrol, Marcia Riis; Stevenson, Sonia

1998-01-01

253

The Sixth Grade: Caught in the Middle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparative investigation of the place of the sixth grade in public education used a shadow study technique to address three questions: (1) What is a sixth grader's day in school like? (2) In what ways do programs provided for sixth graders differ, depending on where the grade is located in the school system? (3) How does what is known of the…

Lounsbury, John H.

254

Texas's Decision to Have Twelve Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A majority of American students have taken the journey through schools that progressed from first to twelfth grade. So by the 1913 Committee on the Economy of Time in Education, American education featured a twelve-grade system quickly evolving from the forces of consolidation and corporate efficiency. Such was not the reality in Texas schools.…

Watlington, Kathy

2012-01-01

255

Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999-2012)(*)  

PubMed

This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359?days (range, 188-2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120?days (149-2325?days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103?days; 188-2010?days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056?days; 300-2340?days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40?months. PMID:23721492

Lejeune, A; Skorupski, K; Frazier, S; Vanhaezebrouck, I; Rebhun, R B; Reilly, C M; Rodriguez, C O

2013-05-31

256

Ten Activities for Middle School School Science: Developmentally Appropriate, Inquiry- and Standards-Based  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before we move to the activities, we need to give a disclaimer or two concerning the danger of using any "template" for lesson planning. The components of the lesson-plan template presented in these activities are all integral to inquiry-based science instruction, but, as teachers know, units and lessons need to be tailored to the specific needs of different groups of students, different days, and even variations in unit objectives. Teachers using this template are encouraged to modify it as needed to fit their own circumstances. (Suggestions for making modifications are provided in Chapter 7.) What's more, the authors' know that the activities might look cumbersome, but they've opted to include extensive detail so that they are truly ready-to-use. This chapter includes the following ten inquiry- and standards-based activities: Thinking Like a Scientist, Attributes, Penny Water, The Incredible, Edible Candle, Sewer Lice, Cartesian Diver, Nut Case, Wrist Taker, Oh, Nuts!, and Gobstoppers

Cleveland, Jackie; Jorgenson, Olaf; Vanosdall, Rick

2004-01-01

257

Compact Frequency Standard Based on an Intra-cavity Sample Cold Cesium Atoms  

E-print Network

We have demonstrated the possibility for a compact frequency standard based on a sample of cold cesium atoms. In a cylindrical microwave cavity, the atoms are cooled and interrogated during a free expansion and then detected. The operation of this experiment is different from conventional atomic fountains, since all the steps are sequentially performed in the same position of space. In this paper we report the analysis of a Ramsey pattern observed to present a 47 Hz linewidth and a stability of 5x10^-13 for an integration time longer than 100s. Some of the main limitations of the standard are analyzed. This present report demonstrates considerable improvement of our previous work (S. T. Muller et al, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, v.25, p.909, 2008) where the atoms were in a free space and not inside a microwave cavity.

Stella Torres Muller; Daniel Varela Magalhaes; Renato Ferracini Alves; Vanderlei Salvador Bagnato

2011-08-22

258

Student and Faculty Perceptions of Plus/Minus Grading and Its Effect on Course Grade Point Averages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In fall 2005, the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences at the University of Arkansas authorized the optional use of a plus/minus grading system. Since 2005, approximately one-half of courses have been graded using plus/minus and one-half using the straight letter grade system. This study examined student (n = 338) and…

Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Graham, Donna L.; Dixon, Bruce L.

2014-01-01

259

Improving performance of Zambia Defence Force antiretroviral therapy providers: evaluation of a standards-based approach  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: The Zambia Defence Force (ZDF) has applied the Standards-Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R®) approach, which uses detailed performance standards, at some health facilities to improve HIV-related services offered to military personnel and surrounding civilian communities. This study examines the effectiveness of the SBM-R approach in improving facility readiness and provider performance at ZDF facilities. Methods: We collected data on facility readiness and provider performance before and after the 2010–2012 intervention at 4 intervention sites selected for their relatively poor performance and 4 comparison sites. Assessors observed whether each facility met 16 readiness standards and whether providers met 9 performance standards during consultations with 354 returning antiretroviral therapy (ART) clients. We then calculated the percentages of criteria achieved for each readiness and performance standard and conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses of provider performance data. Results: Facilities' ART readiness scores exceeded 80% before the intervention at both intervention and comparison sites. At endline, scores improved on 4 facility readiness standards in the intervention group but on only 1 standard in the comparison group. Multivariate analysis found that the overall provider performance score increased significantly in the intervention group (from 58% to 84%; P<.01) but not in the comparison group (from 62% to 70%). The before-and-after improvement in scores was significantly greater among intervention sites than among comparison sites for 2 standards—initial assessment of the client's condition and nutrition counseling. Conclusion: The standards-based approach, which involved intensive and mutually reinforcing intervention activities, showed modest improvements in some aspects of providers' performance during ART consultations. Further research is needed to determine whether improvements in provider performance affect client outcomes such as adherence to ART. PMID:25276534

Kim, Young Mi; Banda, Joseph; Kanjipite, Webby; Sarkar, Supriya; Bazant, Eva; Hiner, Cyndi; Tholandi, Maya; Reinhardt, Stephanie; Njobvu, Panganani Dalisani; Kols, Adrienne; Benavides, Bruno

2013-01-01

260

Cool Apps: Building Cryospheric Data Applications With Standards-Based Service Oriented Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) holds a large collection of cryospheric data, and is involved in a number of informatics research and development projects aimed at improving the discoverability and accessibility of these data. To develop high-quality software in a timely manner, we have adopted a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach for our core technical infrastructure development. Data services at NSIDC are internally exposed to other tools and applications through standards-based service interfaces. These standards include OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting), various OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards including WMS (Web Map Service) and WFS (Web Feature Service), ESIP (Federation of Earth Sciences Information Partners) OpenSearch, and NSIDC-specific RESTful services. By taking a standards-based approach, we are able to use off-the-shelf tools and libraries to consume, translate and broker these data services, and thus develop applications faster. Additionally, by exposing public interfaces to these services we provide valuable data services to technical collaborators; for example, NASA Reverb (http://reverb.echo.nasa.gov) uses NSIDC's WMS services. Our latest generation of web applications consume these data services directly. The most complete example of this is the Operation IceBridge Data Portal (http://nsidc.org/icebridge/portal) which depends on many of the aforementioned services, and clearly exhibits many of the advantages of building applications atop a service-oriented architecture. This presentation outlines the architectural approach and components and open standards and protocols adopted at NSIDC, demonstrates the interactions and uses of public and internal service interfaces currently powering applications including the IceBridge Data Portal, and outlines the benefits and challenges of this approach.

Collins, J. A.; Truslove, I.; Billingsley, B. W.; Oldenburg, J.; Brodzik, M.; Lewis, S.; Liu, M.

2012-12-01

261

Establishing an appropriate mode of comparison for measuring the performance of marbling score output from video image analysis beef carcass grading systems.  

PubMed

A beef carcass instrument grading system that improves accuracy and consistency of marbling score (MS) evaluation would have the potential to advance value-based marketing efforts and reduce disparity in quality grading among USDA graders, shifts, and plants. The objectives of this study were to use output data from the Video Image Analysis-Computer Vision System (VIA-CVS, Research Management Systems Inc., Fort Collins, CO) to develop an appropriate method by which performance of video image analysis MS output could be evaluated for accuracy, precision, and repeatability for purposes of seeking official USDA approval for using an instrument in commerce to augment assessment of quality grade, and to use the developed standards to gain approval for VIA-CVS to assist USDA personnel in assigning official beef carcass MS. An initial MS output algorithm was developed (phase I) for the VIA-CVS before 2 separate preliminary instrument evaluation trials (phases II and III) were conducted. During phases II and III, a 3-member panel of USDA expert graders independently assigned MS to 1,068 and 1,242 stationary carcasses, respectively. Mean expert MS was calculated for each carcass. Additionally, a separate 3-member USDA expert panel developed a consensus MS for each carcass in phase III. In phase II, VIA-CVS stationary triple-placement and triple-trigger instrument repeatability values (n = 262 and 260, respectively), measured as the percentage of total variance explained by carcasses, were 99.9 and 99.8%, respectively. In phases II and III, 95% of carcasses were assigned expert MS for which differences between individual expert MS, and for which the consensus MS in phase III only, was < or = 96 MS units. Two differing approaches to simple regression analysis, as well as a separate method-comparability analysis that accommodates error in both dependent and independent variables, were used to assess accuracy and precision of instrument MS predictions vs. mean expert MS. Method-comparability analysis was more appropriate in assessing the bias and precision of instrument MS predictions. Ether-extractable fat percentages (n = 257; phase II) differed among MS (P < 0.05) but were not suitable to predict or validate assigned MS. The performance and reproducibility of expert MS assignment in future evaluations was considered, and an official USDA performance standard was established, to which an instrument must conform to be approved for official on-line MS assessment. The VIA-CVS subsequently was approved to assign MS to carcasses on-line after completion of a 2006 USDA instrument approval trial conducted according to methods developed during completion of this study. PMID:20348376

Moore, C B; Bass, P D; Green, M D; Chapman, P L; O'Connor, M E; Yates, L D; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

2010-07-01

262

Lifestyle and nutritional imbalances associated with Western diseases: causes and consequences of chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in an evolutionary context.  

PubMed

In this review, we focus on lifestyle changes, especially dietary habits, that are at the basis of chronic systemic low grade inflammation, insulin resistance and Western diseases. Our sensitivity to develop insulin resistance traces back to our rapid brain growth in the past 2.5 million years. An inflammatory reaction jeopardizes the high glucose needs of our brain, causing various adaptations, including insulin resistance, functional reallocation of energy-rich nutrients and changing serum lipoprotein composition. The latter aims at redistribution of lipids, modulation of the immune reaction, and active inhibition of reverse cholesterol transport for damage repair. With the advent of the agricultural and industrial revolutions, we have introduced numerous false inflammatory triggers in our lifestyle, driving us to a state of chronic systemic low grade inflammation that eventually leads to typically Western diseases via an evolutionary conserved interaction between our immune system and metabolism. The underlying triggers are an abnormal dietary composition and microbial flora, insufficient physical activity and sleep, chronic stress and environmental pollution. The disturbance of our inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance is illustrated by dietary fatty acids and antioxidants. The current decrease in years without chronic disease is rather due to "nurture" than "nature," since less than 5% of the typically Western diseases are primary attributable to genetic factors. Resolution of the conflict between environment and our ancient genome might be the only effective manner for "healthy aging," and to achieve this we might have to return to the lifestyle of the Paleolithic era as translated to the 21st century culture. PMID:23657158

Ruiz-Núñez, Begoña; Pruimboom, Leo; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J

2013-07-01

263

The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Information Display in an Electronic Portfolio System on Information Processing and Retention in a Fifth-Grade Science Class Covering the Earth's Atmosphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An electronic portfolio system, designed to serve as a resource-based learning space, was tested in a fifth-grade science class. The control-group students accessed a traditional folder-based information display in the system and the experimental-group students accessed a concept map-based information display to review a science portfolio. The…

Kim, Paul; Olaciregui, Claudia

2008-01-01

264

7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

2012-01-01

265

7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

2014-01-01

266

7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

2011-01-01

267

7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

2013-01-01

268

7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum >grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

2010-01-01

269

Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ca.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system  

DOEpatents

Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5.mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photovoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of the growing layer.

Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1981-01-01

270

Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system  

DOEpatents

Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5 .mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photolvoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of growing layer.

Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1980-01-01

271

Increasing on-task behavior in every student in a second-grade classroom during transitions: validating the Color Wheel system.  

PubMed

A single-case (B-C-B-C) experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel classroom management system (CWS) on on-task (OT) behavior in an intact, general-education, 2nd-grade classroom during transitions. The CWS included three sets of rules, posted cues to indicate the rules students are expected to be following at that time, and transition procedures for altering activities and rules. Class-wide data analysis showed large, immediate, and sustained increases in OT behavior when the CWS was applied, with OT behavior returning to baseline levels when typical classroom management (TCM) procedures were reinstated. Each student's average phase data also showed increases in OT behavior when the CWS was applied and re-applied, and showed reductions when the CWS was withdrawn. Discussion focuses on evaluating the internal, external, and contextual validity of class-wide remediation and prevention procedures. PMID:19083373

Fudge, Daniel L; Skinner, Christopher H; Williams, Jacqueline L; Cowden, Dan; Clark, Janice; Bliss, Stacy L

2008-10-01

272

An Analysis of the Education Systems in Mexico and the United States from Pre-Kinder to 12 Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the public school system in Mexico from early childhood to high school, and compares it with the American education system. It also identifies educational terminology and concepts unique to the Mexican system that can become possible sources of conflict and confusion for American educators. (Contains 7…

Rosado, Luis A.; Hellawell, Marisa; Zamora, Ezequiel Benedicto

2011-01-01

273

Evaluating Student Response to WeBWorK, a Web-Based Homework Delivery and Grading System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the use of web-based homework delivery and checking systems expands, we have greater need to evaluate how students engage with these systems and how changes in the systems influence student behavior. Reported here is the assessment of WeBWorK, an open-source web-based homework program used largely in postsecondary math and science courses, with…

Roth, Vicki; Ivanchenko, Volodymyr; Record, Nicholas

2008-01-01

274

A study of science leadership and science standards in exemplary standards-based science programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose for conducting this qualitative study was to explore best practices of exemplary standards-based science programs and instructional leadership practices in a charter high school and in a traditional high school. The focus of this study included how twelve participants aligned practices to National Science Education Standards to describe their science programs and science instructional practices. This study used a multi-site case study qualitative design. Data were obtained through a review of literature, interviews, observations, review of educational documents, and researcher's notes collected in a field log. The methodology used was a multi-site case study because of the potential, through cross analysis, for providing greater explanation of the findings in the study (Merriam, 1988). This study discovered six characteristics about the two high school's science programs that enhance the literature found in the National Science Education Standards; (a) Culture of expectations for learning-In exemplary science programs teachers are familiar with a wide range of curricula. They have the ability to examine critically and select activities to use with their students to promote the understanding of science; (b) Culture of varied experiences-In exemplary science programs students are provided different paths to learning, which help students, take in information and make sense of concepts and skills that are set forth by the standards; (c) Culture of continuous feedback-In exemplary science programs teachers and students work together to engage students in ongoing assessments of their work and that of others as prescribed in the standards; (d) Culture of Observations-In exemplary science programs students, teachers, and principals reflect on classroom instructional practices; teachers receive ongoing evaluations about their teaching and apply feedback towards improving practices as outlined in the standards; (e) Culture of continuous learning-In exemplary science programs teachers value continuous personal development, teachers are provided on-going science professional development opportunities to improve instructional practices, teachers reflect and share professional practices, and teachers establish professional learning communities within their classrooms; and (f) Culture of shared leadership-In exemplary science programs instructional leadership purposes and values are consistently shared among all stakeholders which are outlined in the standards. These results are potentially useful for understanding exemplary standards-based science programs and science instructional leadership practices as a model for science programs trying to improve science education so that all students can have a true scientific learning experience.

Carpenter, Wendy Renae

275

The Arguments and Data in Favor of Minimum Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arguments and for and against minimum grading systems have grown increasingly more intense and acrimonious in the past decade. However, there has been an absence of empirical data, theory and clear comparative analyses of conflicting points of view. Critics of minimum grading contend that the practice will produce grade inflation and social…

Carifio, James; Carey, Theodore

2013-01-01

276

Grading Homework to Emphasize Problem-Solving Process Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process-based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.

Harper, Kathleen A.

2012-01-01

277

The Middle East. Grade Nine. Resource Unit (Unit VI).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource unit, used either at the end of the 8th grade course or as an alternate course during non-election years in grade nine, provides an area study on the Middle East. Since emphasis in each of the five previous units designed for grade nine is on the American economic system and problems, this particular unit offers a contrasting study…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

278

Constructed-response, computer-graded homework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes a computer-based homework grading system that accepts a constructed response by the student, multiple attempts, generation of new data for each student, records of performance, and provision of some feedback about answers.

Taylor, John; Deever, David

2005-10-17

279

Achieving standards in urban systemic reform: An example of a sixth grade project-based science curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A challenge for urban systemic reform initiatives in science education has been to achieve local, state, and national standards for teaching and learning. We have collaborated with teachers in the Detroit Public School System to design project-based curriculum materials that contextualize the learning of science in meaningful real-world problems, engage students in science inquiry, and use learning tech- nologies. We

Ann E. Rivet; Joseph S. Krajcik

2004-01-01

280

Comparison of COSMED'S FitMate™ and K4b2 metabolic systems reliability during graded cycling exercise.  

PubMed

This study compared the reliability of the Cosmed FitMate™ and K4b2 metabolic systems during light to heavy steady state exercise. Expired gas, ventilation were recorded in 50 subjects, using in a random order among four sessions, either the FitMate™ or the Cosmed K4b2. No differences in oxygen consumption were observed between the two systems whatever the intensity. Intraclass correlation were high for both analyzers (respectively for the FitMate™ system and the Cosmed K4b2; ICC: 0.76-0.88 vs. 0.88-0.95). The FitMate™ metabolic system could be a useful reliable and easy-to-use metabolic system in energy expenditure measurement. PMID:25375032

Brisswalter, Jeanick; Tartaruga, Marcus P

2014-11-01

281

Standards-based sensor interoperability and networking SensorWeb: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The War fighter lacks a unified Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) environment to conduct mission planning, command and control (C2), tasking, collection, exploitation, processing, and data discovery of disparate sensor data across the ISR Enterprise. Legacy sensors and applications are not standardized or integrated for assured, universal access. Existing tasking and collection capabilities are not unified across the enterprise, inhibiting robust C2 of ISR including near-real time, cross-cueing operations. To address these critical needs, the National Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) Office (NMO), and partnering Combatant Commands and Intelligence Agencies are developing SensorWeb, an architecture that harmonizes heterogeneous sensor data to a common standard for users to discover, access, observe, subscribe to and task sensors. The SensorWeb initiative long term goal is to establish an open commercial standards-based, service-oriented framework to facilitate plug and play sensors. The current development effort will produce non-proprietary deliverables, intended as a Government off the Shelf (GOTS) solution to address the U.S. and Coalition nations' inability to quickly and reliably detect, identify, map, track, and fully understand security threats and operational activities.

Bolling, Sam

2012-06-01

282

oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades  

E-print Network

oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades Exporting/Importing Grades in oZONE The new - Log in to ozone.ou.edu using your OU Net ID (4+4) as you would in any other OU system. Click Importing Grades from a Exported oZONE template If you exported a course template from the oZONE grading

Oklahoma, University of

283

What Is Fifth Grade?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the most consistent regularities observers would see in schools is the grouping of children by grade. The authors' work with schoolchildren causes them to ask, what is a grade beyond a group of children at a particular age? In this article, the authors share a glimpse of an activity involving inference and logical necessity that they…

O'Brien, Thomas C.; Wallach, Christine

2006-01-01

284

Grades out, Badges in  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grades are broken. Students grub for them, pick classes where good ones come easily, and otherwise hustle to win the highest scores for the least learning. As a result, college grades are inflated to the point of meaninglessness--especially to employers who want to know which diploma-holder is best qualified for their jobs. An alternative is to…

Young, Jeffrey R.

2012-01-01

285

The Grades Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It can be quite alarming (and eye-opening) to see exactly how many of the grades students receive are based on their behaviors rather than their learning. Students should be assessed on what they know and can use rather than on their behavior. The reality, unfortunately, is that the opposite is often the case. Grades for students who work hard are…

Fleenor, Andy; Lamb, Sarah; Anton, Jennifer; Stinson, Todd; Donen, Tony

2011-01-01

286

Beef grading by ultrasound  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

Gammell, P. M.

1981-01-01

287

Longitudinally Graded Optical Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along their length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight percent GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported for fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. Fibers with longitudinally uniform (i.e., not gradient) refractive index profiles but differing chemical compositions among various core layers were also fabricated to determine acoustic effects of the core slug method. The refractive index of the resulting preform varies by about +/- 0.00013 from the average. Upon core drilling, it was found that the core slugs had been drilled off-center from the parent preform, resulting in semi-circular core cross sections that were unable to guide light. As a result, optical analysis could not be conducted. Chemical composition data was obtained, however, and is described herein. A third fiber produced was actively doped with ytterbium (Yb3 ) and fabricated similarly to the previous fibers. The preforms were doped via the solution doping method with a solution of 0.015 M Yb 3 derived from ytterbium chloride hexahydrate and 0.30 M Al 3 derived from aluminum chloride hexahydrate. The doped preform was engineered to have two core layers of differing chemical composition, resulting in both a gradient refractive index profile as well as a gradient acoustic profile. While exhibiting higher loss than the original LGF, the Yb 3-doped fiber showed slightly better SBS suppression with preliminary calculations showing at least 6 dB reduction in Brillouin gain. Lastly, reported here is a straight-forward and flexible method to fabricate silica optical fibers of circular cladding cross-section and rectilinear cores whose aspect ratio and refractive index profile changes with position along the fiber in a deterministic way. Specifically, a modification to the process developed to produce longitudinally-graded optical fibers, was employed. Herein reported are MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers with rectangular cores where the aspect ratio changes by nearly 200 % and the average refractive index changed by about 5 %. Fiber losses were measured to be about 50 dB/km. Such rectangular core fibers are useful for a variety of telecommunication and biomedical applications and the dimensional and optical chirp provides a deterministic way to control further the modal properties of the fiber. Possible applications of longitudinally graded optical fibers and future improvements are also discussed. The methods employed are very straight-forward and technically simple, providing for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, that could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

Evert, Alexander George

288

Five Obstacles to Grading Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

Guskey, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

289

Impact of Toxicity Grade and Scoring System on the Relationship Between Mean Lung Dose and Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in a Large Cohort of Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compute the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with RP scored using three grading systems and analyzed at four threshold levels of toxicity in a large cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: On the basis of medical records and radiographic images, RP was scored retrospectively in 442 patients with NSCLC who had {>=}6 months of follow-up after the end of RT. The severity of RP was scored for each patient using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0 (CTC2.0); the NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0 (CTCAE3.0); and the grading system of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). For each grading system and for each of four levels of toxicity (Grade {>=}1, {>=}2, {>=}3, {>=}4), the Lyman, logistic, and log-logistic normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were fitted to the data as functions of MLD. The parameter estimates from the model fits are listed in table form, and the RP risk estimates are presented graphically for the Lyman and log-logistic NTCP models. Results: The results presented here illustrate the impact of scoring system and level of toxicity on the relationship between MLD and RP risk. Conclusions: These results facilitate quantitative comparisons between our data and studies of RP risk reported by others, and several examples of such comparisons are provided.

Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.or [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jin Hekun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hunan Tumor Hospital and Institution, Hunan (China); Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Xiangya Medical School, Changsha (China); Wei Xiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2010-07-01

290

Impact of Toxicity Grade and Scoring System on the Relationship Between Mean Lung Dose and Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in a Large Cohort of Patients With Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To compute the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with RP scored using three grading systems and analyzed at four threshold levels of toxicity in a large cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: On the basis of medical records and radiographic

Susan L. Tucker; Hekun Jin; Xiong Wei; Shulian Wang; Mary K. Martel; Ritsuko Komaki; H. Helen Liu; Radhe Mohan; Yuhchyau Chen; James D. Cox; Zhongxing Liao

2010-01-01

291

Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

292

Fat necrosis of the breast in the accelerated partial breast irradiation era: the need for a universal grading system.  

PubMed

Fat necrosis of the breast is increasingly reported and used as a trial endpoint in the treatment of breast cancer with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Yet, there is no universal toxicity scoring system within the latest version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.0). This requires investigators to adopt their own scoring system or improperly use those that exist, and limits accurate reporting of this entity. Fat necrosis of the breast also creates diagnostic uncertainty among clinicians and concern of recurrence among patients. In this review, we address the question of increasing incidence of fat necrosis through the comparison of recent APBI trials and literature. The pathogenesis, symptoms, clinical and radiologic diagnosis, clinical predictors of developing fat necrosis, management and follow-up are also discussed.Lastly, we propose a simplified and universal scoring system for the reporting of fat necrosis. PMID:23797180

Russo, Andrea L; Taghian, Alphonse G

2013-07-01

293

Packing Up for the Moon: Human Exploration Project Engineering Design Challenge. Design, Build and Evaluate. A Standards-Based Middle School Unit Guide. Engineering By Design: Advancing Technological Literacy--A Standards-Based Program Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Human Exploration Project (HEP) units have several common characteristics. All units: (1) Are based upon the Technological Literacy standards (ITEA, 2000/2002); (2) Coordinate with Science (AAAS, 1993) and Mathematics standards (NCTM, 2000); (3) Utilize a standards-based development approach (ITEA, 2005); (4) Stand alone and coordinate with…

NASA Educator Resource Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, 2007

2007-01-01

294

Messages from Space: The Solar System and Beyond. Grades 508. Teacher's Guide. Great Explorations in Science (GEMS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on collaborative work between the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute and the Lawrence Hall of Science, this curriculum takes advantage of humans' fascination with extraterrestrials to catalyze the study of the solar system and beyond. The unit begins when students attempt to decode a fictitious message from outer…

Beals, Kevin; Erickson, John; Sneider, Cary

295

Learning about Body Systems. Superific Science Book IX. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document offers an explanation and drawings of each of the major systems of the human body and of the five senses. It provides teachers with classroom activities, demonstrations, and experiments which are intended to involve students in the acquisition of knowledge concerning the structure and function of their bodies. The drawings of the…

Conway, Lorraine

296

Manufacturing Systems. Grades 9-10. Course #8115 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course materials included in this guide are intended to introduce students to the manufacturing industry and its relationships with society, individuals, and the environment. The following topics are covered in the nine learning modules: manufacturing and society and manufacturing systems; manufacturing materials and processes (types of…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

297

Graded cluster expansion for lattice systems Lorenzo Bertini 1 Emilio N.M. Cirillo 2 Enzo Olivieri 3  

E-print Network

for non--critical systems that deserve to be analyzed on appropriate scales, see [6, 23]. The RG maps Averaging Transformation (BAT) that we discuss in the case X 0 := {-1, +1}: for each i # L (#) the single renormalized spin configuration space is M (#) i = {-# d , -# d + 2, . . . , +# d } and T bat # (# Q # (i) , m

298

Low- and High-Achieving Sixth-Grade Students' Access to Participation during Mathematics Discourse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A descriptive, holistic, multiple-case methodology was applied to examine the nature of participation in discourse of two low- and two high-achieving grade 6 students while solving mathematical tasks in a standards-based classroom. Data collected via classroom observations and student interviews were analyzed through a multiple-cycle coding…

Lack, Brian; Swars, Susan Lee; Meyers, Barbara

2014-01-01

299

Application For Assigning Grades To Students Using Public Key Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following article presents the design concepts behind a stand-alone grade management system. The system uses digital signature for user authentication and data integrity preservation. In addition to grading data storage, the system delivers basic certification authority and key management functions. The system is based on J2EE and Hibernate, with JSP and Java applets in presentation layer and servlets for

P. Jachtoma; B. Sakowicz; J. Wojciechowski; A. Napieralski

2006-01-01

300

Quality of Maternal and Neonatal Care in Albania, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan: A Systematic, Standard-Based, Participatory Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Progress in maternal and neonatal mortality has been slow in many countries despite increasing access to institutional births, suggesting deficiencies in the quality of care. We carried out a systematic assessment of the quality of maternal and newborn care in three CEE/CIS countries, using an innovative approach to identify priority issues and promote action. Methods A standard-based tool, covering over 400 items grouped in 13 main areas ranging from support services to case management, was used to assess a sample of ten maternity hospitals in Albania, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Sources of information were visit to services, medical records, observation of cases, and interviews with staff and mothers. A score (range 0 to 3) was attributed to each item and area of care. The assessment was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of international and national professionals. Local managers and staff provided the necessary information and were involved in discussing the findings and the priority actions. Results Quality of care was found to be substandard in all 13 areas. The lowest scores (between one and two) were obtained by: management of normal labour, delivery, obstetric complications and sick babies; infection prevention; use of guidelines and audits; monitoring and follow-up. Neonatal care as a whole scored better than obstetric care. Interviewed mothers identified lack of information, insufficient support during labour and lack of companionship as main issues. Actions to improve quality of care were identified at facility as well as at central level and framed according to main health system functions. Conclusions Quality of care is a key issue to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, particularly in countries such as CEE/CIS where access to institutional births is nearly universal. Approaches that involve health professionals and managers in comprehensive, action-oriented assessments of quality of care are promising and should be further supported. PMID:22216110

Tamburlini, Giorgio; Siupsinskas, Gelmius; Bacci, Alberta

2011-01-01

301

Functionally graded boron carbide  

SciTech Connect

Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

1998-12-31

302

An Australian Perspective on Standards-Based Education, Teacher Knowledge, and Students of English as an Additional Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an Australian perspective on the issue of standards-based education and the place of students of English as an additional language (EAL) who are working within mainstream schools. Beginning with an overview of the various standards documents that impact the lives of teachers and their students in mainstream Australian…

Hammond, Jennifer

2014-01-01

303

Cultivating Common Ground: Integrating Standards-Based Visual Arts, Math and Literacy in High-Poverty Urban Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Framing Student Success: Connecting Rigorous Visual Arts, Math and Literacy Learning" experimental demonstration project was designed to develop and test an instructional program integrating high-quality, standards-based instruction in the visual arts, math, and literacy. Developed and implemented by arts-in-education organization…

Cunnington, Marisol; Kantrowitz, Andrea; Harnett, Susanne; Hill-Ries, Aline

2014-01-01

304

The Role of End-of-Course Exams and Minimum Competency Exams in Standards-Based Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors looked at the effects of one old-style educational reform--higher course graduation requirements--and five standard-based reforms--(1) school report cards; (2) rewards for school improvement; (3) sanctions for failing schools; (4) minimum competency examinations; and (5) hybrid minimum competency exam…

Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael; Moriarty, Joan Y.

2001-01-01

305

Innovation and competition in standard-based industries: a historical analysis of the US home video game market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the competitive dynamics in a standard-based industry through a historical observation of the US home video game industry. The paper focuses on the theoretical issues of switching costs, installed base and complementary goods as critical factors of dominant designs and firm success in a network-based industry. The authors' analysis reveals multiple stages of technological innovations and changes

Scott Gallagher; Seung Ho Park

2002-01-01

306

An assessment of standards-based reform in Florida's middle school science programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The era of school accountability and standards based reform (SBR) has brought many challenges and changes to Florida's public schools. It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' attitudes and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement SBR. The study was designed to assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions of changes related to SBR and the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in middle school science programs in Florida. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated the Sunshine State Standards (SSS) for science and began focusing on preparing students for the science FCAT. The survey was distributed to 265 randomly selected middle school science teachers throughout the State of Florida. Seventy-six and ninety-two percent of teachers reported increased levels of stress as a result of SBR and the science FCAT, respectively. Eighty-six percent of teachers reported loss of autonomy and control over what goes on in their classrooms, and fifty-four percent of teachers reported loss of freedom and creativity regarding curriculum and lessons. Eighty-three percent of teachers believe that increased time spent on test preparation has come at the expense of other important curricular items. By contrast, only nineteen percent of teachers believe that the science FCAT has brought about improvement in curriculum, instruction and student learning in science. Yet, twenty-five percent of teachers believe that reform efforts will improve their school. An important finding is that teachers' attitudes toward reform efforts are strongly influenced by their attitudes toward the administration at their school. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the science FCAT measured in this study. Although the majority of teachers reported negative attitudes toward the reform process, a small minority that report working under supportive administrators believe that reform efforts are working well or will soon show positive effects. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

Stuart Hammer, Kathryn Elizabeth

307

Meat standards and grading: a world view.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the principles relating to meat standards and grading of beef and advances the concept that potential exists to achieve significant desirable change from adopting more consumer focused systems within accurate value-based payment frameworks. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful to those involved in the trading of carcasses, whereas grading is the placing of different values on carcasses for pricing purposes, depending on the market and requirements of traders. A third definition is consumer grading, which refers to grading systems that seek to define or predict consumer satisfaction with a cooked meal. The development of carcass classification and grading schemes evolved from a necessity to describe the carcass using standard terms to facilitate trading. The growth in world trade of meat and meat products and the transition from trading carcasses to marketing individual meal portions raises the need for an international language that can service contemporary needs. This has in part been addressed by the United Nations promoting standard languages on carcasses, cuts, trim levels and cutting lines. Currently no standards exist for describing consumer satisfaction. Recent Meat Standards Australia (MSA) research in Australia, Korea, Ireland, USA, Japan and South Africa showed that consumers across diverse cultures and nationalities have a remarkably similar view of beef eating quality, which could be used to underpin an international language on palatability. Consumer research on the willingness to pay for eating quality shows that consumers will pay higher prices for better eating quality grades and generally this was not affected by demographic or meat preference traits of the consumer. In Australia the MSA eating quality grading system has generated substantial premiums to retailers, wholesalers and to the producer. Future grading schemes which measure both carcass yield and eating quality have the potential to underpin the development and implementation of transparent value-based payment systems which will encourage improved production efficiency throughout the supply chain. PMID:20541325

Polkinghorne, R J; Thompson, J M

2010-09-01

308

Manufacture of Clinical-Grade CD19-Specific T Cells Stably Expressing Chimeric Antigen Receptor Using Sleeping Beauty System and Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells  

PubMed Central

Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is being evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Our current approach to adoptive immunotherapy is based on a second generation CAR (designated CD19RCD28) that signals through a CD28 and CD3-? endodomain. T cells are electroporated with DNA plasmids from the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system to express this CAR. Stable integrants of genetically modified T cells can then be retrieved when co-cultured with designer artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2 and 21. Here, we reveal how the platform technologies of SB-mediated transposition and CAR-dependent propagation on aAPC were adapted for human application. Indeed, we have initiated clinical trials in patients with high-risk B-lineage malignancies undergoing autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We describe the process to manufacture clinical grade CD19-specific T cells derived from healthy donors. Three validation runs were completed in compliance with current good manufacturing practice for Phase I/II trials demonstrating that by 28 days of co-culture on ?-irradiated aAPC ?1010 T cells were produced of which >95% expressed CAR. These genetically modified and propagated T cells met all quality control testing and release criteria in support of infusion. PMID:23741305

Singh, Harjeet; Figliola, Matthew J.; Dawson, Margaret J.; Olivares, Simon; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Ge; Maiti, Sourindra; Manuri, Pallavi; Senyukov, Vladimir; Jena, Bipulendu; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard E.; Huls, Helen; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

2013-01-01

309

MAGNETIC LIQUID DEFORMABLE MIRRORS FOR ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS: ACTIVE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL ABERRATIONS FROM LOWER-GRADE OPTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

Borra, E. F., E-mail: borra@phy.ulaval.ca [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

2012-08-01

310

Expanding the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (Ex-GRADE) for Evidence-Based Clinical Recommendations: Validation Study.  

PubMed

Clinicians use general practice guidelines as a source of support for their intervention, but how much confidence should they place on these recommendations? How much confidence should patients place on these recommendations? Various instruments are available to assess the quality of evidence of research, such as the revised Wong scale (R-Wong) which examines the quality of research design, methodology and data analysis, and the revision of the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (R-AMSTAR), which examines the quality of systematic reviews.The Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group developed an instrument called the GRADE system in order to grade the quality of the evidence in studies and to evaluate the strength of recommendation of the intervention that is proposed in the published article. The GRADE looks at four factors to determine the quality of the evidence: study design, study quality, consistency, and directness. After combining the four components and assessing the grade of the evidence, the strength of recommendation of the intervention is established. The GRADE, however, only makes a qualitative assessment of the evidence and does not generate quantifiable data.In this study, we have quantified both the grading of the quality of evidence and also the strength of recommendation of the original GRADE, hence expanding the GRADE. This expansion of the GRADE (Ex-GRADE) permits the creation of a new instrument that can produce tangible data and possibly bridge the gap between evidence-based research and evidence-based clinical practice. PMID:22303416

Phi, Linda; Ajaj, Reem; Ramchandani, Manisha H; Brant, Xenia Mc; Oluwadara, Oluwadayo; Polinovsky, Olga; Moradi, David; Barkhordarian, Andre; Sriphanlop, Pathu; Ong, Margaret; Giroux, Amy; Lee, Justin; Siddiqui, Muniza; Ghodousi, Nora; Chiappelli, Francesco

2012-01-01

311

Lesson Plans for the Busy Librarian: A Standards Based Approach for the Elementary Library Media Center, Volume 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author designed this book, like Volume I of the set, to give elementary school librarians a quick, enjoyable way to coordinate with teachers to teach information literacy and literacy skills aligned with national standards. The chapters in the book include: (1) Kindergarten Lesson Plans; (2) First-Grade Lesson Plans; (3) Second-Grade Lesson…

Keeling, Joyce

2005-01-01

312

Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006 --Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

313

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains the updated academic standards of Arizona for Grade 8. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 8; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

314

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

315

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains an updated academic standards of Arizona public schools for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

316

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

Arizona Department of Education, 2007

2007-01-01

317

Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

318

HANDBOOK FOR STUDENTS GRADE APPEALS  

E-print Network

HANDBOOK FOR STUDENTS GRADE APPEALS STUDENT GRIEVANCES Prepared by The Dispute Resolution Board the process for addressing your concerns. Formal complaints for grade appeals or student grievances are heard before a formal complaint is filed. GRADE APPEALS · If you think the final grade given for a class

Ravikumar, B.

319

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

320

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for Grade 1. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 1; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

321

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 3; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

Arizona Department of Education, 2009

2009-01-01

322

Research of data quality control based on quality grading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve the problem of data quality in data warehouse, the process of data stream in data warehouse and the factors influencing data quality were analyzed; a method for controlling data quality based on quality grading was proposed and the frame of data quality grading system was established. In each process of ETL, the data quality grading system would execute script to calculate values, such as total, component and standard measures in accordance with the definition of Unit Measure, so as to get representation indexes; and then the quality report would be generated according to the indexes and the quality would be graded. The method is applicable to various data warehouse systems.

Liu, Shuang Hong; Yu, Jian Guo; Yu, Yong Ling

2011-12-01

323

Research of data quality control based on quality grading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To solve the problem of data quality in data warehouse, the process of data stream in data warehouse and the factors influencing data quality were analyzed; a method for controlling data quality based on quality grading was proposed and the frame of data quality grading system was established. In each process of ETL, the data quality grading system would execute script to calculate values, such as total, component and standard measures in accordance with the definition of Unit Measure, so as to get representation indexes; and then the quality report would be generated according to the indexes and the quality would be graded. The method is applicable to various data warehouse systems.

Liu, Shuang Hong; Yu, Jian Guo; Yu, Yong Ling

2012-01-01

324

In-vitro investigation to evaluate the flexural bond strengths of three commercially available ultra low fusing ceramic systems to Grade II Titanium  

PubMed Central

Background: This in-vitro investigation was designed to compare the flexural bond strengths of three commercially available ultra low fusing ceramic systems to Grade II Titanium and evaluate the type of bond failure through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersion X ray Spectrum (EDS). Materials & Methods: Sixty patterns of auto polymerizing resin of dimensions 25.1 mm X 3.1mm X 0.6mm each were fabricated from a stainless steel die. Titanium casting for all the samples was done in a Titanium casting machine. Ten samples were allotted to each of three groups randomly. Ceramic build up was done step by step using the manufacturers' instructions. Flexural Bond strength tests for the samples were performed by using a 3-point bending test on a Universal testing machine in compliance with Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) 13.927 draft. After the tests were completed, three samples, one from each group were selected randomly for the subsequent Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) studies to characterize the type and morphology of the fracture in representative specimens. Results: The maximum load to fracture the porcelain was recorded for each specimen. All the means of the three groups were compared by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and it was found that Group I & Group III had significantly higher bond strength values as compared with the Group II (P< 0.001). All the 10 samples of Group I & III gave bond strength values above the standard values of 25 MPa. There was statistically significant difference in the bond strengths between Group I & Group III (t = 2.76 and P< 0.05), between Group I & II (t = 5.09 and P< 0.001) and between Group II & Group III (t = 13.28 and P< 0.001). SEM studies revealed occurrence of cohesive type fractures in the ceramic body of samples belonging to Groups I & III, while there was adhesive failure at ceramo-metal junction of samples belonging to Group II. EDS Analysis supported the findings of SEM studies. Conclusion: All the three ceramic systems fared better than the minimal recommended values stated by ISO 9693:1999 of 25MPa of which Orotig TiKrom was rated the best with values of 54.69 MPa. Vita TitanKeramik ranked second with values of 45.12MPa and the least values were obtained with Noritake Ti-22 with values of 27.76. The bond failure was predominantly cohesive in nature in case of Vita TitanKeramik and Orotig TiKrom; whereas adhesive failure was noticed in case of Noritake Ti-22. How to cite this article: Mabrurkar V, Habbu N, Hashmi SW, Musani S, Joshi N. In-vitro investigation to evaluate the flexural bond strengths of three commercially available ultra low fusing ceramic systems to Grade II Titanium. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(5):101-7. PMID:24324312

Mabrurkar, Vijay; Habbu, Nitin; Hashmi, Sayed Wahhiuddin; Musani, Smita; Joshi, Nikhil

2013-01-01

325

7 CFR 810.2005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Special grades and special grade requirements. 810.2005 Section 810.2005 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810.2005 Special grades and special grade requirements....

2010-01-01

326

A Call to Action: Transforming Grading Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At a very early age, students learn the point system and how school can be about the accumulation of points, not the accumulation of knowledge and skills. Grading systems are pervasive in districts across the nation, with questionable results. For example, a southern school district was highlighted in a 2009 Associated Press story for selling test…

Erickson, Jeffrey A.

2011-01-01

327

Web-CAT: automatically grading programming assignments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This demonstration introduces participants to using Web-CAT, an open-source automated grading system. Web-CAT is customizable and extensible, allowing it to support a wide variety of programming languages and assessment strategies. Web-CAT is most well-known as the system that \\

Stephen H. Edwards; Manuel A. Perez-Quinones

2008-01-01

328

Plus/Minus Grading: Solution or Problem? Research into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surprisingly, the debate over +/- grade systems seems to occur, largely, at the college and university level. Few middle and high schools seem to have taken on the issue, at least in any way that appears in the public literature. Other opinions suggest that it is the discriminating quality of plus/minus grading systems that make them useful. A…

Johnston, Howard

2012-01-01

329

Using Free and Open Source GIS to Automatically Create Standards-Based Spatial Metadata in Academia Using Free and Open Source GIS to  

E-print Network

Using Free and Open Source GIS to Automatically Create Standards-Based Spatial Metadata in Academia Using Free and Open Source GIS to Automatically Create Standards-Based Spatial Metadata in Academia.ellul@ucl.ac.uk Abstract The importance of understanding the quality of data used in any GIS operation has increased

Köbben, Barend

330

Prospective Teachers' Perspectives on Mathematics Teaching and Learning: Lens for Interpreting Experiences in a Standards-Based Mathematics Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a mathematics course for prospective elementary teachers, we strove to model standards-based pedagogy. However, an end-of-class reflection revealed the prospective teachers were considering incorporating standards-based strategies in their future classrooms in ways different from our intent. Thus, we drew upon the framework presented by Simon,…

Chamberlin, Michelle T.

2013-01-01

331

Clicking for Grades? Really? Investigating the Use of Clickers for Awarding Grade-Points in Post-Secondary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using classroom response systems (clickers) to accumulate grade-points has become a controversial practice as response systems have become more widely used in the last decade. Although some instructors opt to use clickers on a non-grades basis, it has become quite common to reward students for (a) correct answers, (b) participating in clicker…

White, Peter; Syncox, David; Alters, Brian

2011-01-01

332

Career Awareness: Grade 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade two, performance…

Boise City Independent School District, ID.

333

Career Awareness: Grade 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade six, performance…

Boise City Independent School District, ID.

334

National History. Grade 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This textbook is the last in the national history series developed by the Ministry of Education in Saigon and used in all public schools in Vietnam. The three books in this series have been reprinted in their entirety from the original editions for use in elementary schools in the United States which have Vietnamese students. The grade 4 text…

Pham-Van-Trong; Pham-Thi Ngoc-Dung

335

Computer grading of examinations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method, using IBM cards and computer processing, automates examination grading and recording and permits use of computational problems. The student generates his own answers, and the instructor has much greater freedom in writing questions than is possible with multiple choice examinations.

Frigerio, N. A.

1969-01-01

336

Thefollowingactionsareexamplesofscholasticdishonesty Copying graded homework!  

E-print Network

Thefollowingactionsareexamplesofscholasticdishonesty Copying graded homework! Working together on a take home test or homework when specifically prohibited by the professor! Looking at another student that appeared on the exam! Giving or selling a term paper or class work to another student! Copying homework

Lachniet, Matthew S.

337

Economics of Grade Reduction  

E-print Network

A Study of the General Principles of the Economics to Be Effected By the Reduction of Grades, the Elimination of Rise and Fall and Curvature, and the Bettering of the Other Physical Condition on the ST. Louis & San Francisco Railroad Lines....

Neff, Paul J.

1914-02-10

338

Grades as Information  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We determine how much observed student performance in microeconomics principles can be attributed, inferentially, to three kinds of student academic "productivity," the instructor, demographics, and unmeasurables. The empirical approach utilizes an ordered probit model that relates student performance in micro to grades in prior coursework,…

Grant, Darren

2007-01-01

339

Social Studies: Grade 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

340

World Cultures Grade 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grade 3 Standard2 Objective 1 Objective: Students will learn to identify elements of cultures in the seven different continents. Assignment: You have just been hired to be a travel agent. Your first customer wants to take a trip around a continent. To be a good travel agent ...

Ms. Shunn-Mitchell

2008-11-25

341

Flower gardens (grade 3)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 3 fraction standards. In this interactive three-part task students reason about fractions used to represent area or a location on a number line. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric, and background on the task itself.

2013-01-01

342

Elementary Science: Grade 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grade 5 science curriculum guide contains four activity units: (1) mineral identification; (2) earth science; (3) soil analysis; and (4) small friends community. Each unit contains a letter to the parents to introduce the unit, lesson plans, and word searches. The lesson plans list the science processes involved, content objectives,…

Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

343

Alternatives to ABC Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The best reporting procedure for any school or school district can be determined only after careful study of the needs and philosophy of the educational program. Whatever the choice of evaluation process, it should be focused on the individual rather than on a group, be skill- or criterion-based, be adaptable on a multi-grade-level range, be…

Warner, Thomas R.

344

American Independence. Fifth Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fifth grade teaching unit covers early conflicts between the American colonies and Britain, battles of the American Revolutionary War, and the Declaration of Independence. Knowledge goals address the pre-revolutionary acts enforced by the British, the concepts of conflict and independence, and the major events and significant people from the…

Crosby, Annette

345

Graphing for Any Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instructional sequence for teaching graphing that has been extensively field tested in kindergarten through grade six is detailed. The material begins with point graphs, employs a movable y-axis to begin with minimal clutter, and has graphs constructed before reading graphs is required. (MP)

Nibbelink, William

1982-01-01

346

INTEGRATED MATHEMATICS GRADE 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

OF THE SEVEN OBJECTIVES STATED, TWO MAY BE UNIQUE. THEY ARE (1) TO GIVE PUPILS MASTERY OF THE BASIC MATHEMATICS FORMERLY COVERED IN GRADES 7 AND 8--THE FUNDAMENTAL OPERATIONS, PERCENTAGE, MEASUREMENT, FORMULAS, PROBLEMS, AND GEOMETRIC CONCEPTS AND CONSTRUCTIONS, AND (2) TO INTRODUCE THE BASIC CONCEPTS, TERMINOLOGY, AND SYMBOLISM OF CONTEMPORARY…

THOMPSON, ROSE M.; AND OTHERS

347

Grade Appeal Form BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

Grade Appeal Form 5/2011 BOISE STATE UNIVERSITY BSU Policy #3130 Grade Appeal (Please Print Fall Other Course Number Course Name Section Instructor Name Department GRADE APPEAL: As stated in BSU Policy # 3130 - Grade Appeal, a grade appeal is a complaint regarding a final course grade. Grade appeals

Barrash, Warren

348

Rigorous Grading Does Not Raise Standards: It Only Lowers Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses "grade inflation," and the pressure on instructors to "play grade roll politics to save their own professional hides." Argues that the grade deflation movement works at cross purposes with its goal of elevating academic standards, and that it is at odds with composition theory and its process pedagogy. Suggests portfolio assessment as…

Agnew, Eleanor

1995-01-01

349

A Note on Grading Policies and Grade Inflation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results of a study of the relationship between students' propensities to withdraw from a course and the faculty member's grading in that course show that students do use the option to withdraw from courses when grades tend to be low in order to protect their grade point averages. (JMD)

Geisinger, Kurt F.

1979-01-01

350

Graded Readers: How the Publishers Make the Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Publishing graded readers is big business, but there is evidence that the texts themselves are not being read in sufficient quantity to improve language proficiency. This article reports on a study of graded readers, focusing on interviews with some major publishers of graded readers, to investigate their production rationales. The findings…

Claridge, Gillian

2012-01-01

351

GRADE guidelines: 1. Introduction-GRADE evidence profiles and summary of findings tables.  

PubMed

This article is the first of a series providing guidance for use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system of rating quality of evidence and grading strength of recommendations in systematic reviews, health technology assessments (HTAs), and clinical practice guidelines addressing alternative management options. The GRADE process begins with asking an explicit question, including specification of all important outcomes. After the evidence is collected and summarized, GRADE provides explicit criteria for rating the quality of evidence that include study design, risk of bias, imprecision, inconsistency, indirectness, and magnitude of effect. Recommendations are characterized as strong or weak (alternative terms conditional or discretionary) according to the quality of the supporting evidence and the balance between desirable and undesirable consequences of the alternative management options. GRADE suggests summarizing evidence in succinct, transparent, and informative summary of findings tables that show the quality of evidence and the magnitude of relative and absolute effects for each important outcome and/or as evidence profiles that provide, in addition, detailed information about the reason for the quality of evidence rating. Subsequent articles in this series will address GRADE's approach to formulating questions, assessing quality of evidence, and developing recommendations. PMID:21195583

Guyatt, Gordon; Oxman, Andrew D; Akl, Elie A; Kunz, Regina; Vist, Gunn; Brozek, Jan; Norris, Susan; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Glasziou, Paul; DeBeer, Hans; Jaeschke, Roman; Rind, David; Meerpohl, Joerg; Dahm, Philipp; Schünemann, Holger J

2011-04-01

352

Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

2013-10-01

353

Patterns of dietary intake and serum carotenoid and tocopherol status are associated with biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Dietary modification may affect inflammatory processes and protect against chronic disease. In the present study, we examined the relationship between dietary patterns, circulating carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations, and biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in a 10-year longitudinal study of Scottish postmenopausal women. Diet was assessed by FFQ during 1997-2000 (n 3237, mean age 54·8 (SD 2·2) years). Participants (n 2130, mean age 66·0 (SD 2·2) years) returned during 2007-11 for follow-up. Diet was assessed by FFQ (n 1682) and blood was collected for the analysis of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-6, serum amyloid A, E-selectin, lipid profile and dietary biomarkers (carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol). Dietary pattern and dietary biomarker (serum carotenoid) components were generated by principal components analysis. A past 'prudent' dietary pattern predicted serum concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 (which decreased across the quintiles of the dietary pattern; P= 0·002 and P= 0·001, respectively; ANCOVA). Contemporary dietary patterns were also associated with inflammatory biomarkers. The concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 decreased across the quintiles of the 'prudent' dietary pattern (P= 0·030 and P= 0·006, respectively). hs-CRP concentration increased across the quintiles of a 'meat-dominated' dietary pattern (P= 0·001). Inflammatory biomarker concentrations decreased markedly across the quintiles of carotenoid component score (P< 0·001 for hs-CRP and IL-6, and P= 0·016 for E-selectin; ANCOVA). Prudent dietary pattern and carotenoid component scores were negatively associated with serum hs-CRP concentration (unstandardised ? for prudent component: -0·053, 95% CI -0·102, -0·003; carotenoid component: -0·183, 95% CI -0·233, -0·134) independent of study covariates. A prudent dietary pattern (which reflects a diet high in the intakes of fish, yogurt, pulses, rice, pasta and wine, in addition to fruit and vegetable consumption) and a serum carotenoid profile characteristic of a fruit and vegetable-rich diet are associated with lower concentrations of intermediary markers that are indicative of CVD risk reduction. PMID:25313576

Wood, Adrian D; Strachan, Anna A; Thies, Frank; Aucott, Lorna S; Reid, David M; Hardcastle, Antonia C; Mavroeidi, Alexandra; Simpson, William G; Duthie, Garry G; Macdonald, Helen M

2014-10-28

354

Grade Inflation: Metaphor and Reality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grade inflation has become a general term for teachers and administrators in recent times and is an ambiguous denomination which needs to be identified. The allegory and reality of grade inflation is discussed.

Kamber, Richard; Biggs, Mary

2003-01-01

355

Towards a Standards-Based Approach to E-Learning Personalization Using Reusable Learning Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

E-Learning systems that produce personalized course offerings for the learner are often expensive, both from a time and financial perspective, to develop and maintain. Learning content personalized to a learners' cognitive preferences has been shown to produce more effective learning, however many approaches to realizing this form of…

Conlan, Owen; Dagger, Declan; Wade, Vincent

356

ili G d C l i h hFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizerGrade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate Recovery Phillip Barak, PhDAmanda Boyce, MSc Phillip Barak, PhDAmanda Boyce, MSc  

E-print Network

ili G d C l i h hFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizerGrade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate Recovery Phillip Barak, PhDAmanda Boyce, MSc F W T Pl Phillip endeavored to improve on this recovery system by producing calcium phosphates from p p y fl idi d b d t i d

Barak, Phillip

357

Taking the Grading Conversation Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To manage effective grading reform, education leaders must engage teachers, parents, communities, and policymakers in a rational discussion about grading. Doug Reeves suggests that leaders start the conversation with a discussion of the principles on which all stakeholders can agree; make clear what will not change under the new grading policy; be…

Reeves, Douglas B.

2011-01-01

358

How Accurate Is Peer Grading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previously we showed that weekly, written, timed, and peer-graded practice exams help increase student performance on written exams and decrease failure rates in an introductory biology course. Here we analyze the accuracy of peer grading, based on a comparison of student scores to those assigned by a professional grader. When students graded

Freeman, Scott; Parks, John W.

2010-01-01

359

The Role of the Science Leader in Implementing Standards-Based Science Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most of the literature of reform and systemic change focuses on policy, programs, and practices that the leaders should be responsible for producing, this chapter will emphasize what is known about how leaders bring about these improvements and what the research says about the skills, behaviors, and leadership styles of effective leaders. Finally, this chapter will highlight the concept of distributed leadership as presented in the National Science Education Standards. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Foreward, Preface, and Introduction.

Rhoton, Jack; Bowers, Patricia

2001-01-01

360

Achieving mask order processing automation, interoperability and standardization based on P10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last year the MUSCLE (Masks through User's Supply Chain: Leadership by Excellence) project was presented. Here is the project advancement. A key process in mask supply chain management is the exchange of technical information for ordering masks. This process is large, complex, company specific and error prone, and leads to longer cycle times and higher costs due to missing or wrong inputs. Its automation and standardization could produce significant benefits. We need to agree on the standard for mandatory and optional parameters, and also a common way to describe parameters when ordering. A system was created to improve the performance in terms of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) such as cycle time and cost of production. This tool allows us to evaluate and measure the effect of factors, as well as the effect of implementing the improvements of the complete project. Next, a benchmark study and a gap analysis were performed. These studies show the feasibility of standardization, as there is a large overlap in requirements. We see that the SEMI P10 standard needs enhancements. A format supporting the standard is required, and XML offers the ability to describe P10 in a flexible way. Beyond using XML for P10, the semantics of the mask order should also be addressed. A system design and requirements for a reference implementation for a P10 based management system are presented, covering a mechanism for the evolution and for version management and a design for P10 editing and data validation.

Rodriguez, B.; Filies, O.; Sadran, D.; Tissier, Michel; Albin, D.; Stavroulakis, S.; Voyiatzis, E.

2007-02-01

361

[Echocardiographic grading of cor pulmonale in chronic lung diseases].  

PubMed

The extent of right heart strain determines the prognosis of chronic lung disease. The value of a simple semiquantitative echocardiographic grading system for cor pulmonale was assessed in 69 patients (24 females, 45 males, age 61 +/- 12 years, ranging from 28-82 years) suffering from chronic lung disease. The patients were classified by echocardiography into four groups, Grade 0 consisting of those without evidence of right heart strain and three groups showing increasing severity of change (Grade I: right ventricular hypertrophy; Grade II: I + right ventricular dilation; Grade III: II + Dilation of the inferior vena cava). Echocardiographic investigation, at least from the subcostal view, and grading was possible in all patients. A correlation was found between the echocardiographic grading and the mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP)-normal echo study 15.7 +/- 4.8; grade I 21.1 +/- 5.6; grade II 28.8 +/- 10.2; grade III 39.4 +/- 9.4 mmHg. In addition, patients with stress-induced pulmonary hypertension (PHT) were detected by Doppler echocardiography. 6 of 11 patients with latent PHT already showed evidence of cor pulmonale (4 Grade I and 2 Grade II). In 42 patients (61%) the systolic PAP was estimated by measuring the velocity of the tricuspid insufficiency jet with Doppler, and these data correlated closely with the invasive data (p < 0.001; r = 0.81). Doppler echocardiography for evaluation of cor pulmonale is feasible even in patients with chronic lung disease and limited acoustic windows. Semiquantitative grading correlates well with invasive data. Here, this technique is useful as a baseline study as well as for the follow-up of patients with chronic lung disease. PMID:7732691

Weihs, W; Picha, R; Schuchlenz, H; Harb, S; Anelli-Monti, B; Harnoncourt, K

1995-01-01

362

High-Grade Gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  High-grade gliomas (HGGs) should be treated with maximal, safe surgical resection followed by 57–60 Gy of partial-field external\\u000a beam or intensity-modulated radiotherapy to a 2 cm margin surrounding the resection cavity. The standard of care for newly\\u000a diagnosed glioblastoma includes concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) during radiotherapy and adjuvant TMZ for six or more cycles.\\u000a The optimal role of chemotherapy in anaplastic gliomas

Brett J. Theeler; Morris D. Groves

363

Low-Grade Astrocytomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Glial tumors constitute approximately 50% of newly diagnosed primary brain tumors, with low-grade gliomas (LGG) accounting\\u000a for approximately 15% of all brain tumors in adults [21]. The subset of tumors classified as LGG represents a heterogeneous\\u000a group of tumors with astrocytic, oligodendroglial, ependymal, or mixed cellular histologies. In the adult population, the\\u000a term LGG typically refers to the diffuse, infiltrating

Nader Sanai; Mitchel S. Berger

364

School Mural ( Grade 3)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 3 operations and algebraic thinking standards as well as the measurement and data standards. In this interactive multi-step task students must write a number sentence that can be used to find how many tiles high the mural is at school and then show the value of the Distributive Property in solving a problem. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric and background on the task itself.

2013-01-01

365

Fourth Grade Lab Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are a collection of sites related to the Fourth Grade CORE, to be explored in the computer lab. For SCIENCE explorations click below. 1. Clouds and the water cycle at the Enchanted Learning site. 2. Look at the Cloud Man&s pictures of clouds. 3. Cloud Types 4. Clouds and Precipitation: online meteorology guide 5. The Dirt on Soil 6. The Dirt on Soil 7. Soil Horizons For MATH activities click below. Math activities "A" ...

Boissonnault, Ms.

2005-06-23

366

DUAL-COMPONENT VIDEO IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM (VIASCANTM) AS A PREDICTOR OF BEEF RED MEAT YIELD PERCENTAGE AND FOR AUGMENTING APPLICATION OF USDA YIELD GRADES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Improved ability to quantify differences in the fabrication yields of beef carcasses would facilitate application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Dual-Component Australian VIASCANTM: (a) to predict fabricated beef subprimal yields as a percentage of carcass weight at each of three fat-trim levels and (b) to augment USDA yield grading, thereby improving

R. C. Cannell; J. D. Tatum; K. E. Belk; J. W. Wise; R. P. Clayton; G. C. Smith

367

Security challenges in integration of a PHR-S into a standards based national EHR.  

PubMed

Health related data provided by patients themselves is expected to play a major role in future healthcare. Data from personal health devices, vaccination records, health diaries or observations of daily living, for instance, is stored in personal health records (PHR) which are maintained by personal health record systems (PHR-S). Combining this information with medical records provided by healthcare providers in electronic health records (EHR) is one of the next steps towards "personal care". Austria currently sets up a nationwide EHR system that incorporates all healthcare providers and is technically based on international standards (IHE, HL7, OASIS, ...). Looking at the expected potential of merging PHR and EHR data it is worth to analyse integration approaches. Although knowing that an integration requires the coordination of processes, information models and technical architectures, this paper specifically focuses on security issues by evaluating general security requirements for a PHR-S (based on HL7 PHR-S FM), comparing them with the information security specifications for the Austrian's national EHR (based on ISO/IES 27000 series) and identifying the main challenges as well as possible approaches. PMID:25160182

Mense, Alexander; Hoheiser Pförtner, Franz; Sauermann, Stefan

2014-01-01

368

Promoting Reading Achievement and Countering the "Fourth-Grade Slump": The Impact of Direct Instruction on Reading Achievement in Fifth Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has documented a substantial decline of standardized test scores of children from low-income backgrounds, relative to more advantaged peers, in later elementary grades, the so-called "fourth-grade slump." This article examines changes in reading achievement from first to fifth grade for students in a large urban school system

Stockard, Jean

2010-01-01

369

Graded Course of Study, Mathematics (K-12).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course of study specifies skills and concepts in mathematics that are to be taught in the various grades of the Euclid (Ohio) City School System. It is based on the philosophy that the purpose of the mathematics program of the Euclid City Schools is to provide students with the kinds of skills they will need to become productive members of…

Euclid City Schools, OH.

370

7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

2012-01-01

371

7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

2013-01-01

372

7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

2011-01-01

373

7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

2010-01-01

374

7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

2014-01-01

375

7 CFR 810.1204 - Grades and grade requirements for rye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for rye. 810.1204 Section 810.1204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Rye Principles Governing the Application of...1204 Grades and grade requirements for rye. Grade Minimum test weight per...

2014-01-01

376

7 CFR 810.1204 - Grades and grade requirements for rye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for rye. 810.1204 Section 810.1204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Rye Principles Governing the Application of...1204 Grades and grade requirements for rye. Grade Minimum test weight per...

2011-01-01

377

7 CFR 810.1204 - Grades and grade requirements for rye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for rye. 810.1204 Section 810.1204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Rye Principles Governing the Application of...1204 Grades and grade requirements for rye. Grade Minimum test weight per...

2013-01-01

378

7 CFR 810.1204 - Grades and grade requirements for rye.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for rye. 810.1204 Section 810.1204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Rye Principles Governing the Application of...1204 Grades and grade requirements for rye. Grade Minimum test weight per...

2012-01-01

379

7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004 Section 810.1004 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application...1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test...

2014-01-01

380

7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004 Section 810.1004 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application...1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test...

2011-01-01

381

7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004 Section 810.1004 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application...1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test...

2013-01-01

382

7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004 Section 810.1004 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application...1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test...

2012-01-01

383

Project ACE Activity Sets. Book II: Grades 6 and 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document contains eight activity sets suitable for grades 6 and 7. Topics focus on governmental, social, and educational systems in foreign countries. Each activity set contains background reading materials, resources, concepts, general objectives, and instructional objectives. Grade 6 sets are "Soviet Youth Organizations,""How Democracy in…

Eden City Schools, NC.

384

Ohio Ag in the Classroom. Fourth Grade Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adapted from Idaho's fourth grade agricultural education curriculum guide, this manual was created because there were insufficient resources available to Ohio students about the systems that provide human beings with food and fiber. Economically Ohio's largest industry, agriculture, serves as a basis for providing fourth-grade teachers with…

Ohio State Dept. of Agriculture, Columbus.

385

Design of Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuators Using Topology Optimization  

E-print Network

. Carbonaria, Em´ilio C. N. Silvaa, and Glaucio H. Paulinob aDepartment of Mechatronics ad Mechanical Systems element method with sequential linear programming. The finite element method is based on the graded finite Materials (FGMs) are advanced materials that possess continuously graded properties and are characterized

Paulino, Glaucio H.

386

A survival analysis comparing women with ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma to those with high-grade histology  

PubMed Central

Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) and high-grade serous carcinoma have distinct molecular profiles, clinical behaviors, and treatment responses. The survival advantage for patients with low-grade carcinoma compared with patients with high-grade histology remains controversial. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 381 patients with ovarian serous carcinoma at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2007 to 2010. Patients were classified into two groups according to MD Anderson two-tier system: 35 (9.2%) cases with LGSC and 346 with high-grade serous carcinoma. Patients with low-grade serous ovarian cancer had a significantly younger age at diagnosis (46 versus 56 years, P=0.046), and their median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival values were 35.0 and 54.0 months, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that, for serous ovarian cancer, the histological grade was a significant prognostic factor for PFS but not for overall survival (P=0.022 and P=0.0566, respectively). When stratified by the existence of a residual disease, patients with low-grade disease who underwent cytoreductive surgery without macroscopic residual disease (>1 cm) had a significantly improved median PFS time (36.0 months) compared with that of patients with high-grade carcinoma who received optimal cytoreductive surgery (16.0 months, P=0.017). Conversely, patients with low-grade and high-grade carcinoma who were left with macroscopic residue (>1 cm) experienced a similarly shorter median PFS (10.0 and 13.0 months, respectively, P=0.871). The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and residual disease were significant prognostic factors of low-grade carcinoma, while positive ascites was associated with a worse PFS value. Our data showed that LGSC is a different entity from high-grade carcinoma and that LGSC was associated with improved PFS after optimal cytoreductive surgery but not suboptimal operation. PMID:25342912

Chen, Ming; Jin, Ying; Bi, Yalan; Yin, Jie; Wang, Yongxue; Pan, Lingya

2014-01-01

387

Lunar Plant Growth Chamber: Human Exploration Project STS-118 Design Challenge. A Standards-Based High School Unit Guide. Engineering by Design: Advancing Technological Literacy. A Standards-Based Program Series. EP-2007-08-94-MSFC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2005, the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) was funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop curricular units for Grades K-12 on Space Exploration. The units focus on aspects of the themes that NASA Engineers and Scientists--as well as future generations of explorers--must consider, such…

Caron, Daniel W.; Fuller, Jeremy; Watson, Janice; St. Hilaire, Katherine

2007-01-01

388

Complex permittivity scaling of functionally graded composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we provide a fundamental understanding of dielectric loss behavior as a function of applied electric field and frequency in functionally graded composites with varying numbers of layers and compositions. A new power-law scaling relation in the form of \\epsilon \\prime\\prime \\propto {{f}^{p}}E_{o}^{q} was derived based upon the ferroelectric hysteresis. The magnitude of the imaginary component of the dielectric permittivity \\left( \\epsilon \\prime\\prime \\right) was estimated from the polarization-electric field hysteresis loop. The changes in exponents of the scaling relation were correlated with the mechanism controlling the dielectric loss and interfacial coupling in graded structures. Building upon the scaling analysis, we investigated the effect of E-field on the domain mobility (?) for various functionally graded systems. These results were correlated with the experimental investigation on ferroelectric domains using transmission electron microscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy.

Wongdamnern, Natthapong; Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Yimnirun, Rattikorn; Priya, Shashank

2014-03-01

389

CSP Policies & Procedures Process for Grade Appeals  

E-print Network

CSP Policies & Procedures Process for Grade Appeals Grade Appeals ­ Generally speaking, once grades that a grade in a course has been assigned on any basis other than academic grounds, he or she may appeal his or her grade. Step 1 ­ Appeal to IOR 1. A student who wishes to appeal a Y mark or an F grade must notify

Nguyen, Danh

390

CSP Policies & Procedures Process for Grade Appeals  

E-print Network

CSP Policies & Procedures Process for Grade Appeals Grade Appeals ­ Generally speaking, once grades that a grade in a course has been assigned on any basis other than academic grounds, he or she may appeal his or her grade. Step 1 ­ Appeal to IOR 1. A student who wishes to appeal a Y mark or an F grade must submit

Leistikow, Bruce N.

391

Grading of soft tissue sarcomas: from histological to molecular assessment.  

PubMed

Several histological grading systems for soft tissue sarcomas have been described since the early 1980s. Their main objective is to select patients for adjuvant chemotherapy. Two histological grading systems are used in daily practice, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the French Federation of Cancer Centers Sarcoma Group (FNCLCC) systems. They have been devised by combining histological parameters: number of mitoses per high-power field, the presence of necrosis, cellular and nuclear morphology and the degree of cellularity for the NCI grading; and tumour differentiation, mitotic index and extent of necrosis for the French system. Histological grading is far more appropriate to assess the risk of metastasis. However, several limitations prevent its use: grade cannot be applied to all histological types, its reproducibility is not perfect, a three-grade system generates an intermediate grade with undetermined prognosis, and finally the core needle biopsy, now widely used for the diagnosis of soft tissue sarcoma, is not the best sample to assess the grade. The development of molecular grading in addition to histological grading probably represents the next step. Molecular signatures based on quantitative evaluation of chromosomal complexity such as CINSARC (complexity index in sarcomas) appear as a strong independent predictive factor for metastasis in several types of sarcoma, and even in several other types of cancer. When they can be instituted in daily practice on formalin fixed, paraffin embedded material, molecular signatures will not only provide information on risk of metastasis, but also better understanding of cancer development, response or resistance to evaluated drugs, and potential targets for future treatments. PMID:24378389

Neuville, Agnes; Chibon, Frédéric; Coindre, Jean-Michel

2014-02-01

392

Crafting Coherence from Complex Policy Messages: Educators' Perceptions of Special Education and Standards-Based Accountability Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal special education and accountability policies requires that educators individualize instruction for students with disabilities, while simultaneously ensuring that the vast majority of these students meet age-based grade-level standards and assessment targets. In this paper, we examine this dynamic interplay between policies through…

Russell, Jennifer Lin; Bray, Laura E.

2013-01-01

393

The GeoDataPortal: A Standards-based Environmental Modeling Data Access and Manipulation Toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental modelers from fields of study such as climatology, hydrology, geology, and ecology rely on many data sources and processing methods that are common across these disciplines. Interest in inter-disciplinary, loosely coupled modeling and data sharing is increasing among scientists from the USGS, other agencies, and academia. For example, hydrologic modelers need downscaled climate change scenarios and land cover data summarized for the watersheds they are modeling. Subsequently, ecological modelers are interested in soil moisture information for a particular habitat type as predicted by the hydrologic modeler. The USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics Geo Data Portal (GDP) project seeks to facilitate this loose model coupling data sharing through broadly applicable open-source web processing services. These services simplify and streamline the time consuming and resource intensive tasks that are barriers to inter-disciplinary collaboration. The GDP framework includes a catalog describing projects, models, data, processes, and how they relate. Using newly introduced data, or sources already known to the catalog, the GDP facilitates access to sub-sets and common derivatives of data in numerous formats on disparate web servers. The GDP performs many of the critical functions needed to summarize data sources into modeling units regardless of scale or volume. A user can specify their analysis zones or modeling units as an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard Web Feature Service (WFS). Utilities to cache Shapefiles and other common GIS input formats have been developed to aid in making the geometry available for processing via WFS. Dataset access in the GDP relies primarily on the Unidata NetCDF-Java library’s common data model. Data transfer relies on methods provided by Unidata’s Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Distribution System Data Server (TDS). TDS services of interest include the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP) standard for gridded time series, the OGC’s Web Coverage Service for high-density static gridded data, and Unidata’s CDM-remote for point time series. OGC WFS and Sensor Observation Service (SOS) are being explored as mechanisms to serve and access static or time series data attributed to vector geometry. A set of standardized XML-based output formats allows easy transformation into a wide variety of “model-ready” formats. Interested users will have the option of submitting custom transformations to the GDP or transforming the XML output as a post-process. The GDP project aims to support simple, rapid development of thin user interfaces (like web portals) to commonly needed environmental modeling-related data access and manipulation tools. Standalone, service-oriented components of the GDP framework provide the metadata cataloging, data subset access, and spatial-statistics calculations needed to support interdisciplinary environmental modeling.

Blodgett, D. L.; Kunicki, T.; Booth, N.; Suftin, I.; Zoerb, R.; Walker, J.

2010-12-01

394

Bridging the gap between Hydrologic and Atmospheric communities through a standard based framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data interoperability in the study of Earth sciences is essential to performing interdisciplinary multi-scale multi-dimensional analyses (e.g. hydrologic impacts of global warming, regional urbanization, global population growth etc.). This research aims to bridge the existing gap between hydrologic and atmospheric communities both at semantic and technological levels. Within the context of hydrology, scientists are usually concerned with data organized as time series: a time series can be seen as a variable measured at a particular point in space over a period of time (e.g. the stream flow values as periodically measured by a buoy sensor in a river); atmospheric scientists instead usually organize their data as coverages: a coverage can be seen as a multidimensional data array (e.g. satellite images acquired through time). These differences make non-trivial the set up of a common framework to perform data discovery and access. A set of web services specifications and implementations is already in place in both the scientific communities to allow data discovery and access in the different domains. The CUAHSI-Hydrologic Information System (HIS) service stack lists different services types and implementations: - a metacatalog (implemented as a CSW) used to discover metadata services by distributing the query to a set of catalogs - time series catalogs (implemented as CSW) used to discover datasets published by the feature services - feature services (implemented as WFS) containing features with data access link - sensor observation services (implemented as SOS) enabling access to the stream of acquisitions Within the Unidata framework, there lies a similar service stack for atmospheric data: - the broker service (implemented as a CSW) distributes a user query to a set of heterogeneous services (i.e. catalogs services, but also inventory and access services) - the catalog service (implemented as a CSW) is able to harvest the available metadata offered by THREDDS services, and executes complex queries against the available metadata. - inventory service (implemented as a THREDDS) being able to hierarchically organize and publish a local collection of multi-dimensional arrays (e.g. NetCDF, GRIB files), as well as publish auxiliary standard services to realize the actual data access and visualization (e.g. WCS, OPeNDAP, WMS). The approach followed in this research is to build on top of the existing standards and implementations, by setting up a standard-aware interoperable framework, able to deal with the existing heterogeneity in an organic way. As a methodology, interoperability tests against real services were performed; existing problems were thus highlighted and possibly solved. The use of flexible tools, able to deal in a smart way with heterogeneity has proven to be successful, in particular experiments were carried on with both GI-cat broker and ESRI GeoPortal frameworks. GI-cat discovery broker was proven successful at implementing the CSW interface, as well as federating heterogeneous resources, such as THREDDS and WCS services published by Unidata, HydroServer, WFS and SOS services published by CUAHSI. Experiments with ESRI GeoPortal were also successful: the GeoPortal was used to deploy a web interface able to distribute searches amongst catalog implementations from both the hydrologic and the atmospheric communities, including HydroServers and GI-cat, combining results from both the domains in a seamless way.

Boldrini, E.; Salas, F.; Maidment, D. R.; Mazzetti, P.; Santoro, M.; Nativi, S.; Domenico, B.

2012-04-01

395

[GRADE guidelines: 1. Introduction - GRADE evidence profiles and summary of findings tables].  

PubMed

This article is the first of a series providing guidance for the use of the GRADE system of rating quality of evidence and grading strength of recommendations in systematic reviews, health technology assessments, and clinical practice guidelines addressing alternative management options. The GRADE process begins with asking an explicit question, including specification of all important outcomes. After the evidence has been collected and summarised, GRADE provides explicit criteria for rating the quality of evidence that include study design, risk of bias, imprecision, inconsistency, indirectness, and magnitude of effect. Recommendations are characterised as strong or weak (alternative terms: conditional or discretionary) according to the quality of the supporting evidence and the balance between desirable and undesirable consequences of the alternative management options. GRADE suggests summarising evidence in succinct, transparent, and informative Summary of Findings tables that show the quality of evidence and the magnitude of relative and absolute effects for each important outcome and/or as evidence profiles that provide, in addition, detailed information about the reason for the quality of evidence rating. Subsequent articles in this series will address GRADE's approach to formulating questions, assessing quality of evidence, and developing recommendations. PMID:22818160

Langer, Gero; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Perleth, Matthias; Gartlehner, Gerald; Kaminski-Hartenthaler, Angela; Schünemann, Holger

2012-01-01

396

Grading the teacher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several fads ago there was a movement to grade teachers in terms of their competency — competency-based testing. Everyone knows that there are good teachers and there are bad teachers. The trouble is, it's hard to define the categories. It's like the Supreme Court justice who couldn't define pornography, but knew it when he saw it. In New York State, prospective teachers must take tests in both pedagogy and subject material. That seems reasonable. There ought to be some minimum standards, so I thought that I would try my hand at setting up such requirements.

Swartz, Clifford E.

2000-04-01

397

Maximal physical work performance with European standard based fire-protective clothing system and equipment in relation to individual characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every fire fighter needs to wear fire-protective clothing and a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) several times a year while carrying out various fire-fighting and rescue operations in hazardous work environments. The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of a multilayer turnout suit designed to fulfil European standard EN 469 used over standardized (Nordic) clothing and with

V. Louhevaara; R. Ilmarinen; B. Griefahn; C. Künemund; H. Mäkinen

1995-01-01

398

7 CFR 810.105 - Grades and grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades,...

2010-01-01

399

Grade Level Expectations and Grade Equivalent Scores in Reading Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Statistical methods and test writing for reading comprehension have been based on the assumption that certain reading tasks or levels are appropriate at one age level that would be too difficult at another. A clear-cut determination of grade levels for reading materials has, however, not been defined. Grade and age equivalent scores on silent…

Tucker, Elizabeth Sulzby

400

Perceived orientation of complex shape reflects graded part decomposition  

E-print Network

Perceived orientation of complex shape reflects graded part decomposition Department of Psychology-based representation of shape Prior research indicates that the human visual system represents complex shapes in terms

Tong, Frank

401

First Grade Number Actiivities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of First Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, and Number and Operations in Base Ten) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

402

Third Grade Number Actiivities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of Third Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

403

Second grade Number Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of Second Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, and Number and Operations in Base Ten) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

404

Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

405

Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

406

SCIENCE, KINDERGARTEN AND GRADE ONE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A GUIDE FOR THE TEACHING OF SCIENCE IN KINDERGARTEN AND FIRST GRADE IS PRESENTED. THE PURPOSE IS TO HELP TEACHERS IN IMPLEMENTING THE COURSE REQUIREMENTS IN SCIENCE. THE MAJOR GOAL IS TEACHING CHILDREN TO THINK IN A SCIENTIFIC WAY. SUGGESTED UNITS FOR KINDERGARTEN ARE ANIMALS AND PLANTS, WEATHER, DISCOVERY, AND THE FIVE SENSES. THE UNITS FOR GRADE

Fresno County Schools, CA.

407

Practicing Good Habits, Grade 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This illustrated textbook was designed for teaching civics and values to fourth grade students in Vietnam. It is divided into six chapters: (1) At School (recapitulation of the grade three program, friendship, respect for the teacher, team work, discipline, honor); (2) In the Street: Traffic Regulations; (3) At Home (the extended family spirit,…

Van Cong Lau; And Others

408

Science: Grade 7. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

409

Coastal Studies for Primary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a set of field trips for participants of the Coastal Environmental Education for Primary Grades program in Georgia. Includes a sample of the activities used by first- and second-grade students. Discusses follow-up activities and the need for more educational programs dealing with sand dunes and saltwater marshes. (TW)

Butler, Venetia R.; Roach, Ellen M.

1986-01-01

410

7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements ...Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to...

2010-01-01

411

7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements ...Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to...

2012-01-01

412

7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements ...Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to...

2014-01-01

413

7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements ...Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to...

2013-01-01

414

7 CFR 810.1405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements ...Special grades and special grade requirements. Smutty sorghum. Sorghum that has kernels covered with smut spores to...

2011-01-01

415

7 CFR 810.1205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Rye Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty rye. Rye that contains more than 0.30 percent of ergot....

2012-01-01

416

7 CFR 810.1205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Rye Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty rye. Rye that contains more than 0.30 percent of ergot....

2011-01-01

417

7 CFR 810.1205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Rye Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty rye. Rye that contains more than 0.30 percent of ergot....

2013-01-01

418

7 CFR 810.1205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Rye Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty rye. Rye that contains more than 0.30 percent of ergot....

2014-01-01

419

7 CFR 810.1205 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Rye Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Ergoty rye. Rye that contains more than 0.30 percent of ergot....

2010-01-01

420

7 CFR 810.1005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...grades and special grade requirements. (a) Bleached oats. Oats that in whole or in part, have been treated with...

2014-01-01

421

7 CFR 810.1005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...grades and special grade requirements. (a) Bleached oats. Oats that in whole or in part, have been treated with...

2013-01-01

422

7 CFR 810.1005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...grades and special grade requirements. (a) Bleached oats. Oats that in whole or in part, have been treated with...

2011-01-01

423

7 CFR 810.1005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...grades and special grade requirements. (a) Bleached oats. Oats that in whole or in part, have been treated with...

2012-01-01

424

Comparison between teacher grading and student self-grading in different modules of agronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adaptation of the Universities to European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves changes in the learning system. Students must obtain specific capabilities in the different degrees or masters. For example, in the degree of Agronomy at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain), they must command mathematics, English informatics or crop production. Moreover, students must attain personal skills such as leadership, team work, a critical spirit and a social, environmental and ethical commitment with the environment and the society. A way to evaluate the critical spirit of the students is to compare the grade obtained in a specific module with the grade that the students think he should get. The aim of this work is to evaluate the differences between teacher and student grading in different subjects related to soil science in different degrees and masters courses at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.

Méndez, A.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Guerrero, F.; Gascó, J. M.; Saá, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gascó, G.

2012-04-01

425

7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according to the grading specifications...

2011-01-01

426

7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according to the grading specifications...

2010-01-01

427

7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according to the grading specifications...

2013-01-01

428

7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according to the grading specifications...

2014-01-01

429

7 CFR 932.11 - Grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.11 Grade. Grade means the classification of olives as to quality according to the grading specifications...

2012-01-01

430

7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

2011-01-01

431

7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

2010-01-01

432

7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

2014-01-01

433

7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

2013-01-01

434

7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

2012-01-01

435

Graded Multicategories of Polynomial-time Realizers (Extended Abstract)  

E-print Network

Preliminary Version Abstract We present a logical calculus which imposes a grading on a sequent-style calculus to account for the runtime of the programmes represented by the sequents. This system is sound for a notion of polynomial-time realizability. An extension of the grading is also considered, giving a notion of "dependant grades", which is also sound. Furthermore, we define a notion of closed graded multicategory, and show how the structure of polynomial-time realizers has that structure. 0 Introduction In [4], a restricted notion of realizability is defined, a special case of which is polynomialtime realizability: this is like Kleene's original realizability, save for three features. First, closed atomic formulae are realized only by realizers that express a reason for the "truth" (or provability) of the formula, unlike Kleene's system which only reflects the fact that the formula is provable. Second, open formulae are treated as the corresponding closed formulae with all fre...

R.A.G. Seely; John Abbott College; Ste Anne De Bellevue

1989-01-01

436

Describing students of the African Diaspora: Understanding micro and meso level science learning as gateways to standards based discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In much of the educational literature, researchers make little distinction between African-American students and students of the African Diaspora who immigrated to the United States. Failing to describe these salient student differences serves to perpetuate an inaccurate view of African-American school life. In today's large cities, students of the African Diaspora are frequently learning science in settings that are devoid of the resources and tools to fully support their success. While much of the scholarship unites these disparate groups, this article details the distinctive learning culture created when students from several groups of the African Diaspora learn biology together in a Brooklyn Suspension Center. Specifically this work explains how one student, Gabriel, functions in a biology class. A self-described black-Panamanian, Gabriel had tacitly resigned to not learning science, which then, in effect, precluded him from any further associated courses of study in science, and may have excluded him from the possibility of a science related career. This ethnography follows Gabriel's science learning as he engaged in cogenerative dialogue with teachers to create aligned learning and teaching practices. During the 5 months of this research, Gabriel drew upon his unique lifeworld and the depth of his hybridized cultural identity to produce limited, but nonetheless important demonstrations of science. Coexistent with his involvement in cogenerative dialogue, Gabriel helped to construct many classroom practices that supported a dynamic learning environment which produced small yet concrete examples of standards based biology. This study supports further investigation by the science education community to consider ways that students' lifeworld experiences can serve to structure and transform the urban science classroom.

Lehner, Ed

2007-04-01

437

Fault emulation: A new methodology for fault grading  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a method that uses the field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based emulation system for fault grading. The real-time simulation capability of a hard- ware emulator could significantly improve the performance of fault grading, which is one of the most time-consuming tasks in the circuit design and test process. We employ a serial fault emulation algorithm enhanced

Kwang-ting Cheng; Shi-yu Huang; Wei-jin Dai

1999-01-01

438

Jiggling Jellyfish Grade Level: Fifth  

E-print Network

Jiggling Jellyfish Grade Level: Fifth Developers: Kim Banta, Steve Heyer, Shari Main (teachers jellyfish data accurately !" Analyze data to answer questions Oregon State Science Standards addressed. Material list for the unit: !" Thermometers !" Salinity gauges (constructed by students) !" Jellyfish nets

439

Graded Photonic Bandgap Structures and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of periodic nanostructured materials with specific optical properties can significantly impact the development of optical based sensors. Moreover, the development of these structures in inexpensive polymer systems can reduce much of the costs in these systems related to wavelength filtering and spectral analysis. For example, highly reflective Bragg filters can be produced by creating a multilayered polymeric structure with a modulated refractive index profile. One mechanism to produce such periodic structures is by using spatially selective photoinitiated polymerization of a pre-polymer solution containing a photoinitiator, coinitiator, and monomer (along with various other components depending on the desired end product). In order to provide a periodic illumination pattern on the order of hundreds of nanometers, optical holography using laser beams can be used. For example, there has been significant research in the use of laser based holography to control the location, and size, of nanoscale droplets of liquid crystals in a polymeric structure - the appropriately named area of holographic polymer dispersed liquid cystals (H-PDLC). These structures have been demonstrated to be easily tuned and designed to have desired optical switching properties. The efforts presented in this dissertation build on that prior work and can be categorized into three parts: (1) Tailoring of the H-PDLC material systems to meet application needs in terms of bandwidth, absorption spectrum, resonant wavelength peak, background fluorescence, etc.; (2) Designing new architecture using these different material systems, e.g., graded gratings; and (3) Applying these reflection gratings and graded gratings in optical sensors and spectral analysis devices. Obviously, all these efforts are interconnected with each other. Chapter 1 and 2 describe the properties of the material systems and the fabricated samples. Specifically, we present how we modified the standard H-PDLC material systems to meet specific requirements. Different solvent systems and photoinitiators were compared to determine their effects on the resulting optical performance. In Chapter 2 we present the characterization of the fabricated polymeric gratings in terms of optical transmission and reflection, surface and cross-section morphologies and thickness variations. In addition, the expected (theoretical) optical properties of the grating structures are presented and compared to the experimental results in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 presents the application of the reflection gratings in enhancing the performance of an oxygen sensor in different platforms. A PBG oxygen sensor, integrated sensor and fiber based sensor will be discussed and the enhanced sensitivity and signal to noise ratio are reported. In Chapter 4, we present the first demonstration of a one-step holographic lithography process to fabricate a rainbow colored graded structure. The detailed characterization reveals that the graded structures exist in both the cross-section and on the surface at the nanometer level and micrometer level respectively. A model of the internal structure is proposed and verified experimentally. In Chapter 5 we present and demonstrate the potential applications of graded gratings as a spectrum analyzer and reflection grating for multispectral imaging. Finally our conclusions and some proposed future directions are presented in Chapter 6. Specifically, we present a description of the use of these structures in (1) introducing defect modes into the PBG structures (2) fabricating random surface multilayer structures using Focused ion beam or Reactive ion etching (3) fabrication of transmitted graded grating in a certain wavelength range with double exposures. Other research interests can be pursued including improved fluorescence optical sensors performance and graded grating and its sensing applications in the IR range.

Liu, Ke

440

Storybook writing in first grade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research literature on writingstorybooks overlooks first graders. This ispuzzling as children enter first grade havingemergent literacy, in reading, writing, andstory composition. It may reflect the belief that at thisage children should learn to read and write(conventionally) as the curriculum demands,while elaborate writing is assumed be taughtand developed in higher grades. This study investigated story writing by Arab(N = 184) and

Rachel Hertz-Lazarowitze

2004-01-01

441

Does the Responsive Classroom Approach Affect the Use of Standards-Based Mathematics Teaching Practices?: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study highlights the connections between two facets of teachers' skills--those supporting teachers' mathematical instructional interactions and those underlying social interactions within the classroom. The impact of the Responsive Classroom (RC) approach and use of RC practices on the use of standards-based mathematics teaching…

Ottmar, Erin R.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Berry, Robert Q.; Larsen, Ross A.

2013-01-01

442

A New Standard-Based Polynomial Interpolation (SBPIn) Method to Address Gel-to-Gel Variability for the Comparison of Multiple Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Profile Matrices  

PubMed Central

The Standard-Based Polynomial Interpolation (SBPIn) method is a new simple three-step protocol proposed to address common gel-to-gel variations for the comparison of sample profiles across multiple DGGE gels. The advantages of this method include no requirement for additional software or modification of the standard DGGE protocol. PMID:23234884

Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

2013-01-01

443

Commentary: A Response to "Preparing Special Education Administrators for Inclusion in Diverse, Standards-Based Contexts," by Deborah L. Voltz and Loucrecia Collins (2010)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this commentary is to respond to the article written by Voltz and Collins (2010) that considered the preparation of special education administrators for inclusion in diverse, standards-based contexts by highlighting the Administrator of Special Education Standards that were adopted in 2009 by the Council for Exceptional Children.…

Boscardin, Mary Lynn; Mainzer, Richard; Kealy, Mary V.

2011-01-01

444

Science Professors Serve as Mentors for Early Childhood Preservice Teachers in the Design and Implementation of Standards-Based Science Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the use of science professors acting as mentors to enhance the science competency of early childhood educators. Findings indicate that mentor-mentee dyad interactions varied; however, mentors were able to assist with curriculum, science content, and resources. Although standards-based units were developed, there was little…

Katz, Laurie; Sadler, Kim; Craig, Dorothy V.

2005-01-01

445

STANDARDS-BASED ISO TC37/SC4;founde r m e m be r ofO ASIS/UIMA  

E-print Network

STANDARDS-BASED ·ISO TC37/SC4;founde r m e m be r ofO ASIS/UIMA ·XCES, ACE, TREC form ats EFFICIENT ·"O utstanding" and "Inte rnationally le ading" ·Use d atth ousands ofsite s; ·O ve r 20,000 dow

Maynard, Diana

446

Reconciling an Ecological Curricular Framework Focusing on Quality of Life Outcomes with the Development and Instruction of Standards-Based Academic Goals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The emergence of the standards-based reform movement has raised a number of issues related to the design of educational programs for students with severe disabilities, and a debate has arisen that presents an "either/or" choice between the general education curriculum and an ecological curricular framework that has traditionally guided curriculum…

Hunt, Pam; McDonnell, John; Crockett, Margret A.

2012-01-01

447

Listening to Early Career Teachers: How Can Elementary Mathematics Methods Courses Better Prepare Them to Utilize Standards-Based Practices in Their Classrooms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to gather input from early career elementary teachers with the goal of finding ways to improve elementary mathematics methods courses. Multiple areas were explored including the degree to which respondents' elementary mathematics methods course focused on the NCTM Process Standards, the teachers' current standards-based

Coester, Lee Anne

2010-01-01

448

Scoring of dual fluorescein and ICG inflammatory angiographic signs for the grading of posterior segment inflammation (dual fluorescein and ICG angiographic scoring system for uveitis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To propose a semiquantitative dual fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) scoring system for\\u000a uveitis that would assist in the follow-up of disease progression and monitoring response to treatment. Methods The scoring system was based on the FA scoring systems, the standardized ICGA protocol, and schematic interpretation of ICGA\\u000a findings in posterior uveitis that have been previously

Ilknur Tugal-Tutkun; Carl P. Herbort; Moncef Khairallah

2010-01-01

449

When Students Repeat Grades or Are Transferred out of School: What Does It Mean for Education Systems? PISA in Focus. No. 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School systems handle the challenges of diverse student populations in different ways. Some countries have non-selective and comprehensive school systems that seek to provide all students with similar opportunities, leaving it to individual schools and teachers to meet the particular needs of every student. Other countries group students, whether…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

450

Is the Television Rating System Valid? Indirect, Verbal, and Physical Aggression in Programs Viewed by Fifth Grade Girls and Associations with Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study had two goals: first, to examine the validity of the television rating system for assessing aggression in programs popular among girls; second, to evaluate the importance of inclusion of non-physical forms of aggression in the ratings system by examining associations between television aggression exposure and behavior. Ninety-nine fifth…

Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Gentile, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

451

Survival Analysis in Amputees Based on Physical Independence Grade Achievement  

PubMed Central

Backgound Survival implications of achieving different grades of physical independence after lower extremity amputation are unknown. Objectives To identify thresholds of physical independence achievement associated with improved 6-month survival and to identify and compare other risk factors after removing the influence of the grade achieved. Design Data were combined from 8 administrative databases. Grade was measured on the basis of 13 individual self-care and mobility activities measured at inpatient rehabilitation discharge. Setting Ninety-nine US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Patients Retrospective longitudinal cohort study of 2616 veterans who underwent lower extremity amputation and subsequent inpatient rehabilitation between October 1, 2002, and September 30, 2004. Main Outcome Measure Cumulative 6-month survival after rehabilitation discharge. Results The 6-month survival rate (95% confidence interval [CI]) for those at grade 1 (total assistance) was 73.5% (70.5%-76.2%). The achievement of grade 2 (maximal assistance) led to the largest incremental improvement in prognosis with survival increasing to 91.1% (95% CI, 85.6%-94.5%). In amputees who remained at grade 1, the 30-day hazards ratio for survival compared with grade 6 (independent) was 43.9 (95% CI, 10.8-278.2), sharply decreasing with time. Whereas metastatic cancer and hemodialysis remained significantly associated with reduced survival (both P ? .001), anatomical amputation level was not significant when rehabilitation discharge grade and other diagnostic conditions were considered. Conclusions Even a small improvement to grade 2 in the most severely impaired amputees resulted in better 6-month survival. Health care systems must plan appropriate interdisciplinary treatment strategies for both medical and functional issues after amputation. PMID:19528388

Stineman, Margaret G.; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Kwong, Pui L.; Maislin, Greg; Reker, Dean M.; Bruce Vogel, W.; Prvu-Bettger, Janet A.; Bidelspach, Douglas E.; Bates, Barbara E.

2010-01-01

452

The National Aeolian Detritus Project, A Student-controlled, Standards-based Research Opportunity for Middle and Hight School Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schools across the United States are adopting Standards-based philosophies and practices at a quickening pace. Two of the biggest challenges in this transition are the integration of concepts and the development of meaningful evaluation of student progress. The National Aeolian Detritus Project is a collaboration among Jamestown School, the University of Rhode Island, Hampshire College, the Rhode Island Space Grant Consortium at Brown University and the Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center. This Project provides students with an opportunity to integrate and enhance previous elements of instruction and allows them decision-making control over the direction of an extended research investigation. This project also provides opportunities for undergraduate community service development through University - Local School collaboration and mentoring. Students first collect Aeolian Detritus, that is, randomly deposited airborne particulate matter (APM) by deploying flat sheet collectors. Retained APM is removed from the collectors with repulpable tape and concentrated by vacuum filtration. APM is initially identified by simple light microscopy, solubility, density, and magnetic response. More advanced identification includes ICP and Neutron Activation. With assistance from collaborating universities, students craft research questions based on these initial samples and develop investigation designs. Sample research questions include: 1) Can insect infestations or possible defoliation events be predicted by identification of insect bodies, parts, and excrement? 2) What information can we collect about micrometeorites when typed, analyzed, and compared to NASA comet track data? 3) Can the distribution of flora be confirmed or modified based on pollen grain collection and mapping? 4) Can the distribution of mineral particulate matter be mapped by collection and comparison with wind patterns over known geologic features? Schools correlate collection data with National Weather Service wind records and submit their results to the NADP data center for posting as GIS data on the NADP website. In this way, co-operating collection sites may identify large scale patterns. As a result of pilot teacher training this summer, four test sites are being established to further refine the collection protocol and the extended research design process.

Sammons, J. I.; Murray, D. D.; Reid, J. B.

2001-12-01

453

Strategies for Computerized Adaptive Grading Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated three strategies for assigning examinees to grading categories in computerized adaptive testing. The expected a posteriori-based method had more correct classifications in the middle range of grade levels and more errors for the extremes than the golden section search grading test and the Z-score grading test. (SLD)

Xiao, Beiling

1999-01-01

454

Does Competition among Schools Encourage Grade Inflation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers whether high schools in competitive environments use grade inflation to attract and retain families, perhaps in addition to more constructive responses. Two measures of grade inflation are used: the cutoffs used by each school to assign a letter grade to a percent score and high school grade point average after controlling for…

Walsh, Patrick

2010-01-01

455

On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

Seldow, Adam Lowell

2010-01-01

456

Narrowing the Achievement Gap in Second-Grade Social Studies and Content Area Literacy: The Promise of a Project-Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the question: Do second-grade students from low- socioeconomic-status (SES) schools taught with an iteratively designed project-based approach to social studies and content literacy instruction: (a) make statistically significant gains on standards-based social studies and content area literacy assessments, and (b) reach a benchmark on these assessments set by a group of students from high-SES schools? If so,

Anne-Lise Halvorsen; Nell K. Duke; Kristy A. Brugar; Meghan K. Block; Stephanie L. Strachan; Meghan B. Berka; Jason M. Brown

2012-01-01

457

Food-grade gene expression in lactic acid bacteria.  

PubMed

In the 1990s, significant efforts were invested in the research and development of food-grade expression systems in lactic acid bacteria (LAB). At this time, Lactococcus lactis in particular was demonstrated to be an ideal cell factory for the food-grade production of recombinant proteins. Steady progress has since been made in research on LAB, including Lactococcus, Lactobacillus and Streptococcus, in the areas of recombinant enzyme production, industrial food fermentation, and gene and metabolic pathway regulation. Over the past decade, this work has also led to new approaches on chromosomal integration vectors and host/vector systems. These newly constructed food-grade gene expression systems were designed with specific attention to self-cloning strategies, food-grade selection markers, plasmid replication and chromosomal gene replacements. In this review, we discuss some well-characterized chromosomal integration and food-grade host/vector systems used in LAB, with a special focus on sustainability, stability and overall safety, and give some attractive examples of protein expression that are based on these systems. PMID:21858927

Peterbauer, Clemens; Maischberger, Thomas; Haltrich, Dietmar

2011-09-01

458

7 CFR 56.4 - Basis of grading service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF SHELL EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs General § 56.4 Basis of grading service...States Standards, Grades, and Weight Classes for Egg Shells.” However, grading service may be...

2010-01-01

459

Buckling of graded coatings: A continuum model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Requirements for the protection of hot section components in many high temperature applications such as earth-to-orbit winged planes and advanced turbine systems have led to the application of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) that utilize ceramic coatings on metal substrates. An alternative concept to homogeneous ceramic coatings is the functionally graded materials (FGM) in which the composition of the coating is intentionally graded to improve the bonding strength and to reduce the magnitude of the residual and thermal stresses. A widely observed failure mode in such layered systems is known to be interface cracking that leads to spallation fracture. In most cases, the final stage of the failure process for a thin coating appears to be due to buckling instability under thermally or mechanically induced compressive stress. The objective of this study is to develop a solution to the buckling instability problem by using continuum elasticity rather than a structural mechanics approach. The emphasis in the solution will be on the investigation of the effect of material inhomogeneity in graded coatings on the instability load, the postbuckling behavior, and fracture mechanics parameters such as the stress intensity factors and strain energy release rate. In this analysis, a nonlinear continuum theory is employed to examine the interface crack problem. The analytical solution of the instability problem permits the study of the effect of material inhomogeneity upon the inception of buckling and establishes benchmark results for the numerical solutions of related problems. To study the postbuckling behavior and to calculate the stress intensity factors and strain energy release rate a geometrically nonlinear finite element procedure with enriched crack-tip element is developed. Both plane strain and axisymmetric interface crack problems in TBCs with either homogeneous or graded coating are then considered by using the finite element procedure. It is assumed that the applied load is a uniform temperature drop. Comparison of the results with that obtained from the plate approximation shows that because of the higher constraints the plate theory predicts greater instability strains and lower strain energy release rates. It is also observed that compared with a homogeneous coating the graded coating gives lower strain energy release rate because of the lower thermal residual stress and higher bending stiffness. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Chiu, Tz-Cheng

2000-12-01

460

Using "WeBWorK," a Web-Based Homework Delivery and Grading System, to Help Prepare Students for Active Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"WeBWorK," an online homework system, can be be used to deliver daily reading questions to students. The author studied its use for this purpose with a lower division Introduction to Programming course and an upper division Probability and Statistics course. In the lower division course, "WeBWorK" significantly improved peer instruction…

Lucas, Adam R.

2012-01-01

461

Innovative Applications of Classroom Response Systems: Investigating Students' Item Response Times in Relation to Final Course Grade, Gender, General Point Average, and High School ACT Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the introduction of classroom response systems (CRS) in physics classrooms, instructors are now able to examine assessment parameters that are commonly described in the standardized assessment literature but were not previously available. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between students' item response time for answering multiple-choice questions posed in an Introduction to Physical Science course

Wilson J. González-Espada; Daniel W. Bullock

462

Snapshot Assessment System for Migrant, Language-Different, and Mobile Students: An Informal Tool for Classroom Teachers. Middle School Grades 7-8. User's Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This classroom assessment tool offers teachers a method to identify academic needs across the curriculum for migrant, language-different, and mobile students. The primary strategy of this assessment system is to identify the knowledge and skill levels of these students in core curriculum areas. The snapshot assessment is a low-stakes, informal…

Rangel, Rich; Bansberg, Bill

463

Risk of High-Grade Skin Rash in Cancer Patients Treated with Cetuximab – an Antibody against Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor: Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cetuximab, a chimeric antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor has emerged as an effective therapy for advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) and head-neck cancer. However, severe skin toxicity may limit its use. Its efficacy in the treatment of other cancers is also undergoing extensive investigation. We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis of published clinical trials to quantify the overall

Xiao Su; Mario E. Lacouture; Yuxia Jia; Shenhong Wu

2009-01-01

464

MECHATRONICS special issue on Developments in Intelligent Mechatronic Systems, vol. 10, iss. 1--2, February--March 2000 ELSA: A MULTISENSOR INTEGRATION ARCHITECTURE FOR INDUSTRIAL GRADING  

E-print Network

of this work, it is intended to be applicable to a variety of automation tasks which may benefit from, products such as fish, apples, potatoes, chicken, tomatoes, and other types of produce may, even within. A. Croft) 1 #12; 2 Machine vision systems offer a number of potential benefits to industries which

Naish, Michael D.

465

Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1980  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on the engineering design, fabrication, assembly, operation, economic analysis, and process support R and D for an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process. Most of the process related equipment has been ordered and is being fabricated. Equipment and building foundations have been completed at the EPSDU site, and all the steel was erected for the gantry. The switch gear/control building and the melter building will be completed during the next quarter. The data collection system design is progressing. Various computer programs are being written which will be used to convert electrical, pneumatic and other raw signals into engineering values. The free-space reactor development work was completed with a final 12-hour run in which the free-space reactor PDU ran flawlessly. Also, the quality control method development task was completed. Slim rods were grown from seed silicon rods for subsequent float zone operation and impurity characterization. An excellent quality epitaxial film was deposited on a silicon wafer. Both undoped ad doped films were deposited and the resistivity of the films have been measured. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-01-01

466

Design and Fabrication of Monolithically-Integrated Laterally-Arrayed Multiple Band Gap Solar Cells using Composition-Graded Alloy Nanowires for Spectrum-Splitting Photovoltaic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation aims to demonstrate a new approach to fabricating solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems with the potential to reduce their cost and complexity of manufacturing, called Monolithically Integrated Laterally Arrayed Multiple Band gap (MILAMB) solar cells. Single crystal semiconductor alloy nanowire (NW) ensembles are grown with the alloy composition and band gap changing continuously across a broad range over the surface of a single substrate in a single, inexpensive growth step by the Dual-Gradient Method. The nanowire ensembles then serve as the absorbing materials in a set of solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems. Preliminary design and simulation studies based on Anderson's model band line-ups were undertaken for CdPbS and InGaN alloys. Systems of six subcells obtained efficiencies in the 32-38% range for CdPbS and 34-40% for InGaN at 1-240 suns, though both materials systems require significant development before these results could be achieved experimentally. For an experimental demonstration, CdSSe was selected due to its availability. Proof-of-concept CdSSe nanowire ensemble solar cells with two subcells were fabricated simultaneously on one substrate. I-V characterization under 1 sun AM1.5G conditions yielded open-circuit voltages (Voc) up to 307 and 173 mV and short-circuit current densities (Jsc) up to 0.091 and 0.974 mA/cm2 for the CdS- and CdSe-rich cells, respectively. Similar thin film cells were also fabricated for comparison. The nanowire cells showed substantially higher Voc than the film cells, which was attributed to higher material quality in the CdSSe absorber. I-V measurements were also conducted with optical filters to simulate a simple form of spectrum-splitting. The CdS-rich cells showed uniformly higher Voc and fill factor (FF) than the CdSe-rich cells, as expected due to their larger band gaps. This suggested higher power density was produced by the CdS-rich cells on the single-nanowire level, which is the principal benefit of spectrum-splitting. These results constitute a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of the MILAMB approach to fabricating multiple cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaics. Future systems based on this approach could help to reduce the cost and complexity of manufacturing spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems and offer a low cost alternative to multi-junction tandems for achieving high efficiencies.

Caselli, Derek

467

5th Grade Content Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides links to resources aligned to the CCSS that guide and support fifth grade mathematics teaching and learning. Tasks developed by the Mathematics Assessment Resource Service (MARS), Problems of the Month, (POM home page is cataloged separately) and videos of public lessons and number talks developed by the Noyce Foundation are included. The tasks were designed to measure students' ability to solve non-routine problems, explain and justify their solutions, and promote high level thinking skills. They include the scoring rubric, student responses, and discussion of student understanding and misconceptions. Resources are listed for specific grade 5 standards and are also organized by progression for an alternate search route.

Centre, The S.

2012-01-01

468

2nd Grade Content Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides links to resources aligned to the CCSS that guide and support second grade mathematics teaching and learning. Tasks developed by the Mathematics Assessment Resource Service (MARS), Problems of the Month, (POM home page is cataloged separately) and videos of public lessons and number talks developed by the Noyce Foundation are included. The tasks were designed to measure studentsâ ability to solve non-routine problems, explain and justify their solutions, and promote high level thinking skills. They include the scoring rubric, student responses, and discussion of student understanding and misconceptions. Resources are listed for specific grade 2 standards and are also organized by progression for an alternate search route.

Centre, The S.

2012-01-01

469

1st Grade Content Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides links to resources aligned to the CCSS that guide and support first grade mathematics teaching and learning. Tasks developed by the Mathematics Assessment Resource Service (MARS) and Problems of the Month, (POM home page is cataloged separately) developed by the Noyce Foundation are included. The activities were designed to measure students' ability to solve non-routine problems, explain and justify their solutions, and promote high level thinking skills. Resources are listed for specific grade 1 standards and are also organized by progression for an alternate search route.

The Shell Centre

2012-01-01

470

3rd Grade Content Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides links to resources aligned to the CCSS that guide and support third grade mathematics teaching and learning. Tasks developed by the Mathematics Assessment Resource Service (MARS) and Problems of the Month, (POM home page is cataloged separately) developed by the Noyce Foundation are included. The tasks were designed to measure students’ ability to solve non-routine problems, explain and justify their solutions, and promote high level thinking skills. They include the scoring rubric, student responses, and discussion of student understanding and misconceptions. Resources are listed for specific grade 3 standards and are also organized by progression for an alternate search route.

The Shell Centre

2012-01-01

471

Math Focal Points: Grade 7  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this wiki page, Math Focal Points: Grade 7, the third of the Middle School Portal series, it offers resources that support the teaching of the three areas of emphasis highlighted for seventh-grade learners. The three focal points and the related sections of resources are apply proportionality, including scale factor, percentage, and unit rate problems. Wiki pages in the section titled ratio and proportion deal with real-world situations, such as finding percentages and building scale models, as well as online scenarios that help students visualize the mathematical concepts involved.

2008-05-01

472

Health Education Curriculum Guide. Grade 9 Through Grade 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide has been prepared to assist teachers of grades nine through twelve students in the implementation of health education into the curriculum. The book contains student objectives, suggested activities, and pertinent questions which will provide the basic tools to meet program goals. The ten major areas of instruction are: 1) consumer…

Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

473

Health Education Curriculum Guide. Grade 5 Through Grade 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide has been prepared to assist the teacher of grades five through eight students in the implementation of health education into the curriculum. The booklet contains student objectives, suggested activities, and pertinent questions which will provide the basic tools to meet program goals. The ten major areas of instruction are: 1) consumer…

Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

474

Die Bewertung von Textaufgaben - dargestellt an Beispielen aus dem Franzoesischunterricht (Grading Textbook Lessons -- Presented with Examples from Teaching French)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains and illustrates the term "textbook lesson," and mentions the considerations that have led to the recommended grading system. The chief aim is to achieve uniformity in grading. Offers recommendations for formulating and ordering lessons, grading criteria, awarding of points and key for computing points. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

Edener, Wilfried

1975-01-01

475

Supports for High School Success: An Evaluation of the Texas Ninth Grade Transition and Intervention Grant Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To provide greater support for students as they transition to ninth grade, the Texas Legislature funded the Texas Ninth Grade Transition and Intervention (TNGTI) grant program. TNGTI grantees implemented a variety of supports to at-risk students transitioning to ninth grade, including a summer transition program, an early warning data system, and…

Hallberg, Kelly; Swanlund, Andrew; Hoogstra, Lisa

2011-01-01

476

Closed-Loop Terrain Relative Navigation for AUVs with Non-Inertial Grade Navigation Sensors  

E-print Network

Closed-Loop Terrain Relative Navigation for AUVs with Non-Inertial Grade Navigation Sensors Deborah by utilizing high- accuracy inertial navigation systems in combination with both low and high quality sonar to vehicles with non-inertial-grade navigation systems, an extension which would greatly increase its

477

SCH3U Grade 11 Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tom Stretton, a science teacher in the Upper Canada District School Board, provides chemistry notes, figures, and quizzes intended for eleventh-grade chemistry students. Within the Databook link, students can learn the origins of names of the elements, electromagnetic spectrum, ionization energies, and much more. Visitors can find twelve laboratory activities, fun chemistry-related conundrums, a timetable of the history of alchemy and chemistry, and information on the metric system. The website offers details about molecules, ions, bonding, stoichiometry, and additional topics usually discussed in high school chemistry classes.

Stretton, Tom

2007-05-11

478

7 CFR 868.315 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Special Grades, Special Grade Requirements...868.314. Such special grades for milled rice are established and determined as follows: (a) Coated milled rice. Coated milled rice shall be...

2012-01-01

479

7 CFR 868.315 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Special Grades, Special Grade Requirements...868.314. Such special grades for milled rice are established and determined as follows: (a) Coated milled rice. Coated milled rice shall be...

2013-01-01

480

7 CFR 868.315 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Special Grades, Special Grade Requirements...868.314. Such special grades for milled rice are established and determined as follows: (a) Coated milled rice. Coated milled rice shall be...

2011-01-01

481

7 CFR 868.315 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Special Grades, Special Grade Requirements...868.314. Such special grades for milled rice are established and determined as follows: (a) Coated milled rice. Coated milled rice shall be...

2014-01-01

482

Society for College Science Teachers: Grade Inflation -- Is Ranking Students the Answer?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In recent years, several solutions have been proposed at various institutions nationwide to curb the phenomena of "grade inflation". Solutions include limiting the number of A's awarded, converting to a +/- system, publishing the class GPA next to each grade, or publishing an index based on the grades typically awarded in the class (Johnson 2003). With the many variations, exceptions and ranking systems being debated, the fundamental issue remains, whether students should be ranked as a means to contend with the effects of grade inflation.

Donald P. French

2005-05-01

483

Classification and grading of muscle injuries: a narrative review.  

PubMed

A limitation to the accurate study of muscle injuries and their management has been the lack of a uniform approach to the categorisation and grading of muscle injuries. The goal of this narrative review was to provide a framework from which to understand the historical progression of the classification and grading of muscle injuries. We reviewed the classification and grading of muscle injuries in the literature to critically illustrate the strengths, weaknesses, contradictions or controversies. A retrospective, citation-based methodology was applied to search for English language literature which evaluated or utilised a novel muscle classification or grading system. While there is an abundance of literature classifying and grading muscle injuries, it is predominantly expert opinion, and there remains little evidence relating any of the clinical or radiological features to an established pathology or clinical outcome. While the categorical grading of injury severity may have been a reasonable solution to a clinical challenge identified in the middle of the 20th century, it is time to recognise the complexity of the injury, cease trying to oversimplify it and to develop appropriately powered research projects to answer important questions. PMID:25394420

Hamilton, Bruce; Valle, Xavier; Rodas, Gil; Til, Luis; Pruna Grive, Ricard; Gutierrez Rincon, Josep Antoni; Tol, Johannes L

2014-11-13

484

Science professors serve as mentors for early childhood preservice teachers in the design and implementation of standards-based science units  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the use of science professors acting as mentors to enhance the science competency of early childhood educators.\\u000a Findings indicate that mentor-mentee dyad interactions varied; however, mentors were able to assist with curriculum, science\\u000a content, and resources. Although standards-based units were developed, there was little “real” science inquiry present. Findings\\u000a did not support a higher-quality product that involved

Laurie Katz; Kim Sadler; Dorothy V. Craig

2005-01-01

485

Metaphorical Roots of Beliefs about Teaching and Learning Science and their Modifications in the Standard-Based Science Teacher Preparation Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs are psychological constructs potentially driving a teacher to make pedagogical decisions and act. In this study, the metaphor construction task (MCT) was utilised to uncover beliefs about teaching and learning science held by 110 pre?service science teachers participating in the standard?based teacher preparation programme. Overall, the participants’ dominant metaphor categories were teacher as nurturer\\/cultivator, as knowledge provider, and as

Khajornsak Buaraphan

2011-01-01

486

School Grading and Institutional Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We study how the relationship between students' cognitive ability and their school grades depends on institutional contexts. In a simple abstract model, we show that unless competence standards are set at above-school level or the variation of competence across schools is low, students' competence valuation will be heterogeneous, with weaker…

Dardanoni, Valentino; Modica, Salvatore; Pennisi, Aline

2011-01-01

487

Research Supporting Middle Grades Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exemplary Middle Grades Research: Evidence-Based Studies Linking Theory to Practice features research published throughout 2009 in MGRJ that has been identified by the Information Age Publishing's review board as the most useful in terms of assisting educators with making practical applications from evidence-based studies to classroom and school…