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1

Standards-Based Grading: New Report Cards Aim to Make Mastery Clear  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A growing band of teachers, schools, and entire districts have put their faith in standards-based grading, an innovative, albeit complex and sometimes controversial, method that aims to make grades more meaningful. A standards-based report card contains an overall grade for each course but also indicates how well a student has mastered each of…

Spencer, Kyle

2012-01-01

2

Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades 5-8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades 5-8 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates the titles of the…

Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

3

Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades K-4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades K-4 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates the titles of the…

Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

4

Implementation of Standards-Based Grading at the Middle School Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to learn about the experiences of teachers as they transition from traditional grading practices to standards-based reporting (SBR). In order to achieve this overall objective, the following research questions framed this qualitative study: (1) What understandings related to practices do middle school teachers have…

Urich, Laura Jill

2012-01-01

5

Standards-Based Assessment, Grading, and Reporting in Classrooms: Can District Training and Support Change Teacher Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Whether school district support and training in standards-based assessment, grading, and reporting in classrooms can change teacher practice in these areas was studied in a Florida school district. This district, Bay District Schools of Panama City, has been working with the SERVE Regional Educational Laboratory on a project that involves…

McMunn, Nancy; Schenck, Patricia; McColskey, Wendy

6

Taking Center Stage: A Commitment to Standards-Based Education for California's Middle Grades Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This handbook provides guidance for California educators to help them implement a standards-based education for young adolescents. The book contains helpful information for school personnel about what they need to know and do to make standards-based education a success. It examines such issues as school culture, classroom organization,…

Fenwick, James; Worrall, Rozlynn; Levin, Diane

7

Exemplary Science in Grades 5-8: Standards-Based Success Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do the Standards really matter in middle school? Nine years after the National Science Education Standards' release, just how well do science teachers in grades 5 to 8 actually use them to plan content, define improved teaching, and assess real learning? Find out the answers to these key questions in this groundbreaking collection of 15 essays by teachers, researchers, and professors whose specialty is middle school. Nine years after the release of the Standards, these educators describe what they're doing to achieve the visions for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content. All the visions correspond to the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Among this collection's wide-ranging essay topics: "Teaching Science With Student Thinking in Mind," "The Relationship Between a Professional Development Model and Student Achievement," "Creating a Classroom Culture of Scientific Practices," "Traveling the Inquiry Continuum: Learning Through Teacher Action Research," "What Do We Get to Do Today? The Middle School Full Option Science System Program," and "Teach Them to Fish." This volume is the third in NSTA Press's Exemplary Science monograph series, which provides the results of an unprecedented national search to assess how well the Standards' vision has been realized.

2006-01-01

8

Exemplary Science in Grades 5-8: Standards-Based Success Stories (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do the Standards really matter in middle school? Nine years after the National Science Education Standards' release, just how well do science teachers in grades 5 to 8 actually use them to plan content, define improved teaching, and assess real learning? Find out the answers to these key questions in this groundbreaking collection of 15 essays by teachers, researchers, and professors whose specialty is middle school. Nine years after the release of the Standards, these educators describe what they're doing to achieve the visions for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content. All the visions correspond to the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Among this collection's wide-ranging essay topics: "Teaching Science With Student Thinking in Mind," "The Relationship Between a Professional Development Model and Student Achievement," "Creating a Classroom Culture of Scientific Practices," "Traveling the Inquiry Continuum: Learning Through Teacher Action Research," "What Do We Get to Do Today? The Middle School Full Option Science System Program," and "Teach Them to Fish." This volume is the third in NSTA Press's Exemplary Science monograph series, which provides the results of an unprecedented national search to assess how well the Standards' vision has been realized.

2009-05-18

9

Fourth-Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-Based Lunar Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth-grade students' knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change.…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

2007-01-01

10

Fourth-Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-Based Lunar Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fourth-grade students' knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change.…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

2007-01-01

11

Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

2006-01-01

12

Progress Monitoring in an Inclusive Standards-Based Assessment and Accountability System. Synthesis Report 53  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report describes how progress monitoring--a set of techniques for assessing student performance on a regular and frequent basis--can be an essential and integral part of an inclusive standards-based assessment and accountability system. In order to meet the higher expectations of current standards-based systems, educators need information…

Quenemoen, Rachel; Thurlow, Martha; Moen, Ross; Thompson, Sandra; Morse, Amanda Blount

2004-01-01

13

An extensible standards-based control system on a budget  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank was charged with replacing and enhancing the original control system on the NRAO 43-Meter (43m) telescope, for a minimum amount of labor, time and materials. The original 1960's vintage design required continuous operator presence for monitoring and control of the telescope. A fully automated, unattended operation was desired, along with better tracking performance at high speeds and reduced maintenance costs. We responded with a design based on proven industrial control technology, RTAI/Linux computers, and hardware and software adapted from the GBT and other NRAO telescopes. Commercial off-the-shelf software packages were also used in the system. We describe the overall design of the system and the decision process that led to the adoption of the various pieces of hardware and software, including the tradeoffs made between buying and building systems, and allocation of telescope functions between subsystems.

Ford, John M.; Langston, Glen; Shelton, John; Weadon, Tim

2006-07-01

14

Graduate Grading Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A questionnaire on grading systems was sent to the 287 members of the Council of Graduate Schools. Of the 240 responses, 127 indicated that they used systems other than the A-F traditional system, either in part or in toto. Other systems used include pass/fail, satisfactory/unsatisfactory, pass/no credit, and some variations of the A-F…

Benson, Winston W.

15

New Teachers' Perceptions of a Standards-Based Performance Appraisal System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was conducted with first-year teachers. It provided insight into two key research questions: (1) What were the perceptions of new teachers regarding a standards-based performance appraisal system as it was implemented on their campus? (2) What factors contributed to the perceptions of new teachers regarding this system as it was…

O'Pry, Stephen C.; Schumacher, Gary

2012-01-01

16

Domain management OSSs: bridging the gap between legacy and standards-based network management systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid change in the telecommunications environment is forcing carriers to re-assess not only their service offering, but also their network management philosophy. The competitive carrier environment has taken away the luxury of throwing technology at a problem by using legacy and proprietary systems and architectures. A more flexible management environment is necessary to effectively gain, and maintain operating margins in the new market era. Competitive forces are driving change which gives carriers more choices than those that are available in legacy and standards-based solutions alone. However, creating an operational support system (OSS) with this gap between legacy and standards has become as dynamic as the services which it supports. A philosophy which helps to integrate the legacy and standards systems is domain management. Domain management relates to a specific service or market 'domain,'and its associated operational support requirements. It supports a companies definition of its business model, which drives the definition of each domain. It also attempts to maximize current investment while injecting new technology available in a practical approach. The following paragraphs offer an overview of legacy systems, standards-based philosophy, and the potential of domain management to help bridge the gap between the two types of systems.

Lemley, Todd A.

1996-11-01

17

Implementing an integrated standards-based management system to ensure compliance at Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) is developing and implementing a comprehensive, Integrated Standards-Based Management System (ISBMS) to enhance environmental, safety, and health (ESH) compliance efforts and streamline management of ESH throughout the Laboratory. The Laboratory recognizes that to be competitive in today`s business environment and attractive to potential Partnerships, Laboratory operations must be efficient and cost-effective. The Laboratory also realizes potential growth opportunities for developing ESH as a strength in providing new or improved services to its customers. Overall, the Laboratory desires to establish and build upon an ESH management system which ensures continuous improvement in protecting public health and safety and the environment and which fosters a working relationship with stakeholders. A team of process experts from the LANL Environmental Management (EM) Program Office, worked with management system consultants, and the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an ESH management systems process to compare current LANL ESH management Systems and programs against leading industry standards. The process enabled the Laboratory to gauge its performance in each of the following areas: Planning and Policy Setting; Systems and Procedures; Implementation and Education; and Monitoring and Reporting. The information gathered on ESH management systems enabled LANL to pinpoint and prioritize opportunities for improvement in the provision of ESH services throughout the Laboratory and ultimately overall ESH compliance.

Hjeresen, D.; Roybal, S.; Bertino, P.; Gherman, C.; Hosteny, B.

1995-03-01

18

Interactions of selected policy-stakeholder groups implementing middle school science standards-based systemic reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research is an interpretive inquiry into the views and interactions of stakeholders in a district office of a large school system responsible for implementing science systemic reform. Three major sources of data were used in this research: surveys, stakeholder interviews, and autobiographical reflection on experiences as part of the reform initiative. This is an emergent research that is evident in the shift in the focus of research questions and their supporting assumptions during the research. The literature review describes standards-based reform, arguments about reform, and the major dimensions of reform research. The results of the survey of stakeholders revealed that the views among the stakeholder groups followed the system hierarchy and could be separated into two large groups; staff responsible for implementing the reform initiative and the other stakeholder groups. Each of these groups was composed of identifiable subgroups. The interviews with stakeholders revealed how their different attitudes, values, and beliefs frame the context of stakeholder interactions. An over reliance on an authoritarian view of decision-making leaves many stakeholders feeling disempowered and critical of others. This atmosphere promotes blaming, which inhibits collegial interaction. Work experiences in the district office revealed how stakeholders' unaddressed assumptions, attitudes, and beliefs promote fragmentation and competition rather than cooperation. Hidden assumptions about management by control and mandate, competition, and teaching and learning appear to restrain the interactions of stakeholders. Support of the National Science Education Standards was identified as a unifying view among the stakeholders, yet the professional development program focused on content and pedagogical knowledge without addressing stakeholder concerns and beliefs about the intended constructivist framework of the program. Stakeholders' attitudes about the issue of equity demonstrated how divided stakeholders are about what role attitudes and beliefs should play in professional development. The system operates within a context of administrative flux creating instability that, when combined with a chaotic work environment, undermines collegial interactions and the decision-making process. Resolving these differences will require new skills and understandings about the role that assumptions, attitudes, values, and beliefs play in our interactions to allow both decisions and actions to support the reform initiative.

Boydston, Theodore Lewis, III

1999-12-01

19

Students with Disabilities in Standards-Based Assessment and Accountability Systems: Emerging Issues, Strategies, and Recommendations. Synthesis Report 37.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper addresses emerging issues affecting students with disabilities in standards-based assessment and accountability systems. Challenges and possible strategies for addressing the challenges are provided as identified by researchers, policymakers, and practitioners, based on a model developed by the National Center on Educational Outcomes.…

Quenemoen, Rachel F.; Lehr, Camilla A.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Massanari, Carol B.

20

Users' Experience with a Recommender System in an Open Source Standard-Based Learning Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a model for recommendations in learning scenarios which has been designed from empirical findings following usability and accessibility criteria. This model supports course designers in describing recommendations and presents additional information to the user to explain why the recommendation has been provided. A prototype of a recommender system based on this model has been integrated in an

Olga C. Santos; Jesus G. Boticario

2008-01-01

21

Standards Based Report Cards. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the increased focus on standards-based education, more and more states, districts and school are becoming interested in standards-based grading and report cards. Hawaii, for example, is a state that is working hard on its "Standards Implementation Design" (SID), including standards-based report cards. As a component of Maine's Local…

Muir, Mike

2005-01-01

22

International Water Information Systems: Evolving the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System to a Standards-based Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project is migrating core components of its service-oriented infrastructure to information models and service interfaces being standardized by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), through coordination with the joint Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG) of the OGC and the World Meteorological Organization. The CUAHSI cyberinfrastructure for hydrologic observations will rely on OGC service standards including Web Map Service (WMS) for map portrayal, Web Feature Service (WFS) for delivery of geographic feature information, Catalog Services for the Web (CSW) for discovery in service catalogs, and Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for data delivery. These standards will be supplemented by additional services and corresponding standards, such as the Water Quality Exchange (WQX), which is presently in use at the USGS and US EPA for delivery of water quality and ex situ analytical data. One of the key standards being developed through the OGC process is Water Markup Language (WaterML) 2.0, which specifies standard encoding for the representation of in-situ hydrological observations. Implemented as an application schema of OGC Observations and Measurements (O&M) standard, WaterML 2.0 incorporates the semantics of the hydrologic information: location, procedure, and observations, focusing on encoding different types of hydrologic time series. In addition to developing this exchange standard, the HDWG conducts Interoperability Experiments (IE) to test WaterML 2.0 and OGC services to see they meet the requirements of the Hydrologic community. The Groundwater IE tested cross border exchange of water information between the US and Canada, and exercised, not only a prototype of WaterML 2.0, but existing standards GeoSciML and GroundwaterML. A Surface Water IE is testing 3 use cases focusing on cross-border exchange of surface water information, hydrologic forecasting, and automated monthly and yearly volume calculations from large rivers discharging to the oceans. HDWG IEs provide important experience on best practices in developing hydrologic infrastructure and the use of the WaterML 2.0 standard in different scenarios. Over time interoperability experiments will provide feedback on the best practices, refinements to the standards, and the HDWG will continue to evolve cyberinfrastructure for the Hydrologic community. These standards provide modular and open methods to publish, exchange, and analyze hydrologic information, and will lead to the greater availability of hydrologic information as commercial and open source software organizations implement the standards.

Valentine, D. W.; Taylor, P.; Arctur, D. K.; Zaslavsky, I.

2011-12-01

23

An Alternative to the Traditional Grading System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this practicum was to change the grading policy in the San Juan Unified School District (California) through a two-state process. The first stage was to change the traditional ABCDF grading system to a three-scale grading system in one high school, one intermediate school, and six elementary schools serving the same attendance area.…

Galvez, Ferdinand V.

24

Building Standards based Science Information Systems: A Survey of ISO and other standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science Information systems began with individual researchers maintaining personal collec-tions of data and managing them by using ad hoc, specialized approaches. Today information systems are an enterprise consisting of federated systems that manage and distribute both historical and contemporary data from distributed sources. Information systems have many components. Among these are metadata models, metadata registries, controlled vocabularies and ontologies which are used to describe entities and resources. Other components include services to exchange information and data; tools to populate the system and tools to utilize available resources. When constructing information systems today a variety of standards can be useful. The benefit of adopting standards is clear; it can shorten the design cycle, enhance software reuse and enable interoperability. We look at standards from the International Stan-dards Organization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), American National Standards Institute (ANSI) which have influenced the develop-ment of information systems in the Heliophysics and Planetary sciences. No standard can solve the needs of every community. Individual disciplines often must fill the gap between general purpose standards and the unique needs of the discipline. To this end individual science dis-ciplines are developing standards, Examples include the International Virtual Observatory Al-liance (IVOA), Planetary Data System (PDS)/ International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), Dublin-Core Science, and the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) consortium. This broad survey of ISO and other standards provides some guidance for the development information systems. The development of the SPASE data model is reviewed and provides some insights into the value of applying appropriate standards and is used to illustrate how quasi-standards efforts can effectively evolve towards robust standards compliance. New efforts may benefit from the lessons learned.

King, Todd; Walker, Raymond

25

Domain management OSSs: bridging the gap between legacy and standards-based network management systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid change in the telecommunications environment is forcing carriers to re-assess not only their service offering, but also their network management philosophy. The competitive carrier environment has taken away the luxury of throwing technology at a problem by using legacy and proprietary systems and architectures. A more flexible management environment is necessary to effectively gain, and maintain operating margins

Todd A. Lemley

1996-01-01

26

Method and system for grade crossing protection  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Apparatus and methods for a grade crossing protection system include at least one camera providing surveillance of a grade crossing, the at least one camera coupled to a transmitter configured to transmit a signal that includes imagery of the grade crossing to a transceiver onboard a train. A display unit onboard the train is provided to allow the train operator to view the grade crossing. A control unit in communication with the transceiver is configured to monitor the received signal and, based upon a determined location of the train relative to the train crossing, issue a command to the train's brake system to reduce the speed of the train, or stop the train, before the train reaches the grade crossing.

2013-10-01

27

A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…

Contino, Julie

2013-01-01

28

Advancing hydrometeorological prediction capabilities through standards-based cyberinfrastructure development: The community WRF-Hydro modeling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for improved assessments and predictions of many key environmental variables is driving a multitude of model development efforts in the geosciences. The proliferation of weather and climate impacts research is driving a host of new environmental prediction model development efforts as society seeks to understand how climate does and will impact key societal activities and resources and, in turn, how human activities influence climate and the environment. This surge in model development has highlighted the role of model coupling as a fundamental activity itself and, at times, a significant bottleneck in weather and climate impacts research. This talk explores some of the recent activities and progress that has been made in assessing the attributes of various approaches to the coupling of physics-based process models for hydrometeorology. One example modeling system that is emerging from these efforts is the community 'WRF-Hydro' modeling system which is based on the modeling architecture of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). An overview of the structural components of WRF-Hydro will be presented as will results from several recent applications which include the prediction of flash flooding events in the Rocky Mountain Front Range region of the U.S. and along the Ligurian coastline in the northern Mediterranean. Efficient integration of the coupled modeling system with distributed infrastructure for collecting and sharing hydrometeorological observations is one of core themes of the work. Specifically, we aim to demonstrate how data management infrastructures used in the US and Europe, in particular data sharing technologies developed within the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and UNIDATA, can interoperate based on international standards for data discovery and exchange, such as standards developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium and adopted by GEOSS. The data system we envision will help manage WRF-Hydro prediction model data flows, enabling discovery and flexible configuration of model inputs, and managing provenance for selected model outputs. The talk will end with a discussion on the opportunities for fostering open, standards-based approaches for code development, model interoperability and data and metadata structures as well as the need for multi-scale and multi-physics model structures.

gochis, David; Parodi, Antonio; Hooper, Rick; Jha, Shantenu; Zaslavsky, Ilya

2013-04-01

29

Grade Severity Rating System (GSRS) (for Microcomputers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Grade Severity Rating System (GSRS) is a computerized procedure using downgrade geometrics to determine the appropriate maximum safe descent speeds for large trucks on steep downgrades. The purpose of the GSRS is to reduce the probability of large tru...

B. L. Bowman J. A. Coleman

1990-01-01

30

An objective fingerprint quality-grading system.  

PubMed

The grading of fingerprint quality by fingerprint examiners as currently practised is a subjective process. Therefore, an objective system was devised to remove the subjectivity. The devised grading system is quantitative and uses three separate, easily available, software packages to ultimately identify the portions of a fingerprint that correspond to low-, medium-, and high-quality definitive minutiae as defined on the Universal Latent Workstation of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. PMID:23890638

Pulsifer, Drew P; Muhlberger, Sarah A; Williams, Stephanie F; Shaler, Robert C; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2013-06-14

31

A Framework of Teacher Knowledge and Skills Necessary in a Standards-Based System: Lessons from High School and University Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Standards-based Education Project (STEP) was conducted as part of the Eisenhower Initial Teacher Professional Development Program in Oregon, under the Proficiency-based Admissions Standards System (PASS). STEP focused on the development of a framework of teacher knowledge, skills, and materials for pre-service and practicing teachers. High…

Tell, Christine A.; Bodone, Francoise M.; Addie, Karen L.

32

Automated fruit grading system using image processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the operations and performance of an automated quality verification system for agricultural products and its main features. The system utilizes improved engineering designs and image-processing techniques to convey and grade products. Basically two inspection stages of the system can be identified: external fruit inspection and internal fruit inspection. Surface inspection is accomplished through processing of color CCD

John B. Njoroge; Kazunori Ninomiya; Naoshi Kondo; H. Toita

2002-01-01

33

The Ethical Limitations of Online Grading Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|If we take as a given that faculty are their own moral agents, and not mere agents of the educational institutions at which they work, online grading systems, which are increasingly popular and mandatory, compromise their ability to act ethically. This is because such systems reduce the nuances of a complex and challenging reality to the…

Fulda, Joseph S.

2006-01-01

34

A Grading System for Composition Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a hybrid grading system for composition papers which combines numbers and letters (thus providing some objectivity while preserving flexibility) that awards points on a sliding scale (with substantial rewards for content and readability and more limited rewards for mechanics and format) and that helps students see how their papers were…

Mahon, Robert Lee

1996-01-01

35

Using fuzzy numbers in educational grading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of the study were to try to build a structure model of a fuzzy educational grading system and propose an algorithm with it. We also discussed a method to build the membership functions of several linguistic values with different weights. Moreover, this study was prepared not only to assist teachers, in a practical setting, aggregating different test scores

Chiu-Keung Law

1996-01-01

36

Grade Severity Rating System (GSRS). Users Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The grade severity rating system (GSRS) reduces the probability of large truck runaways on severe downgrades. It is based on a mathematical model that uses gross truck weight and physical characteristic of the downgrade to predict the temperature of the t...

B. L. Bowman

1989-01-01

37

Student-Centered Math Activities in Standards-Based Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the literature investigates ways to apply student-centered math activities in fifth grade standards-based curriculum. My goal for this project is to discover and share several ideas about how to effectively implement student-centered math activities within the standards-based curriculum requirements that dominate today's public…

Levy, Jennifer L.

2006-01-01

38

NASA's Earth-Sun System Gateway: An Open Standards-based Portal to Geospatial Data and Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA's Earth-Sun System Gateway (ESG) streamlines access to remote geospatial data, imagery, models, and visualizations through open, standard Web protocols. By organizing detailed metadata about online resources into a flexible, searchable registry, it l...

J. D. Evans M. J. Bambacus

2005-01-01

39

Research Paper: Perceptions of Standards-based Electronic Prescribing Systems as Implemented in Outpatient Primary Care: A Physician Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo compare the experiences of e-prescribing users and nonusers regarding prescription safety and workload and to assess the use of information from two e-prescribing standards (for medication history and formulary and benefit information), as they are implemented.DesignCross-sectional survey of physicians who either had installed or were awaiting installation of one of two commercial e-prescribing systems.MeasurementsPerceptions about medication history and formulary

C. Jason Wang; Mihir H. Patel; Anthony J. Schueth; Melissa Bradley; Shinyi Wu; Jesse C. Crosson; Peter A. Glassman; Douglas S. Bell

2009-01-01

40

Experimental performance study of wireless ad hoc system utilizing 802.11a standard base on different routing protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wireless ad hoc network technology provides a flexible infrastructure for next generation mobile telecommunication. In this paper, the performances of the networks based on IEEE802.11a standard, including packets successful delivery rate, average end-to-end delay and system throughput, have been studied with different routing protocols (AODV, WRP, and FISHEYE) using GloMoSim to evaluate the effects of various factors, such as node mobility, node density, and node radio transmission range. The simulation results show that adaptive routing protocol will be more suitable for the variation ad hoc network and the results are helpful for the optimum design and deployment of an actual network.

Zhong, Xiao F.; Wang, You-Zheng; Mei, Shunliang; Wang, Jing

2002-08-01

41

Reproducibility of grading systems in oral epithelial dysplasia  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess inter and intra observer variability in grading oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) using Smith and Pindborg grading system, WHO classification system and Brothwell DJ et al. classification system. Study design: In the study 45 histological tissues of dysplasia, 15 each of mild, moderate and severe dysplasia were coded and blindly graded by three observers in three grading systems. Further on the same observers graded 15 slides again of the previous 45 for analyzing the reproducibility in the three grading systems. The individual significance of various indicators of dysplasia among various grades of dysplasia was also assessed. Result: Inter observer agreement was significantly higher in Brothwell system as compared to WHO and Smith and Pindborg system. Intra observer agreement was significantly higher in Smith and Pindborg system, but the predictability and the probability index was distributed over a larger range in this system. Each indicator of dysplasia was also found to be statistically significant (P<0.05) for grading dysplasia. Conclusion: The present study puts forth the inherent intricacies in the grading of oral premalignant lesions. Key words:Carcinoma, dysplasia, grading systems, reproducibility.

Shetty, Devi-Charan

2012-01-01

42

Low-grade malignant eccrine spiradenoma with systemic metastases.  

PubMed

Malignant eccrine spiradenoma (MES) is a very rare tumor. Tumors can be low grade or high grade. There are nine cases in the literature with systemic metastases. Of these, only one was low grade; the others had obvious features of high-grade malignancy such as pleomorphism, increased mitoses, and abnormal mitoses. Low grade MESs are more difficult to diagnose and are said to have a better prognosis. We report an additional case of low-grade MES with systemic metastases. It had a monotonous appearance with few mitotic figures and minimal pleomorphism. Vascular invasion was seen in both cases of low-grade MES and may be an important prognostic feature. PMID:12775989

Leonard, Niamh; Smith, David; McNamara, Paul

2003-06-01

43

Social Studies, Grade 3. Teaching Systems II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The overall social studies recommended program is described in SO 000 675; the nature of this guide, and the emphasis and organization of the units are described in SO 000 679. The three units in this part of the third grade course are: Tropical Rainforest, Mountain Communities, and Grassland Communities involving the typical climatic conditions,…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

44

Where We Stand: Standards-Based Assessment and Accountability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication presents the American Federation of Teachers' (AFT') convention resolution on standards-based assessment and accountability. It reaffirms the AFT's commitment to high standards for all students and to the development of a standards-based system of education. It recommends that to be successful, it is necessary to create a system

American Federation of Teachers, Washington, DC.

45

ON-LINE PREDICTION OF YIELD GRADE, LONGISSIMUS MUSCLE AREA, PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, ADJUSTED PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, AND MARBLING SCORE USING THE MARC BEEF CARCASS IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the MARC Beef Carcass Image Analysis System to predict calculated yield grade, longissimus area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score under commercial beef processing conditions. In two commerci...

46

A novel grading scale for striatonigral degeneration (multiple system atrophy).  

PubMed

Striatonigral degeneration (SND) is commonly thought to represent the neuropathological substrate of L-Dopa unresponsive parkinsonism in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Other neuropathological hallmarks of MSA include olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) and preganglionic sympathetic spinal cord lesions. Clinicopathological evaluation of MSA patients recruited into ongoing natural history studies or neuroprotective intervention trials will require standardized grading of MSA pathology. Based on 25 autopsy cases of MSA, we propose a novel SND grading scale which allows semiquantitative assessment of lesion severity based on neuronal loss, astrogliosis and presence of alpha-synuclein positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in substantia nigra, putamen, caudate nucleus, and globus pallidus. SND grade I is defined as degeneration of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) with relative preservation of the striatum except for minimal gliosis and GCIs in the posterior putamen ("minimal change MSA"). SND grade II is characterized by neuronal loss, astrogliosis and presence of GCIs in SNC and posterior/dorsolateral putamen. Caudate nucleus and external globus pallidus may exhibit slight gliosis. Striatal pathology is severe and extends to anterior ventromedial subregions in SND grade III. There is neuronal loss in caudate nucleus and globus pallidus. GCIs are more abundant in grade II than grade III SNC and putamen. Preliminary clinicopathologic correlation studies suggest milder parkinsonian disability and better initial L-Dopa responsiveness in SND grade I and II cases compared to grade III cases. Prospective clinicopathologic studies are required to validate the proposed SND grading scale and may result in further subdivisions, particularly of SND grade III. PMID:11956953

Wenning, G K; Seppi, K; Tison, F; Jellinger, K

2002-03-01

47

The Buddy System: A Step toward More Reliable Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed to help teachers in writing programs collaborate to reach a consensus on grading standards for freshman essays, the "Buddy System" was instituted on a voluntary basis at a Pennsylvania college with an English department with a traditional literature orientation. To participate, the instructors were required: (1) to choose at least one…

Polanski, Virginia G.

48

A Standards-Based Science Fair  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In standards-based science fairs, children learn more about what they are interested in. They deepen understandings of how science works and improve inquiry skills--including the ability to communicate and share research results. Parents learn more about science inquiry and their child's science abilities. The standards-based science fair builds…

Rillero, Peter

2011-01-01

49

Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems  

DOEpatents

A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel. 4 figs.

Kuznetsov, S.B.

1986-04-01

50

Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems  

DOEpatents

A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel.

Kuznetsov, Stephen B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01

51

The Case against Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Decades of research shows that grades diminish students' interest in whatever they're learning, discourage students from taking academic risks, and reduce the quality of students' thinking, writes Kohn. Contrary to what many people assume, grades are not necessary to promote achievement. Attempts to "improve" grading--such as standards-based

Kohn, Alfie

2011-01-01

52

Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses  

PubMed Central

The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal width of its response options. No study has systematically examined, through modern psychometric approach, whether physicians are able to properly use the Medical Research Council grades. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate physicians’ ability to discriminate among the Medical Research Council categories in patients with different neuromuscular disorders and with various degrees of weakness through thresholds examination using Rasch analysis as a modern psychometric method; (ii) to examine possible factors influencing physicians’ ability to apply the Medical Research Council categories through differential item function analyses; and (iii) to examine whether the widely used Medical Research Council 12 muscles sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy would meet Rasch model's expectations. A total of 1065 patients were included from nine cohorts with the following diseases: Guillain–Barré syndrome (n?=?480); myotonic dystrophy type-1 (n?=?169); chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n?=?139); limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (n?=?105); multifocal motor neuropathy (n?=?102); Pompe's disease (n?=?62) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined related polyneuropathy (n?=?8). Medical Research Council data of 72 muscles were collected. Rasch analyses were performed on Medical Research Council data for each cohort separately and after pooling data at the muscle level to increase category frequencies, and on the Medical Research Council sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Disordered thresholds were demonstrated in 74–79% of the muscles examined, indicating physicians’ inability to discriminate between most Medical Research Council categories. Factors such as physicians’ experience or illness type did not influence these findings. Thresholds were restored after rescoring the Medical Research Council grades from six to four options (0, paralysis; 1, severe weakness; 2, slight weakness; 3, normal strength). The Medical Research Council sum score acceptably fulfilled Rasch model expectations after rescoring the response options and creating subsets to resolve local dependency and item bias on diagnosis. In conclusion, a modified, Rasch-built four response category Medical Research Council grading system is proposed, resolving clinicians’ inability to differentiate among its original response categories and improving clinical applicability. A modified Medical Research Council sum score at the interval level is presented and is recommended for future studies in Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

Vanhoutte, Els Karla; Faber, Catharina Gerritdina; van Nes, Sonja Ingrid; Jacobs, Bart Casper; van Doorn, Pieter Antoon; van Koningsveld, Rinske; Cornblath, David Reid; van der Kooi, Anneke Jelly; Cats, Elisabeth Aviva; van den Berg, Leonard Hendrik; Notermans, Nicolette Claudia; van der Pol, Willem Lodewijk; Hermans, Mieke Catharina Elisabeth; van der Beek, Nadine Anna Maria Elisabeth; Gorson, Kenneth Craig; Eurelings, Marijke; Engelsman, Jeroen; Boot, Hendrik; Meijer, Ronaldus Jacobus; Lauria, Giuseppe; Tennant, Alan

2012-01-01

53

Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses.  

PubMed

The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal width of its response options. No study has systematically examined, through modern psychometric approach, whether physicians are able to properly use the Medical Research Council grades. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate physicians' ability to discriminate among the Medical Research Council categories in patients with different neuromuscular disorders and with various degrees of weakness through thresholds examination using Rasch analysis as a modern psychometric method; (ii) to examine possible factors influencing physicians' ability to apply the Medical Research Council categories through differential item function analyses; and (iii) to examine whether the widely used Medical Research Council 12 muscles sum score in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy would meet Rasch model's expectations. A total of 1065 patients were included from nine cohorts with the following diseases: Guillain-Barré syndrome (n?=?480); myotonic dystrophy type-1 (n?=?169); chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n?=?139); limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (n?=?105); multifocal motor neuropathy (n?=?102); Pompe's disease (n?=?62) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined related polyneuropathy (n?=?8). Medical Research Council data of 72 muscles were collected. Rasch analyses were performed on Medical Research Council data for each cohort separately and after pooling data at the muscle level to increase category frequencies, and on the Medical Research Council sum score in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Disordered thresholds were demonstrated in 74-79% of the muscles examined, indicating physicians' inability to discriminate between most Medical Research Council categories. Factors such as physicians' experience or illness type did not influence these findings. Thresholds were restored after rescoring the Medical Research Council grades from six to four options (0, paralysis; 1, severe weakness; 2, slight weakness; 3, normal strength). The Medical Research Council sum score acceptably fulfilled Rasch model expectations after rescoring the response options and creating subsets to resolve local dependency and item bias on diagnosis. In conclusion, a modified, Rasch-built four response category Medical Research Council grading system is proposed, resolving clinicians' inability to differentiate among its original response categories and improving clinical applicability. A modified Medical Research Council sum score at the interval level is presented and is recommended for future studies in Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. PMID:22189568

Vanhoutte, Els Karla; Faber, Catharina Gerritdina; van Nes, Sonja Ingrid; Jacobs, Bart Casper; van Doorn, Pieter Antoon; van Koningsveld, Rinske; Cornblath, David Reid; van der Kooi, Anneke Jelly; Cats, Elisabeth Aviva; van den Berg, Leonard Hendrik; Notermans, Nicolette Claudia; van der Pol, Willem Lodewijk; Hermans, Mieke Catharina Elisabeth; van der Beek, Nadine Anna Maria Elisabeth; Gorson, Kenneth Craig; Eurelings, Marijke; Engelsman, Jeroen; Boot, Hendrik; Meijer, Ronaldus Jacobus; Lauria, Giuseppe; Tennant, Alan; Merkies, Ingemar Sergio José

2011-12-20

54

Clinical Information System Services and Capabilities Desired for Scalable, Standards-Based, Service-oriented Decision Support: Consensus Assessment of the Health Level 7 Clinical Decision Support Work Group  

PubMed Central

A standards-based, service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support (CDS) has the potential to significantly enhance CDS scalability and robustness. To enable such a CDS architecture, the Health Level 7 CDS Work Group reviewed the literature, hosted multi-stakeholder discussions, and consulted domain experts to identify and prioritize the services and capabilities required from clinical information systems (CISs) to enable service-oriented CDS. In addition, relevant available standards were identified. Through this process, ten CIS services and eight CIS capabilities were identified as being important for enabling scalable, service-oriented CDS. In particular, through a survey of 46 domain experts, five services and capabilities were identified as being especially critical: 1) the use of standard information models and terminologies; 2) the ability to leverage a Decision Support Service (DSS); 3) support for a clinical data query service; 4) support for an event subscription and notification service; and 5) support for a user communication service.

Kawamoto, Kensaku; Jacobs, Jason; Welch, Brandon M.; Huser, Vojtech; Paterno, Marilyn D.; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Shields, David; Strasberg, Howard R.; Haug, Peter J.; Liu, Zhijing; Jenders, Robert A.; Rowed, David W.; Chertcoff, Daryl; Fehre, Karsten; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Curtis, A. Clayton

2012-01-01

55

Necrotizing cervical fasciitis: Prognosis based on a new grading system.  

PubMed

We conducted a 10-year retrospective study to determine the prognosis of necrotizing cervical fasciitis (NCF). Our study population included 38 patients-32 males and 6 females, aged 10 months to 70 years (mean: 55 yr)-who had presented for management of NCF at our tertiary care hospital between Jan. 1, 2000, and Dec. 31, 2009. We classified each case into four categories based on the duration of disease prior to presentation, the severity of disease, and other factors that influence outcomes. We found that the most important factor in determining prognosis was the time interval between the onset of NCF and subsequent presentation for specialist or surgical intervention. Patients with a higher grade of NCF had longer hospital stays. Although aggressive surgical and medical intervention is the gold standard for the management of NCF, many of our patients presented with a relatively healthy appearing wound, which could mislead the evaluating clinician and delay prompt management. We believe that our new grading system will help obviate this problem and make clinicians more vigilant when faced with a new case of necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:23532652

Thakur, Jagdeep Singh; Verma, Neeti; Thakur, Anamika; Sharma, Dev Raj; Mohindroo, Narinder Kumar

2013-03-01

56

The National Dialogue on Standards-Based Education: Final Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In response to the need to ensure that standards fulfill their promise of supporting a system of education that leaves no child behind, McREL created a multimedia, multi-site, ongoing nationwide dialogue related to standards-based reform efforts. These dialogues provided participants with opportunities to share underlying assumptions, beliefs,…

Lefkowits, Laura; Arens, Sheila A.

2004-01-01

57

Eight Steps to Meaningful Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A group of teachers at Clifford Smart Middle School in Michigan's Walled Lake Consolidated School District have broken free from traditional grading in order to embrace a more meaningful grading practice. Using standards-based grading practices, they believe their grading now accurately communicates to students and parents the student's mastery…

Deddeh, Heather; Main, Erin; Fulkerson, Sharon Ratzlaff

2010-01-01

58

Standards-Based Accountability in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The implementation of standards-based accountability (SBA) interventions aimed at improving school performance often focuses on the testing component, at the expense of capacity building. This was the case in South Africa when a SBA programme was instituted by government in 2000, which was accompanied by substantial rises in senior certificate…

Taylor, Nick

2009-01-01

59

Teaching in the Standards-Based Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of "ENC Focus" focuses on teaching in the standards-based classroom. Contents include: (1) "Creating Ideals and Making Them Real" (Annette Thorson); (2) "ENC Partners: Eisenhower National Clearinghouse Sites" (Juyong Pae); (3) "Innovators' Forum"; (4) "Using the Internet: Connecting Students through Collaborative Projects" (Kimberly S.…

Thorson, Annette, Ed.

2001-01-01

60

Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

1998-12-31

61

Problems with Standards-based Mathematics Tests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alan Tucker, an Applied Math professor at Stony Brook University took it upon himself to analyze the reliability of the scoring of the Math A test, New York's standards-based exam. Tucker was part of the New York Board of Regents special panel which investigated the high failure rates on the June 2003 exam. He reports here on his findings regarding "flaws in annual math tests mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act." In particular, he is concerned about the likelihood that students scores on standards-based test can be compared over time at the level of precision needed to make decisions that come with high-stakes consequences. A short report and a full report are available from this website, explaining his model and statistical analysis.

62

Evaluation of an automated hardwood lumber grading system  

Treesearch

US Forest Service ... USA.gov Government Made Easy ... Current R&D efforts are targeted toward developing automated lumber grading technologies. ... the Adobe Acrobat reader or Acrobat Reader for Windows with Search and Accessibility.

63

Improved grading system for structural logs for log homes  

Treesearch

... diameter than would be required if a more precise grading method were available. ... The logs were tested in bending and in compression parallel to grain . ... to be the best single predictor of static strength and modulus of elasticity (MOE ).

64

Classification of two-dimensional quantum systems with Z{sub 3}-graded topological symmetries  

SciTech Connect

In this article, I have derived the general conditions on two-dimensional quantum systems possess Z{sub 3}-graded topological symmetries and calculated the solutions of two special cases of such systems.

Pouladsaz, D. [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

2012-12-15

65

Is Standards-Based School Reform Consistent with Schooling for Personal Liberty?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to consider whether standards-based school reform is an acceptable strategy for achieving a politically legitimate school system according to a principle of personal liberty. First, it briefly describes the purpose and implementation of standards-based school reform in the U.S. It then considers the ramifications of…

Bull, Barry L.

2006-01-01

66

Is Standards-Based School Reform Consistent with Schooling for Personal Liberty?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this paper is to consider whether standards-based school reform is an acceptable strategy for achieving a politically legitimate school system according to a principle of personal liberty. First, it briefly describes the purpose and implementation of standards-based school reform in the U.S. It then considers the ramifications of…

Bull, Barry L.

2006-01-01

67

Connections: Water, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural Resources for Grade 3 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of Learning for…

Ney, Catherine R.

68

Evolution of the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) beef grading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian Beef Industry identified variable eating quality as a major contributor to declining beef consumption in the early 1990s and committed research funding to address the problem. The major issue was the ability to predict the eating quality of cooked beef before consumption. The Meat Standards Australia (MSA) program developed a consumer testing protocol, which led to MSA grading

R. PolkinghorneA; A. GeeD; M. PorterE

69

Connections: Weather, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Natural Resources for Grade 4 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of Learning…

Ney, Catherine R.; Cross, Pat

70

Faculty Ratings as Part of a Competency-Based Evaluation Clinic Grading System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a quarterly rating system developed to replace daily grading in a dental school with a competency-based educational model. Presents results from an early administration of the ratings. These results, for 126 students, show excellent face validity and rater consistency and satisfy the school's standard for grade defensibility. (SLD)

Chambers, David W.

1999-01-01

71

MRI Assessment of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Degeneration with Lumbar Degenerative Disease Using the Pfirrmann Grading Systems  

PubMed Central

Background To evaluate by MRI intervertebral disc degeneration in patients with lumbar degenerative disease using the Pfirrmann grading system and to determine whether Modic changes correlated with the Pfirrmann grades and modified Pfirrmann grades of disc degeneration. Methods The clinical data of 108 surgical patients with lumbar degenerative disease were reviewed and their preoperative MR images were analyzed. Disc degeneration was evaluated using the Pfirrmann grading system. Patients were followed up and low back pain was evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the effect of back pain on the daily quality of life was assessed using Oswestry disability index (ODI). Results Forty-four cases had normal anatomical appearance (Modic type 0) and their Pfirrmann grades were 3.77±0.480 and their modified Pfirrmann grades were of 5.81±1.006. Twenty-seven cases had Modic type I changes and their Pfirrmann grades were 4.79±0.557 and their modified Pfirrmann grades were 7.00±0.832. Thirty-six cases exhibited Modic type II changes and their Pfirrmann grades and modified Pfirrmann grades were 4.11±0.398 and 6.64±0.867, respectively. One case had Modic type III changes. Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant difference in modified Pfirrmann grade among Modic type 0, I and II changes (P<0.01) but no significant difference between Modic type I and II changes (P>0.05). Binary regression analysis showed that Modic changes correlated most strongly with disc degeneration. Follow up studies indicated that the VAS and ODI scores were markedly improved postoperatively. However, no difference was noted in VAS and ODI scores among patients with different Modic types. Conclusion Modic changes correlate with the Pfirrmann and modified Pfirrmann grades of disc degeneration in lumbar degenerative disease. There is no significant correlation between Modic types and surgical outcomes.

Yin, Guo-Yong; Ren, Yong-Xin; Hu, Zhi-Yi

2012-01-01

72

Lie algebras graded by finite root systems and intersection matrix algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   This paper classifies the Lie algebras graded by doubly-laced finite root systems and applies this classification to identify\\u000a the intersection matrix algebras arising from multiply affinized Cartan matrices of types B,C,F, and G. This completes the determination of the Lie algebras graded by finite root systems initiated by Berman and Moody who studied\\u000a the simply-laced finite root systems of

Georgia Benkart; Efim Zelmanov

1996-01-01

73

Evolution of the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) beef grading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. The Australian Beef Industry identified variable eating quality as a major,contributor to declining beef consumption,in the early 1990s and committed,research,funding,to address the problem. The major,issue was,the ability to predict the eating quality of cooked,beef before consumption.,The Meat Standards Australia (MSA) program developed a consumer testing protocol, which led to MSA grading standards being defined by consumer score outcomes. Traditional

R. Polkinghorne; J. M. Thompson; R. Watson; A. Gee; M. Porter

2008-01-01

74

Automatic pterygium detection on cornea images to enhance computer-aided cortical cataract grading system.  

PubMed

In this paper, we present a new method to detect pterygiums using cornea images. Due to the similarity of appearances and spatial locations between pterygiums and cortical cataracts, pterygiums are often falsely detected as cortical cataracts on retroillumination images by a computer-aided grading system. The proposed method can be used to filter out the pterygium which improves the accuracy of cortical cataract grading system. This work has three major contributions. First, we propose a new pupil segmentation method for visible wavelength images. Second, an automatic detection method of pterygiums is proposed. Third, we develop an enhanced compute-aided cortical cataract grading system that excludes pterygiums. The proposed method is tested using clinical data and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can improve the existing automatic cortical cataract grading system. PMID:23366911

Gao, Xinting; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Aryaputera, Aloysius Wishnu; Sun, Ying; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cheung, Carol; Wong, Tien Yin

2012-01-01

75

Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of WHO and Gleason histologic grading systems in prostatic adenocarcinomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study a total of 96 patients with prostatic carcinoma were evaluated retrospectively. Sections prepared from paraffin\\u000a blocks were examined and all cases were scored according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Gleason grading systems.\\u000a We investigated intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility of two grading systems in prostatic adenocarcinomas. In our\\u000a study the intraobserver reproducibilities of the WHO and

?. O. Özdamar; ?. Sarikaya; L. Yildiz; M. K. Atilla; B. Kandemir; S. Yildiz

1996-01-01

76

Ultrasound grading of hydronephrosis: introduction to the system used by the Society for Fetal Urology.  

PubMed

The Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) was founded in 1988 to study the postnatal evolution of prenatally detected anomalies of the urinary tract by following those neonates whose prenatal studies have brought them to medical attention while asymptomatic. The SFU has attempted to standardize methods of performing and grading the ultrasound and radionuclide examinations in this population. A system to grade upper tract dilatation or hydronephrosis (HN) imaged by ultrasound has been developed and is being used by SFU members in 36 institutions. The appearance of the calices, renal pelvis and renal parenchyma are key in determining the grade of HN and are illustrated in this article. PMID:8255658

Fernbach, S K; Maizels, M; Conway, J J

1993-01-01

77

Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

78

Analysis of an innovative water desalination system using low-grade solar heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a theoretical analysis and preliminary experimental results for an innovative water desalination system using low-grade solar heat. The system utilizes natural means (gravity and atmospheric pressure) to create a vacuum under which water can be rapidly evaporated at much lower temperatures and with less energy than conventional techniques. The system consists of an evaporator connected to a

S. Al-Kharabsheh

2003-01-01

79

Theoretical Analysis of a Water Desalination System Using Low Grade Solar Heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical analysis of a solar desalination system utilizing an innovative new concept, which uses low-grade solar heat, is presented. The system utilizes natural means of gravity and atmospheric pressure to create a vacuum, under which liquid can be evapo- rated at much lower temperatures and with less energy than conventional techniques. The uniqueness of the system is in the way

S. Al-Kharabsheh; D. Yogi Goswami

2004-01-01

80

Reproducibility of two malignancy grading systems with reportedly prognostic value for oral cancer patients.  

PubMed

Supplementary prognostic factors should be added to the TNM classification for oral squamous cell carcinomas in order to optimize its clinical value. We have recently published two prognostically valuable malignancy grading systems based on histopathology and immunohistology of the most invasive cells in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). However, a major problem with classifications based on histologic features is frequent lack of interobserver agreement which limits the clinical value of subjective histologic classifications. Thirty-eight file cases of OSCCs were therefore graded by three pathologists according to criteria of the histologic malignancy grading system which includes 5 morphologic features, each graded from 1 to 4. Agreement was calculated by kappa statistics, which showed that interobserver agreement was not optimal, but significantly better than by chance alone. We also studied the reproducibility of grading of immunohistologic membrane expression of a tumor-associated marker (blood group antigen H), and found a similar level of agreement. We conclude that the clinical value of our grading systems will increase by improving reproducibility. PMID:1719194

Bryne, M; Nielsen, K; Koppang, H S; Dabelsteen, E

1991-09-01

81

A grading system combining architectural features and mitotic count predicts recurrence in stage I lung adenocarcinoma.  

PubMed

The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/American Thoracic Society (ATS)/European Respiratory Society (ERS) has recently proposed a new lung adenocarcinoma classification. We investigated whether nuclear features can stratify prognostic subsets. Slides of 485 stage I lung adenocarcinoma patients were reviewed. We evaluated nuclear diameter, nuclear atypia, nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, chromatin pattern, prominence of nucleoli, intranuclear inclusions, mitotic count/10 high-power fields (HPFs) or 2.4?mm(2), and atypical mitoses. Tumors were classified into histologic subtypes according to the IASLC/ATS/ERS classification and grouped by architectural grade into low (adenocarcinoma in situ, minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, or lepidic predominant), intermediate (papillary or acinar), and high (micropapillary or solid). Log-rank tests and Cox regression models evaluated the ability of clinicopathologic factors to predict recurrence-free probability. In univariate analyses, nuclear diameter (P=0.007), nuclear atypia (P=0.006), mitotic count (P<0.001), and atypical mitoses (P<0.001) were significant predictors of recurrence. The recurrence-free probability of patients with high mitotic count (?5/10?HPF: n=175) was the lowest (5-year recurrence-free probability=73%), followed by intermediate (2-4/10?HPF: n=106, 80%), and low (0-1/10?HPF: n=204, 91%, P<0.001). Combined architectural/mitotic grading system stratified patient outcomes (P<0.001): low grade (low architectural grade with any mitotic count and intermediate architectural grade with low mitotic count: n=201, 5-year recurrence-free probability=92%), intermediate grade (intermediate architectural grade with intermediate-high mitotic counts: n=206, 78%), and high grade (high architectural grade with any mitotic count: n=78, 68%). The advantage of adding mitotic count to architectural grade is in stratifying patients with intermediate architectural grade into two prognostically distinct categories (P=0.001). After adjusting for clinicopathologic factors including sex, stage, pleural/lymphovascular invasion, and necrosis, mitotic count was not an independent predictor of recurrence (P=0.178). However, patients with the high architectural/mitotic grade remained at significantly increased risk of recurrence (high vs low: P=0.005) after adjusting for clinical factors. We proposed this combined architectural/mitotic grade for lung adenocarcinoma as a practical method that can be applied in routine practice. PMID:22499226

Kadota, Kyuichi; Suzuki, Kei; Kachala, Stefan S; Zabor, Emily C; Sima, Camelia S; Moreira, Andre L; Yoshizawa, Akihiko; Riely, Gregory J; Rusch, Valerie W; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Travis, William D

2012-04-13

82

Assessment of Recanalization after Intra-Arterial Thrombolysis in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke : Proposed Modification of the Qureshi Grading System  

PubMed Central

Objective We aimed to investigate the correlation between the success of recanalization and a modified version of the Qureshi grading system in acute ischemic stroke patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) records of 37 patients who were evaluated by Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and a modified version of the Qureshi grading systems as follows : 1) post-IAT Qureshi grade, 2) modified ? Qureshi grade : pre-IAT group grade - post-IAT group grade (grade 1 : Qureshi grades 0-2 and grade 2 : Qureshi grade 3-5) and 3) ? Qureshi grade (post-IAT Qureshi grade - pre-IAT Qureshi grade). Successful recanalization was defined as follows : 1) post-IAT TIMI grades 2 and 3, 2) post-IAT Qureshi grade 0-2, 3) modified ? Qureshi grade=1, and 4) ? Qureshi grade of ?2 and/or post-IAT Qureshi grade=0. We investigated the correlation between the post-IAT TIMI grade and the modified Qureshi grade and also compared the various grading systems with modified Rankin Scale scores for evaluating the clinical outcome at 3 months. Results The post-IAT Qureshi grade and ? Qureshi grade and/or post-IAT Qureshi grade were significantly correlated with the TIMI grade (?=0.976 and, 0.942, respectively). Further, post-IAT Qureshi grade and ? Qureshi grade and/or post-IAT Qureshi grade showed a significantly stronger association with clinical outcome than did the post-IAT TIMI grade (p=0.001 and, 0.000 vs. 0.083, respectively). Conclusion Our preliminary results suggest that the modified Qureshi grading system is a useful tool for assessing the success of recanalization after IAT.

Kim, Jae Hoon; Moon, Byung Gwan; Lee, Seung Jin; Kim, Joo Seung

2012-01-01

83

Grading More Accurately  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Grades matter. College grading systems, however, are often ad hoc and prone to mistakes. This essay focuses on one factor that contributes to high-quality grading systems: grading accuracy (or "efficiency"). I proceed in several steps. First, I discuss the elements of "efficient" (i.e., accurate) grading. Next, I present analytical results…

Rom, Mark Carl

2011-01-01

84

Starting the Conversation about Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As they attempt to make the transition to standards-based grading, many schools go off track or get swamped by side issues, writes Brookhart. They waste energy having hard discussions about grading practice details that, by themselves, cannot accomplish real reform. Instead, schools should focus discussion on major questions: What meaning do we…

Brookhart, Susan M.

2011-01-01

85

A Machine Vision System for Automatically Grading Hardwood Lumber  

Treesearch

The machine vision system being developed is made up of a subsystem for imaging ... A major goal of this research activity is to create a vision technology that will be ... lumber but a number of other forest products related applications as well.

86

Ready to Assemble: Grading State Higher Education Accountability Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|States need strong higher education systems, now more than ever. In the tumultuous, highly competitive 21st century economy, citizens and workers need knowledge, skills, and credentials in order to prosper. Yet many colleges and universities are falling short. To give all students the best possible postsecondary education, states must create…

Aldeman, Chad; Carey, Kevin

2009-01-01

87

Journey into a Standards-Based Mathematics Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A standards-based approach to mathematics involves using story problems to allow students to investigate a solution. This approach emphasizes an understanding of concepts and processes and assumes mastery of basic computation skills. This article will encourage teachers to continue teaching standards-based mathematics and to take advantage of…

Brucker, Elizabeth L.

2008-01-01

88

The Iatrogenic Consequences of Standards-Based Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards-based assessments were prescribed as the cure for the poor accountability of public schools. Billions of dollars have been spent on curricula, tests, and scoring rubrics so that federal and state agencies can rank schools in terms of student achievement. Over the past twenty years, standards-based education has become the defacto, only…

Baines, Lawrence A.; Stanley, Gregory Kent

2006-01-01

89

Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations I: Critical appraisal of existing approaches The GRADE Working Group  

PubMed Central

Background A number of approaches have been used to grade levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations. The use of many different approaches detracts from one of the main reasons for having explicit approaches: to concisely characterise and communicate this information so that it can easily be understood and thereby help people make well-informed decisions. Our objective was to critically appraise six prominent systems for grading levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations as a basis for agreeing on characteristics of a common, sensible approach to grading levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations. Methods Six prominent systems for grading levels of evidence and strength of recommendations were selected and someone familiar with each system prepared a description of each of these. Twelve assessors independently evaluated each system based on twelve criteria to assess the sensibility of the different approaches. Systems used by 51 organisations were compared with these six approaches. Results There was poor agreement about the sensibility of the six systems. Only one of the systems was suitable for all four types of questions we considered (effectiveness, harm, diagnosis and prognosis). None of the systems was considered usable for all of the target groups we considered (professionals, patients and policy makers). The raters found low reproducibility of judgements made using all six systems. Systems used by 51 organisations that sponsor clinical practice guidelines included a number of minor variations of the six systems that we critically appraised. Conclusions All of the currently used approaches to grading levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations have important shortcomings.

Atkins, David; Eccles, Martin; Flottorp, Signe; Guyatt, Gordon H; Henry, David; Hill, Suzanne; Liberati, Alessandro; O'Connell, Dianne; Oxman, Andrew D; Phillips, Bob; Schunemann, Holger; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Vist, Gunn E; Williams, John W

2004-01-01

90

Safe and sustainable systems for food-grade fermentations by genetically modified lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has seen a great increase in innovative improvements of lactic acid bacteria used in industrial food fermentations. In order to allow the genetically modified lactic acid bacteria to reach the market place, their novel genetic combinations should be selected, stably maintained, and expressed using food-grade systems that are safe, stable, and sustainable. This paper aims to review

Willem M. de Vos

1999-01-01

91

Enhancing On-Task Behavior in Fourth-Grade Students Using a Modified Color Wheel System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel System (M-CWS) on the on-task behavior of 7 students enrolled in the 4th grade. Standard CWS procedures were modified to include a 4th set of rules designed to set behavioral expectation for cooperative learning activities. Mean data showed that immediately…

Blondin, Carolyn; Skinner, Christopher; Parkhurst, John; Wood, Allison; Snyder, Jamie

2012-01-01

92

Grading and staging systems for inflammation and fibrosis in chronic liver diseases.  

PubMed

Liver biopsy is an important part of the evaluation of patients with a variety of liver diseases. Besides establishing the diagnosis, the biopsy is often used to assess the severity of the disease in terms of both grade and stage. The stage in most chronic liver diseases relates to the degree of scarring with the end stage being cirrhosis with its clinical complications. The grade relates to the severity of the underlying disease process, with features that vary with the pathogenetic mechanisms. Chronic viral hepatitis has been the object of the most extensive efforts at grading and staging, stimulated by the advent of new forms of therapy. Systems have also been developed for fatty liver disease, allograft rejection and chronic cholestatic diseases, but these have not been as widely used. Simple grading and staging systems for chronic hepatitis, including the IASL, Batts-Ludwig, and Metavir systems, are most appropriate for management of individual patients, while more complex systems such as the Histology Activity Index (HAI) are appropriate for evaluation of large cohorts of patients when statistical analysis is required. PMID:17692984

Goodman, Zachary D

2007-07-30

93

Characterizations of Mg-W System Graded-Density Impactors for Complex Loading Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed an Mg-W functionally graded-density materials system with two different sequences of density–thickness distributions\\u000a and fabricated disk-like pellets with the graded-density materials by elaborate stacking of different metal powder layers,\\u000a followed by a one-step hot-pressure sintering process. The microstructures of the sintered pellets were characterized using\\u000a a scanning electronic microscope and a scanning acoustic microscope. The pellets were used

Guoqiang Luo; Jinsong Bai; Hua Tan; Qiang Shen; Jianbo Hu; Qingsong Wang; Chengda Dai; Qiang Wu; Lianmeng Zhang

2010-01-01

94

An XML cytometry standard based on DICOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: The International Society for the Advancement of Cytometry (ISAC) Data Standards Task Force (DSTF) is developing a new Advanced Cytometry Specification (ACS). DICOM has developed and is extending a pathology extension. The work of both groups is complementary with some overlap. Interoperation would benefit both groups and permit each to benefit from the other's expertise. Methods: The design and implementation of the CytometryML version of the ACS schemas have been based on each schema describing one object (modularity), iterative (spiral) development, inheritance, and reuse of data-types and their definitions from DICOM, Flow Cytometry Standard, and other standards. Results: These schemas have been validated with two tools and XML pages were generated from highest level schemas. Binary image data and its associated metadata are stored together in a zip file based container. A schema for a table of contents, which is one of the metadata files of this container, has recently been developed and reported upon. The binary image data is placed in one file in the container; and the metadata associated with an image in another. The schema for the image metadata file includes elements that are based on the DICOM design. This image schema includes descriptions of the acquisition context, image (including information on compression), specimen, slide, transmission medium, major optical parts, optical elements in one or more optical channels, detectors, and pixel format. The image schema describes both conventional camera systems and scanning or confocal systems.

Leif, Robert C.

2009-02-01

95

Phase standard based on profilometer metrology standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A NIST traceable phase1 shift standard has been designed, fabricated, and tested on three phase shift measurement tools using different wavelengths. By using the fundamentals of NIST traceable step height, quartz index, and the understanding of the illumination optics of the Lasertec phase metrology tool, a phase standard has been created which can be used to calibrate Lasertec phase metrology tools. The pattern that is used is compatible with the recommended best practices for calibrating and measuring step heights and phase on the Lasertec tools. The mask is made with multiple depths. The three mask depths allow for the mask to be calibrated to three NIST traceable depth heights. This was done using the FEI SNP XT depth metrology tool. Since the mask format is mask based (6x250 Cr on quartz), it can be easily used on mask manufacturing metrology systems. The depths are targeted at the 180-degree phase shift for 157nm, 193nm, and 248nm lithography. The mask can be used to set targets and check the linearity of the phase metrology tools. The patterns are compatible with AFM and Profilometer depth metrology tools as well as multiple Lasertec spot sizes and shearing distances. The quartz depths are fabricated using a wet quartz etch process. The wet etch minimizes the quartz roughness and removes that error source from the metrology. The pattern is also arrayed so that multiple sites can be used to confirm the metrology and the prime measurement site could be changed if there was a suspicion of pattern damage or contamination.

Hughes, Gregory P.; Goodman, Cindy; Antesberger, Gunter; Burges, Stefan; Morrison, Troy B.; Buxbaum, Alex H.

2004-10-01

96

O the Contribution to LWR Risk Arising from Non Safety-Grade Control Systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of the study is to estimate the effects of non-safety-grade control systems in light water reactors (LWRs) on the overall likelihood of accidents leading to severe core damage or core melt, as determined from operating experience. The study also examines a few selected potential events i.e. control system failure induced events that have not occurred, but might occur in the future, in order to gain some insight into their potential contribution to risk. One hundred ninety operational events which involve failure of non-safety-grade control systems and which are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage have been identified at PWR plants in the U.S. during 1969-1981; eighty such events have been identified for BWR plants. These events are treated as initiating or concurrent events to be fit into appropriate event trees, which are then quantified using component failure rates and system unavailabilities taken from available Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies to estimate the frequency of severe core damage arising from non-safety-grade control system failures. Considerable uncertainty is introduced into the results by the choice of system and operator failure rates. No allowance is made in these estimates for plant changes made because of operational experience.

Alter, Joseph

97

Grading of neuropathology in multiple system atrophy: proposal for a novel scale.  

PubMed

Multiple system atrophy (MSA), a sporadic progressive synucleinopathy of advanced age, is separated into two clinic opathological subtypes: MSA-P (striatonigral degeneration [SND]) with predominant parkinsonian features and MSA-C (olivopontocerebellar atrophy [OPCA]) with predominant cerebellar ataxia. We propose a novel morphological grading system for both subtypes to compare lesion intensities and their possible clinical validity. Forty-two autopsy cases of MSA were separated into four grades (SND 0-III and OPCA 0-III) based on semiquantitative assessment of neuronal loss, astrogliosis, and presence of alpha-synuclein-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCI) in striatum, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, pontine basis, cerebellum, and inferior olives. Whereas a recent grading system restricted to SND reflected disease progression and dopa-responsiveness, there was considerable variation in the morphological combination between SND and OPCA, with only around half the cases with OPCA II (moderate) and III (severe) showing comparable grades of both types, whereas OPCA 0 and I (no or little degeneration) was combined with all grades of SND. Twenty-two cases showing OPCA 0 + SND II (n = 3), OPCA I + SND I-II (n = 11), and OPCA I + SND III (n = 8) were classified as pure or predominant SND, consistent with MSA-P. Twenty cases showing OPCA II + SND II/III (n = 7) and OPCA III + SND III (n = 13) were classified as predominant OPCA, consistent with MSA-C. In MSA-P, the mean age of onset was higher than it was in MSA-C (55.1 vs. 50.5 years), but the mean duration of illness was shorter in MSA-P (5.3 vs. 6.7 years). Presenting symptoms in MSA-P were mainly parkinsonism, whereas in MSA-C they were mainly gait disorders (14 vs. 1; P < 0.001). Among clinical key symptoms, parkinsonism was more frequent than were cerebellar signs in MSA-P; in MSA-C it was the reverse (P < 0.01), whereas other symptoms (autonomic/urinary failure) showed no differences. Parkinsonism was infrequent in MSA-C even when OPCA was associated with SND, suggesting a masking effect by cerebellar system involvement. High terminal Hoehn and Yahr stages were more frequent in MSA-P (P < 0.01), some with good-to-moderate initial levodopa (L-dopa) response. Although the proposed morphological grading of both MSA-P and -C correlates well with initial symptoms and clinical key features of both types, further prospective studies are required to validate the clinical utility of the proposed MSA grading scales for future intervention studies. PMID:16092088

Jellinger, Kurt A; Seppi, Klaus; Wenning, Gregor K

2005-08-01

98

Characterizations of Mg-W System Graded-Density Impactors for Complex Loading Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed an Mg-W functionally graded-density materials system with two different sequences of density-thickness distributions and fabricated disk-like pellets with the graded-density materials by elaborate stacking of different metal powder layers, followed by a one-step hot-pressure sintering process. The microstructures of the sintered pellets were characterized using a scanning electronic microscope and a scanning acoustic microscope. The pellets were used as graded-density impactors (GDIs) to test their capabilities to produce complex particle-velocity wave profiles along a specified thermodynamic path. The wave profile was obtained from reverse-impact experiments using a two-stage light gas gun in which the GDI flyer impacted a lithium fluoride window. The particle-velocity history at the impact surface of the LiF window was deduced from the interference fringe numbers of the distance interferometer system for any reflector records. For GDIs consisting of nine composition layers of graded-density materials, the particle velocity profiles displayed combined shock loading and quasi-isentropic compressing and release processes. The impactor, consisting of 12 composition layers, produced wave profiles that contained shock loading, quasi-isentropic reloading, controlled releasing, and recompressing and released processes. The wave profiles simulated using a hydrodynamic computer model developed in house agree well with the experimental results as well as other theoretical results.

Luo, Guoqiang; Bai, Jinsong; Tan, Hua; Shen, Qiang; Hu, Jianbo; Wang, Qingsong; Dai, Chengda; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

2010-09-01

99

Raising the Bar: Standards-Based Training, Supervision, and Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this short Article, I sketch the methodology my colleagues and I at Pace Law School use to incorporate practice standards into our clinical teach-ing and reflect on how a standards-based teaching paradigm could be adapted to the training, supervision, and evaluation of public defenders. Then, I briefly consider how standards and standards-based teaching assist in the administration of assigned

Adele Bernhard

2010-01-01

100

Thermal Energy Storage System Using a Technical Grade Paraffin Wax as Latent Heat Energy Storage Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to experimentally establish thermal energy storage (TES) performance using a technical grade paraffin wax as a phase change material (PCM) in a vertical concentric pipe-in-pipe latent heat storage system. The melting and solidification temperature range of the paraffin was found as 38°C–43°C and 36°C–42°C, respectively. These values were well in agreement with the values

Kamil Kaygusuz; Ahmet Sari

2005-01-01

101

Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations II: Pilot study of a new system  

PubMed Central

Background Systems that are used by different organisations to grade the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations vary. They have different strengths and weaknesses. The GRADE Working Group has developed an approach that addresses key shortcomings in these systems. The aim of this study was to pilot test and further develop the GRADE approach to grading evidence and recommendations. Methods A GRADE evidence profile consists of two tables: a quality assessment and a summary of findings. Twelve evidence profiles were used in this pilot study. Each evidence profile was made based on information available in a systematic review. Seventeen people were given instructions and independently graded the level of evidence and strength of recommendation for each of the 12 evidence profiles. For each example judgements were collected, summarised and discussed in the group with the aim of improving the proposed grading system. Kappas were calculated as a measure of chance-corrected agreement for the quality of evidence for each outcome for each of the twelve evidence profiles. The seventeen judges were also asked about the ease of understanding and the sensibility of the approach. All of the judgements were recorded and disagreements discussed. Results There was a varied amount of agreement on the quality of evidence for the outcomes relating to each of the twelve questions (kappa coefficients for agreement beyond chance ranged from 0 to 0.82). However, there was fair agreement about the relative importance of each outcome. There was poor agreement about the balance of benefits and harms and recommendations. Most of the disagreements were easily resolved through discussion. In general we found the GRADE approach to be clear, understandable and sensible. Some modifications were made in the approach and it was agreed that more information was needed in the evidence profiles. Conclusion Judgements about evidence and recommendations are complex. Some subjectivity, especially regarding recommendations, is unavoidable. We believe our system for guiding these complex judgements appropriately balances the need for simplicity with the need for full and transparent consideration of all important issues.

Atkins, David; Briss, Peter A; Eccles, Martin; Flottorp, Signe; Guyatt, Gordon H; Harbour, Robin T; Hill, Suzanne; Jaeschke, Roman; Liberati, Alessandro; Magrini, Nicola; Mason, James; O'Connell, Dianne; Oxman, Andrew D; Phillips, Bob; Schunemann, Holger; Edejer, Tessa Tan-Torres; Vist, Gunn E; Williams, John W

2005-01-01

102

Predictive value of malignancy grading systems, DNA content, p53, and angiogenesis for stage I tongue carcinomas.  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess the clinical value of malignancy grading systems compared with nuclear DNA content, protein p53, and angiogenesis for predicting recurrence of stage I (UICC, 1987) tongue carcinomas. METHODS: Histopathological malignancy grading according to Jakobsson and tumour front grading according to Bryne et al were performed on haematoxylin and eosin slides. DNA analysis was performed by image cytometry. Protein p53 and angiogenesis were evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis using antibody CM1 and antibody against factor VIII related antigen, respectively. RESULTS: 49 patients with stage I carcinomas of the mobile tongue were included, all treated by local surgical excision alone. Eight patients (16%) suffered from local recurrence during follow up, and 13 (27%) had regional recurrence. Both Jakobsson's malignancy grading system and p53 immunoreactivity proved to be useful predictors of regional recurrence in a Cox multivariate regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Histopathological malignancy grading systems provide valuable prognostic information and can still compete with current biological markers in this respect.

Hogmo, A; Kuylenstierna, R; Lindholm, J; Munck-Wikland, E

1999-01-01

103

Experimental research upon accommodating the functional parameters of a laser controlled system designed for a grading machinery with the actual operating conditions of the grading machinery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper refers to some experimental research activities carried out with a view to accommodate the functional parameters of a laser controlled system with the actual horizontal grading conditions (the slopes in x and y directions of the grading plane are null). Experimental research activities were carried on a device which comprises two electrohydraulic servomechanisms: one mechano-hydraulic servomechanism, which the quota laser sensor is mounted on and simulates the land profile; one electro-hydraulic laser controlled servomechanism, identical with the one on the machinery, which traces the first servomechanism and brings the quota laser sensor back into the optimum reference plane (generated by the rotary laser generator) whenever this one is offset of the laser plane. Experiments were meant to determine: the dynamic of the tracing laser controlled system for various land profiles; the stability and response time of this system; the dynamic of the tracing laser controlled system under simulating external noise comparable with the vibrations generated by the grading machinery.

Popescu, Teodor Costinel; Blejan, Marian; Sov?ial?, Gheorghe

2009-01-01

104

A Standard-Based Model for Adaptive E-Learning Platform for Mauritian Academic Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The key aim of this paper is to introduce a standard-based model for adaptive e-learning platform for Mauritian academic institutions and to investigate the conditions and tools required to implement this model. The main forces of the system are that it allows collaborative learning, communication among user, and reduce considerable paper work.…

Kanaksabee, P.; Odit, M. P.; Ramdoyal, A.

2011-01-01

105

A Standard-Based Model for Adaptive E-Learning Platform for Mauritian Academic Institutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The key aim of this paper is to introduce a standard-based model for adaptive e-learning platform for Mauritian academic institutions and to investigate the conditions and tools required to implement this model. The main forces of the system are that it allows collaborative learning, communication among user, and reduce considerable paper work.…

Kanaksabee, P.; Odit, M. P.; Ramdoyal, A.

2011-01-01

106

Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

2008-01-01

107

The Impact of Two Standards-Based Mathematics Curricula on Student Achievement in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the passage of the Education Reform Act in 1993, Massachusetts has developed curriculum frameworks and a new statewide testing system. As school districts align curriculum and teaching practices with the frameworks, standards-based mathematics programs are beginning to replace more traditional curricula. This paper presents a quasi-experimental study using matched comparison groups to investigate the impact of one elementary and

Julie E. Riordan; Pendred E. Noyce

108

Leading Standards-Based Education Reform: Improving Implementation of Standards to Increase Student Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Standards-based education (SBE) has been the dominant educational reform movement since the early 1980s, reinforced by federal and state accountability systems. This book examines the efforts of educational leaders in implementing SBE to improve student achievement in a variety of demographic contexts but with common challenges. Four stages of…

Vogel, Linda R.

2010-01-01

109

Standards-Based Evaluation and Teacher Career Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of a conceptual model specifying hypothesized linkages among perceptions of characteristics of standards-based evaluation, work environment mediators, and career satisfaction and other outcomes. Four comprehensive high schools located in two neighboring counties in southern California provided the data for this study. The schools’ districts had recently developed and implemented evaluation systems

Sharon Conley; Donna E. Muncey; Sukkyung You

2005-01-01

110

Consultation to Support Inclusive Accountability and Standards-Based Reform: Facilitating Access, Equity, and Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current federal legislation (i.e., No Child Left Behind (NCLB)) requires states to set rigorous academic standards, ensure classroom instruction addresses these standards, and measure and report students' progress via large-scale assessments. NCLB assumes that inclusive accountability systems and standards-based reform will result in improved…

Roach, Andrew T.; Elliott, Stephen N.

2009-01-01

111

Automated grading system for evaluation of ocular redness associated with dry eye  

PubMed Central

Background We have observed that dry eye redness is characterized by a prominence of fine horizontal conjunctival vessels in the exposed ocular surface of the interpalpebral fissure, and have incorporated this feature into the grading of redness in clinical studies of dry eye. Aim To develop an automated method of grading dry eye-associated ocular redness in order to expand on the clinical grading system currently used. Methods Ninety nine images from 26 dry eye subjects were evaluated by five graders using a 0–4 (in 0.5 increments) dry eye redness (Ora Calibra™ Dry Eye Redness Scale [OCDER]) scale. For the automated method, the Opencv computer vision library was used to develop software for calculating redness and horizontal conjunctival vessels (noted as “horizontality”). From original photograph, the region of interest (ROI) was selected manually using the open source ImageJ software. Total average redness intensity (Com-Red) was calculated as a single channel 8-bit image as R – 0.83G – 0.17B, where R, G and B were the respective intensities of the red, green and blue channels. The location of vessels was detected by normalizing the blue channel and selecting pixels with an intensity of less than 97% of the mean. The horizontal component (Com-Hor) was calculated by the first order Sobel derivative in the vertical direction and the score was calculated as the average blue channel image intensity of this vertical derivative. Pearson correlation coefficients, accuracy and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) were calculated after regression and standardized regression of the dataset. Results The agreement (both Pearson’s and CCC) among investigators using the OCDER scale was 0.67, while the agreement of investigator to computer was 0.76. A multiple regression using both redness and horizontality improved the agreement CCC from 0.66 and 0.69 to 0.76, demonstrating the contribution of vessel geometry to the overall grade. Computer analysis of a given image has 100% repeatability and zero variability from session to session. Conclusion This objective means of grading ocular redness in a unified fashion has potential significance as a new clinical endpoint. In comparisons between computer and investigator, computer grading proved to be more reliable than another investigator using the OCDER scale. The best fitting model based on the present sample, and usable for future studies, was C4=?12.24+2.12C2HOR+0.88C2RED:C4 is the predicted investigator grade, and C2HOR and C2RED are logarithmic transformations of the computer calculated parameters COM-Hor and COM-Red. Considering the superior repeatability, computer automated grading might be preferable to investigator grading in multicentered dry eye studies in which the subtle differences in redness incurred by treatment have been historically difficult to define.

Rodriguez, John D; Johnston, Patrick R; Ousler, George W; Smith, Lisa M; Abelson, Mark B

2013-01-01

112

Systematic Review of Anastomotic Leakage Rate According to an International Grading System Following Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background A generally acceptable definition and a severity grading system for anastomotic leakages (ALs) following rectal resection were not available until 2010, when the International Study Group of Rectal Cancer (ISGRC) proposed a definition and a grading system for AL. Methods A search for published data was performed using the MEDLINE database (2000 to December 5, 2012) to perform a systematic review of the studies that described AL, grade AL according to the grading system, pool data, and determine the average rate of AL for each grade after anterior resection (AR) for rectal cancer. Results A total of 930 abstracts were retrieved; 40 articles on AR, 25 articles on low AR (LAR), and 5 articles on ultralow AR (ULAR) were included in the review and analysis. The pooled overall AL rate of AR was 8.58% (2,085/24,288); the rate of the asymptomatic leakage (Grade A) was 2.57%, that of AL that required active intervention without relaparotomy (Grade B) was 2.37%, and that of AL that required relaparotomy (Grade C) was 5.40%. The pooled rate of AL that required relaparotomy was higher in AR (5.40%) than in LAR (4.70%) and in ULAR (1.81%), which could be attributed to the higher rate of protective defunctioning stoma in LAR (40.72%) and ULAR (63.44%) compared with that in AR (30.11%). Conclusions The new grading system is simple that the ALs of each grade can be easily extracted from past publications, therefore likely to be accepted and applied in future studies.

Ye, Guang-Yao; Yu, Min-Hao; Gao, Yun-He; Li, Zhao-Shen; Yu, En-Da; Zhong, Ming

2013-01-01

113

Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude…

Yager, Robert E., Ed

2005-01-01

114

Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Essay titles reveal the range of programs--and creativity--this book encompasses. Among the titles are "Technology and Cooperative Learning: The IIT Model for Teaching Authentic Chemistry Curriculum," "Modeling: Changes in Traditional Physics Instruction," "Guided by the Standards: Inquiry and Assessment in Two Rural and Urban Schools," and even "Sing and Dance Your Way to Science Success." The book ends with a summary chapter by editor Robert Yager on successes and continuing challenges in meeting the Standards' visions for improving high school science. As Yager notes, "The exemplary programs described in this monograph give inspiration while also providing evidence that the new directions are feasible and worth the energy and effort needed for others to implement changes.

2005-01-01

115

Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Essay titles reveal the range of programs--and creativity--this book encompasses. Among the titles are "Technology and Cooperative Learning: The IIT Model for Teaching Authentic Chemistry Curriculum," "Modeling: Changes in Traditional Physics Instruction," "Guided by the Standards: Inquiry and Assessment in Two Rural and Urban Schools," and even "Sing and Dance Your Way to Science Success." The book ends with a summary chapter by editor Robert Yager on successes and continuing challenges in meeting the Standards' visions for improving high school science. As Yager notes, "The exemplary programs described in this monograph give inspiration while also providing evidence that the new directions are feasible and worth the energy and effort needed for others to implement changes.

2009-05-18

116

An evaluation on the life cycle of photovoltaic energy system considering production energy of off-grade silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) cells and residential PV systems using off-grade silicon supplied from semiconductor industries were evaluated from a life cycle point of view. Energy payback time (EPT) of the residential PV system with the c-Si PV cells made of the off-grade silicon was estimated at 15.5 years and indirect CO2 emission per unit electrical

Kazuhiko Kato; Akinobu Murata; Koichi Sakuta

1997-01-01

117

Standards Gaps: Unintended Consequences of Local Standards-Based Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the establishment of standards by states and professional organizations, many local school districts have adopted a standards-based curriculum. The expressed purpose of standards is to improve student academic performance by providing teachers with a common sequence of targets at which to aim instruction. In this study, we examine…

Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Ogawa, Rodney T.; Scribner, Samantha Paredes

2004-01-01

118

Special Education: Does It Fit with Standards-Based Reform?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue focuses on how special education fits into standards-based reform and contains the following featured articles: (1) A New Vision for Special Education Accountability (Martha L. Thurlow and Jane L. Krentz) charts the change in special education accountability as it moves from the old focus on Individualized Education Program teams; (2)…

Kysilko, David, Ed.

2001-01-01

119

A Standards-Based Alarms Service for Monitoring Federated Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Operators of federated networks require timely detection and diagnosis of networking problems. For detection of such problems, access to monitoring data that exists in multiple organisations is necessary. This paper presents an ongoing work on an Alarms Service which uses a standards-based access mechanism to obtain monitoring data from multiple organisations and then raises alarms based on pre-defined conditions. It

Charaka Palansuriya; Jeremy Nowell; Florian Scharinger; Kostas Kavoussanakis; Arthur Trew

2009-01-01

120

Grade Span.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue reviews grade span, or grade configuration. Catherine Paglin and Jennifer Fager's "Grade Configuration: Who Goes Where?" provides an overview of issues and concerns related to grade spans and supplies profiles of eight Northwest schools with varying grade spans. David F. Wihry, Theodore Coladarci, and Curtis Meadow's "Grade Span and…

Renchler, Ron

2000-01-01

121

Video image analysis as a potential grading system for Uruguayan beef carcasses.  

PubMed

A study was conducted in 2 phases to evaluate the effectiveness of 1) the VIAscan Beef Carcass System (BCSys; hot carcass system) and the CVS BeefCam (chilled carcass system), used independently or in combination, to predict Uruguayan beef carcass fabrication yields; and 2) the CVS BeefCam to segregate Uruguayan beef carcasses into groups that differ in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values of their LM steaks. The results from the meat yield phase of the present study indicated that the prediction of saleable meat yield percentages from Uruguayan beef carcasses by use of the BCSys or CVS BeefCam is similar to, or slightly better than, the use of USDA yield grade calculated to the nearest 0.1 and was much more effective than prediction based on Uruguay National Institute of Meat (INAC) grades. A further improvement in fabrication yield prediction could be obtained by use of a dual-component video image analysis (VIA) system. Whichever method of VIA prediction of fabrication yield is used, a single predicted value of fabrication yield for every carcass removes an impediment to the implementation of a value-based pricing system. Additionally, a VIA method of predicting carcass yield has the advantage over the current INAC classification system in that estimates would be produced by an instrument rather than by packing plant personnel, which would appeal to cattle producers. Results from the tenderness phase of the study indicated that the CVS BeefCam output variable for marbling was not (P > 0.05) able to segregate steer and heifer carcasses into groups that differed in WBSF values. In addition, the results of segregating steer and heifer carcasses according to muscle color output variables indicate that muscle maturity and skeletal maturity were useful for segregating carcasses according to differences in WBSF values of their steaks (P > 0.05). Use of VIA to predict beef carcass fabrication yields could improve accuracy and reduce subjectivity in comparison with use of current INAC grades. Use of VIA to sort carcasses according to muscle color would allow for the marketing of more consistent beef products with respect to tenderness. This would help facilitate the initiation of a value-based marketing system for the Uruguayan beef industry. PMID:19395512

Vote, D J; Bowling, M B; Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Montossi, F; Smith, G C

2009-04-24

122

Urban African-American middle school science students: Does standards-based teaching make a difference?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current reform movement in science education promotes standards-based teaching, including the use of inquiry, problem solving, and open-ended questioning, to improve student achievement. This study examines the influence of standards-based teaching practices on the achievement of urban, African-American, middle school science students. Science classes of teachers who had participated in the professional development (n = 8) of Ohio's statewide systemic initiative (SSI) were matched with classes of teachers (n = 10) who had not participated. Data were gathered using group-administered questionnaires and achievement tests that were specifically designed for Ohio's SSI. Analyses indicate that teachers who frequently used standards-based teaching practices positively influenced urban, African-American students' science achievement and attitudes, especially for boys. Additionally, teachers' involvement in the SSI's professional development was positively related to the reported use of standards-based teaching practices in the classroom. The findings support the efficacy of high-quality professional development to change teaching practices and to enhance student learning.

Butler Kahle, Jane; Meece, Judith; Scantlebury, Kathryn

2000-11-01

123

Design and Research of Agricultural Land Grading Information Publishing System Based on .NET and ArcIMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to solve the problem of information sharing, updating, maintaining and interacting of agricultural land grading of the test area in Hubei Province, China, we discuss the innovative software solutions based on the Asp.Net technique and ArcIMS platform in this paper. Consequently, this paper focuses on the design and implementation of Information Publication System of Agricultural Land Grading (IPS-ALG).

Guangmin Li; Wushi Dong; Yong Zhou

2009-01-01

124

A study of organic working fluids on system efficiency of an ORC using low-grade energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rankine cycles using organic fluids (as categorized into three groups: wet, dry, and isentropic fluids) as working fluids in converting low-grade energy are investigated in this study. The main purpose is to identify suitable working fluids which may yield high system efficiencies in an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system. Efficiencies of ORC systems are calculated based on an assumption that

T. C. Hung; S. K. Wang; C. H. Kuo; B. S. Pei; K. F. Tsai

2010-01-01

125

The Weaknesses and Shortcomings of the Junior High School in Israel: Some Insights into Grade Configurations of Educational Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study aimed to explore the weaknesses of the junior high school system in Israel, a country whose first junior high schools (Grades 7-9) were established in the early 1970s and whose educational system differs from the systems of Europe and North America in terms of structure, ideology, and control. Based on semistructured interviews…

Oplatka, Izhar; Tubin, Dorit

2009-01-01

126

Evaluation of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study Clinical Lens Grading System AREDS Report No. 31  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the grading (inter-rater) reliability of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) Clinical Lens Grading System (ARLNS). Design Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology Participants 150 volunteers (284 eyes) Methods Participants with lens opacities of varying severity were independently graded at the slit lamp for cataract severity by 2 examiners (retinal or anterior segment specialists) using the ARLNS, which employs 3 standard photographs of increasing severity for classifying each of the 3 major types of opacity. Lens photographs were taken and graded at a reading center using the more detailed AREDS System for Classifying Cataracts from Photographs. Main Outcome Measures The Pearson correlation, weighted-kappa, and limits-of-agreement statistics were used to assess the inter-rater agreement of the gradings. Results Examinations were performed on 284 lenses (150 participants). Tests of inter-rater reliability between pairs of clinicians showed substantial agreement between clinicians for cortical and posterior subcapsular opacities and moderate agreement for nuclear opacities. A similar pattern and strength of agreement was present when comparing scores of retinal versus anterior segment specialists. Inter-rater agreement between clinical and reading center gradings was not as great as inter-clinician agreement. Conclusions Inter-rater agreements were in the moderate to substantial range for the clinical assessment of lens opacities. Inherent differences in cataract classification systems that rely on slit lamp vs photographic assessments of lens opacities may explain some of the disagreement noted between slit lamp and photographic gradings. Given the inter-rater reliability statistics for clinicians and the simplicity of the grading procedure, ARLNS is presented for use in studies requiring a simple, inexpensive method for detecting the presence and severity of the major types of lens opacities.

Chew, Emily Y.; Kim, Jonghyeon; Sperduto, Robert D.; Datiles, Manuel B.; Coleman, Hanna R.; Thompson, Darby J. S.; Milton, Roy C.; Clayton, Janine A.; Hubbard, Larry D.; Danis, Ronald P.; Ferris, Frederick L.

2010-01-01

127

The effects of hyperthermia on normal mesenchymal tissues. Application of a histologic grading system  

SciTech Connect

The alterations produced by radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia of 42 to 48 degrees C for 30 minutes were studied in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of swine. Acute lesions (18 to 24 hours) included edema, hemorrhage, necrosis (predominantly of myocytes) and granulocytic exudate in fat or muscle. The most important chronic lesion (28 to 31 days) was fibrosis replacing either tissue. There was a histiolymphocytic exudate with foreign-body giant cells around large lipid vacuoles. Muscle necrosis persisted and there was variable myocyte regeneration. Several specimens showed deep necrosis and abscesses. A grading system was developed to quantitate independently acute and chronic damage in each tissue. Acute lesions were usually less severe and extensive than chronic ones, without obvious dose response. Chronic lesions showed clearly a dose response, which began at 43 degrees C and increased with temperature. The latter appear to be reliable indicators of hyperthermic damage in deep soft tissues.

Meshorer, A.; Prionas, S.D.; Fajardo, L.F.; Meyer, J.L.; Hahn, G.M.; Martinez, A.A.

1983-06-01

128

Grading-System-Dependent Volume Effects for Late Radiation-Induced Rectal Toxicity After Curative Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the association between the dose distributions in the rectum and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC), Late Effects of Normal Tissue SOMA, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 graded rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer treated with RT. Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 124 patients who received three-dimensional conformal RT for prostate cancer to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. All patients completed questionnaires regarding rectum complaints before RT and during long-term follow-up. Late rectum Grade 2 or worse toxicity, according to RTOG/EORTC, LENT SOMA, and CTCAE v3.0 criteria, was analyzed in relation to rectal dose and volume parameters. Results: Dose-volume thresholds (V40 {>=}65%, V50 {>=}55%, V65 {>=}45%, V70 {>=}20%, and a rectum volume {<=}140 cm{sup 3}), significantly discriminated patients with late Grade 0-1 and Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity, particularly using the LENT SOMA and CTCAE v3.0 systems. The rectum volume receiving {>=}70 Gy (V70) was most predictive for late Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity with each of the grading systems. The associations were strongest, however, with use of the LENT SOMA system. Conclusions: Volume effects for late radiation-induced rectal toxicity are present, but their clinical significance depends on the grading system used. This should be taken into account in the interpretation of studies reporting on radiation-induced rectal toxicity.

Laan, Hans Paul van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen/University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.p.van.der.laan@rt.umcg.nl; Bergh, Alphons van den; Schilstra, Cornelis; Vlasman, Renske; Meertens, Harm; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen/University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2008-03-15

129

Examining the Factor Structure of a State Standards-Based Science Assessment for Students with Learning Disabilities. Research Report. ETS RR-11-38  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the scores on a state standards-based Grade 5 Science assessment obtained by a group of students without learning disabilities who took the standard form of the test and by three groups of students with learning disabilities: one taking the standard form of the test without accommodations or modifications, a second taking the…

Steinberg, Jonathan; Cline, Frederick; Sawaki, Yasuyo

2011-01-01

130

Technical and Economic Feasibility Study of At-Grade Concrete Slab Track for Urban Rail Transit Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents work conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using concrete slab track systems for at-grade transit track. The functions of a rail transit track system are to guide railway vehicles and provide a safe and accept...

A. N. Hanna

1981-01-01

131

Fair Grades  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fair grading is modeled on two fundamental principles. The first principle is that grading should be impartial and consistent. The second prin- ciple is that a fair grade should be based on the student's competence in the academic content of the course. I derive corollary principles of fair grading from these two basic principles and use them to evaluate common

DARYL CLOSE

2009-01-01

132

Effects of Instructional Methods on Reading Acquisition Systems: A Reanalysis of the First Grade Studies Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Data from four of the Cooperative First Grade Studies (1964-1965) were reanalyzed for four first grade projects, (Fry, Hayes, Mazurkiewicz, and Tanyzer). These projects were selected because they compared the Initial Teaching Alphabet approach with traditional orthography-basal reader approaches. The focal point of this reanalysis was to study…

Katz, Ina C.; Singer, Harry

133

Comparison of visual grading analysis and determination of detective quantum efficiency for evaluating system performance in digital chest radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to compare physical and clinical system performance in digital chest radiography. Four digital X-ray modalities, two storage-phosphor based systems and two generations of a CCD-based system, were evaluated in terms of both their imaging properties (determination of presampling MTF and DQE) and clinical image quality (grading of the reproduction of anatomical details of 23 healthy volunteers

Patrik Sund; Magnus Båth; Susanne Kheddache; LarsGunnar Månsson

2004-01-01

134

Fabrication of W-Mo-Ti system flier-plate with graded impedance for generating quasi-isentropic compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully dense W-Mo-Ti system flier-plate with graded impedance in its thickness direction was successfully fabricated by the\\u000a method of powder metallurgy. The result of the impact experiment on a light gas gun showed that dynamic quasi-isentropic compression\\u000a has been created.

Qiang Shen; Lianmeng Zhang; Huaping Xiong; Jinsong Hua; Hua Tan

2000-01-01

135

A Case Study of Systemic Reform to Improve Ninth Grade Advancement toward Graduation in a Multi-High School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Too many freshmen students remain mired in the ninth grade, presenting a growing problem for America's secondary schools as they struggle to improve high school completion rates. In an effort to stem the tide of high school dropouts, a southeast Texas suburban school district with five comprehensive high schools engaged in a systemic reform…

Lewis, Kirk

2008-01-01

136

The Consistency between Human Raters and an Automated Essay Scoring System in Grading High School Students' English Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the consistency between human raters and an automated essay scoring system in grading high school students' English compositions. A total of 923 essays from 23 classes of 12 senior high schools in Taiwan (Republic of China) were obtained and scored manually and electronically. The results show that the consistency between…

Tsai, Min-hsiu

2012-01-01

137

An Analysis of Two Beginning Reading Programs: Scott Foresman's "Reading Unlimited" and Pittsburgh LRDC's "New Primary Grades Reading Systems."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two reading programs discussed in this paper, "Reading Unlimited" (RU) published by Scott Foresman and "New Primary Grades Reading Systems" (RS) by the University of Pittsburgh Learning Research and Development Center, provide maximal contrasts in materials and teaching strategies. The instructional strategies in RU are analytic and inductive,…

Popp, Helen Mitchell

138

Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES): Comparative performance of 2nd-, 4th-, and 8th-grade Czech children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System was designed for field studies of workers, but many NES tests can be performed satisfactorily by children as young as 7 or 8 years old and a few tests, such as simple reaction time, can be performed by preschool children. However, little comparative data from children of different ages or grade levels are available. Studies of

David A. Otto; I. Skalik; Dennis E. House; H. Kenneth Hudnell

1996-01-01

139

An assessment of bird species within Irish agricultural landscapes using the Field Boundary Evaluation and Grading System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsule The Field Boundary Evaluation and Grading System (FBEGS) is a useful predictor of bird populations found in field boundaries located in southeast Ireland.Aims To assess the potential of FBEGS to evaluate the ecological quality of field boundaries in agricultural ecosystems and as a tool for the measurement of bird populations within field boundaries.Methods Surveys of bird populations were made

Barry J. McMahon; Helen Sheridan; Anne Kinsella; Gordon Purvis

2010-01-01

140

Infrared frequency standard based on magnetically trapped NH molecules  

SciTech Connect

An infrared frequency standard based on the NH |n{sub v}=0,N{sub 0}=0,J=1,F{sub 1}=3/2,F=5/2,M{sub F}=5/2>{yields}|n{sub v}=1,N{sub 0}=0,J=1,F{sub 1}=3/2,F=5/2,M{sub F}== 5/2> transition (3 {mu}m) is proposed. There is no Zeeman shift with this transition frequency, because the Zeeman coefficient is not dependent on the vibrational state. NH molecules, precooled by collisions with liquid {sup 3}He vapor, are trapped by an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The temperature of the trapped NH molecules holds the potential to be reduced down to several {mu}K by evaporative cooling. The uncertainty of the clock transition can potentially be reduced to lower than 10{sup -17}.

Kajita, Masatoshi [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Nukui-Kitamachi, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)

2006-09-15

141

Modified grading system for clinical outcome of intracranial non-germinomatous malignant germ cell tumors  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the clinical outcome of intracranial non-germinomatous malignant germ cell tumors (NGMGCTs). All histologically proven cases of NGMGCTs treated in Shanghai Huashan Hospital, Fudan University were reviewed. A total of 39 cases were analyzed. There were 15 mixed germ cell tumors, 15 immature teratomas, 7 embryonal carcinomas and 2 yolk sac tumors. Patients were treated surgically first, followed by radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. Some patients also received gamma knife surgery. The common 5-year survival rate was 36.8%. According to Matsutani’s grading system, the 5-year actuarial survival rate for patients in the intermediate and poor prognosis groups were 45.8 and 14.3%, respectively. Individual analysis of each type of tumor showed that the median survival time of embryonal carcinoma was 27 months, which is very close to that of the intermediate group (28 months). We therefore classified embryonal carcinoma into the intermediate group where the 5-year actuarial survival rate for patients in the new intermediate prognosis group was 42.6%. Further analysis of immature teratoma cases found that the 5-year survival rate of patients with immature teratoma who received gamma knife surgery is 100%. This rate exhibited a significant difference (P=0.0049) compared to that of patients who did not undergo gamma knife surgery. In conclusion, we consider surgery as the first choice of treatment although for different histologis, the type of the tumor should be treated separately.

HUANG, XIANG; ZHANG, RONG; MAO, YING; ZHOU, LIANG-FU

2010-01-01

142

A comparison of driver behavior at railroad grade crossings with two different protection systems.  

PubMed

An observational study was conducted which compared the behavior of drivers at a railroad-highway grade crossing as trains approached. The effectiveness of a flasher-only protection system was compared with one incorporating flashers and barrier gates for a particular crossing. The addition of the gates significantly reduced the percentage of drivers crossing in front of trains from 67% to 38%. Plots of crossing probabilities showed them reduced as time until train arrival and the distance of the train from the crossing decreased. Train speed did not seem logically related to the probability of crossing perhaps because it is not well perceived. Drivers crossing around barrier gates tended to stop or slow on approach significantly less than those crossing with flashers only. It was suggested that the gates themselves provided an impediment to crossing which forced drivers inclined to cross into making a hurried and sometimes perilous decision. Their behavior was seen as explaining the surprisingly high number of accidents that occur at barrier-gate crossings. Discouraging drivers from driving around barrier gates was seen as essential if safety at these crossings was to be improved. Extending the length of gates and the education of the drivers regarding the law were seen as possible ways of increasing compliance. PMID:9110035

Meeker, F; Fox, D; Weber, C

1997-01-01

143

Functionally graded bioactive coatings of hydroxyapatite\\/titanium oxide composite system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxyapatite powder (P81B, HA, Plasma Biotal, UK) was mixed with titanium oxide (TiO2) in different weight percentages for producing functionally graded bioactive coatings. Composite coatings were made on Ti6Al4V metal substrate. A functionally graded coating was obtained by coating titanium oxide (TiO2) powders of known particle size as the first layer, which was sintered at 900 °C for a few

R Roop Kumar; M Wang

2002-01-01

144

Does the multidimensional grading system (BODE) correspond to differences in health status of patients with COPD?  

PubMed Central

Study objectives To verify whether and to what extent the body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index correlates with a disease-specific index of health status in patients with COPD. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University-affiliated hospital. Patients One hundred patients with stable COPD recruited from the outpatient clinic of a single institution. Measurements The BODE index was calculated for each patient using variables obtained within 2 weeks of enrollment. At enrollment, all patients completed the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare health status scores with clinical and functional categories of COPD. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r) was calculated to assess the association between health status scores and clinical or functional variables. Results Categorizing the BODE scores into 4 quartiles, we found that higher BODE quartiles were associated with higher (worse) SGRQ scores. The differences among the BODE quartiles in health status indexes were significant for total SGRQ as well as all 3 of the SGRQ sub-scales. In all sections of the SGRQ, scores were moderately to strongly associated with the BODE quartiles (r = 0.27–0.46). In contrast, the association between the SGRQ total, impacts, activity and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages were weaker (r = 0.27–0.28). There was no significant association between SGRQ symptoms and GOLD stages. Conclusions The BODE scoring system corresponds to important differences in health status of patients with COPD. This grading system is better correlated to the health status indexes of the SGRQ than the GOLD staging criteria.

Ong, Kian-Chung; Lu, Suat-Jin; Soh, Cindy Seok-Chin

2006-01-01

145

Application of virtual private networking technology to standards-based management protocols across heterogeneous firewall-protected networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been tremendous growth within DoD of enterprise-wide COTS-based messaging and communications systems, including the Defense Message System, the Global Command and Control System, and the Global Combat Support System. To economize on development costs, standards-based protocols-including SMTP, SNMP, FTP, Telnet, and HTTP-are used to implement the underlying functionality of these systems, including messaging and service management. Vulnerabilities in

S. O'Guin; C. K. Williams; N. Selimis

1999-01-01

146

The Role of the Library Media Specialist in Standards-Based Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the role of the school library media specialist in standards-based learning. Topics include standards-based assessment; information literacy standards; collaboration with classroom teachers; benchmarks and indicators for student performance; leadership in a standards-based climate; and the use of technology to support curriculum and…

Corey, Linda

2002-01-01

147

Instituting a Standards-Based K--12 Science Curriculum Supplement Program at the National Institutes of Health: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on student achievement indicates the U.S. K-12 education system is not adequately preparing American students to compete in the 21st century global economy in the areas of science and mathematics. Congress has asked the scientific entities of the federal government to help increase K-12 science learning by creating standards-based

Witherly, Jeffre

2010-01-01

148

Keep It Cheap, Keep It Local, and Keep It Coming: Standards-Based Accountability Reform in Wisconsin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Through a multiple perspectives model that incorporates the normative, symbolic, and political perspectives, the author analyzes the emergence of standards-based accountability reform in the state of Wisconsin. His analysis offers insight into the effectiveness of various political actors' attempts to alter the state's education systems. Through…

Brown, Christopher P.

2008-01-01

149

Mechanical testing and fracture studies of a nickel-alumina functionally graded material system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic modulus and fracture toughness was determined for a layered nickel-alumina functionally graded material (FGM) system. FGM samples with a linear compositional gradient profile were formed by sequentially stacking different Ni-Al 2O3 cermet compositions and bonding together by solid-state sintering. From these bulk samples tensile and compact-tension (C-T) specimen geometries were used to determine the elastic moduli and fracture response within each specific layer of the FGM structure, respectively. Moire interferometry techniques were used extensively to determine the physical displacement across the entire tensile specimen surface and the surface directly adjacent to the crack tip during testing. Interferometry results were used to verify the accuracy of a series of computer simulations calculating the fracture response through a material interface. While the macroscopic effects of residual stress resulting from the layered gradient structure were anticipated for this study, defects within the microstructure were shown to dominate the mechanical and fracture response in this material system. The level of microdamage was illustrated by much lower elastic modulus values measured for cermet layers possessing an interpenetrating network microstructure. These microstructures had considerable contact between the two constituents, nickel and alumina, providing maximum opportunity for microdamage within these cermet interlayers. Using the measured moduli values the elastic fracture response for a crack propagating from an 80%-Al2O3 layer toward a 60%-Al 2O3 layer was both measured experimentally and calculated using finite element modeling techniques. As expected, the fracture toughness of the FGM increased as a crack propagated within the more ductile layer. Relatively straight, brittle fracture was seen in the 80%-Al2O 3 microstructure while crack bridging, deflection, and bifurcation were all observed within the 60%-Al2O3 layer. A gradual rise in fracture toughness as the crack approached the sharp material interface was calculated from computer simulations illustrating the effect on fracture toughness as the material (and thus elastic modulus) is changed in front of the crack tip. Again, microstructural damage dominated the fracture response in the form of significantly reduced elastic moduli while macroscopic residual stresses had only a minimal effect, due in part to the crack propagation direction.

Windes, William E.

150

Energy Systems - Present, Future: Extra Terrestrials, Grades 7, 8, 9,/Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 lessons presented in this guide are structured so that they may be integrated into science lessons in 7th-, 8th-, or 9th-grades. Suggestions are made for extension of study. Lessons are approached through classroom role-playing of outer space visitors who seek to understand energy conversion principles used on Earth. Major emphasis is…

National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

151

Application of the Navy Average Grade Model to the Naval Underwater Systems Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forecasts for manpower requirements by NUSC for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 were made using a linear regression model of the goal programming variety. An application of one of the Charnes, Cooper, Niehaus career management models for manpower planning was then made to evaluate the consequences of the policy reducing average GS grade to 9.35 while…

Mannis, Laurence S.

152

Energy Systems - Present, Future: Extra Terrestrials, Grades 7, 8, 9,/Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 12 lessons presented in this guide are structured so that they may be integrated into science lessons in 7th-, 8th-, or 9th-grades. Suggestions are made for extension of study. Lessons are approached through classroom role-playing of outer space visitors who seek to understand energy conversion principles used on Earth. Major emphasis is…

National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

153

Grading to Communicate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|High school teacher and instructional coach Tony Winger laments how traditional classroom grading practices lead to grades becoming a distraction from learning--a commodity students feel they work the system to attain--rather than a clear message to students and parents. Teachers' passion for their subjects is too often met with students'…

Winger, Tony

2005-01-01

154

Method and system using power modulation for maskless vapor deposition of spatially graded thin film and multilayer coatings with atomic-level precision and accuracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and system for producing a film (preferably a thin film with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) on a flat or graded substrate (such as concave or convex optics), by sweeping the substrate across a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. In preferred embodiments, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during

Claude Montcalm; James Allen Folta; Swie-In Tan; Ira Reiss

2002-01-01

155

Valoración pronóstica del carcinoma ductal infiltrante mamario en PAAF. Estudio comparativo de tres sistemas de graduación citológica Prognostic evaluation of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Comparative study of three cytological grading systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We have evaluated three different systems of cytologic grading based in morphological parameters in order to define the Cytological Grade (CG) making a correlation with the Histological Grade (HG), Histological Cytological Grade (HCG) and the Histological Mitotic Index (HMI) in 366 FNA biopsies from surgical specimens of the breast without fixation diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma. The sensitivity and

Francisco Javier Torres Gómez; Luis Felipe Calle Cruz; Francisco Javier Torres Oliver

156

Quasi-isentropic compression using functionally graded materials in gas gun and explosive driven systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of hydrodynamic simulations of dynamic compression experiments performed by impact loading of materials are reported. The simulations pertain to a new approach for generating quasi-isentropic compression using functionally graded materials (FGM). First of all, we focus on quasi-isentropic compression waves generated by a constant velocity impactor (similar to that from a gas gun). Quasi-isentropic compression is characterized from the

Aditi Ray; S. V. G. Menon

2009-01-01

157

Bioactivities of low-grade green coffee and spent coffee in different in vitro model systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts of low-grade green coffee beans (LCB) and spent coffee were analysed for radical-scavenging activity (?,?-diphenyl-?-picrylhydrazyl radical) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). The extracts were also evaluated for anti-tumour (P388 cell assay), anti-inflammatory (J774A.1 cell assay) and anti-allergenic (RBL-2H3 cell line) activities in vitro. LCB extract was found to exhibit a radical-scavenging activity of 92.0% followed by spent

K. Ramalakshmi; L. Jagan Mohan Rao; Yuko Takano-Ishikawa; Masao Goto

2009-01-01

158

TNM staging of midgut and hindgut (neuro) endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criteria for the staging and grading of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of midgut and hindgut origin were established at the\\u000a second Consensus Conference in Frascati (Rome) organized by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS). The proposed\\u000a tumor–node–metastasis (TNM) classifications are based on the recently published ENETS Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment\\u000a of gastroenteropancreatic NETs and follow our previous proposal for

G. Rindi; G. Klöppel; A. Couvelard; P. Komminoth; M. Körner; J. M. Lopes; A.-M. McNicol; O. Nilsson; A. Perren; A. Scarpa; J.-Y. Scoazec; B. Wiedenmann

2007-01-01

159

Systems for grading the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations I: Critical appraisal of existing approaches The GRADE Working Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A number of approaches have been used to grade levels of evidence and the strength of recommendations. The use of many different approaches detracts from one of the main reasons for having explicit approaches: to concisely characterise and communicate this information so that it can easily be understood and thereby help people make well-informed decisions. Our objective was to

David Atkins; Martin Eccles; Signe Flottorp; Gordon H Guyatt; David Henry; Suzanne Hill; Alessandro Liberati; Dianne O'Connell; Andrew D Oxman; Bob Phillips; Holger Schünemann; Tessa Tan-Torres Edejer; Gunn E Vist; John W Williams

2004-01-01

160

Do Low Grades Cause College Students to Give Up?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the present study the effects on subsequent grades of low, average, and high first exam grades were investigated for 192 students in a traditional grading system and fifty-four students in a pass-fail grading system. (Author)|

Thayer, Robert E.

1973-01-01

161

A Survey of Law School Grading Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 120 law schools investigated grading practices for different course types, use of different kinds of grading curves to standardize assessment at several instructional levels, and recent experience with institutional changes in grading systems. (MSE)

Kaufman, Nancy H.

1994-01-01

162

Remote laboratories: new technology and standard based architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-Laboratories are important components of e- learning environments, especially in scientific and technical disciplines. First widespread E-Labs consisted in proposing simulations of real systems (virtual labs), as building remote labs (remote control of real systems) was difficult by lack of industrial standards and common protocols. Nowadays, robotics and automation technologies make easier the interfacing of systems with computers. In this

Hcene Benmohamed; Arnaud Leleve; Patrick Prévot

2007-01-01

163

The Dinosaur Education Project: A Curriculum Model for Standards-Based Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This curriculum model represents an entire school district's attempt to use paleontology to implement standards-based education reforms. While most colleges do not have a dinosaur available for student and teacher use, the project provides a template for partnerships between colleges and local school districts. The curriculum can be adopted by teachers to institute standards-based classroom practice and by education professors to model standards-based pedagogy for pre-service teachers. Examples of curriculum activities are included.

Wixom, Jo

164

PCR amplification of DNA containing non-standard base pairs by variants of reverse transcriptase from Human Immunodeficiency Virus1  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the next step towards generating a synthetic biology from artificial genetic information systems, we have examined variants of HIV reverse transcrip- tase (RT) for their ability to synthesize duplex DNA incorporating the non-standard base pair between 2,4-diaminopyrimidine (pyDAD), a pyrimidine pre- senting a hydrogen bond 'donor-acceptor-donor' pattern to the complementary base, and xanthine (puADA), a purine presenting a hydrogen

A. Michael Sismour; Stefan Lutz; Jeong-Ho Park; Michael J. Lutz; Paul L. Boyer; Stephen H. Hughes; Steven A. Benner

2004-01-01

165

Medical device interoperability a standards-based testing approach.  

PubMed

Abstract We present a black-box messaging test approach employed to achieve a level of rigor which improves-if not assures, given no optionality-correct data exchange. In particular, we verify that physiological information derived and communicated via messaging from a source medical device (e.g., an infusion pump) or healthcare information system, to another medical device (e.g., a patient monitor) or healthcare information system, which consumes or makes use of the data, is syntactically and semantically correct. In other words, the structure of information exchanged within the healthcare system is compliant to a defined specification(s) and the information meaning conveyed and interpreted by the consumer is exactly the same and as intended by the source. Our approach for developing a test system to validate messages is based on constraining identified and recognized specifications. The test system validation performed uses codified assertions derived from the specifications and constraints placed upon those specifications. To first show conformance-which subsequently enables interoperability-these assertions, which are atomic requirements traceable by clause to the base specifications, are employed by our medical device test tools to rigorously enforce standards to facilitate safe and effective plug-and-play information exchange. PMID:21639776

Garguilo, John J; Martinez, Sandra; Cherkaoui, Maria

166

Implementing Standards-Based Assessment Effectively: Incorporating Discussion of Exemplars into Classroom Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many universities are moving to greater use of standards-based assessment to support effective student learning. Implementing a standards-based approach includes involving academic staff in writing descriptions of standards for assessment tasks both to guide the marking process and clarify staff expectations for students. However, recent research…

Hendry, Graham D.; Armstrong, Susan; Bromberger, Nikki

2012-01-01

167

Transformative Shifts in Art History Teaching: The Impact of Standards-Based Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines pedagogical shifts in art history teaching that have developed as a response to the implementation of a standards-based assessment regime. The specific characteristics of art history standards-based assessment in the context of New Zealand secondary schools are explained to demonstrate how an exacting form of assessment has…

Ormond, Barbara

2011-01-01

168

Teachers' Response to Standards-Based Reform: Probing Reform Assumptions in Washington State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because teachers' efforts are central to the success of standards-based reform, it behooves the policy community to look carefully at the beliefs about instruction that are rooted in this reform theory. Building on teacher-centric research on standards-based reform and ideas about teaching practice from research on multicultural education, this…

Loeb, Hilary; Knapp, Michael S.; Elfers, Ana M.

2008-01-01

169

Peers Add a Potent Perspective: Vermont Teachers Combine Forces to Create Standards-Based Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the peer review process in Vermont. Teachers across the state learned lessons of their own in creating standards-based units based on a checklist of criteria and a scorecard. Developing and critiquing lessons helped teachers make connections, internalize, and apply the tenets of high-quality, standards-based classroom…

Carr, Judy F.

2005-01-01

170

Evidence that low-grade systemic inflammation can induce islet dysfunction as measured by impaired calcium handling  

PubMed Central

Summary In obesity and the early stages of type 2 diabetes (T2D), pro-inflammatory cytokines are mildly elevated in the systemic circulation. This low-grade systemic inflammation exposes pancreatic islets to these circulating cytokines, but at levels ~100–1000x lower than seen within the islet during insulitis, which have not been well described. We examined mouse islets treated overnight with a low-dose cytokine combination commonly associated with inflammation (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IFN-gamma). We then examined islet function primarily using intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), a key component of insulin secretion and cytokine signaling. Cytokine-treated islets demonstrated several features that suggested dysfunction including excess [Ca2+]i in low physiological glucose (3mM), reduced responses to glucose stimulation, and disrupted [Ca2+]i oscillations. Interestingly, islets taken from young db/db mice showed similar disruptions in [Ca2+]i dynamics as cytokine-treated islets. Additional studies of control islets showed that the cytokine-induced elevation in basal [Ca2+]i was due to both greater calcium influx through L-type-calcium-channels and reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium storage. Many of these cytokine-induced disruptions could be reproduced by SERCA blockade. Our data suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation produces circulating cytokine levels that are sufficient to induce beta-cell dysfunction and may play a contributing role in beta-cell failure in early T2D.

Dula, Stacey B.; Jecmenica, Mladen; Wu, Runpei; Jahanshahi, Pooya; Verrilli, Gretchen M.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; Brayman, Kenneth L.; Nunemaker, Craig S.

2010-01-01

171

Managing Marginal School Employees: Applying Standards-Based Performance Measures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains a collection of case studies that provide a variety of situations in managing or working with marginal employees in a school system. Managing Marginal School Employees will serve as a primary or companion text for administrator candidates or current administrators that include dilemmas for the student to think about, discuss,…

Fields, Lynette; Reck, Brianne; Egley, Robert

2006-01-01

172

Improving the Quality of Maternal and Neonatal Care: the Role of Standard Based Participatory Assessments  

PubMed Central

Background Gaps in quality of care are seriously affecting maternal and neonatal health globally but reports of successful quality improvement cycles implemented at large scale are scanty. We report the results of a nation-wide program to improve quality of maternal and neonatal hospital care in a lower-middle income country focusing on the role played by standard-based participatory assessments. Methods Improvements in the quality of maternal and neonatal care following an action-oriented participatory assessment of 19 areas covering the whole continuum from admission to discharge were measured after an average period of 10 months in four busy referral maternity hospitals in Uzbekistan. Information was collected by a multidisciplinary national team with international supervision through visit to hospital services, examination of medical records, direct observation of cases and interviews with staff and mothers. Scores (range 0 to 3) attributed to over 400 items and combined in average scores for each area were compared with the baseline assessment. Results Between the first and the second assessment, all four hospitals improved their overall score by an average 0.7 points out of 3 (range 0.4 to 1), i.e. by 22%. The improvements occurred in all main areas of care and were greater in the care of normal labor and delivery (+0.9), monitoring, infection control and mother and baby friendly care (+0.8) the role of the participatory action-oriented approach in determining the observed changes was estimated crucial in 6 out of 19 areas and contributory in other 8. Ongoing implementation of referral system and new classification of neonatal deaths impede the improved process of care to be reflected in current statistics. Conclusions Important improvements in the quality of hospital care provided to mothers and newborn babies can be achieved through a standard-based action-oriented and participatory assessment and reassessment process.

Tamburlini, Giorgio; Yadgarova, Klara; Kamilov, Asamidin; Bacci, Alberta

2013-01-01

173

Remote laboratories: new technology and standard based architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

E-Laboratories development appears to be more complex than other e-learning contexts such as online courses, virtual classrooms, e-projects, role-playing, etc. However, this kind of training is essential for scientific and technical disciplines and fits a real need. Recently we initiated a project [A. Leleve et al., (2003)] whose main goal is to build a complete remote laboratory system with an

Hcene Benmohamed; Arnaud Leleve; Patrick Prévot

2004-01-01

174

Science for Iowa Schools, Grades 4-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide includes four units for use in each of grades 4 through 6. The fourth grade units are entitled Measurement Systems, Classification Systems, Bio-Control Systems, and Hydrologic Systems; the fifth grade units are Chemical Systems, Force Systems, Bio-Systems, and Astro-Systems; and the sixth grade units are Equilibrium Systems,…

Nice, Karl; And Others

175

Science for Iowa Schools, Grades 4-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide includes four units for use in each of grades 4 through 6. The fourth grade units are entitled Measurement Systems, Classification Systems, Bio-Control Systems, and Hydrologic Systems; the fifth grade units are Chemical Systems, Force Systems, Bio-Systems, and Astro-Systems; and the sixth grade units are Equilibrium Systems,…

Nice, Karl; And Others

176

Teaching Middle School Physical Education: A Standards-Based Approach for Grades 5-8. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides a blueprint for developing environment, curriculum, instruction, and assessment based on high quality physical education guidelines. There are 17 chapters in four parts. Part 1, "Prepare for Your Journey," includes (1) "Physical Education in a Changing World"; (2) "Reform Efforts in the Middle School"; (3) "The Role of Physical…

Mohnsen, Bonnie S.

177

A Standards-Based Professional Development Program and the Resulting Impact on Two Sixth Grade Teachers' Classroom Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2000, California introduced science content standards as part of an across the curriculum reform. This presented a special challenge for elementary teachers due to an increased emphasis on math and language arts, and limited science background and resources. This two year qualitative study looks at a professional development program that…

Bereki, Debra Lynn

2010-01-01

178

Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, epithelial cell abnormality-adjusted workload, and the ThinPrep imaging system.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown a negative correlation between screening sensitivity using the ThinPrep Imaging System (TIS) and epithelial cell abnormality (ECA) adjusted workload (ECA rate × actual slides screened/day) at the thresholds of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). We sought to determine if a similar correlation could be shown at the threshold of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Using data in seven manuscripts from the literature that contain sufficient information, the change in screening sensitivity using the TIS compared with manual screening was negatively correlated with ECA adjusted workload (y = -3.75x + 54, R(2) = 0.104). Using the sensitivity of manual screening of 79% for manual screening at a threshold of LSIL from the original TIS trial, 100% sensitivity could be achieved at an ECA adjusted workload of approximately seven slides/day, the same workload that achieves 100% sensitivity at a threshold of ASCUS and slightly higher than the threshold for HSIL. We conclude that the ECA adjusted workload is a valuable method to assess workload for the TIS at the threshold of LSIL. Laboratories using the TIS should restrict workload to seven ECA adjusted slides/day (maximum actual slides/day = 700/ECA percentage). PMID:22807385

Renshaw, Andrew A; Elsheikh, Tarik M

2010-12-31

179

Evaluation of an on-line ash analysis system for low-grade and inhomogeneous Greek lignite  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual-energy {gamma}-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the pit to the bunker of Kardia mine, Ptolemais. According to the obtained results, the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not adequate and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The deterioration of the on-line measurements' accuracy, compared to previous applications in other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the lignite ash content and ash composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average atomic number of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of this method to low-grade lignites that exhibit large variation in ash content and composition. 17 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis [Public Power Corporation SA, Athens (Greece). General Division of Mines

2007-08-15

180

Grading of Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcoma in Children and Adolescents: A Comparison of Parameters Used for the FNCLCC and POG systems  

PubMed Central

Two systems for grading soft tissue sarcoma are widely used currently: the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Fédération Nationale des Centers de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) systems. Both were developed using cohorts of predominantly adult patients. The Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) system, based on the NCI system, was adapted for grading pediatric non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS). The applicability and prognostic utility of the FNCLCC system in pediatric NRSTS has not been assessed or compared to the POG system. Tumors from 130 patients with malignant NRSTS enrolled on three completed multi-institutional clinical trials were assessed. Of 130 tumors, 102 (78%) were localized and 28 (22%) metastatic. Of the localized tumors, 55/102 (54%) were >5cm. The estimated 5-year EFS for the entire group was 47%. As expected, stage and tumor size were predictive of EFS (p<0.001). Both systems were predictive of 5-year event-free survival (EFS) (POG p=0.0095 and FNCLCC p=0.0075). Patients whose tumors received discrepant grades (POG-G3 vs. FNCLCC-G2/G1) (n=44) had an intermediate outcome between those with concordant (G3 (n=44) or G1/G2 (n=42)) grades on both systems (p=0.0018). By multivariate analysis, the mitotic index was predictive of EFS using a cutoff of 10 mitotic figures per 10 high power fields (p<0.001). In conclusion, both the FNCLCC and POG systems provide an adequate prognostic measure of outcome for pediatric NRSTS; albeit, a sizeable subset of cases with apparently intermediate prognosis was graded differently by the two systems. The mitotic index appears to be a key parameter in grading pediatric NRSTS.

Khoury, Joseph D.; Coffin, Cheryl M.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Anderson, James R.; Meyer, William H.; Parham, David M.

2010-01-01

181

Timber Stress Grading: Analysis of Existing Timber Strength Grouping and Strength Classification Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In an exercise to make recommendations for a strength grouping system acceptable for international adoption by UNIDO for work in developing countries, a review of existing classification systems in the world was made. It appears that many countries have e...

1985-01-01

182

The FBE development project: toward flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social individual records.  

PubMed

Under the ARCHITRAVE programme aimed at redesigning the regional health and social information system, the alpha version of a new web application was developed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and other medical terminology systems as a basis for a flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social record. The web application was developed in order to collect information according to a multiaxial assessment framework consistent with the model of functioning adopted by the ICF. The web application translates information collected in natural language into ICF and releases outputs at different stages of the assessment process useful in evaluating clinical and social outcomes, distinguishing between functioning and disability in the same functioning profile and planning reasonable adaptations to overcome disability. The alpha version works in Italian and was adapted to the Italian welfare system/services/policies, but an international version working in other languages/welfare systems can be designed. The first field trial is ongoing in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, implementing the regional Health and Social Action Plan 2010-2012. PMID:22874272

Frattura, Lucilla; Simoncello, Andrea; Bassi, Giovanni; Soranzio, Andrea; Terreni, Stefano; Sbroiavacca, Fulvio

2012-01-01

183

Experimental study on ejector refrigeration system powered by low grade heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ejector refrigeration system has been designed and constructed to operate with hot water. Such a refrigeration system, designed for low pressure refrigerants, can be operated using energy sources such as solar energy, geothermal energy and waste heat. In this study, the effects of the main operating parameters on system performance were experimentally investigated using R-11 as the working fluid

R. Yap?c?; C. C. Yeti?en

2007-01-01

184

Special Automotive Repair Service Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Vehicle Emission Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This curriculum is intended to serve as a guide for high school instructors teaching a basic course on emission control systems on General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler products. The material may also be incorporated on an engine system basis and inserted into an overall tune-up curriculum. Other uses of the curriculum include specialized training…

Gubbins Associates, Hadlyme, CT.

185

An analysis of the impact of embryo transfer difficulty on live birth rates, using a standardised grading system.  

PubMed

Abstract Background: Embryo transfer (ET) is a vital part of the IVF process. While some studies have supported the hypothesis that ET difficulty alters success rate, others suggest the contrary. This large population study aimed to test this hypothesis, using a standardised ET grading system. Methods: ET data for fresh and frozen IVF/ICSI cycles between 2005 and 2010, retrieved from the IVFAustralia database, were grouped by degree of difficulty (easy, medium and difficult). Live birth rates, as the primary outcome, were compared between the groups. Biochemical pregnancy, Clinical Pregnancy Rate (CPR) and other pregnancy outcomes were assessed. The influence of blood ± mucus contamination on the transfer catheter tip and the use of intra-transfer ultrasound (US) were also analysed. Results: Of 6484 transfers, 5976 (92.2%) were considered easy, 374 (5.7%) medium and 134 (2.1%) difficult. Basic patient characteristics were similar between the cohorts. There were statistically significant differences in the live delivery rates (25.3% vs 19.5%, p < 0.05), CPR (30.7% vs 24.6%, p < 0.05), and + ve ?hCG rate (35.9% vs 28%, p < 0.05) between the easy and medium/difficult groups. There was no significant difference in the rates of ectopic pregnancy, stillbirth and miscarriage between the groups. The presence of blood on the catheter did not affect pregnancy outcome adversely (p = ns). Conclusion: This study, which we believe to be the largest report using a standardised system for grading the difficulty of ET, demonstrates that difficult ETs are associated with lower live birth rates but not higher rates of ectopic or miscarriage. While the presence of blood may be an indicative of a relatively more traumatic and difficult transfer, it does not necessarily lead to a lower birth rate. PMID:23862557

Listijono, Dave R; Boylan, Tim; Cooke, Simon; Kilani, Suha; Chapman, Michael G

2013-07-17

186

Assessment of clinical outcomes of Roth and MBT bracket prescription using the American Board of Orthodontics Objective Grading System  

PubMed Central

Background: There is always a need to assess whether small changes in bracket prescription can lead to visually detectable differences in tooth positions. However, with little clinical evidence to show advantages of any of the popularly used bracket systems, orthodontists are forced to make clinical decisions with little scientific guidance. Aim: To compare the orthodontic cases finished with Roth and MBT prescription using American Board of Orthodontics-Objective Grading System (ABO-OGS). Settings and Design: Department of Orthodontics, Post-graduate dental college, retrospective cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Forty patients selected were divided into two groups of 20 patients each finished with straight wire appliance using Roth and MBT prescription, respectively. The examiner ability was assessed and calibrated by one of the ABO certified clinician to grade cases using the OGS. Statistical Analysis: Unpaired student t-test was used and P < 0.05 was accepted as significant. Results and Conclusions: MBT bracket group had a lower score of 2.60 points in buccolingual inclination and lower score of 1.10 points in occlusal contact category that was statistically significant when compared with Roth group. The difference in total ABO-OGS score was 2.65 points showing that the outcome for the MBT prescription was better than that of the Roth prescription, which is statistically significant, but with little or no clinical significance. It can be concluded that use of either one of the Roth and MBT bracket prescriptions have no impact to the overall clinical outcome and quality of treatment entirely depends on clinician judgment and experience.

Jain, Mahesh; Varghese, Joseph; Mascarenhas, Rohan; Mogra, Subraya; Shetty, Siddarth; Dhakar, Nidhi

2013-01-01

187

A control method for the naval artillery servo system based on the grading fuzzy sliding mode control with the interference observer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the shooting instant error of the naval artillery digital servo system which has large impact torque when naval artillery is shooting, it is necessary to enhance the robustness and the antijamming ability of the naval artillery digital servo system, and a self-regulating grading fuzzy sliding control scheme with interference observer. Firstly, an interference observer was designed

Zhou Yong; Pan Chong

2010-01-01

188

Explore Your World with a Geographic Information System. A Teaching Supplement for Grades 5-12 Introducing Basic GIS Concepts and Components.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This set of teaching materials is geared toward students and teachers in grades 5-12 and focuses on the use of a geographic information system (GIS) to explore the world. The package consists of a booklet of instructional activities and background information about geographic information systems, a companion poster, and a software demonstration…

Environmental Systems Research Inst., Inc., Redlands, CA.

189

77 FR 42988 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Direct...

2012-07-23

190

77 FR 43018 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice...

2012-07-23

191

77 FR 68684 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1915, 1917, 1918, and 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Final rule;...

2012-11-16

192

77 FR 68717 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OSH-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal...SUMMARY: With this notice, OSHA is withdrawing the proposed rule that...

2012-11-16

193

A Failing Grade for the German End-of-Life Vehicles Take-Back System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The German end-of-life vehicle take-back system is described and analyzed in terms of its impact on the environment and the car companies involved. It is concluded that although this system is often cited as an example of a successful take-back scheme, it is not one that maximizes the value recovered from end-of-life vehicles. As a result,…

Nakajima, Nina; Vanderburg, Willem H.

2005-01-01

194

Urban African-American middle school science students: Does standards-based teaching make a difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current reform movement in science education promotes standards-based teaching, including the use of inquiry, problem solving, and open-ended questioning, to improve student achievement. This study examines the influence of standards-based teaching practices on the achievement of urban, African-American, middle school science students. Science classes of teachers who had participated in the professional development (n = 8) of Ohio's statewide

Jane Butler Kahle; Judith Meece; Kathryn Scantlebury

2000-01-01

195

Uranium ion exchange from low-grade acidic solutions in a fluidized system  

SciTech Connect

Using a fluidized, countercurrent multiple-compartment ion-exchange (MCIX) column previously developed by the Bureau of Mines, Bureau researchers have successfully extracted uranium from a simulated acidic in situ leach liquor that contained 150 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. This successful demonstration of the MCIX system is reported, and the effects of varying the operating conditions on the performance of the system are also examined. Operating the MCIX system with a flow rate of 15 gpm/ft/sup 2/ and an aqueous-to-resin flow ratio of 200:1, more than 90% of the uranium was extracted, and a resin containing approximately 28 grams U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ per liter was produced. The absorption column used to investigate the operating variables was approximately 18 feet long with a 2-inch ID and was divided into compartments that were 1 foot long.

Palmer, G.R.; Nichols, I.L.; Seidel, D.C.

1980-01-01

196

The enhanced liver fibrosis test: a clinical grade, validated serum test, biomarker of overall fibrosis in systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: The absence of a serological surrogate outcome measure of fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a major deficiency for intervention studies and clinical management. An algorithm including the serum concentration of procollagen-III aminoterminal-propeptide, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and hyaluronic acid, has recently been validated as predictive of severity and clinical outcome in chronic liver diseases (enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) test) and implemented as a clinical grade test available for physicians. We evaluated the ELF test as a surrogate outcome measure in SSc. METHODS: The ELF score was determined blindly in 210 patients with SSc. Results were correlated with clinical, functional and instrumental variables including disease severity, activity and disability. RESULTS: The ELF test was above normal range in 83% of SSc patients (175/210). The ELF score showed a significant correlation (p<0.0001) with extent of skin involvement (r=0.28), diffusing lung capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) (r=-0.32), health assessment questionnaire-disability index (HAQ-DI) (r=0.32), disease severity score (r=0.3) and age (r=0.41). In addition, ELF correlated with disease activity (r=0.23; p=0.02). Using regression analysis, the extent of skin involvement, age, DLCO and gender were independently associated with the ELF score. The ELF score did not correlate with the presence of pulmonary artery hypertension, digital ulcers or any other measure of vasculopathy. CONCLUSIONS: The ELF test is a clinical-grade serum test that significantly correlates with several measures of fibrosis in SSc and with overall disease activity, severity and HAQ-DI. The specific correlation with fibrosis and its face validity, together with the feasibility of the test, warrant its further development as a surrogate outcome measure of fibrosis in SSc. PMID:23511226

Abignano, Giuseppina; Cuomo, Giovanna; Buch, Maya H; Rosenberg, William M; Valentini, Gabriele; Emery, Paul; Del Galdo, Francesco

2013-03-19

197

System design considerations for a production-grade, ESR-based x-ray lithography beamline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As electron storage ring (ESR) based x-ray lithography technology moves closer to becoming an industrial reality, more and more attention has been devoted to studying problem areas related to its application in the production environment. A principle component is the x-ray lithography beamline (XLBL) and its associated design requirements. XLBL, an x-ray radiation transport system, is one of the three major subunits in the ESR-based x-ray lithography system (XLS) and has a pivotal role in defining performance characteristics of the entire XLS. Its major functions are to transport the synchrotron orbital radiation (SOR) to the lithography target area with defined efficiency and to modify SOR into the spectral distribution defined by the lithography process window. These functions must be performed reliably in order to satisfy the required high production rate and ensure 0.25 micron resolution lithography conditions. In this paper the authors attempt to answer some specific questions that arise during the formulation of an XLBL system design. Three principle issues that are essential to formulating a design are (1) Radiation transport efficiency, (2) X-ray optical configurations in the beamline, (3) Beamline system configurations. Some practical solutions to thee problem areas are presented, and the effects of these parameters on lithography production rate are examined.

Kovacs, Stephen; Melore, Dan; Cerrina, Franco; Cole, Richard K.

1991-08-01

198

TNM staging of foregut (neuro)endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for standards in the management of patients with endocrine tumors of the digestive system prompted the European Neuroendocrine\\u000a Tumor Society (ENETS) to organize a first Consensus Conference, which was held in Frascati (Rome) and was based on the recently\\u000a published ENETS guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of digestive neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Here, we report the tumor–node–metastasis\\u000a proposal

G. Rindi; G. Klöppel; H. Alhman; M. Caplin; A. Couvelard; W. W. de Herder; B. Erikssson; A. Falchetti; M. Falconi; P. Komminoth; M. Körner; J. M. Lopes; A. M. McNicol; O. Nilsson; A. Perren; A. Scarpa; J. Y. Scoazec; B. Wiedenmann

2006-01-01

199

A case study of primary teachers' personal theories and understandings of standards-based science education reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was: (1) to contribute to current understandings of teachers' perspectives of standards-based science education reform, and (2) to describe and document the relationships between the personal theories about science teaching and learning held by three "unique" experienced primary teachers and the teachers' understandings of a state-level standards-based vision of school science. These teachers were unique because they had been members of a two year-long district-level standards-based science curriculum reform initiative. This study was framed by the conception of personal theories as a representation of teacher beliefs. This qualitative case study extended from the summer of 1996 through the spring of 1998. Methods of data collection were: interviewing and informal conversations, participant observation, video and audio taping, generation of field notes, and examination of documents and artifacts. Data analysis involved constant comparison of data, generation of categories, description of properties of and relationships between categories, and theorizing about the data. The results of this qualitative case study revealed that, overall, direct involvement in the science curriculum reform effort was a positive and meaningful professional development experience providing opportunities for personal and professional growth. For two of the teachers, the experience signified a turning point in the history of their personal theories about science teaching and learning. Although the reform effort was philosophically grounded in a state-level standards-based vision of school science, implementing the new hands-on science program, adopted as a dimension of the work of the reform effort, was in the forefront of teachers' thoughts. A standards vision played a secondary role as a referrent for thinking about the teaching of science. The findings suggest that teachers' personal theories could act as mediating forces in teachers' endeavors to understand contemporary science education reform. Generally, the teachers felt that a standards vision complimented their personal theories. They agreed with reform ideas like coherent K-12 curriculum development based on a depth over breadth approach, emphasis of science as both a knowledge base and as inquiry, the teacher role as facilitator, and learners' active engagement in learning. The teachers also noted challenges for the future of standards-based science education reform, including: commitment by local and state authorities to systemic reform for a hands-on/minds-on science program, the practical feasibility of some reform ideas, and multiple interpretations of standards language.

Wieseman, Katherine Claire

1998-08-01

200

76 FR 55622 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings AGENCY: Federal...notification of unsafe conditions at highway-rail and pathway grade crossings. FRA is announcing...further development of the regulation. The Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008...

2011-09-08

201

The new BIPM 1-V reference standard based on an array of Josephson junctions  

SciTech Connect

The authors report the first measurements at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) with a 1-V reference standard based on an array of Josephson junctions. A novel procedure for standard cell measurements is described. It allows the measurement of a cell electromotive force (EMF) with a random uncertainty of less than 1 nV and a total uncertainty of about 2 nV while avoiding direct connection of the cell to the array. Comparisons with an older Josephson reference standard, which is based on a junction output of 10 mV, were made both indirectly via standard cells and directly by connecting the instruments together. The results and the random uncertainties infer that the value assigned to a standard cell using the array minus that given by the older apparatus is -18.8 {plus minus} 3.4 nV for the indirect method and -17.1 {plus minus} 1.5 nV for the direct method. Taking into account the estimated total uncertainty of 23.5 nV for the old system, the agreement is excellent.

Reymann, D.; Witt, T.J. (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), 92 - Sevres (France))

1989-12-01

202

Institutional experience of paediatric high-grade central nervous system tumours: an analysis of 74 patients and review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Aim of the study Although the survival for children with certain central nervous system (CNS) tumour types has improved through current surgical and adjuvant treatment modalities, the prognosis of many high-grade tumours remains poor despite aggressive treatment. The aim of this study is to analyse patients with high-grade brain tumours in our institution to determine the histopathology, clinical characteristics, treatment modalities, and survival. Material and methods A total of 74 patients with a diagnosis of high-grade brain tumour were analysed. There were a total of 31 patients with embryonal tumours, 27 patients with high-grade glial tumours, 12 patients with brain stem gliomas and 4 patients with other high-grade brain tumours. Results There were 48 (65%) boys and 26 (35%) girls (ratio: 1.85) with a median age of 99.7 months (range = 2-204 months). The median follow-up period was 19 months (range = 1-204 months). Tumour recurrence was observed in 38 patients (51.4%). The overall survival rate and event-free survival rate of our patients were 27% and 19.5%, respectively. Conclusions Pediatric high-grade CNS tumours have a very aggressive behaviour and a significant number of children eventually succumb to disease despite multimodal treatment. There is a need of more effective therapeutic approaches for these tumours with poor prognosis. The future improvement in childhood high-grade brain tumour management depends on a better understanding of the molecular genetics and biology of brain tumours.

Oguz, Aynur; Karadeniz, Ceyda; Okur, Arzu; Sarac, Avni; Baykaner, Kemali; Bora, Huseyin; Poyraz, Aylar

2012-01-01

203

The Impact of Birth Month, within Grade Levels, on Student Performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) Mathematics Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study determined whether chronological age differences among students in the same grade level affected their respective levels of academic performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics assessment. The study analyzed the additional independent variables of gender, socioeconomic status, and special education…

Speziale, Kerry Maureen

2011-01-01

204

The Impact of Birth Month, within Grade Levels, on Student Performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) Mathematics Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study determined whether chronological age differences among students in the same grade level affected their respective levels of academic performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics assessment. The study analyzed the additional independent variables of gender, socioeconomic status, and special education…

Speziale, Kerry Maureen

2011-01-01

205

Stress intensity factors for an oblique edge crack in a coating\\/substrate system with a graded interfacial zone under antiplane shear  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the edge crack problem for a coating\\/substrate system with a functionally graded interfacial zone under the condition of antiplane deformation. With the interfacial zone being modeled by a nonhomogeneous interlayer having the continuously varying shear modulus between the dissimilar, homogeneous phases of the coated medium, the coating is assumed to contain an edge crack at an arbitrary

Hyung Jip Choi

2007-01-01

206

Hyperleptinemia is associated with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obese human beings.  

PubMed

Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-?, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r = 0.4173), central obesity (r = 0.4678), and body fat percentage (r = 0.3583). Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-? (r = 0.6989), IL-12 (r = 0.3093), and IL-10 (r = -0.5691). Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r = 0.5227) and insulin (r = 0.2229), as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r = 0.3611) and circulating triglyceride (r = 0.4135). These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings. PMID:23986664

Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Solís-Lozano, Lourdes; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; González-Chávez, Antonio; Béjar, Yadira L; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Escobedo, Galileo

2013-08-23

207

Grading Practices: The Third Rail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although Social Security funds are in decline and no solution is evident, few politicians have the temerity to try to change the system. Why? Because Social Security is the third rail in politics: if one touches it, he or she will die. The field of education has an issue that is equally as lethal: grading. Grading is one of the most private…

Erickson, Jeffrey A.

2010-01-01

208

Grading Policies that Work Against Standards...and How To Fix Them  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important element of a sucessful standards-based reform initiative includes grading and reporting that refers to specific learning criteria rather than nor mative criteria, Four grading policies that impose barriers to reform are described. Specific stategies to correct these policies are offered.

Thomas R. Guskey

2000-01-01

209

Traditional or Standards-Based Mathematics? The Choices of Students and Parents in One District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines students' and parents' choices in one district that recently began offering a new problem-centered high school mathematics program aligned with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards, in addition to its traditional mathematics sequence. Despite the district's previous implementation of Standards-based

Lubienski, Sarah Theule

2004-01-01

210

Validity and Fairness of State Standards-Based Assessments for English Language Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|English language learners (ELLs) constitute one of the fastest growing subpopulations of students in the United States. It is important to determine whether the assessments used by states in determining students' proficiencies are valid and fair for ELLs. This study focused on several standards-based assessments in mathematics and science…

Young, John W.; Cho, Yeonsuk; Ling, Guangming; Cline, Fred; Steinberg, Jonathan; Stone, Elizabeth

2008-01-01

211

The Substantive and Symbolic Consequences of a District's Standards-Based Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined one school district's efforts to develop and implement a standards-based curriculum using rational and institutional perspectives. Findings show that the district took an expressly rationalistic approach in using standards, but lacking a clear instructional philosophy, the district also took an institutional approach. (SLD)

Ogawa, Rodney T.; Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Martinez-Flores, Marilyn; Scribner, Samantha Paredes

2003-01-01

212

Development and Evaluation of a Standards-Based Approach to Instruction in General Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes Operation CHEM1251, an on-going project designed to implement a standards-based approach to instruction in the general chemistry curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Results indicate that this is the first time in five years that any day-time first semester general chemistry course section scored significantly…

Wagner, Eugene P.; DiBiase, Warren J.

2001-01-01

213

Special Education in an Era of School Reform: Building the Capacity for Standards-Based Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part of a series on contemporary school reform and special education, this report discusses how states are building capacity for standards-based reform. An introduction describes seven key areas in which states must build classroom and organizational level capacities, including: (1) teachers' knowledge, skills, and dispositions; (2) students'…

Massell, Diane

214

The Tension between Teacher Accountability and Flexibility: The Paradox of Standards-Based Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anticipated constraints imposed by the accountability process associated with standards-based reform on teachers' practice suggest a tension between teachers' desire for flexibility and the accountability mandates associated with reform initiatives. In particular, we posited that the teachers would negatively perceive the influence of…

Nadelson, Louis S.; Fuller, Michael; Briggs, Pamela; Hammons, David; Bubak, Katie; Sass, Margaret

2012-01-01

215

The Social Organization of School Counseling in the Era of Standards-Based Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The reform policies of standards-based accountability, as outlined in NCLB, impede the functioning of school counseling programs and the delivery of services to students. Although recent studies have focused on the transformation of the school counseling profession, a gap exists in the literature with regard to how the experiences of school…

Dorsey, Alexander C.

2011-01-01

216

Teacher Preparation: Assessing Teacher Quality, Administrative Support, Standards-Based Teacher Preparation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers focuses on the preparation of teachers by university-based education programs. The papers are: "The STEPS That Support P-12 Learning and Achievement" (Diana Rigden), which describes the Standards-based Teacher Education Project (STEP) for improving student learning; "The Responsibility for Assessing Beginning Teachers"…

Poliakoff, Anne Rogers, Ed.

2002-01-01

217

Performance Assessment of a Standards-based High School Biology Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a study that compares an introductory high school biology curriculum, Biology: A Community Context (BACC), with traditional curricula. Discusses the differences between standards-based BACC and traditional instruction. Identifies the instructional method in BACC as investigative inquiry and the activities proceed from concrete to more…

Leonard, William H.; Speziale, Barbara J.; Penick, John E.

2001-01-01

218

Do Low Grades Cause College Students to Give up?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The thesis that low grades cause college students to give up receives some support from early psychological research and from current reinforcement theories. This study investigates the effects on subsequent grades of low, average, and high first-exam grades for 192 students in a traditional grading system and 52 students in a pass-fail grading

Thayer, Robert E.

219

Increasing On-Task Behavior in Every Student in a Second-Grade Classroom during Transitions: Validating the Color Wheel System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A single-case (B-C-B-C) experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel classroom management system (CWS) on on-task (OT) behavior in an intact, general-education, 2nd-grade classroom during transitions. The CWS included three sets of rules, posted cues to indicate the rules students are expected to be following at that…

Fudge, Daniel L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Jacqueline L.; Cowden, Dan; Clark, Janice; Bliss, Stacy L.

2008-01-01

220

thyA as a Selection Marker in Construction of Food-Grade Host-Vector and Integration Systems for Streptococcus thermophilus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constructed food-grade host-vector and integration systems for Streptococcus thermophilus by using a thymidylate synthase gene (thyA) as the selection marker. Two thyA genes, thyASt and thyALb, were cloned from S. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, respectively. Thymidine-requiring mutants of S. thermophilus were obtained after successive cultures in the presence of trimethoprim, and one of them, TM1-1, was used

Yasuko Sasaki; Yoshiyuki Ito; Takashi Sasaki

2004-01-01

221

Increasing on-task behavior in every student in a second-grade classroom during transitions: Validating the color wheel system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A single-case (B–C–B–C) experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel classroom management system (CWS) on on-task (OT) behavior in an intact, general-education, 2nd-grade classroom during transitions. The CWS included three sets of rules, posted cues to indicate the rules students are expected to be following at that time, and transition procedures for altering activities and

Daniel L. Fudge; Christopher H. Skinner; Jacqueline L. Williams; Dan Cowden; Janice Clark; Stacy L. Bliss

2008-01-01

222

How Grading Reform Changed Our School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the early 2000s, Minnetonka High School decided that it needed to develop a more consistent, transparent system of grading. The school focused its grading reform efforts on one principle: Grades should reflect only what a student knows and is able to do. As the school staff analyzed their policies and practices, they discovered many practices…

Erickson, Jeffrey A.

2011-01-01

223

The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Grading System for Renal Cell Carcinoma and Other Prognostic Parameters.  

PubMed

The International Society of Urological Pathology 2012 Consensus Conference made recommendations regarding classification, prognostic factors, staging, and immunohistochemical and molecular assessment of adult renal tumors. Issues relating to prognostic factors were coordinated by a workgroup who identified tumor morphotype, sarcomatoid/rhabdoid differentiation, tumor necrosis, grading, and microvascular invasion as potential prognostic parameters. There was consensus that the main morphotypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were of prognostic significance, that subtyping of papillary RCC (types 1 and 2) provided additional prognostic information, and that clear cell tubulopapillary RCC was associated with a more favorable outcome. For tumors showing sarcomatoid or rhabdoid differentiation, there was consensus that a minimum proportion of tumor was not required for diagnostic purposes. It was also agreed upon that the underlying subtype of carcinoma should be reported. For sarcomatoid carcinoma, it was further agreed upon that if the underlying carcinoma subtype was absent the tumor should be classified as a grade 4 unclassified carcinoma with a sarcomatoid component. Tumor necrosis was considered to have prognostic significance, with assessment based on macroscopic and microscopic examination of the tumor. It was recommended that for clear cell RCC the amount of necrosis should be quantified. There was consensus that nucleolar prominence defined grades 1 to 3 of clear cell and papillary RCCs, whereas extreme nuclear pleomorphism or sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation defined grade 4 tumors. It was agreed upon that chromophobe RCC should not be graded. There was consensus that microvascular invasion should not be included as a staging criterion for RCC. PMID:24025520

Delahunt, Brett; Cheville, John C; Martignoni, Guido; Humphrey, Peter A; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; McKenney, Jesse; Egevad, Lars; Algaba, Ferran; Moch, Holger; Grignon, David J; Montironi, Rodolfo; Srigley, John R

2013-10-01

224

Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  High-grade or malignant gliomas are aggressive cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) grading system recognizes grade\\u000a III and grade IV primary brain tumors of astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or mixed lineage. Identification of these tumors is\\u000a prompted by symptoms such as insidious headaches, seizures, or focal weakness or numbness, with imaging findings of an enhancing\\u000a mass lesion. Following surgery, radiation therapy

Pierre Giglio; John Lee Villano

2010-01-01

225

Mentored learning to teach according to standards-based reform: A critical review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article analyzes literature on mentored learning to teach in ways consistent with the standards reform movement. It suggests that although reformers encourage mentoring for standards-based teaching, the assumptions underlying mentoring programs are often focused not on standards but on emotional and technical support. Mentoring practices are consistent with program assumptions rather than with the assumptions underlying standards-based teaching. Mentoring practices promote novicesâ retention but may not support their learning to teach. Although mentoring practices alone cannot be expected to reform teaching, case studies can illustrate practices for novices learning to teach in reform-minded ways. We argue that policymakers need to find effective ways to educate mentoring program developers and that mentors and researchers need to explore the content and process of reform-minded mentoring.

Jian, Wang; Odell, Sandra J.

2009-12-26

226

Comparative Evaluation of Rice Bran Wax as an Ointment Base with Standard Base  

PubMed Central

Waxes have been used in many cosmetic preparations and pharmaceuticals as formulation aids. Rice bran wax is a byproduct of rice bran oil industry. Present investigation has been aimed to explore the possible utility of rice bran wax as ointment base compared to standard base. The rice bran wax obtained, purified and its physicochemical characteristics were determined. Ointment base acts as a carrier for medicaments. The ointment base composition determines not only the extent of penetration but also controls the transfer of medicaments from the base to the body tissues. Rice bran wax base was compared with standard base for appearance, spreadability, water number, wash ability and diffusibility. The results show that rice bran wax acts as an ointment base as far as its pharmaceutical properties are concerned and it could effectively replace comparatively costlier available ointment bases.

Sabale, Vidya; Sabale, P. M.; Lakhotiya, C. L.

2009-01-01

227

A Standards-Based Content Analysis of Selected Biological Science Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled…

Stewart, Joy E.

2010-01-01

228

Method and system using power modulation for maskless vapor deposition of spatially graded thin film and multilayer coatings with atomic-level precision and accuracy  

SciTech Connect

A method and system for producing a film (preferably a thin film with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) on a flat or graded substrate (such as concave or convex optics), by sweeping the substrate across a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. In preferred embodiments, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. A user selects a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a predetermined desired thickness profile of the deposited film. The method relies on precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Folta, James Allen (Livermore, CA); Tan, Swie-In (San Jose, CA); Reiss, Ira (New City, NY)

2002-07-30

229

A Fault Grading Methodology for Software-Based Self-Test Programs in Systems-on-Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, electronic devices are increasingly employed in different fields, including safety- and mission- critical applications, where the quality of the product is an essential requirement. In the automotive field, the Software- Based Self-Test is a dependability technique currently demanded by industrial standards. This paper presents an approach employed by STMicroelectronics for evaluating, or grading, the effectiveness of Software-Based Self-Test procedure

O. Ballan; P. Bernardi; G. Fontana; M. Grosso; E. Sanchez

2010-01-01

230

Chromophobe renal cell carcinoma-chromosomal aberration variability and its relation to Paner grading system: an array CGH and FISH analysis of 37 cases.  

PubMed

Genetically, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (ChRCC) is characterized by multiple chromosomal changes, especially losses. The most common losses include chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17, and 21. The Fuhrman grading system lacks prognostic relevance for ChRCC, and recently, a new grading system for ChRCC was proposed by Paner. The objective of this study was to map the spectrum of chromosomal aberrations (extent and location) in a large cohort of ChRCCs and relate these findings to the Paner grading system (PGS). A large cohort of ChRCC was reviewed and graded according to the PGS. All the cases were reevaluated and separated into groups according to their PGS. The final study set was 37 patients. ChRCCs were divided into PG 1-3, sarcomatoid, and aggressive groups. "Aggressive ChRCCs" were designated cases with known metastatic activity, local recurrence, aggressive growth to the adjacent organs, or invasive growth into the renal sinus (with/without angioinvasion). Sarcomatoid tumors were divided into their epithelial and sarcomatoid component (further molecular genetic analyses were performed separately). Array comparative genome hybridization and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was applied to 42 samples from the 37 cases. Multiple losses, as well as gains, were detected in different chromosomes. Regardless of the PGS groups, the most frequently detected losses involved chromosomes 1 (27/37), 2 (26/37), 6 (23/37), 10 (26/37), 13 (19/37), and 17 (24/37). Loss of chromosome 21 was found in 12/37 cases. The most frequently detected gains were found on chromosomes 4 (22/37), 7 (24/37), 15 (20/37), 19 (22/37), and 20 (21/37). Cluster analysis showed that there is no relation between PGS and particular pattern of chromosomal changes (losses or gains) in ChRCCs. Conclusions are as follows: (1) ChRCCs showed a significantly broader spectrum of chromosomal aberrations than previously recognized. While previously published chromosomal losses were found in our cohort, gains of multiple chromosomes were also identified in a high percentage. The most frequently detected gains involved chromosomes 4, 7, 15, 19, and 20. (2) There is no relation between chromosomal numerical changes and Paner grading system. PMID:23913167

Sperga, Maris; Martinek, Petr; Vanecek, Tomas; Grossmann, Petr; Bauleth, Kevin; Perez-Montiel, Delia; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Nevidovska, Kristine; Lietuvietis, Vilnis; Hora, Milan; Michal, Michal; Petersson, Fredrik; Kuroda, Naoto; Suster, Saul; Branzovsky, Jindrich; Hes, Ondrej

2013-08-03

231

Developing Knowledgeable Teachers: A Framework for Standards-Based Teacher Education Supported by Institutional Collaboration. The STEP Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of papers describes the process of creating a standards-based teacher education program through strong collaboration among arts and science, education, and P-12 faculty members and administrators. The Standards-based Teacher Education Project (STEP) was designed to help teacher education programs ensure that their graduates know…

Garvin, Patty, Ed.

232

First Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for first grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, first grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

233

aDORe: A Modular, Standards-Based Digital Object Repository  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the aDORe repository architecture, designed and\\u000aimplemented for ingesting, storing, and accessing a vast collection of Digital\\u000aObjects at the Research Library of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The\\u000aaDORe architecture is highly modular and standards-based. In the architecture,\\u000athe MPEG-21 Digital Item Declaration Language is used as the XML-based format\\u000ato represent Digital Objects that can

Herbert Van De Sompel; Jeroen Bekaert; Xiaoming Liu; Lyudmila Balakireva; Thorsten Schwander

2005-01-01

234

Analyzing standards-based science instructional materials: An opportunity for professional development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This phenomenological study focused on a group of teachers who applied the Analyzing Instructional Materials (AIM) Process and Tools to select standards-based instructional materials for science curriculum reform. The purpose of this study was to identify, based on teachers' beliefs, perceptions, and experiences, the conditions for supporting professional development that involve standards-based reform and the use of instructional materials that were developed with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). The design of this qualitative study involved a series of three separate in-depth interviews with six participants. A first person narrative profile of each participant was constructed from the interviews and analyzed. Three themes were represented in the data: a focus on teaming, professional development and the change and reform process. Teachers in this study believed that instructional materials needed to explicitly support concept development and students doing science in order to learn about inquiry. Participants thought NSF-funded instructional materials supported inquiry-based learning and the teacher as a facilitator of learning. Based on this study, one finding about standards-based reform is that selecting instructional materials can be a structured professional development opportunity. A second finding is that teachers' beliefs about standards-based reform and the use of materials can be influenced during the selection of high quality instructional materials. Participants in this study believed that selecting NSF-funded instructional materials was critical to changing the learning and teaching of science in their district. A third finding is that professional development can push teachers to think critically about the materials they use to teach students science. Teachers in this study believed that their experiences associated with learning and using AIM provided them opportunities for reflection and dialogue about how instructional materials could better support concept development and inquiry-based learning and teaching. Three implications for teacher learning and professional development based on this study include: structures and facilitation are needed to guide the change and reform process because of the time needed for adult learning, reform-oriented instructional materials can be used to support adult learning experiences, and the use of outside experts can be critical to supporting reform efforts within a district.

Short, James Bennett

235

Discover, visualize, and deliver geospatial data through OGC standards-based WebGIS system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geospatial data are important to understand the Earth - ecosystem dynamics, land cover changes, resource management, and human interactions with the Earth to name a few. One of the biggest difficulties users face is to discover, access, and assemble distributed, large volume, heterogeneous geospatial data to conduct geo-analysis. Traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery lack the capabilities

Yaxing Wei; Suresh-Kumar Santhana-Vannan; Robert B. Cook

2009-01-01

236

Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors  

SciTech Connect

The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800, 9Cr-1 Mo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated that 9Cr-1Mo steel in the normalized and tempered condition can be considered for the above application from the standpoint of corrosion resistance.

Mudali, U.K.; Khatak, H.S.; Dayal, R.K.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B. (Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India))

1993-02-01

237

Standards-based publication and sharing of time series information in the DRIHM project: a EU-US collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enable a plug-and-play infrastructure, the European DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project aims to develop a comprehensive data publication and sharing system presenting uniform standards-based data discovery and access interfaces for hydrometeorological data collected by DRIHM partners in several European countries. This is a challenging task due to heterogeneity in types of data being collected and organized for modeling, and different semantic and structural conventions adopted by different data publishers. To meet this goal, the DRIHM project, and its DRIHM2US extension, collaborates with the recently funded US SCIHM (Standards-based Cyberinfrastructure for HydroMeteorology) project to develop a data sharing infrastructure for time series information. We report initial results of the application of the data integrating technologies developed by the NSF-funded CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Data, Inc., Hydrologic Information System) project, to information collected within DRIHM. The CUAHSI HIS system has been widely used in the US; it provides access to about a hundred water data collections that can be queried via uniform web services. The DRIHM partners initially implementing the system, include the CIMA Research Foundation (Italy), the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. The collected time series information was ingested into CUAHSI Observations Data Model databases, and water data services were created for each of the partners. At the time of writing, the water data services include SOAP and REST endpoints that provide access to the time series in WaterML 1 and WaterML 2.0 formats. The former encoding, developed by CUAHSI HIS, has been adopted by a number of federal agencies and research groups in the US, while the latter, created by an international group of experts under the aegis of the Hydrology Domain Working Group of the Open Geospatial Consortium and the World Meteorological Organization, has been recently adopted as an international standard for exchanging hydrologic data. The services are registered at the central catalog, which supports discovery of time series based on their spatio-temporal characteristics and on variable semantics. The semantics of the measurements is aligned , in the process of publication and service registration, with a set of centrally managed controlled vocabularies and a parameter vocabulary. Data from multiple collections can be discovered, accessed, visualized and analyzed using CUAHSI HydroDesktop software, or other clients that support water data service interfaces. While HydroDesktop relies on WaterML 1 format, the Delft FEWS system, maintained by a DRIHM partner Deltares, is already capable of ingesting WaterML 2.0 services, which enables interfacing WaterML 2.0-formatted streams with forecast models. Development of a consistent data sharing system is one of the first steps in realizing DRIHM objectives. Next steps include further integration of water data services with simulation models, WRF and WRF-Hydro in particular, and integrating point time series with gridded information to be used as model input. We discuss these additional steps and associated challenges, and demonstrate the complementarity and benefits of US-EU collaboration in the development of global standards-based infrastructure for hydrometeorological data.

Hooper, Richard; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Parodi, Antonio; Gochis, David; Jha, Shantenu; Whitenack, Thomas; Valentine, David; Caumont, Olivier; Dekic, Ljiljana; Ivkovic, Marija; Molini, Luca; Bedrina, Tatiana; Gijsbers, Peter J. A.; de Rooij, Erik; Rebora, Nicola

2013-04-01

238

Grade Retention and School Dropout: Investigating the Association.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses event-history analysis to explore whether and how grade retention influenced graduation outcomes for a cohort of 707 youths from an urban school system. Repeating a grade from kindergarten to grade 6 was associated with an increase in the odds of dropping out. Explores the impact of being over age for grade. (SLD)

Roderick, Melissa

1994-01-01

239

Machine Vision Grading of Pistachio Nuts Using Fourier Descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A machine vision system was used to classify pistachio nuts into four grades designated as “Grade 1”, “Grade 2”, “Grade 3” and “unsplit”, respectively. Fourier descriptors and the projected area (pixel count) of the individual nuts were extracted from their two-dimensional images and used as recognition features. The Fisher criterion for feature selection was used in conjunction with the Gaussian

A. Ghazanfari; J. Irudayaraj; A. Kusalik; M. Romaniuk

1997-01-01

240

ThyA as a selection marker in construction of food-grade host-vector and integration systems for Streptococcus thermophilus.  

PubMed

We constructed food-grade host-vector and integration systems for Streptococcus thermophilus by using a thymidylate synthase gene (thyA) as the selection marker. Two thyA genes, thyA(St) and thyA(Lb), were cloned from S. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, respectively. Thymidine-requiring mutants of S. thermophilus were obtained after successive cultures in the presence of trimethoprim, and one of them, TM1-1, was used as the host. Food-grade vectors were constructed by using either thyA(St) or thyA(Lb) as the selection marker. Transformants of TM1-1 created by using these vectors were selected for thymidine autotrophy as efficiently as for erythromycin resistance. By using the host-vector system developed in this way, a foreign amylase gene (amyA) was expressed in TM1-1 and was also integrated into the chromosome by use of a temperature-sensitive integration vector constructed with thyA(Lb) as the selection marker via a double-crossover event. The results obtained show that thyA is an efficient and safe selection marker for S. thermophilus that is suitable for food applications. PMID:15006818

Sasaki, Yasuko; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Takashi

2004-03-01

241

thyA as a Selection Marker in Construction of Food-Grade Host-Vector and Integration Systems for Streptococcus thermophilus  

PubMed Central

We constructed food-grade host-vector and integration systems for Streptococcus thermophilus by using a thymidylate synthase gene (thyA) as the selection marker. Two thyA genes, thyASt and thyALb, were cloned from S. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, respectively. Thymidine-requiring mutants of S. thermophilus were obtained after successive cultures in the presence of trimethoprim, and one of them, TM1-1, was used as the host. Food-grade vectors were constructed by using either thyASt or thyALb as the selection marker. Transformants of TM1-1 created by using these vectors were selected for thymidine autotrophy as efficiently as for erythromycin resistance. By using the host-vector system developed in this way, a foreign amylase gene (amyA) was expressed in TM1-1 and was also integrated into the chromosome by use of a temperature-sensitive integration vector constructed with thyALb as the selection marker via a double-crossover event. The results obtained show that thyA is an efficient and safe selection marker for S. thermophilus that is suitable for food applications.

Sasaki, Yasuko; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Takashi

2004-01-01

242

Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has…

Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

2012-01-01

243

Bias in Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Bias in grading can be conscious or unconscious. The author describes different types of bias, such as those based on student attractiveness or performance in prior courses, and a variety of methods of reducing bias, including keeping students anonymous during grading and using detailed criteria for subjective grading.|

Malouff, John

2008-01-01

244

A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "La Mujer Que Brillaba Aun Mas Que el Sol"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

Bullitt, Leslie Kay; Gonzalez, Augusta C.; Luna, Boni

1998-01-01

245

A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "La Mujer Que Brillaba Aun Mas Que el Sol"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

Bullitt, Leslie Kay; Gonzalez, Augusta C.; Luna, Boni

1998-01-01

246

Students' Knowledge about Chemical Reactions--Development and Analysis of Standard-Based Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2004 national educational standards for chemistry were implemented in Germany. While the standards describe different competencies to be reached after grade 10, no compulsory contents are defined. The contents are defined by the different German states individually. This means that there are no defined common topics taught in all states that…

Walpuski, Maik; Ropohl, Mathias; Sumfleth, Elke

2011-01-01

247

Primary rhabdoid tumor with low grade glioma component of the central nervous system in a young adult.  

PubMed

In the CNS, primary tumors with rhabdoid components are classified as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor, rhabdoid meningioma or rhabdoid glioblastoma. The authors present a young adult patient with supratentorial rhabdoid tumor incidentally found after head trauma as a small pre-existing lesion in the parahippocampal gyrus. MRI demonstrated an area of hypointensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted and fluid attenuated inversion recovery images. A serial MR scan revealed no change 3 months after the initial examination but drastic changes at 6 months. As the tumor and accompanying intratumoral hemorrhage enlarged rapidly, resection of the tumor was performed. Histopathology revealed that the main component of the tumor was typical rhabdoid cells with some necrotic areas. There were also pathological features consistent with oligoastrocytoma. The specimen had neither vascular proliferation usually seen in high-grade glioma nor the meningothelial pattern that suggests meningioma. Immunohistochemical findings revealed that cells were strongly positive for vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen and INI-1 antibody throughout the specimen. Further, monosomy 22 was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The tumor was finally thought to be an unclassifiable primitive rhabdoid tumor with oligoastrocytoma that arose in the CNS. The patient died within 5 months of detection of the tumor, regardless of surgical resection, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. PMID:22765644

Endo, Shogo; Terasaka, Shunsuke; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Kato, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Shinya; Houkin, Kiyohiro

2012-07-06

248

Intelligent functionally graded material: Bamboo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the shape and ingenious construction of biological hard tissues are the result of a continuous process of optimization, their basic characteristics such as microstructures, functions, and modelling systems fascinate the designers of engineering structures. Through the study of functionally graded materials, we hope to develop new superior material\\/structure concepts by using or modifying the construction of living organisms. The

Hideaki Takahashi

1995-01-01

249

Graded Modalities in Epistemic Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an epistemic logic with so-called graded modalities, in which certain types of knowledge are expressible that are less absolute than in traditional epistemic logic. Beside absolute knowledge (which does not allow for any exception), we are also able to express accepting if there at most n exceptions to . This logic may be employed in decision support systems

Wiebe Van Der Hoek; John-jules Ch. Meyer

1992-01-01

250

Lifestyle and nutritional imbalances associated with Western diseases: causes and consequences of chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in an evolutionary context.  

PubMed

In this review, we focus on lifestyle changes, especially dietary habits, that are at the basis of chronic systemic low grade inflammation, insulin resistance and Western diseases. Our sensitivity to develop insulin resistance traces back to our rapid brain growth in the past 2.5 million years. An inflammatory reaction jeopardizes the high glucose needs of our brain, causing various adaptations, including insulin resistance, functional reallocation of energy-rich nutrients and changing serum lipoprotein composition. The latter aims at redistribution of lipids, modulation of the immune reaction, and active inhibition of reverse cholesterol transport for damage repair. With the advent of the agricultural and industrial revolutions, we have introduced numerous false inflammatory triggers in our lifestyle, driving us to a state of chronic systemic low grade inflammation that eventually leads to typically Western diseases via an evolutionary conserved interaction between our immune system and metabolism. The underlying triggers are an abnormal dietary composition and microbial flora, insufficient physical activity and sleep, chronic stress and environmental pollution. The disturbance of our inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance is illustrated by dietary fatty acids and antioxidants. The current decrease in years without chronic disease is rather due to "nurture" than "nature," since less than 5% of the typically Western diseases are primary attributable to genetic factors. Resolution of the conflict between environment and our ancient genome might be the only effective manner for "healthy aging," and to achieve this we might have to return to the lifestyle of the Paleolithic era as translated to the 21st century culture. PMID:23657158

Ruiz-Núñez, Begoña; Pruimboom, Leo; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J

2013-05-06

251

A Grading System To Evaluate Objectively the Strength of Pre-Clinical Data of Acute Neuroprotective Therapies for Clinical Translation in Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract The past three decades have seen an explosion of research interest in spinal cord injury (SCI) and the development of hundreds of potential therapies that have demonstrated some promise in pre-clinical experimental animal models. A growing number of these treatments are seeking to be translated into human clinical trials. Conducting such a clinical trial, however, is extremely costly, not only for the time and money required to execute it, but also for the limited resources that will then no longer be available to evaluate other promising therapies. The decision about what therapies have sufficient pre-clinical evidence of efficacy to justify testing in humans is therefore of utmost importance. Here, we have developed a scoring system for objectively grading the body of pre-clinical literature on neuroprotective treatments for acute SCI. The components of the system include an evaluation of a number of factors that are thought to be important in considering the “robustness” of a therapy's efficacy, including the animal species and injury models that have been used to test it, the time window of efficacy, the types of functional improvements effected by it, and whether efficacy has been independently replicated. The selection of these factors was based on the results of a questionnaire that was performed within the SCI research community. A modified Delphi consensus-building exercise was then conducted with experts in pre-clinical SCI research to refine the criteria and decide upon how to score them. Finally, the grading system was applied to a series of potential neuroprotective treatments for acute SCI. This represents a systematic approach to developing an objective method of evaluating the extent to which the pre-clinical literature supports the translation of a particular experimental treatment into human trials.

Okon, Elena B.; Tsai, Eve; Beattie, Michael S.; Bresnahan, Jacqueline C.; Magnuson, David K.; Reier, Paul J.; McTigue, Dana M.; Popovich, Phillip G.; Blight, Andrew R.; Oudega, Martin; Guest, James D.; Weaver, Lynne C.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

2011-01-01

252

Achieving standards in urban systemic reform: An example of a sixth grade project-based science curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

A challenge for urban systemic reform initiatives in science education has been to achieve local, state, and national standards for teaching and learning. We have collaborated with teachers in the Detroit Public School System to design project-based curriculum materials that contextualize the learning of science in meaningful real-world problems, engage students in science inquiry, and use learning tech- nologies. We

Ann E. Rivet; Joseph S. Krajcik

2004-01-01

253

Achieving Standards in Urban Systemic Reform: An Example of a Sixth Grade Project-Based Science Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A challenge for urban systemic reform initiatives in science education has been to achieve local, state, and national standards for teaching and learning. We have collaborated with teachers in the Detroit Public School System to design project-based curriculum materials that contextualize the learning of science in meaningful real-world problems,…

Rivet, Ann E.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

2004-01-01

254

Achieving Standards in Urban Systemic Reform: An Example of a Sixth Grade Project-Based Science Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A challenge for urban systemic reform initiatives in science education has been to achieve local, state, and national standards for teaching and learning. We have collaborated with teachers in the Detroit Public School System to design project-based curriculum materials that contextualize the learning of science in meaningful real-world problems,…

Rivet, Ann E.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

2004-01-01

255

Power Conversion and Transmission Systems: A 9th and/or 10th Grade Industrial Education Curriculum Designed To Fulfill the Kansas State Department of Vocational Education's Level 2 Course Requirements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The document is a guide to a 9th and 10th grade industrial education course investigating the total system of power--how man controls, converts, transmits, and uses energy; the rationale is that if one is to learn of the total system of industry, the subsystem of power must be investigated. The guide provides a "body of knowledge" chart…

Dean, Harvey R., Ed.

256

Outside Influences on Systems Engineering: A Company Grade Officer's Observations in the Aftermath of a Difficult Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the world of acquisitions management, the systems engineering discipline is often thought of as a separable, independent activity that follows a certain flow chart and, if executed correctly, produces a useable item that meets the technical requirement...

J. M. Nicholson

2011-01-01

257

Correlation between Teacher Turnover Rates in the State of Alaska and Standardized Test Scores in the Area of Mathematics on the Standards Based Assessments/High School Qualifying Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study utilized bivariate correlations, partial correlations, multivariate analysis including Hotelling-T, and observed power to investigate the possible correlations and connections of teacher turnover in Alaska's public school system to performance on the standards-based assessment of the Alaska High School Qualifying Exam (HSQE). The study…

Roehl, Roy F., II

2010-01-01

258

Fat necrosis of the breast in the accelerated partial breast irradiation era: the need for a universal grading system.  

PubMed

Fat necrosis of the breast is increasingly reported and used as a trial endpoint in the treatment of breast cancer with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Yet, there is no universal toxicity scoring system within the latest version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.0). This requires investigators to adopt their own scoring system or improperly use those that exist, and limits accurate reporting of this entity. Fat necrosis of the breast also creates diagnostic uncertainty among clinicians and concern of recurrence among patients. In this review, we address the question of increasing incidence of fat necrosis through the comparison of recent APBI trials and literature. The pathogenesis, symptoms, clinical and radiologic diagnosis, clinical predictors of developing fat necrosis, management and follow-up are also discussed.Lastly, we propose a simplified and universal scoring system for the reporting of fat necrosis. PMID:23797180

Russo, Andrea L; Taghian, Alphonse G

2013-07-01

259

Automatic Water Supply Control System of Graded Constant Pressure by Variable Frequency Speed and Its Application to Pipeline Irrigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pipeline irrigation system using pressurizing electromechanical pumps, the pumps usually work in constant speed under fundamental frequency power supply (50Hz) and the operation characteristics of pumps could not adapt to the practical changes of pipe network. When the irrigation area is huge or the gradient of field is high, the requirement of irrigation uniformity in the whole field can

He Wu-quan; Cai Ming-ke; Wang Yu-bao; Wang Xiao-jian

2010-01-01

260

Messages from Space: The Solar System and Beyond. Grades 508. Teacher's Guide. Great Explorations in Science (GEMS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Building on collaborative work between the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute and the Lawrence Hall of Science, this curriculum takes advantage of humans' fascination with extraterrestrials to catalyze the study of the solar system and beyond. The unit begins when students attempt to decode a fictitious message from outer…

Beals, Kevin; Erickson, John; Sneider, Cary

261

Fast-Setting Phenolic and Tannin-Based 'Honeymoon' Adhesive Systems for Exterior Grade Finger-Joints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study describes the development of alternative tannin-based fast-setting adhesives not containing m-aminophenol as well as of phenolic/phenolic, tannin/tannin and tannin/phenolic adhesive systems which can be used for the same purpose.

A. Pizzi D. D. T. Rossouw W. Knueffel M. Singmin

1980-01-01

262

Learning about Body Systems. Superific Science Book IX. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document offers an explanation and drawings of each of the major systems of the human body and of the five senses. It provides teachers with classroom activities, demonstrations, and experiments which are intended to involve students in the acquisition of knowledge concerning the structure and function of their bodies. The drawings of the…

Conway, Lorraine

263

Manufacturing Systems. Grades 9-10. Course #8115 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The course materials included in this guide are intended to introduce students to the manufacturing industry and its relationships with society, individuals, and the environment. The following topics are covered in the nine learning modules: manufacturing and society and manufacturing systems; manufacturing materials and processes (types of…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

264

7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304 Section 810.304 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and Grade Requirements...304 Grades and grade requirements for canola. Grading factors Grades,...

2013-01-01

265

7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304 Section 810.304 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and Grade Requirements...304 Grades and grade requirements for canola. Grading factors Grades,...

2009-01-01

266

7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304 Section 810.304 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and Grade Requirements...304 Grades and grade requirements for canola. Grading factors Grades,...

2010-01-01

267

Teaching Middle Grades Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background information and exemplary units for teaching science in Georgia's middle school grades are provided. Discussed in the first section are: (1) the rationale for including science in middle school grades, focusing on science/society/technology, science/social issues, scientific reasoning, and scientific literacy; (2) role of science…

Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

268

Grades out, Badges in  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Grades are broken. Students grub for them, pick classes where good ones come easily, and otherwise hustle to win the highest scores for the least learning. As a result, college grades are inflated to the point of meaninglessness--especially to employers who want to know which diploma-holder is best qualified for their jobs. An alternative is to…

Young, Jeffrey R.

2012-01-01

269

Grading Cooperative Problem Solving.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses aspects of cooperative problem solving that include the selection of appropriate problems and the grading of group and individual papers using an analytical scoring scale. Offers six tips for grading cooperative problem solving. An appendix provides solutions to cited problems, potential follow-up questions, and an annotated…

Kroll, Diana Lambdin; And Others

1992-01-01

270

Upper Grades Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents five activities suitable for upper grades but adaptable for lower grades. Activities focus on character shapes, "use" command (Atari Pilot), foreign language programing (Pilot), LOGO aestheometry (creating curved shapes through the intersection of successively drawn straight lines), and stock market transactions using a spreadsheet. (JN)

Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

1984-01-01

271

Are Math Grades Cyclical?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The cyclical nature of mathematics grades was studied for a cohort of elementary school students from a large metropolitan school district in Texas over six years (average cohort size of 8495). The study used an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. Results indicate that grades do exhibit a significant cyclical pattern. (SLD)|

Adams, Gerald J.; Dial, Micah

1998-01-01

272

Grain Grading and Handling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

273

Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple…

Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

2010-01-01

274

Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple…

Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

2010-01-01

275

The Role of End-of-Course Exams and Minimum Competency Exams in Standards-Based Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the authors looked at the effects of one old-style educational reform--higher course graduation requirements--and five standard-based reforms--(1) school report cards; (2) rewards for school improvement; (3) sanctions for failing schools; (4) minimum competency examinations; and (5) hybrid minimum competency exam…

Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael; Moriarty, Joan Y.

2001-01-01

276

Innovation and competition in standard-based industries: a historical analysis of the US home video game market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the competitive dynamics in a standard-based industry through a historical observation of the US home video game industry. The paper focuses on the theoretical issues of switching costs, installed base and complementary goods as critical factors of dominant designs and firm success in a network-based industry. The authors' analysis reveals multiple stages of technological innovations and changes

Scott Gallagher; Seung Ho Park

2002-01-01

277

Indiana high school science teachers' beliefs about the intended and actual impacts of standards-based reforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teachers' beliefs about educational policy are essential components of successful, local implementation. Policies not accounting for teachers' beliefs about learning, instruction, and effective reform risk being ignored or ineffectually implemented. In this research, I characterize the beliefs that science teachers from three high schools in Indiana have about general aspects of standards-based reforms and about the Indiana Academic Standards for

Joseph W. Shane

2005-01-01

278

MAGNETIC LIQUID DEFORMABLE MIRRORS FOR ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS: ACTIVE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL ABERRATIONS FROM LOWER-GRADE OPTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

Borra, E. F., E-mail: borra@phy.ulaval.ca [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

2012-08-01

279

Accountability and Grade Inflation in a Rural School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an effort to hold schools accountable, Arkansas added grade inflation into the accountability system. The Arkansas Legislature mandated that the Arkansas Department of Education identify high schools with "statistically significant variance" between students' grade point averages (GPAs) and ACT performances. A grade inflation index developed…

Goodwin, Deborah Hayes; Holman, David M.

280

Physical properties of normal grade biodiesel and winter grade biodiesel.  

PubMed

In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C(16:0) content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel. PMID:21731429

Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Moksin, Mohd Maarof; Nang, Harrison Lau Lik; Norozi, Monir; Yunus, W Mahmood Mat; Zakaria, Azmi

2011-03-25

281

Grading severity of carpal tunnel syndrome in electrodiagnostic reports: Why grading is recommended.  

PubMed

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is not difficult to confirm by electrodiagnosis (EDx), but the challenge lies in whether to grade the severity and the method for doing so. The arguments about grading are discussed, with an emphasis in favor, using a method that relies on the EDx data, but qualifies that it is the median neuropathy being graded and not the syndrome of CTS. Although use of latencies can be arbitrary and misleading, it is possible to apply other criteria, such as low amplitudes or conduction block and denervation, to develop a grading scale that could be applied widely. Several previously published grading schemes are reviewed, and a new method is described that combines the prior ranking criteria into 3 basic categories. Application of a grading system identifies the degree of nerve injury and thus allows the referring physician to utilize optimally the EDx report to manage the patient. Muscle Nerve 48: 331-333, 2013. PMID:23436589

Sucher, Benjamin M

2013-07-24

282

Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.  

PubMed

To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains. PMID:23121262

Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

2012-11-04

283

Manufacture of clinical-grade CD19-specific T cells stably expressing chimeric antigen receptor using Sleeping Beauty system and artificial antigen presenting cells.  

PubMed

Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is being evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Our current approach to adoptive immunotherapy is based on a second generation CAR (designated CD19RCD28) that signals through a CD28 and CD3-? endodomain. T cells are electroporated with DNA plasmids from the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system to express this CAR. Stable integrants of genetically modified T cells can then be retrieved when co-cultured with designer artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2 and 21. Here, we reveal how the platform technologies of SB-mediated transposition and CAR-dependent propagation on aAPC were adapted for human application. Indeed, we have initiated clinical trials in patients with high-risk B-lineage malignancies undergoing autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We describe the process to manufacture clinical grade CD19-specific T cells derived from healthy donors. Three validation runs were completed in compliance with current good manufacturing practice for Phase I/II trials demonstrating that by 28 days of co-culture on ?-irradiated aAPC ?10(10) T cells were produced of which >95% expressed CAR. These genetically modified and propagated T cells met all quality control testing and release criteria in support of infusion. PMID:23741305

Singh, Harjeet; Figliola, Matthew J; Dawson, Margaret J; Olivares, Simon; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Ge; Maiti, Sourindra; Manuri, Pallavi; Senyukov, Vladimir; Jena, Bipulendu; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard E; Huls, Helen; Cooper, Laurence J N

2013-05-31

284

Functionally Graded Materials VII.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) exhibit spatial variations, in composition and/or microstructure, which have been imposed for the specific purpose of controlling the resultant variations in the thermal, structural or functional properties. During the...

J. Gong L. Chen L. Zhang W. Pan

2003-01-01

285

Pharmaceutical grade botanical drugs  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for making and identifying processed botanical materials as being of a pharmaceutical grade for use in clinical settings and patient treatment. The method utilizes fingerprints of the processed botanical material with respect to bioactivity and/or composition to establish whether the material meets previously established pharmaceutical grade requirements. The method is applicable to processed botanical materials, such as plant extracts, powders and the like which are used in medicinal applications.

Khwaja; Tasneem A. (Newport Beach, CA); Friedman; Elliot P. (Montecito, CA)

2002-04-30

286

Teacher Implementation of Reform-Based Mathematics and Implications for Algebra Readiness: A Qualitative Study of 4th Grade Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study looked at 4th grade classrooms to see "how" teachers implement NCTM standards-based or reform-based mathematics instruction and then analyzed it for the capacity to improve students' "algebra readiness." The qualitative study was based on classroom observations, teacher and administrator interviews, and teacher surveys. The study took…

Sher, Stephen Korb

2011-01-01

287

Quality of Maternal and Neonatal Care in Albania, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan: A Systematic, Standard-Based, Participatory Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundProgress in maternal and neonatal mortality has been slow in many countries despite increasing access to institutional births, suggesting deficiencies in the quality of care. We carried out a systematic assessment of the quality of maternal and newborn care in three CEE\\/CIS countries, using an innovative approach to identify priority issues and promote action.MethodsA standard-based tool, covering over 400 items

Giorgio Tamburlini; Gelmius Siupsinskas; Alberta Bacci

2011-01-01

288

Low-field magnetic resonance imaging study on carpal arthritis in systemic sclerosis - low-grade erosive arthritis of carpal bones is an unexpected and frequent disease manifestation.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of subclinical arthritis of carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Low-field (0.2 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in consecutive patients with SSc attending our center between January 2010 and March 2011. Results were assessed in a standardized manner using the Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (RAMRIS) and standardized assessments of all hand joints. Patients with arthritis due to overlap syndromes were excluded. RESULTS: Of 38 inpatients and eight outpatients who were screened for inclusion, 30 patients participated in the study and 26 patients could be evaluated. Erosions, bone marrow edema, synovitis, and joint effusions were found in 87%, 37%, 68%, and 58%, respectively, and 24% of patients had additional tenovaginitis. Arthritis affected only a low number of joints per analyzed hand. All bones and joints could be affected, but synovitis and bone marrow edema occurred predominantly in the proximal row of carpal bones, most frequently affecting the lunate bone. The extent of inflammatory changes measured with the RAMRIS correlated significantly with the functional status assessed with the validated German functional score questionnaire Funktionsfragebogen Hannover. CONCLUSION: Low-grade arthritic changes on low-field MRI are frequent in patients with pure SSc. The features of arthritis in SSc differ from rheumatoid arthritis. The distribution, the MRI pattern and the predilection for the lunate bone raise the hypothesis that arthritis in SSc may be caused not only by immunological inflammation but also by ischemic mechanisms. PMID:23289906

Akbayrak, Elif; Dinser, Robert; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Tarner, Ingo H

2013-01-01

289

Standards-based teaching and educational digital libraries as innovations: Undergraduate science faculty in the adoption process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes undergraduate science faculty in terms of their feelings of preparedness for and their use of standards-based teaching methods, their stages of concern related to Educational Digital Libraries (EDLs), and their adoption and diffusion of both innovations. These innovations may have a synergistic relationship that may result in enhanced adoption of both. The investigation began with a series of group meetings with life science, chemistry, physics, and geology faculty from a 2-year and a 4-year institution. Faculty were introduced to dimensions of standards-based teaching and examples of EDLs. Faculty completed the Demographics and Experience Questionnaire, the Standards-Based Teaching Instrument, and the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ). Semi-structured interviews containing literature-based questions were conducted with one faculty member from each discipline from the 2-year and 4-year institutions. Document analyses were performed on mission/goal web-based statements for the institutions and their science departments. Triangulated data were used to construct individual faculty case studies based on four facets: background, standards-based teaching profile, EDLs profile, and rate of innovation diffusion. The individual case studies were used to perform cross-case analyses by type of institution, discipline, and locus of control. Individual case studies and cross-case analyses suggest the following conclusions: (a) faculty felt prepared to use and frequently used textbooks as a reference, (b) feelings of preparedness and frequency of use of standards-based teaching categories may be related to discipline, (c) all faculty had relatively high awareness and informational EDL concerns, and (d) faculty central to the locus of control were more likely to use methods to develop student conceptual understanding, use inquiry methods, and be agents of change. A grounded theoretical model connects study results with literature related to educational change and innovation adoption. The model suggests undergraduate science faculty professional developers and innovation developers should establish a shared understanding of vocabulary related to innovations, conduct national innovation awareness and informational campaigns, consider faculty pre-existing understanding of the innovations, align with organizational norms, and clarify the relationship between institutional mission/goal statements and the innovations. The study protocols and instruments may be valuable tools for others studying educational change and innovations.

Ridgway, Judith Sulkes

290

Field Test of the Weighted Airman Promotion System: Phase Ii. Validation of the System for Grades E-4 Through E-7.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A weighted factors promotion system was field-tested and validated using data from the promotion cycle of the Alaskan air command. The weighted factors composite score excluding a promotion board component were compared within promotion board evaluations ...

J. B. Koplyay

1969-01-01

291

Hello, Sun: Fourth Grade Through Sixth Grade  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity has students examine the passage of time by watching the world change outside of their classroom. The sun will seem to move across the sky in a steady manner throughout the day. This will allow them to begin thinking about the movement of either the sun or the Earth as well as the shape of the Earth so that the motions make sense. Presented at this grade level, this activity will cover the two theories of the sun's motion debated by the geocentricists and heliocentricists. Using the different positions of the sun during the day as they relate to different positions in time and space, students will probe the data for theories and make models of what they have postulated. Hourly trips outside will establish the path of the sun as an arc, and students will model the relative positions of the sun and Earth in the classroom.

292

7 CFR 52.1003 - Grades of dates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart...Grade C or U.S. Stand- ard is the quality...accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart...accordance with the scoring system outlined in this subpart...Grade C or U.S. Stand- ard or U.S....

2013-01-01

293

Synchrotron X-ray tests of an L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror for the analyzer system of the ultra-high-resolution IXS spectrometer at NSLS-II.  

PubMed

Characterization and testing of an L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror are presented. This mirror is designed as a two-dimensional collimating optics for the analyzer system of the ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) spectrometer at National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). The characterization includes point-to-point reflectivity measurements, lattice parameter determination and mirror metrology (figure, slope error and roughness). The synchrotron X-ray test of the mirror was carried out reversely as a focusing device. The results show that the L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror is suitable to be used, with high efficiency, for the analyzer system of the IXS spectrometer at NSLS-II. PMID:21997910

Honnicke, Marcelo G; Keister, Jeffrey W; Conley, Raymond; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Takacs, Peter Z; Coburn, David Scott; Reffi, Leo; Cai, Yong Q

2011-09-16

294

Synchrotron X-ray Tests of an L-Shaped Laterally Graded Multilayer Mirror for the Analyzer System of the Ultra-High Resolution IXS Spectrometer at NSLS-II  

SciTech Connect

Characterization and testing of an L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror are presented. This mirror is designed as a two-dimensional collimating optics for the analyzer system of the ultra-high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) spectrometer at National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). The characterization includes point-to-point reflectivity measurements, lattice parameter determination and mirror metrology (figure, slope error and roughness). The synchrotron X-ray test of the mirror was carried out reversely as a focusing device. The results show that the L-shaped laterally graded multilayer mirror is suitable to be used, with high efficiency, for the analyzer system of the IXS spectrometer at NSLS-II.

Honnicke, M.G.; Takacs, P.; Keister, J.W.; Conley, R.; Kaznatcheev, K.; Coburn, D.S.; Reffi, L.; Cai, Y.Q.

2011-08-02

295

A structural study of the mesophases of two oxyethylene alkyl ether-decane-water systems, a comparison between technical grade C 12 EO ?7? and pure C 12 EO 6  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a study polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers (CmEOn), water and decane, the phase diagram and the structures of the mesophases of pure C12EO6 and technical grade C12EO were compared. The constructed phase diagrams of the two systems show a great resemblance except for one difference: the viscous isotropic phase is only present in the C12EO6 phase diagram.

J. A. Bouwstral; H. Jousmal; M. M. van der Meulen; C. C. Vijverberg; G. S. Gooris; F. Spies; H. E. Junginger

1989-01-01

296

Early Identification System: Followup of Those Students in the Kindergarten Class of 1978-79 Who Did Not Reach Grade 4 in 1982-83. Research Report 84-07.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to describe the educational history, status, and standardized test performance of the least successful members of the kindergarten class of 1978-79. All 253 students who were in kindergarten for the first time in 1978-79, who had not reached grade 4 by 1982-83, and who were still in the system were included in the…

Stennett, R. G.; Earl, L. M.

297

Grading on the Curve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the myths surrounding grading on the curve. Provides a simple explanation of such statistical terms as histograms, relative frequency, normal distribution, mean, and standard deviation. Describes how to restructure the curve, including the program listing for a computer program that will assist the teacher. (TW)

Wall, Charles R.

1987-01-01

298

Reader. Grade 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This textbook is the last in the official reading series developed by the Ministry of Education in Saigon and used in all public schools in Vietnam. The books in this series have been reprinted in their entirety from the original editions for use in elementary schools in the United States which have Vietnamese students. This grade 5 reader…

Center for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, VA.

299

Grading the teacher  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several fads ago there was a movement to grade teachers in terms of their competency - competency-based testing. Everyone knows that there are good teachers and there are bad teachers. The trouble is, it's hard to define the categories. It's like the Supreme Court justice who couldn't define pornography, but knew it when he saw it. In New York State,

Clifford E. Swartz

2000-01-01

300

The Ninth Grade Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several districts have taken a radical approach to middle/high school transitions, removing ninth-graders from the mix to give them the attention needed to succeed in high school. Three ninth-grade-only schools with 720 to 750 students in Virginia, Texas, and Pennsylvania are profiled. Students experience less social pressure from upper-classmen.…

Rourke, James R.

2001-01-01

301

Career Awareness: Grade 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade six, performance…

Boise City Independent School District, ID.

302

Career Awareness: Grade 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade five, performance…

Boise City Independent School District, ID.

303

Early Grades Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents four teaching activities suitable for students in early elementary grades. The activities focus on creating a database for student use, a bulletin board which uses a visual diagram of modular programing, a program (with listing) which uses graphics to present a birthday greeting, and a random number program. (JN)|

Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

1985-01-01

304

Graded reflectivity micromirror arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for fabricating arrays of graded reflectivity micromirrors with diameters as small as 25 mum is reported. It is based on laser-induced physical vapor deposition through microholes on a thin free-standing noncontact mask, and it is suitable for applications in micro-optics and solid-state laser technology.

Pasquale Cusumano; Giuseppe Lullo; Angelo Mangione; Claudio Arnone

2002-01-01

305

Graded reflectivity micromirror arrays.  

PubMed

A technique for fabricating arrays of graded reflectivity micromirrors with diameters as small as 25 microm is reported. It is based on laser-induced physical vapor deposition through microholes on a thin free-standing noncontact mask, and it is suitable for applications in micro-optics and solid-state laser technology. PMID:11900430

Cusumano, Pasquale; Lullo, Giuseppe; Mangione, Angelo; Arnone, Claudio

2002-01-01

306

Elementary Science: Grade 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This grade 2 science curriculum guide contains three activity units: (1) insects; (2) measuring; and (3) sink or float. Each unit contains a rationale, teacher background material, lesson plans, and lists of resources including books, audiovisual materials, resource persons, and science activity modules. The lesson plans list the science processes…

Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

307

Social Studies: Grade 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

308

Health, Grade 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the third in a series of health primers for elementary education in Vietnam. It is written for Vietnamese children at the third grade level. The fifty-three lessons are integrated into one story. Each lesson is illustrated and briefly summarized. The eight chapters are: (1) Hygiene, at home, in school and in public places; (2) Food and…

Bui Van Bao; And Others

309

Health, Grade 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the fifth and last of the Vietnamese series of elementary health textbooks. This one was designed for fifth grade students in Vietnam. The thirty-five lessons are presented in the form of short stories with illustrations and a short summary. The four chapters cover the ordinary symptoms of illness, elementary notions of microbes and…

Bui Van Bao; And Others

310

Social Studies: Grade 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

311

Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

2013-10-01

312

Demonstration of Combined Efforts in School-Wide Academic and Behavioral Systems and Incidence of Reading and Behavior Challenges in Early Elementary Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study provides descriptive data on the rates of office discipline referrals and beginning reading skills for students in grades K-3 for one school district that is implementing a three-tier prevention model for both reading and behavior support. Students in the district are provided a continuum of reading and/or behavioral support based on…

McIntosh, Kent; Chard, David J.; Boland, Joseph B.; Horner, Robert H.

2006-01-01

313

Code-Switching and Symbolic Power in a Second-Grade Two-Way Classroom: A Teacher's Motivation System Gone Awry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Code-switching is a natural part of being bilingual. Yet two-way immersion programs are known to insist upon separation of languages, discouraging both teachers and students from drawing on both linguistic codes at once. Drawing on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic power, I examine one second-grade classroom in which the teacher instituted a…

Palmer, Deborah K.

2009-01-01

314

Towards a Standards-Based Approach to E-Learning Personalization Using Reusable Learning Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

E-Learning systems that produce personalized course offerings for the learner are often expensive, both from a time and financial perspective, to develop and maintain. Learning content personalized to a learners' cognitive preferences has been shown to produce more effective learning, however many approaches to realizing this form of…

Conlan, Owen; Dagger, Declan; Wade, Vincent

315

Towards a Standards-Based Approach to E-Learning Personalization Using Reusable Learning Objects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|E-Learning systems that produce personalized course offerings for the learner are often expensive, both from a time and financial perspective, to develop and maintain. Learning content personalized to a learners' cognitive preferences has been shown to produce more effective learning, however many approaches to realizing this form of…

Conlan, Owen; Dagger, Declan; Wade, Vincent

316

The Role of the Science Leader in Implementing Standards-Based Science Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most of the literature of reform and systemic change focuses on policy, programs, and practices that the leaders should be responsible for producing, this chapter will emphasize what is known about how leaders bring about these improvements and what the research says about the skills, behaviors, and leadership styles of effective leaders. Finally, this chapter will highlight the concept of distributed leadership as presented in the National Science Education Standards. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Foreward, Preface, and Introduction.

Rhoton, Jack; Bowers, Patricia

2001-01-01

317

7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204 Section 810.2204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application...2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

2009-01-01

318

7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204 Section 810.2204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application...2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

2010-01-01

319

Achieving mask order processing automation, interoperability and standardization based on P10  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Last year the MUSCLE (Masks through User's Supply Chain: Leadership by Excellence) project was presented. Here is the project advancement. A key process in mask supply chain management is the exchange of technical information for ordering masks. This process is large, complex, company specific and error prone, and leads to longer cycle times and higher costs due to missing or wrong inputs. Its automation and standardization could produce significant benefits. We need to agree on the standard for mandatory and optional parameters, and also a common way to describe parameters when ordering. A system was created to improve the performance in terms of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) such as cycle time and cost of production. This tool allows us to evaluate and measure the effect of factors, as well as the effect of implementing the improvements of the complete project. Next, a benchmark study and a gap analysis were performed. These studies show the feasibility of standardization, as there is a large overlap in requirements. We see that the SEMI P10 standard needs enhancements. A format supporting the standard is required, and XML offers the ability to describe P10 in a flexible way. Beyond using XML for P10, the semantics of the mask order should also be addressed. A system design and requirements for a reference implementation for a P10 based management system are presented, covering a mechanism for the evolution and for version management and a design for P10 editing and data validation.

Rodriguez, B.; Filies, O.; Sadran, D.; Tissier, Michel; Albin, D.; Stavroulakis, S.; Voyiatzis, E.

2007-05-01

320

Evolutionary etiology of high-grade astrocytomas.  

PubMed

Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common brain malignancy, remains fatal with no effective treatment. Analyses of common aberrations in GBM suggest major regulatory pathways associated with disease etiology. However, 90% of GBMs are diagnosed at an advanced stage (primary GBMs), providing no access to early disease stages for assessing disease progression events. As such, both understanding of disease mechanisms and the development of biomarkers and therapeutics for effective disease management are limited. Here, we describe an adult-inducible astrocyte-specific system in genetically engineered mice that queries causation in disease evolution of regulatory networks perturbed in human GBM. Events yielding disease, both engineered and spontaneous, indicate ordered grade-specific perturbations that yield high-grade astrocytomas (anaplastic astrocytomas and GBMs). Impaired retinoblastoma protein RB tumor suppression yields grade II histopathology. Additional activation of v-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) network drives progression to grade III disease, and further inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) yields GBM. Spontaneous missense mutation of tumor suppressor Trp53 arises subsequent to KRAS activation, but before grade III progression. The stochastic appearance of mutations identical to those observed in humans, particularly the same spectrum of p53 amino acid changes, supports the validity of engineered lesions and the ensuing interpretations of etiology. Absence of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation, asymptomatic low grade disease, and rapid emergence of GBM combined with a mesenchymal transcriptome signature reflect characteristics of primary GBM and provide insight into causal relationships. PMID:24114272

Song, Yurong; Zhang, Qian; Kutlu, Burak; Difilippantonio, Simone; Bash, Ryan; Gilbert, Debra; Yin, Chaoying; O'Sullivan, T Norene; Yang, Chunyu; Kozlov, Serguei; Bullitt, Elizabeth; McCarthy, Ken D; Kafri, Tal; Louis, David N; Miller, C Ryan; Hood, Leroy; Van Dyke, Terry

2013-10-10

321

Piles, Number of Grade Categories, and Theme Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of the use of piles on the reliability and level of theme grades; and the effects of the number of grading categories on the reliability and level of theme grades, awarded to undergraduate English compositions. (CS)

Follman, John; And Others

1975-01-01

322

Rigorous Grading Does Not Raise Standards: It Only Lowers Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses "grade inflation," and the pressure on instructors to "play grade roll politics to save their own professional hides." Argues that the grade deflation movement works at cross purposes with its goal of elevating academic standards, and that it is at odds with composition theory and its process pedagogy. Suggests portfolio assessment as…

Agnew, Eleanor

1995-01-01

323

High-Grade Gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  High-grade gliomas (HGGs) should be treated with maximal, safe surgical resection followed by 57–60 Gy of partial-field external\\u000a beam or intensity-modulated radiotherapy to a 2 cm margin surrounding the resection cavity. The standard of care for newly\\u000a diagnosed glioblastoma includes concurrent temozolomide (TMZ) during radiotherapy and adjuvant TMZ for six or more cycles.\\u000a The optimal role of chemotherapy in anaplastic gliomas

Brett J. Theeler; Morris D. Groves

324

Low-Grade Astrocytomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Glial tumors constitute approximately 50% of newly diagnosed primary brain tumors, with low-grade gliomas (LGG) accounting\\u000a for approximately 15% of all brain tumors in adults [21]. The subset of tumors classified as LGG represents a heterogeneous\\u000a group of tumors with astrocytic, oligodendroglial, ependymal, or mixed cellular histologies. In the adult population, the\\u000a term LGG typically refers to the diffuse, infiltrating

Nader Sanai; Mitchel S. Berger

325

Special High Grade Underwater Concrete,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors have engaged in developing special high grade underwater concrete. Special high grade underwater concrete should have the following properties: No segregation when dropped into water; No pollution (no alkali or cement comes out into surroundin...

M. Sakamoto T. Hatsuzaki

1987-01-01

326

DUAL-COMPONENT VIDEO IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM (VIASCANTM) AS A PREDICTOR OF BEEF RED MEAT YIELD PERCENTAGE AND FOR AUGMENTING APPLICATION OF USDA YIELD GRADES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Improved ability to quantify differences in the fabrication yields of beef carcasses would facilitate application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Dual-Component Australian VIASCANTM: (a) to predict fabricated beef subprimal yields as a percentage of carcass weight at each of three fat-trim levels and (b) to augment USDA yield grading, thereby improving

R. C. Cannell; J. D. Tatum; K. E. Belk; J. W. Wise; R. P. Clayton; G. C. Smith

327

Standards-based approaches to 3D and multiview video coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extension of video applications to enable 3D perception, which typically is considered to include a stereo viewing experience, is emerging as a mass market phenomenon, as is evident from the recent prevalence of 3D major cinema title releases. For high quality 3D video to become a commonplace user experience beyond limited cinema distribution, adoption of an interoperable coded 3D digital video format will be needed. Stereo-view video can also be studied as a special case of the more general technologies of multiview and "free-viewpoint" video systems. The history of standardization work on this topic is actually richer than people may typically realize. The ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG), in particular, has been developing interoperability standards to specify various such coding schemes since the advent of digital video as we know it. More recently, the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG) has been involved as well in the Joint Video Team (JVT) work on development of 3D features for H.264/14496-10 Advanced Video Coding, including Multiview Video Coding (MVC) extensions. This paper surveys the prior, ongoing, and anticipated future standardization efforts on this subject to provide an overview and historical perspective on feasible approaches to 3D and multiview video coding.

Sullivan, Gary J.

2009-08-01

328

The Unbearable Importance of Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Grading is one of the primary venues of teaching. In this article, the author shares his experience of grading papers. He alleges that the hardest papers to grade are those where nothing is really "wrong" with the prose or the argument, where everything is "sort of" correct but nothing is vivid, nothing quite original. Students must learn in time…

Parini, Jay

2008-01-01

329

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication provides information relating to Arizona Academic Standards for Grade 8. The following standards are reviewed: (1) the arts standards; (2) comprehensive health standards; (3) foreign and native language standards; (4) reading standard articulated by grade level 2003; (5) writing standard articulated by grade level 2004; (6)…

Arizona State Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

330

Taking the Grading Conversation Public  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To manage effective grading reform, education leaders must engage teachers, parents, communities, and policymakers in a rational discussion about grading. Doug Reeves suggests that leaders start the conversation with a discussion of the principles on which all stakeholders can agree; make clear what will not change under the new grading policy;…

Reeves, Douglas B.

2011-01-01

331

Low Grades for Southern Pines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first portion of this paper deals with the log grading procedure and explains in detail the purpose of grading, the principles involved, the specifications, and how they are applied. The second item of importance concerns lumber yields by log grade an...

R. A. Campbell

1964-01-01

332

Clicking for Grades? Really? Investigating the Use of Clickers for Awarding Grade-Points in Post-Secondary Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using classroom response systems (clickers) to accumulate grade-points has become a controversial practice as response systems have become more widely used in the last decade. Although some instructors opt to use clickers on a non-grades basis, it has become quite common to reward students for (a) correct answers, (b) participating in clicker…

White, Peter; Syncox, David; Alters, Brian

2011-01-01

333

Femoral cement grading in total hip arthroplasty.  

PubMed

The current gold standard for primary total hip arthroplasty is a cemented femoral component combined with a porous-coated acetabular component. Barrack and colleagues described a femoral cement mantle grading system which is increasingly being used to evaluate surgical technique and to compare arthroplasty results. The immediate postoperative radiographs of 100 primary total hip arthroplasty cases from five community surgeons were assessed by three observers to evaluate the overall quality of cement technique, the interobserver variability in cement mantle grading, and specific characteristics of the grading system. All three observers agreed on the grading in only 73% of the x-rays (anteroposterior view, 69%; lateral view, 77%). Compared with reports in the literature from specialized hip arthroplasty centers, a very high proportion of the cases had grade C mantles. To gain a balanced perspective of the global effectiveness and longevity of cemented total hip arthroplasty it is important that follow-up studies be reported upon from representative cross sections of the orthopaedic community. PMID:9645519

Harvey, E J; Tanzer, M; Bobyn, J D

1998-06-01

334

The GeoDataPortal: A Standards-based Environmental Modeling Data Access and Manipulation Toolkit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental modelers from fields of study such as climatology, hydrology, geology, and ecology rely on many data sources and processing methods that are common across these disciplines. Interest in inter-disciplinary, loosely coupled modeling and data sharing is increasing among scientists from the USGS, other agencies, and academia. For example, hydrologic modelers need downscaled climate change scenarios and land cover data summarized for the watersheds they are modeling. Subsequently, ecological modelers are interested in soil moisture information for a particular habitat type as predicted by the hydrologic modeler. The USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics Geo Data Portal (GDP) project seeks to facilitate this loose model coupling data sharing through broadly applicable open-source web processing services. These services simplify and streamline the time consuming and resource intensive tasks that are barriers to inter-disciplinary collaboration. The GDP framework includes a catalog describing projects, models, data, processes, and how they relate. Using newly introduced data, or sources already known to the catalog, the GDP facilitates access to sub-sets and common derivatives of data in numerous formats on disparate web servers. The GDP performs many of the critical functions needed to summarize data sources into modeling units regardless of scale or volume. A user can specify their analysis zones or modeling units as an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard Web Feature Service (WFS). Utilities to cache Shapefiles and other common GIS input formats have been developed to aid in making the geometry available for processing via WFS. Dataset access in the GDP relies primarily on the Unidata NetCDF-Java library’s common data model. Data transfer relies on methods provided by Unidata’s Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Distribution System Data Server (TDS). TDS services of interest include the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP) standard for gridded time series, the OGC’s Web Coverage Service for high-density static gridded data, and Unidata’s CDM-remote for point time series. OGC WFS and Sensor Observation Service (SOS) are being explored as mechanisms to serve and access static or time series data attributed to vector geometry. A set of standardized XML-based output formats allows easy transformation into a wide variety of “model-ready” formats. Interested users will have the option of submitting custom transformations to the GDP or transforming the XML output as a post-process. The GDP project aims to support simple, rapid development of thin user interfaces (like web portals) to commonly needed environmental modeling-related data access and manipulation tools. Standalone, service-oriented components of the GDP framework provide the metadata cataloging, data subset access, and spatial-statistics calculations needed to support interdisciplinary environmental modeling.

Blodgett, D. L.; Kunicki, T.; Booth, N.; Suftin, I.; Zoerb, R.; Walker, J.

2010-12-01

335

Bridging the gap between Hydrologic and Atmospheric communities through a standard based framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data interoperability in the study of Earth sciences is essential to performing interdisciplinary multi-scale multi-dimensional analyses (e.g. hydrologic impacts of global warming, regional urbanization, global population growth etc.). This research aims to bridge the existing gap between hydrologic and atmospheric communities both at semantic and technological levels. Within the context of hydrology, scientists are usually concerned with data organized as time series: a time series can be seen as a variable measured at a particular point in space over a period of time (e.g. the stream flow values as periodically measured by a buoy sensor in a river); atmospheric scientists instead usually organize their data as coverages: a coverage can be seen as a multidimensional data array (e.g. satellite images acquired through time). These differences make non-trivial the set up of a common framework to perform data discovery and access. A set of web services specifications and implementations is already in place in both the scientific communities to allow data discovery and access in the different domains. The CUAHSI-Hydrologic Information System (HIS) service stack lists different services types and implementations: - a metacatalog (implemented as a CSW) used to discover metadata services by distributing the query to a set of catalogs - time series catalogs (implemented as CSW) used to discover datasets published by the feature services - feature services (implemented as WFS) containing features with data access link - sensor observation services (implemented as SOS) enabling access to the stream of acquisitions Within the Unidata framework, there lies a similar service stack for atmospheric data: - the broker service (implemented as a CSW) distributes a user query to a set of heterogeneous services (i.e. catalogs services, but also inventory and access services) - the catalog service (implemented as a CSW) is able to harvest the available metadata offered by THREDDS services, and executes complex queries against the available metadata. - inventory service (implemented as a THREDDS) being able to hierarchically organize and publish a local collection of multi-dimensional arrays (e.g. NetCDF, GRIB files), as well as publish auxiliary standard services to realize the actual data access and visualization (e.g. WCS, OPeNDAP, WMS). The approach followed in this research is to build on top of the existing standards and implementations, by setting up a standard-aware interoperable framework, able to deal with the existing heterogeneity in an organic way. As a methodology, interoperability tests against real services were performed; existing problems were thus highlighted and possibly solved. The use of flexible tools, able to deal in a smart way with heterogeneity has proven to be successful, in particular experiments were carried on with both GI-cat broker and ESRI GeoPortal frameworks. GI-cat discovery broker was proven successful at implementing the CSW interface, as well as federating heterogeneous resources, such as THREDDS and WCS services published by Unidata, HydroServer, WFS and SOS services published by CUAHSI. Experiments with ESRI GeoPortal were also successful: the GeoPortal was used to deploy a web interface able to distribute searches amongst catalog implementations from both the hydrologic and the atmospheric communities, including HydroServers and GI-cat, combining results from both the domains in a seamless way.

Boldrini, E.; Salas, F.; Maidment, D. R.; Mazzetti, P.; Santoro, M.; Nativi, S.; Domenico, B.

2012-04-01

336

Maximal physical work performance with European standard based fire-protective clothing system and equipment in relation to individual characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every fire fighter needs to wear fire-protective clothing and a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) several times a year while carrying out various fire-fighting and rescue operations in hazardous work environments. The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of a multilayer turnout suit designed to fulfil European standard EN 469 used over standardized (Nordic) clothing and with

V. Louhevaara; R. Ilmarinen; B. Griefahn; C. Künemund; H. Mäkinen

1995-01-01

337

Grading the teacher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several fads ago there was a movement to grade teachers in terms of their competency - competency-based testing. Everyone knows that there are good teachers and there are bad teachers. The trouble is, it's hard to define the categories. It's like the Supreme Court justice who couldn't define pornography, but knew it when he saw it. In New York State, prospective teachers must take tests in both pedagogy and subject material. That seems reasonable. There ought to be some minimum standards, so I thought that I would try my hand at setting up such requirements.

Swartz, Clifford E.

2000-04-01

338

Science Curriculum. Kindergarten through Grade Twelve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This science curriculum guide provides a framework for science teachers of grades K-12 in the Leominster Public School System, Massachusetts. It represents the efforts of teachers and higher education faculty. An introductory section provides a philosophical statement on the nature of science and perspectives in the learning and teaching of…

Fitchburg State Coll., MA. Dept. of Special Education.

339

Public Service Occupations: Grade 8. Cluster I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Public Service Occupations." It is divided into six units: education, public utilities, community social and health services, law enforcement agencies, fire departments, and the postal system. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

Calhoun, Olivia H.

340

Reading Resource Manual for Primary Grade Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes where specific skills are emphasized in the three reading texts (published by Economy, Ginn, and Holt) used in the primary grades in the Stoneham (Massachusetts) Public School System. The four major sections of the book are color-coded and include phonetic and structural analysis, vocabulary development, study skills, and…

Berg, Karen; And Others

341

Enhancement of Grade 2 Braille Translation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study to determine the feasibility of utilizing existing technologies and hardware for the translation of inkprint copy to Grade 2 Braille concluded that there now exist components of a system that can be used to generate Braille from material prepared ...

R. E. Puckett

1971-01-01

342

Narrowing the Achievement Gap in Second-Grade Social Studies and Content Area Literacy: The Promise of a Project-Based Approach. Working Paper #26  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This design experiment addresses the question: How can second-grade students from low-SES schools attain the same levels of achievement as students from high-SES schools on standards-based social studies and content area literacy assessments? Students from two high-SES school districts were assessed in order to establish target levels of…

Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Duke, Nell K.; Brugar, Kristy; Block, Meghan; Strachan, Stephanie; Berka, Meghan; Brown, Jason

2012-01-01

343

Narrowing the Achievement Gap in Second-Grade Social Studies and Content Area Literacy: The Promise of a Project-Based Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study addresses the question: Do second-grade students from low- socioeconomic-status (SES) schools taught with an iteratively designed project-based approach to social studies and content literacy instruction: (a) make statistically significant gains on standards-based social studies and content area literacy assessments, and (b) reach a…

Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Duke, Nell K.; Brugar, Kristy A.; Block, Meghan K.; Strachan, Stephanie L.; Berka, Meghan B.; Brown, Jason M.

2012-01-01

344

Impact of Small-Group Tutoring Interventions on the Mathematical Problem Solving and Achievement of Third-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This intervention study compared the efficacy of small-group tutoring on the mathematics learning of third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulty using either a school-provided standards-based curriculum (SBC) or a schema-based instruction (SBI) curriculum. The SBI curriculum placed particular emphasis on the underlying mathematical…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Rodriguez, Michael; Kanive, Rebecca; Huang, Ju-Ping; Church, Chris; Corroy, Kelly A.; Zaslofsky, Anne

2013-01-01

345

7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004 Section 810.1004 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application...1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limitsâ Test...

2010-01-01

346

7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004 Section 810.1004 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application...1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limitsâ Test...

2009-01-01

347

7 CFR 810.404 - Grades and grade requirements for corn.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for corn. 810.404 Section 810.404 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Principles Governing the Application...404 Grades and grade requirements for corn. Grade Minimum test weight per...

2013-01-01

348

Ohio Ag in the Classroom. Fourth Grade Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adapted from Idaho's fourth grade agricultural education curriculum guide, this manual was created because there were insufficient resources available to Ohio students about the systems that provide human beings with food and fiber. Economically Ohio's largest industry, agriculture, serves as a basis for providing fourth-grade teachers with…

Ohio State Dept. of Agriculture, Columbus.

349

FIRST GRADE CHILDREN WORK WITH VARIANT WORD ENDINGS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|AN INVESTIGATION TO DETERMINE IF INSTRUCTION IN VARIANT WORD ENDINGS CAN BE GIVEN IN THE SECOND SEMESTER OF THE FIRST GRADE IS DESCRIBED. TWENTY-SIX FIRST-GRADE CLASSES (554 CHILDREN) FROM THE ST. PAUL, MINNESOTA, PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM WERE USED IN THE STUDY. THE CLASSES WERE DIVIDED INTO TWO GROUPS OF 13 CLASSES EQUATED ON SOCIOECONOMIC LEVEL,…

HANSON, IRENE W.

350

Development of nickel-titanium graded composition components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Three layer-additive manufacturing methods were evaluated to producing nickel-titanium graded composition material. One potential application is fabrication of attachment clips that join thermal protection systems to launch vehicle structure. Thermal gradients during flight generate excessive bending and shear loads that limit the service lifetime of the Inconel clips currently used. It is envisioned that a graded composition component

M. S. Domack; J. M. Baughman

2005-01-01

351

Using Maple and the Web to grade mathematics tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present AIM, a web-based system designed to administer graded tests with mathematical content. Its main features are: use of Maple as the engine and implementation language; several methods of giving partial credit; various feedback mechanisms; randomisation of quizzes and questions; versatility in question and quiz design; extensive grade reporting and monitoring capabilities; ability to collect surveys; web interface for

S. Klai; T. Kolokolnikov; N. van den Bergh

2000-01-01

352

Project Based Learning in Multi-Grade Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to evaluate project based learning in multi-grade classes. This study, based on a student-centered learning approach, aims to analyze students' and parents' interpretations. The study was done in a primary village school belonging to the Centre of Batman, already adapting multi-grade classes in their education system,…

Ciftci, Sabahattin; Baykan, Ayse Aysun

2013-01-01

353

Graded motor imagery.  

PubMed

New information regarding cortical changes in patients with chronic pain has prompted a reevaluation of the typical "bottom up" treatment for pain, which focuses on peripheral nociceptive stimuli. More recently, increasing considerations for chronic pain are focused from the "top down" cortical central processing perspective. Graded motor imagery (GMI) is one treatment technique from the "top down" paradigm designed to treat chronic pain. This technique attempts to sequentially normalize central processing to remediate chronic pain. This article briefly summarizes the basic components of GMI, targeting complex regional pain in the upper limb, and describes a case where this method was successfully integrated. The initial research and clinical experience is promising and indicates that patients with chronic pain may benefit from using GMI to "retrain the brain." PMID:21306870

Priganc, Victoria W; Stralka, Susan W

2011-02-09

354

Third Grade Number Actiivities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of Third Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

355

Tissue characterization for beef grading using texture analysis of ultrasonic images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary factors in determining beef quality grades are the amount and distribution (or marbling) of intramuscular fat. Under the current USDA Grading system, the quality is subjectively graded by certified inspectors. There is a growing demand in the meat industry for an objective system of evaluating the quality of beef carcasses as well as live animals. A real-time ultrasound

Viren R. Amin; Doyle E. Wilson; Ron Roberts; Gene Rouse

1993-01-01

356

Grading Essays on a Microcomputer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the trials, tribulations, successes, and failures involved in designing, setting up, and operating microcomputer programs for grading essays written by students in college English courses. (RBW)|

Marling, William

1984-01-01

357

33 CFR 157.172 - Limitations on grades of crude oil carried.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. 157.172 Section 157...TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels...172 Limitations on grades of crude oil carried. If a tank...

2009-07-01

358

5 CFR 536.206 - Determining an employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Determining an employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention...206 Determining an employee's rate of basic pay under grade retention...rules governing the covered pay system of the employee's position of...

2013-01-01

359

49 CFR 234.11 - State Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Action Plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...State Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Action Plans. 234.11 Section 234.11...CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Reports § 234.11 State Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Action Plans. (a) Purpose....

2009-10-01

360

49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...State highway-rail grade crossing action plans. 234.11 Section 234.11...CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Reports and Plans § 234.11 State highway-rail grade crossing action plans. (a) Purpose....

2010-10-01

361

Grade Point Average and Changes in (Great) Grade Expectations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines student grade expectations throughout a semester in which students offered their expectations three times during the course: (1) within the first week; (2) midway through the semester; and (3) the week before the final examination. Finds that their expectations decreased stating that their cumulative grade point average was related to…

Wendorf, Craig A.

2002-01-01

362

Prediction of Grade of Dropout from 3rd Grade Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and test achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of third graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts. In each sample, age in the third grade, course marks, and standardized achievement scores were found to be significantly related to the grade in which…

Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail

363

[Teacher's Guides for Grade 7-Biosphere and Grade 8-Geoscope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provided are two teacher's guides for coordinating classroom instruction with two instructional television series, each consisting of thirty 15-minute lessons. One guide entitled "Biosphere" is for use with seventh grade life science while the other guide entitled "Geoscope" is for use with eighth grade earth science. Each guide provides…

Gueringer, June

364

Simplification in Graded Readers: Measuring the Authenticity of Graded Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the characteristics and quality of simplification in graded readers as compared to those of "normal" authentic English. Two passages from graded readers are compared with the original passages. The comparison uses a computer programme, RANGE (Nation and Heatley, 2003) to analyse the distribution of high and low frequency words…

Claridge, Gillian

2005-01-01

365

Gleason grade progression is uncommon.  

PubMed

Gleason grade is universally used for pathologic scoring of the differentiation of prostate cancer. However, it is unknown whether prostate tumors arise well differentiated and then progress to less differentiated forms or if Gleason grade is an early and largely unchanging feature. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening has reduced the proportion of tumors diagnosed at advanced stage, which allows assessment of this question on a population level. If Gleason grade progresses as stage does, one would expect a similar reduction in high-grade tumors. We studied 1,207 Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study participants diagnosed with prostate cancer from 1982 to 2004 and treated with prostatectomy. We compared the distribution of grade and clinical stage across the pre-PSA and PSA screening eras. We re-reviewed grade using the ISUP 2005 revised criteria. The proportion of advanced stage tumors dropped more than six-fold, from the earliest period (12/1982-1/1993), 19.9% stage ? T3, to the latest (5/2000-12/2004), 3% stage T3, none T4. The proportion of Gleason score ? 8 decreased substantially less, from 25.3% to 17.6%. A significant interaction between stage and diagnosis date predicting grade (P = 0.04) suggests that the relationship between grade and stage varies by time period. As the dramatic shift in stage since the introduction of PSA screening was accompanied by a more modest shift in Gleason grade, these findings suggest that grade may be established early in tumor pathogenesis. This has implications for the understanding of tumor progression and prognosis, and may help patients diagnosed with lower grade disease feel more comfortable choosing active surveillance. PMID:23946472

Penney, Kathryn L; Stampfer, Meir J; Jahn, Jaquelyn L; Sinnott, Jennifer A; Flavin, Richard; Rider, Jennifer R; Finn, Stephen; Giovannucci, Edward; Sesso, Howard D; Loda, Massimo; Mucci, Lorelei A; Fiorentino, Michelangelo

2013-08-15

366

Science: Grade 5. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

367

Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

368

Science: Grade 3. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

369

Science: Grade 8. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

370

Science: Grade 9. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

371

Graded forests and rational knots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we unfold a connection between rational knots and graph theory. This is done via graded forests, which we introduce in this paper. These graded forests play the role of an aide- memoire which helps keeping track of the propagation of the colors of a coloring down the twists of a rational knot. As a consequence we exhibit

Louis H. Kauffman; Pedro Lopes

372

How accurate is peer grading?  

PubMed

Previously we showed that weekly, written, timed, and peer-graded practice exams help increase student performance on written exams and decrease failure rates in an introductory biology course. Here we analyze the accuracy of peer grading, based on a comparison of student scores to those assigned by a professional grader. When students graded practice exams by themselves, they were significantly easier graders than a professional; overall, students awarded ?25% more points than the professional did. This difference represented ?1.33 points on a 10-point exercise, or 0.27 points on each of the five 2-point questions posed. When students graded practice exams as a group of four, the same student-expert difference occurred. The student-professional gap was wider for questions that demanded higher-order versus lower-order cognitive skills. Thus, students not only have a harder time answering questions on the upper levels of Bloom's taxonomy, they have a harder time grading them. Our results suggest that peer grading may be accurate enough for low-risk assessments in introductory biology. Peer grading can help relieve the burden on instructional staff posed by grading written answers-making it possible to add practice opportunities that increase student performance on actual exams. PMID:21123695

Freeman, Scott; Parks, John W

2010-01-01

373

RTP AREA ROAD GRADE MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Grade data collection with GPS equipment is important because the load model component of the MEASURE model uses grade to predict the vehicle load. To date, data collection has been conducted for high priority roads and this task will include other roads not included in the firs...

374

Science: Grade 5. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is essentially…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

375

Science: Grade 3. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

376

Science: Grade 7. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide is one of a set of 10 science guides, each covering a separate grade in Manitoba, together covering kindergarten through grade 9. The guides have been designed to provide a framework for building scientific concepts and developing the learning of process skills. They replace an earlier set of guides dated 1979. Each guide is…

Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

377

What Does "Grade Level" Mean?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There are several sides to the debate between adult basic education administrators and teachers concerning the practice of defining literacy by, and dividing adult education programs into, grade levels. Some believe that grade levels are irrelevant or demeaning to typical adult job requirements. Others believe that numerical scores derived by…

McCullough, K. Owen

378

Group Grades Miss the Mark.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some teachers justify group grading for cooperative projects using specious arguments that invoke real-world comparison, employment skills, motivation, teacher workload, and credit for teamwork. This article argues that group grades are blatantly unfair, invalidate report cards, undermine motivation, convey the wrong message, violate individual…

Kagan, Spencer

1995-01-01

379

Teaching Literacy in Fourth Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fourth grade is an important year for literacy learning. Having left the primary grades behind, students must grapple with more demanding texts and content material. Effective, motivating instruction can help them succeed. This book helps teachers create an energized and organized learning environment in which all students can improve their…

Johnson, Denise

2008-01-01

380

Science Grade 7, Long Form.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Grade 7 Science course of study was prepared in two parallel forms. A short form designed for students who had achieved a high measure of success in previous science courses; the long form for those who have not been able to maintain the pace. Both forms contain similar content. The Grade 7 guide is the first in a three-year sequence for…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

381

How Accurate Is Peer Grading?  

PubMed Central

Previously we showed that weekly, written, timed, and peer-graded practice exams help increase student performance on written exams and decrease failure rates in an introductory biology course. Here we analyze the accuracy of peer grading, based on a comparison of student scores to those assigned by a professional grader. When students graded practice exams by themselves, they were significantly easier graders than a professional; overall, students awarded ?25% more points than the professional did. This difference represented ?1.33 points on a 10-point exercise, or 0.27 points on each of the five 2-point questions posed. When students graded practice exams as a group of four, the same student-expert difference occurred. The student-professional gap was wider for questions that demanded higher-order versus lower-order cognitive skills. Thus, students not only have a harder time answering questions on the upper levels of Bloom's taxonomy, they have a harder time grading them. Our results suggest that peer grading may be accurate enough for low-risk assessments in introductory biology. Peer grading can help relieve the burden on instructional staff posed by grading written answers—making it possible to add practice opportunities that increase student performance on actual exams.

Parks, John W.

2010-01-01

382

Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

383

Fermionic characters for graded parafermions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fermionic-type character formulae are presented for charged irreducible modules of the graded parafermionic conformal field theory associated to the coset osp(1,2)k/û(1). This is obtained by counting the weakly ordered `partitions' subject to the graded Zk exclusion principle. The bosonic form of the characters is also presented.

Bégin, L.; Fortin, J.-F.; Jacob, P.; Mathieu, P.

2003-06-01

384

Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level, an overview of the topic, a…

Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

385

Grade Dropping: An Empirical Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is a popular practice among college professors to drop the lowest component grade in computing the course grade. A benefit of this practice is the elimination of the need to evaluate excuses or administer make-up exams. The author uses data from a controlled experiment to examine the impact of such a policy on student behavior and course…

Sewell, Ellen

2004-01-01

386

Graded-field autoconfocal microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Autoconfocal microscopy (ACM) is a simple implementation of a transmitted-light confocal microscopy where a nonlinear detector plays the role of a virtual self-aligned pinhole. We report here a significant improvement of ACM based on the use of graded-field (GF) imaging. The technique of GF imaging involves introducing partial beam blocks in the illumination and detection apertures of an imaging system. These partial beam blocks confer phase-gradient sensitivity to the imaging system and allow control over its background level. We present the theory of the GF contrast in the context of ACM, comparing it to GF contrast in a non-scanning widefield microscope, and discuss various performance characteristics of GF-ACM in terms of resolution, sectioning strength, and an “under-detection” light collection geometry. An advantage of ACM is that it can be readily combined with two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy. We present images of rat brain hippocampus using simultaneous GF-ACMand TPEF microscopy. These images are inherently co-registered.

Chu, Kengyeh K.; Yi, Ran; Mertz, Jerome

2007-03-01

387

Exploiting a Molecular Gleason Grade for Prostate Cancer Therapy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Purpose of this proposal is to exploit a molecular correlate of the Gleason grading system for prostate carcinoma in order to: (a) develop improved outcome predictors; and (b) identify therapeutic strategies. During this project period we have evaluat...

P. S. Nelson

2010-01-01

388

Editorially Speaking. On Abandoning Grading and Reconsidering Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses attacks made on today's grading system and the rationale for a shift to more egalitarian academic standards in student evaluation. Indicates that the traditional issues still remain unsolved at least for the present. (CC)|

Lippincott, W. L.

1973-01-01

389

Elementary Teachers' Classroom Assessment and Grading Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the assessment and grading practices of over 900 Grades 3-5 teachers representing urban, suburban, and rural schools. Teachers indicated the extent to which they used various factors to grade students, the types of assessments used, the cognitive level of assessments, and the grades awarded. Teachers appeared to conceptualize 6 major factors when they graded students; they placed

James H. McMillan; Steve Myran; Daryl Workman

2002-01-01

390

Factors Related to University Grade Inflation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The hypothesis analyzed in this study is that grade "inflation" may be reflecting real increases in student achievement, demographic factors that may be related to grading, or institutional grading policies that permit grade point averages to rise even if grading standards remain unchanged. (Editor/LBH)|

Birnbaum, Robert

1977-01-01

391

Indiana high school science teachers' beliefs about the intended and actual impacts of standards-based reforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Teachers' beliefs about educational policy are essential components of successful, local implementation. Policies not accounting for teachers' beliefs about learning, instruction, and effective reform risk being ignored or ineffectually implemented. In this research, I characterize the beliefs that science teachers from three high schools in Indiana have about general aspects of standards-based reforms and about the Indiana Academic Standards for Science (IASS). On-site focus group interviews were the primary method of data collection. An amalgam of Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics and narrative representation of qualitative data guided the inquiry by defining the researcher as the voice of the 23 participating teachers, locating the teachers' beliefs in their specific historical contexts, and displaying the results in a storied form unified by plots. I synthesized the data sources into a single narrative organized around the participants' personal teaching philosophies, their perceptions of students and administration, and their visions of standards beyond their own beliefs and school contexts. Based on the narrative, I concluded that (a) teachers with affective or preparative beliefs had neutral stances toward the IASS, (b) scientifically-oriented teachers believed the IASS contradicted their work, (c) less experienced teachers and those with affective-preparative philosophies were willing to compromise their autonomy and curricular depth to implement the IASS, (d) a continuum of administrative oversight existed across the three schools, (e) teachers at the urban high school adapted the standards to their students' personal needs and future plans, and (f) teachers almost universally recommended broader, flexible standards to allow more autonomy in making curricular decisions, to better reflect scientific inquiry in their classrooms, and to promote continuity across the high school science curriculum.

Shane, Joseph W.

392

Describing students of the African Diaspora: Understanding micro and meso level science learning as gateways to standards based discourse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In much of the educational literature, researchers make little distinction between African-American students and students of the African Diaspora who immigrated to the United States. Failing to describe these salient student differences serves to perpetuate an inaccurate view of African-American school life. In today's large cities, students of the African Diaspora are frequently learning science in settings that are devoid of the resources and tools to fully support their success. While much of the scholarship unites these disparate groups, this article details the distinctive learning culture created when students from several groups of the African Diaspora learn biology together in a Brooklyn Suspension Center. Specifically this work explains how one student, Gabriel, functions in a biology class. A self-described black-Panamanian, Gabriel had tacitly resigned to not learning science, which then, in effect, precluded him from any further associated courses of study in science, and may have excluded him from the possibility of a science related career. This ethnography follows Gabriel's science learning as he engaged in cogenerative dialogue with teachers to create aligned learning and teaching practices. During the 5 months of this research, Gabriel drew upon his unique lifeworld and the depth of his hybridized cultural identity to produce limited, but nonetheless important demonstrations of science. Coexistent with his involvement in cogenerative dialogue, Gabriel helped to construct many classroom practices that supported a dynamic learning environment which produced small yet concrete examples of standards based biology. This study supports further investigation by the science education community to consider ways that students' lifeworld experiences can serve to structure and transform the urban science classroom.

Lehner, Ed

2007-04-01

393

Optimization of an industrial DC magnetron sputtering process for graded composition solar thermal absorbing layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of an industrial DC magnetron sputtering process for thin graded index coatings for solar thermal absorbers is reported. The optimization concerned the main processing parameters: sputtering power, argon flow, oxygen flow, and system set-up for graded control. The purpose of the optimization was to achieve a surface with efficient solar-thermal energy conversion based on the concept graded index coating,

Shuxi Zhao; Esteban Avendaño; Kristina Gelin; Jun Lu; Ewa Wäckelgård

2006-01-01

394

7 CFR 810.1005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...grades and special grade requirements. (a) Bleached oats. Oats that in whole or in part, have been treated with...

2009-01-01

395

7 CFR 810.1005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...grades and special grade requirements. (a) Bleached oats. Oats that in whole or in part, have been treated with...

2010-01-01

396

7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.804 Grades and grade requirements for...

2009-01-01

397

7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.804 Grades and grade requirements for...

2010-01-01

398

7 CFR 810.305 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements...Special grades and special grade requirements. Garlicky canola. Canola that contains more than two green garlic...

2010-01-01

399

7 CFR 810.305 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements...Special grades and special grade requirements. Garlicky canola. Canola that contains more than two green garlic...

2009-01-01

400

7 CFR 810.305 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements...Special grades and special grade requirements. Garlicky canola. Canola that contains more than two green garlic...

2013-01-01

401

7 CFR 810.405 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Corn Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...Special grades and special grade requirements. (a) Flint corn. Corn that consists of 95 percent or more of flint corn....

2013-01-01

402

Comparison between teacher grading and student self-grading in different modules of agronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adaptation of the Universities to European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves changes in the learning system. Students must obtain specific capabilities in the different degrees or masters. For example, in the degree of Agronomy at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain), they must command mathematics, English informatics or crop production. Moreover, students must attain personal skills such as leadership, team work, a critical spirit and a social, environmental and ethical commitment with the environment and the society. A way to evaluate the critical spirit of the students is to compare the grade obtained in a specific module with the grade that the students think he should get. The aim of this work is to evaluate the differences between teacher and student grading in different subjects related to soil science in different degrees and masters courses at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.

Méndez, A.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Guerrero, F.; Gascó, J. M.; Saá, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gascó, G.

2012-04-01

403

Is the Television Rating System Valid? Indirect, Verbal, and Physical Aggression in Programs Viewed by Fifth Grade Girls and Associations with Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study had two goals: first, to examine the validity of the television rating system for assessing aggression in programs popular among girls; second, to evaluate the importance of inclusion of non-physical forms of aggression in the ratings system by examining associations between television aggression exposure and behavior. Ninety-nine fifth…

Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Gentile, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

404

When Students Repeat Grades or Are Transferred out of School: What Does It Mean for Education Systems? PISA in Focus. No. 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School systems handle the challenges of diverse student populations in different ways. Some countries have non-selective and comprehensive school systems that seek to provide all students with similar opportunities, leaving it to individual schools and teachers to meet the particular needs of every student. Other countries group students, whether…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

405

Is the Television Rating System Valid? Indirect, Verbal, and Physical Aggression in Programs Viewed by Fifth Grade Girls and Associations with Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study had two goals: first, to examine the validity of the television rating system for assessing aggression in programs popular among girls; second, to evaluate the importance of inclusion of non-physical forms of aggression in the ratings system by examining associations between television aggression exposure and behavior. Ninety-nine…

Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Gentile, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

406

When Students Repeat Grades or Are Transferred out of School: What Does It Mean for Education Systems? PISA in Focus. No. 6  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|School systems handle the challenges of diverse student populations in different ways. Some countries have non-selective and comprehensive school systems that seek to provide all students with similar opportunities, leaving it to individual schools and teachers to meet the particular needs of every student. Other countries group students, whether…

OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2011

2011-01-01

407

A Policy Proposal regarding Grade Inflation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A form of indexation is proposed, in order to restore informational content to student grades. Each student's transcript would include the grade received and the average grade assigned by that instructor for that course. (PN)|

Grieves, Robin

1982-01-01

408

Grade 6 Science Curriculum Specifications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This material describes curriculum specifications for grade 6 science in Alberta. Emphases recommended are: (1) process skills (50%); (2) psychomotor skills (10%); (3) attitudes (10%); and (4) subject matter (30%). Priorities within each category are identified. (YP)|

Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

409

Realization of a Primary Voltage Standard Based on the Josephson Effect at the Ien Attenuazione di UN Campione Primario di Tensione a Effetto Josephson Presso l'Ien.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experimental equipment and measurement procedures are described which are used in developing a primary voltage standard based on the ac Johnson effect in order to link the national voltage unit to the universal constant 2 e/h. Use was made of niobium poin...

D. Andreone E. Arri G. Marullo

1975-01-01

410

Metaphorical Roots of Beliefs about Teaching and Learning Science and Their Modifications in the Standard-Based Science Teacher Preparation Programme  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Beliefs are psychological constructs potentially driving a teacher to make pedagogical decisions and act. In this study, the metaphor construction task (MCT) was utilised to uncover beliefs about teaching and learning science held by 110 pre-service science teachers participating in the standard-based teacher preparation programme. Overall, the…

Buaraphan, Khajornsak

2011-01-01

411

Limiting Opportunities to Learn in Upper-Secondary Schooling: Differentiation and Performance Assessment in the Context of Standards-Based Curriculum Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study presents an analysis of the consequences for students when performance assessment and differentiation practices are combined, as part of attempts to increase minimum standards within upper-secondary schooling. Recent standards-based curriculum reform in Australia demonstrates how a focus on minimum levels of achievement can limit the…

Fenwick, Lisl

2012-01-01

412

Listening to Early Career Teachers: How Can Elementary Mathematics Methods Courses Better Prepare Them to Utilize Standards-Based Practices in Their Classrooms?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to gather input from early career elementary teachers with the goal of finding ways to improve elementary mathematics methods courses. Multiple areas were explored including the degree to which respondents' elementary mathematics methods course focused on the NCTM Process Standards, the teachers' current standards-based

Coester, Lee Anne

2010-01-01

413

Ensuring Accountability for All Children in an Era of Standards-Based Reform: Alternate Achievement Standards. Policy Symposium Proceedings (Arlington, VA, February 4-6, 2004).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Educational Policy Reform Research Institute (EPRRI) and the US Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) held a policy symposium entitled "Ensuring Accountability for All Children in an Era of Standards-Based Reform: Alternate Achievement Standards" February 4-6, 2004 at the Crystal City Marriott in Arlington,…

Educational Policy Reform Research Institute, 2004

2004-01-01

414

Adventures in Assessment: Learner-Centered Approaches to Assessment and Evaluation in Adult Literacy, 2000. Volume 12: Experiences with Standards-Based Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this volume of "Adventures in Assessment," an annual literacy education journal, teachers and practitioners write about their experiences with standards-based reform initiatives at the state and national levels. The following seven articles are included: "What Makes a Good Teacher?" (Marie F. Hassett); "Successful Supervision: Three…

Simmons, Alison, Ed.

2000-01-01

415

Science Professors Serve as Mentors for Early Childhood Preservice Teachers in the Design and Implementation of Standards-Based Science Units  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the use of science professors acting as mentors to enhance the science competency of early childhood educators. Findings indicate that mentor-mentee dyad interactions varied; however, mentors were able to assist with curriculum, science content, and resources. Although standards-based units were developed, there was little…

Katz, Laurie; Sadler, Kim; Craig, Dorothy V.

2005-01-01

416

Discovering Learning, Discovering Self: The Effects of an Interdisciplinary, Standards-Based School Garden Curriculum on Elementary Students in Hawai'i  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study evaluates the effects of an interdisciplinary standards-based school garden-based education program on student learning. The objective of the program is to help students learn to be self-directed learners, community contributors, complex thinkers, quality producers, effective communicators, and effective/ethical users of technology.…

Koh, Ming Wei

2012-01-01

417

Grades Must Go  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The system of evaluating a student's academic acheivement on the basis of a number or letter is unfair. This type of evaluation separates students and professors into two warring factions and encourages students to embrace false values. (CK)

Simon, Sidney B.

1970-01-01

418

The National Aeolian Detritus Project, A Student-controlled, Standards-based Research Opportunity for Middle and Hight School Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schools across the United States are adopting Standards-based philosophies and practices at a quickening pace. Two of the biggest challenges in this transition are the integration of concepts and the development of meaningful evaluation of student progress. The National Aeolian Detritus Project is a collaboration among Jamestown School, the University of Rhode Island, Hampshire College, the Rhode Island Space Grant Consortium at Brown University and the Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center. This Project provides students with an opportunity to integrate and enhance previous elements of instruction and allows them decision-making control over the direction of an extended research investigation. This project also provides opportunities for undergraduate community service development through University - Local School collaboration and mentoring. Students first collect Aeolian Detritus, that is, randomly deposited airborne particulate matter (APM) by deploying flat sheet collectors. Retained APM is removed from the collectors with repulpable tape and concentrated by vacuum filtration. APM is initially identified by simple light microscopy, solubility, density, and magnetic response. More advanced identification includes ICP and Neutron Activation. With assistance from collaborating universities, students craft research questions based on these initial samples and develop investigation designs. Sample research questions include: 1) Can insect infestations or possible defoliation events be predicted by identification of insect bodies, parts, and excrement? 2) What information can we collect about micrometeorites when typed, analyzed, and compared to NASA comet track data? 3) Can the distribution of flora be confirmed or modified based on pollen grain collection and mapping? 4) Can the distribution of mineral particulate matter be mapped by collection and comparison with wind patterns over known geologic features? Schools correlate collection data with National Weather Service wind records and submit their results to the NADP data center for posting as GIS data on the NADP website. In this way, co-operating collection sites may identify large scale patterns. As a result of pilot teacher training this summer, four test sites are being established to further refine the collection protocol and the extended research design process.

Sammons, J. I.; Murray, D. D.; Reid, J. B.

2001-12-01

419

Integration of functional reliability analysis with hardware reliability: An application to safety grade decay heat removal system of Indian 500 MWe PFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passive system can fail either due to classical mechanical failure of components, referred to as hardware failure, or due to the failure of physical phenomena to fulfill the intended function, referred to as functional failure. In this paper a methodology is discussed for the integration of these two kinds of unreliability and applied to evaluate the integrated failure probability

T. Sajith Mathews; A. John Arul; U. Parthasarathy; C. Senthil Kumar; M. Ramakrishnan; K. V. Subbaiah

2009-01-01

420

Using "WeBWorK," a Web-Based Homework Delivery and Grading System, to Help Prepare Students for Active Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"WeBWorK," an online homework system, can be be used to deliver daily reading questions to students. The author studied its use for this purpose with a lower division Introduction to Programming course and an upper division Probability and Statistics course. In the lower division course, "WeBWorK" significantly improved peer instruction…

Lucas, Adam R.

2012-01-01

421

A Study of the Impact of the Classroom Performance System (CPS) on Fourth and Fifth Grade Student Social Studies Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today's educators are faced with growing academic accountability demands coupled with the increasing demands for preparing students for a technology-driven workplace. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the extent to which the use of the Classroom Performance System (CPS) impacted social studies performance among a group…

Lively, Brenda Renee

2010-01-01

422

Functionally graded diamond-like carbon coatings on metallic substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various functionally graded diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings were developed to improve the coating adhesion of DLC onto 304 stainless steel and Ti–6Al–4V substrates. The functionally graded coating systems investigated were Ti\\/TiN\\/TiNC\\/DLC and Ti\\/TiC\\/DLC on titanium alloy substrates, and Ti\\/TiN\\/TiNC\\/DLC on stainless substrates. These coatings were fabricated using a magnetron sputter ion plating technique. The structure, composition and mechanical properties of

Kwang-Leong Choy; Emmanuelle Felix

2000-01-01

423

Toward a Clinical-Grade Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Sources: A Microcarrier-Based Culture System Under Xeno-Free Conditions  

PubMed Central

The immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) make them attractive therapeutic agents for a wide range of diseases. However, the highly demanding cell doses used in MSC clinical trials (up to millions of cells/kg patient) currently require labor intensive methods and incur high reagent costs. Moreover, the use of xenogenic (xeno) serum-containing media represents a risk of contamination and raises safety concerns. Bioreactor systems in combination with novel xeno-free medium formulations represent a viable alternative to reproducibly achieve a safe and reliable MSC doses relevant for cell therapy. The main goal of the present study was to develop a complete xeno-free microcarrier-based culture system for the efficient expansion of human MSC from two different sources, human bone marrow (BM), and adipose tissue. After 14 days of culture in spinner flasks, BM MSC reached a maximum cell density of (2.0±0.2)×105 cells·mL?1 (18±1-fold increase), whereas adipose tissue-derived stem cells expanded to (1.4±0.5)×105 cells·mL?1 (14±7-fold increase). After the expansion, MSC expressed the characteristic markers CD73, CD90, and CD105, whereas negative for CD80 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR. Expanded cells maintained the ability to differentiate robustly into osteoblast, adipocyte, and chondroblast lineages upon directed differentiation. These results demonstrated the feasibility of expanding human MSC in a scalable microcarrier-based stirred culture system under xeno-free conditions and represent an important step forward for the implementation of a Good Manufacturing Practices–compliant large-scale production system of MSC for cellular therapy.

dos Santos, Francisco; Andrade, Pedro Z.; Abecasis, Manuel M.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Chase, Lucas G.; Campbell, Andrew M.; Boucher, Shayne; Vemuri, Mohan C.; da Silva, Claudia Lobato

2011-01-01

424

Does Competition among Schools Encourage Grade Inflation?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper considers whether high schools in competitive environments use grade inflation to attract and retain families, perhaps in addition to more constructive responses. Two measures of grade inflation are used: the cutoffs used by each school to assign a letter grade to a percent score and high school grade point average after controlling…

Walsh, Patrick

2010-01-01

425

7 CFR 51.304 - Combination grades.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...United States Standards for Grades of Apples Grades § 51.304 Combination...permitted in connection with the U.S. apple grades. When Combination grades are packed, at least 50 percent of the apples in any lot shall meet the...

2013-01-01

426

REACTIONS OF STUDENTS TO RECEIVING GRADES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|ATTITUDE CHANGES OF STUDENTS UPON RECEIVING GRADES WERE STUDIED. MEASURES WERE DEVELOPED TO DETERMINE THE STUDENTS' (1) ATTITUDES TOWARDS GRADES AND SCHOOL, (2) EXPECTANCIES FOR FUTURE GRADES, AND (3) ESTIMATIONS OF ABILITIES. A REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF 7TH- THROUGH 12TH-GRADE STUDENTS (1,000) WAS SELECTED. A QUESTIONNAIRE WAS ADMINISTERED TO ALL…

COHEN, KAREN C.

427

The Betrayal of the Gatekeepers: Grade Inflation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The problem of grade inflation and explanations for this phenomena are considered. Grade inflation is described as the positive change in grade point average of large numbers of students generally, over an extended period of time. The following array of causes or explanations are discussed: awarding high grades so that a student could go to…

Goldman, Louis

428

Grading the lesions of ovine footrot.  

PubMed

Sixteen methods of grading the lesions of ovine footrot were assessed on the basis of the effect of the lesions on the humoral immune response of the host to a causative bacterium, Dichelobacter nodosus. Methods that allowed for qualitative and quantitative differences in lesion scores between sheep were the best predictors of host response, and methods that assessed the lesions in each of the eight digits were more efficient than methods that did not grade the digits within feet. Weighting the scores for lesions that involved underrunning of the keratin of the hoof provided the most powerful means of predicting host response. The correlations between host response and the more elaborate weighted scores were close to the highest possible among additive linear estimators. Total weighted footscore, which is the sum of the footscores of the four feet weighted for underrun lesions, is proposed as a simple and effective grading system for sheep with lesions of footrot. There was a significant association within sheep between the number of underrun feet and the severity of lesions in individual feet. PMID:7709056

Whittington, R J; Nicholls, P J

1995-01-01

429

Low-Cost Solar Array Project. Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process. Quarterly progress report, October-December 1980  

SciTech Connect

Progress is reported on the engineering design, fabrication, assembly, operation, economic analysis, and process support R and D for an Experimental Process System Development Unit (EPSDU) for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process. Most of the process related equipment has been ordered and is being fabricated. Equipment and building foundations have been completed at the EPSDU site, and all the steel was erected for the gantry. The switch gear/control building and the melter building will be completed during the next quarter. The data collection system design is progressing. Various computer programs are being written which will be used to convert electrical, pneumatic and other raw signals into engineering values. The free-space reactor development work was completed with a final 12-hour run in which the free-space reactor PDU ran flawlessly. Also, the quality control method development task was completed. Slim rods were grown from seed silicon rods for subsequent float zone operation and impurity characterization. An excellent quality epitaxial film was deposited on a silicon wafer. Both undoped ad doped films were deposited and the resistivity of the films have been measured. (WHK)

Not Available

1980-01-01

430

Comparing Chemistry Faculty Beliefs about Grading with Grading Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, we seek to understand the beliefs that chemistry faculty hold when grading student solutions in problem solving situations. We are particularly interested in examining whether a conflict exists between the chemistry faculty beliefs and the score they assign to students' solutions. The three categorical values identified in a…

Mutambuki, Jacinta; Fynewever, Herb

2012-01-01

431

Changes. Social Studies Interim Grade Guide for Grade Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The social studies curriculum is presented for grade 2 in Manitoba, Canada. The focus of this guide is change. Some objectives are to explore: (1) some of the ways children change physically, intellectually, emotionally, and socially; (2) some of the changes caused by technology that are occurring in family structure, particularly in the roles of…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Curriculum Development Branch.

432

Lessons in Law for Middle Grades: Grade Four.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These lessons are part of a project to make the study of law and legal concepts an integral part of the North Carolina social studies state curriculum, and the materials are correlated to this curriculum. Six lesson goals and numerous activities focus on the legal concepts of authority, justice, and responsibility. This packet for grade four…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Social Studies Education.

433

Lessons in Law for Middle Grades: Grade Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These lessons are part of a project to make the study of law and legal concepts an integral part of the North Carolina social studies state curriculum, and the materials are correlated to this curriculum. Six lesson goals and numerous activities focus on the legal concepts of authority, justice, and responsibility. This packet for grade six…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Social Studies Education.

434

Lessons in Law for Middle Grades: Grade Eight.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These lessons are part of a project to make the study of law and legal concepts an integral part of the North Carolina state social studies state curriculum, and the materials are correlated to this curriculum. Six lesson goals and numerous activities focus on the legal concepts of authority, justice, and responsibility. This packet for grade

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Social Studies Education.

435

Lessons in Law for Middle Grades: Grade Five.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These lessons are part of a project to make the study of law and legal concepts an integral part of the North Carolina social studies state curriculum, and these materials are correlated to this curriculum. Six lesson goals and numerous activities focus on the legal concepts of authority, justice, and responsibility. This packet for grade five…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Social Studies Education.

436

Anomalies and graded coisotropic branes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compute the anomaly of the axial U(1) current in the A-model on a Calabi-Yau manifold, in the presence of coisotropic branes discovered by Kapustin and Orlov. Our results relate the anomaly-free condition to a recently proposed definition of graded coisotropic branes in Calabi-Yau manifolds. More specifically, we find that a coisotropic brane is anomaly-free if and only if it is gradable. We also comment on a different grading for coisotropic submanifolds introduced recently by Oh.

Li, Yi

2006-03-01

437

3rd Grade Content Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides links to resources aligned to the CCSS that guide and support third grade mathematics teaching and learning. Tasks developed by the Mathematics Assessment Resource Service (MARS) and Problems of the Month, (POM home page is cataloged separately) developed by the Noyce Foundation are included. The tasks were designed to measure studentsâ ability to solve non-routine problems, explain and justify their solutions, and promote high level thinking skills. They include the scoring rubric, student responses, and discussion of student understanding and misconceptions. Resources are listed for specific grade 3 standards and are also organized by progression for an alternate search route.

Centre, The S.

2012-01-01

438

2nd Grade Content Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides links to resources aligned to the CCSS that guide and support second grade mathematics teaching and learning. Tasks developed by the Mathematics Assessment Resource Service (MARS), Problems of the Month, (POM home page is cataloged separately) and videos of public lessons and number talks developed by the Noyce Foundation are included. The tasks were designed to measure studentsâ ability to solve non-routine problems, explain and justify their solutions, and promote high level thinking skills. They include the scoring rubric, student responses, and discussion of student understanding and misconceptions. Resources are listed for specific grade 2 standards and are also organized by progression for an alternate search route.

Centre, The S.

2012-01-01

439

1st Grade Content Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides links to resources aligned to the CCSS that guide and support first grade mathematics teaching and learning. Tasks developed by the Mathematics Assessment Resource Service (MARS) and Problems of the Month, (POM home page is cataloged separately) developed by the Noyce Foundation are included. The activities were designed to measure students' ability to solve non-routine problems, explain and justify their solutions, and promote high level thinking skills. Resources are listed for specific grade 1 standards and are also organized by progression for an alternate search route.

Centre, The S.

2012-01-01

440

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1-regulated protein expression and oligodendroglioma patient outcome: comparison with established biomarkers and preoperative UCSF low-grade scoring system.  

PubMed

Methods for predicting outcome for patients with oligodendrogliomas and anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs) are limited. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) controls many proteins involved in glycolysis and angiogenesis including VEGF, Glut-1, and CA-IX. We examined whether expression of HIF-1? and other hypoxia-regulated molecules (HRM) can predict overall (OS) and progression-free (PFS) survival. We correlated these data with more established biomarkers and a published preoperative scoring system. We prospectively collected tissue samples and followed outcomes of 50 patients with oligodendrogliomas and 32 with AOs. Tumor tissues were stained for measures of proliferative index, microvascular density, IDH-1 mutational status, and HRMs. We retrospectively analyzed preoperative imaging and clinical data based on the UCSF Scoring System (good prognostic indicators: Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score > 80, age < 50 years, tumor diameter < 4 cm, noneloquent tumor location) and correlated these with immunohistochemical markers, 1p19q chromosomal status, and compared both with patient PFS and OS. Mean follow-up was 85.6 ± 41.4 months. HRMs showed higher expression in AOs than in oligodendrogliomas. Both 1p19q codeletion and IDH-1 mutation predict outcome of patients with both oligodendroglioma and AO. The UCSF score is a strong predictor for oligodendrogliomas patient outcome and is strengthened by IDH-1 and 1p19q status. Glut-1 may be useful in predicting PFS in AOs. Proliferation index >5 for oligodendrogliomas and KPS ? 80 for AOs predict a worse prognosis. Immunohistochemical markers of HRMs show a significantly higher expression in anaplastic variants of oligodendrogliomas and may contribute to the prediction of survival in these patients. PMID:22396073

Abraham, Shirley; Hu, Nan; Jensen, Randy

2012-03-06

441

Participation and Performance of English Language Learners with Disabilities on Minnesota Standards-Based Assessments, 2000-2001. ELLs with Disabilities Report 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report focuses on the performance of students with disabilities and limited English proficiency on the Minnesota Comprehensive Assessments (MCAs). The MCAs are used for accountability purposes at the district level for grades 3 and 5 in Reading and Mathematics. Newly developed MCAs in grades 10 (reading) and 11 (mathematics) that were…

Albus, Deb; Barrera, Manuel; Thurlow, Martha; Guven, Kamil; Shyyan, Vitaliy

2004-01-01

442

Aligning Policy and Methodology to Achieve Consistent Across-Grade Performance Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a coherent educational assessment system, the relation between the cut scores across the grades of a content area should reflect the goals of the educational system moderated by the state of the standards within that system. In this article, we discuss the need for consistent cut scores across the grades of a content area; we present and…

Lewis, Daniel M.; Haug, Carolyn A.

2005-01-01

443

Metaphorical Roots of Beliefs about Teaching and Learning Science and their Modifications in the Standard-Based Science Teacher Preparation Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beliefs are psychological constructs potentially driving a teacher to make pedagogical decisions and act. In this study, the metaphor construction task (MCT) was utilised to uncover beliefs about teaching and learning science held by 110 pre?service science teachers participating in the standard?based teacher preparation programme. Overall, the participants’ dominant metaphor categories were teacher as nurturer\\/cultivator, as knowledge provider, and as

Khajornsak Buaraphan

2011-01-01

444

Optical frequency standard based on a Nd:YAG laser stabilised by saturated absorption resonances in molecular iodine using second-harmonic radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of studies devoted to the development of the optical frequency standard based on a diode-pumped 1064-nm single-frequency ring Nd:YAG laser with intracavity frequency doubling are presented. The laser frequency was stabilised by saturated absorption resonances in molecular iodine at the second-harmonic frequency of the laser (at 532 nm). The saturated absorption resonances were observed in an external luminescent

Mikhail N Skvortsov; M V Okhapkin; A Yu Nevsky; Sergei N Bagaev

2004-01-01

445

The effectiveness of a standards-based integrated chemistry and mathematics curriculum on improving the academic achievement in chemistry for high school students in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether integrating chemistry and mathematics curricula and teaching practices significantly improves academic achievement in chemistry among high school students in Southern California. The study was conducted during the 2008--2009 academic year. A quasi-experimental research design was used to explore the effects of a standards-based integrated chemistry and mathematics curriculum (Integrated CHEMAT) and teaching practices on student academic achievement when compared to a traditional standards-based chemistry curriculum (Regular CHEM) and teaching practices. Academic achievement was based on a researcher-created Chemistry Achievement Assessment (CHAAS). The sample population involved in the research included 136 high school chemistry students attending high school in a Southern California rural school district. The research involved 2 groups of 68 students each: the experimental group and the control group. The data were analyzed using SPSS independent samples t-test, one-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and profile analysis. Statistical significance was determined at the .05 and .001 levels. Significant differences were found when analyzing the effects of the standards-based integrated chemistry and mathematics curriculum and teaching practices. All 3 statistical analysis procedures (the independent samples t-test, MANCOVA, and profile analysis) indicated that students in the integrated CHEMAT program scored significantly higher than the students in the regular CHEM program in achievement scores based on the results of the CHAAS.

Mupanduki, Blessing T.

446

School Grading and Institutional Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We study how the relationship between students' cognitive ability and their school grades depends on institutional contexts. In a simple abstract model, we show that unless competence standards are set at above-school level or the variation of competence across schools is low, students' competence valuation will be heterogeneous, with weaker…

Dardanoni, Valentino; Modica, Salvatore; Pennisi, Aline

2011-01-01

447

The Hoosier Connection: Grade 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This eighth grade teacher's guide with student activities is designed to create greater awareness of Indiana, its geography, history, government, and future and is designed to be used as a supplement to the study of the U.S. Constitution and the Indiana Constitution. In the first section, entitled "Geography of Indiana," the lessons cover the…

Harris, Ira; And Others

448

Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 10. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

449

Grade Inflation: A Way Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports a study of the interrelationship between grade inflation and student evaluation ratings. Findings indicated that unadjusted student evaluations are inappropriate determinants of tenure or promotion. An adjustment procedure to remedy the problem is presented. R.C. Scott criticizes Zangenehzadeh's model and proposes a different one.…

Zangenehzadeh, Hamid

1988-01-01

450

Sociology. Grades 4-9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Sociology Collection contains 32 objectives which are organized into the following sections: 1) The Method of Sociology; 2) Social Organization; and 3) Social Processes and Social Change. Limited to basic concepts and major terminology in the field and stated in operational terms, the objectives are classified for Grades 4-9. Three elements…

Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

451

Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

Kolb, James A.

452

Industrial Education. Drafting. [Grade 9].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Part of a series of curriculum guides dealing with industrial education in junior high schools, this guide provides a course on drafting to be used in the ninth grade. Thirteen goals are identified for the students to demonstrate: (1) a knowledge of the relationship between drafting and the work of designers, engineers, and architects; (2) an…

Parma City School District, OH.

453

Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 10. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

454

Grade Four, Environmental Education Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fourth grade environmental education guide is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design; it is the teacher's decision when the concepts, objectives, activities, and resources may best be integrated into the…

Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

455

School Grading and Institutional Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We study how the relationship between students' cognitive ability and their school grades depends on institutional contexts. In a simple abstract model, we show that unless competence standards are set at above-school level or the variation of competence across schools is low, students' competence valuation will be heterogeneous, with weaker…

Dardanoni, Valentino; Modica, Salvatore; Pennisi, Aline

2011-01-01

456

Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's purpose, main…

Calhoun, Olivia H.

457

Grade One, Environmental Education Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This first grade environmental education guide is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design; it is the teacher's decision when the concepts, objectives, activities, and resources may best be integrated into the…

Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

458

Teacher's Guide, Health. Grade 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the teaching guide accompanying the elementary health instructional program designed for children at the first grade level in Vietnam. The goal is to integrate the school program with the realities of the health conditions in the community. The teaching method outlined in the guide is based on three principals: (1) preparation at home,…

Bui huy Bao; And Others

459

Graded-Index Optical Fibers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The imaging properties of graded-index fibers are determined theoretically and experimentally. Image location and resolution are measured for 1, 1.5, and 2.0 mm diameter fibers. Image quality is excellent for short fibers, generally within a factor of 3 o...

K. R. Hessel K. T. Stalker

1975-01-01

460

Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 7. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

461

Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

Kolb, James A.

462

Exploring Tessellations (Grades K-2)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners repeat patterns in two and three dimensions to create tessellations. This activity combines the creativity of an art project with the challenge of solving a puzzle. This lesson features three investigations that are appropriate for varying grades and levels.

Exploratorium

2010-01-01

463

At-Grade Busway Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research investigates the issues related to the implementation and operations of the South Dada Busway, the first at-grade busway in the United States. Busway applications in North America and through the world are also analyzed and presented through...

L. D. Shen H. Elbadrawi F. Zhao D. Ospina

1997-01-01

464

Woodworking: Grades 7-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The woodworking collection is composed of 55 objectives and related evaluation items for use in grades 7 through 12. Each sample contains the objective, test items, and criteria for judging the adequacy of the response. Woodworking categories being measured include sharpening, adjusting, using and caring for tools; reading a working drawing;…

Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

465

The Ninth-Grade Challenge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Across the country, high schools have found that their ninth-grade students have the highest rates of truancy, discipline referrals, failures, and retentions. A school's worst data points are usually found among freshmen. For this reason, proactive schools seek strategies for transitioning freshmen into high school. An effective freshman…

Habeeb, Scott

2013-01-01

466

3rd Grade Social Studies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Webquest Assignment for 3rd Grade Social Studies Standard 1 Standard 1 Students will understand how geography influences community location and development. Hello Students! Introduction) Today we are going to do a webquest for social studies. Remember the other day we talked about biomes. Lets review with this video. Task) First: Go to this link and tell me ...

Auger, Ms.

2009-11-18

467

The development of a standards-based national curriculum framework for regulatory food safety training in the United States.  

PubMed

In response to the recognized need for a training system to support an integrated food safety system in the U.S., the International Food Protection Training Institute (IFPTI) in Battle Creek, Michigan, designed a career-spanning curriculum framework. IFPTI collaborated with a national curriculum team consisting of regulatory officials and university academics. The curriculum framework encompasses and organizes existing professional development for the estimated 45,000 federal, state, and local food regulators in the U.S. into efficient, standards-driven learning paths. This article describes the development process leading to an integrated national food protection training curriculum framework. PMID:24073488

Kaml, Craig; Fogarty, Kieran J; Wojtala, Gerald; Dardick, William; Bateson, Allan; Bradsher, Julia E; Weiss, Christopher C

2013-09-01

468

Prevailing Pedagogies for Classes in Low SES Contexts and the Implications for Standards-Based Reform in Australia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current curriculum and assessment reform for schooling in Australia is based on ideas and practices associated with the setting of standards. Detailed descriptions of levels of achievement for each year of schooling are being ascribed the dual role of measuring the effectiveness of school systems and helping teachers to ensure all students are…

Fenwick, Lisl; Cooper, Maxine

2012-01-01

469

4th Grade Content Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page provides links to resources aligned to the CCSS that guide and support fourth grade mathematics teaching and learning. Tasks developed by the Mathematics Assessment Resource Service (MARS) for the Noyce Foundation, Problems of the Month, (POM home page is cataloged separately) and videos of public lessons and number talks developed by the Noyce Foundation are also included. The performance tasks were originally designed to measure students' ability to solve non-routine problems and then to explain and justify their solutions. The task scoring rubric, student responses, and discussion of student understanding and misconceptions are provided to improve instruction. Resources are listed for specific grade 4 standards and are also organized by progression for an alternate search route.

Centre, The S.

2012-01-01

470

Equal Sharing in Grade 1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 7-minute video Julia Franklin shows how she teaches equal sharing to her first grade class. Following the class discussion, Franklin assigns students to work with pairs to practice this skill; she differentiates this practice by providing students with three different worksheets that match their skill level. In addition to the video, the three worksheets, and a transcript of the lesson are provided.

2011-01-01

471

Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma.  

PubMed

Described is a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) of the abdominal wall muscles in a 38-year-old black woman. There was no evidence of metastatic disease. A 5.2-kg LGFMS - the largest case ever reported - was resected. One year after surgery, the patient is alive without any sign of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Follow-up comprises abdominal and thoracic CT scans at 6-month intervals. PMID:10765121

van den Bossche, M R; Van Mieghem, H

2000-04-01

472

Low-Grade Fibromyxoid Sarcoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Described is a low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) of the abdominal wall muscles in a 38-year-old black woman. There was no evidence of metastatic disease. A 5.2-kg LGFMS – the largest case ever reported – was resected. One year after surgery, the patient is alive without any sign of local recurrence or distant metastasis. Follow-up comprises abdominal and thoracic CT scans

M. R. P. Van den Bossche; H. Van Mieghem

2000-01-01

473

Ordering Juice Drinks (grade 4)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 4 operations and algebraic thinking standards as well as the number and operations in base ten standards. In this interactive single task students must solve a multi-step problem by completing an order receipt for orange juice. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric and background on the task itself.

2013-01-01

474

7 CFR 29.2272 - Grade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2272 Grade. A subdivision of a type according to group, quality, and...

2013-01-01

475

Testing and Grading in High School Accounting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed are four reasons for testing in accounting, the grading of achievement and attitudes, the use of three kinds of tests (short-answer, problem, and essay), and a mechanism for grading (accumulation of points). (MS)

Meyer, Robert H.

1976-01-01

476

Grading of headache intensity. A proposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current severity (intensity) grading in headache is based upon a 4-grade category scale that includes the zero grade. For\\u000a ordinary scientific and practical work, a low-sensitivity scale may suffice. However, in given instances, such grading may\\u000a be insufficient; one might for instance need to know more exactly where the healthy state ends and where headache starts.\\u000a This may in particular

Ottar Sjaastad; T. A. Fredriksen; H. C. Petersen; L. S. Bakketeig

2002-01-01

477

Optical frequency standard based on a Nd:YAG laser stabilised by saturated absorption resonances in molecular iodine using second-harmonic radiation  

SciTech Connect

The results of studies devoted to the development of the optical frequency standard based on a diode-pumped 1064-nm single-frequency ring Nd:YAG laser with intracavity frequency doubling are presented. The laser frequency was stabilised by saturated absorption resonances in molecular iodine at the second-harmonic frequency of the laser (at 532 nm). The saturated absorption resonances were observed in an external luminescent cell. The relative long-term frequency stability achieved in experiments was {approx}6x10{sup -15}. The physical and technical factors affecting the long-term frequency stability and reproducibility are investigated. (optical metrology and quantum frequency standards)

Skvortsov, Mikhail N; Okhapkin, M V; Nevsky, A Yu; Bagaev, Sergei N [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2004-12-31

478

Zum Problem der Fehlergraduierung in deutsch-franzoesischen Uebersetzungen (On the Problem of Grading Errors in German-French Translations)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the correction system for German-French translations used in German universities. The following are proposed: (1) Differentiation of, and a grading scale for, errors; (2) Distinguishing interstructural vs. intrastructural errors, (with suggestion for grading); (3) Localizing errors in grammar or vocabulary, with consequences for grading.…

Kielhoefer, Bernd

1975-01-01

479

Does Education Corrupt? Theories of Grade Inflation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several theories of grade inflation are discussed in this review article. It is argued that grade inflation results from the substitution of criteria specific to the search for truth by criteria of quality control generated outside of academia. Particular mechanisms of the grade inflation that occurs when a university is transformed into a…

Oleinik, Anton

2009-01-01

480

Translating Graded Modalities into Predicate Logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the logic of graded modalities it is possible to talk about sets of finite cardinality. Variouscalculi exist for graded modal logics and all generate vast amounts of case distinctions. Inthis paper we present an optimized translation from graded modal logic into many-sortedpredicate logic. This translation has the advantage that in contrast to known approachesour calculus enables us to reason

Hans Jürgen Ohlbach; Renate A. Schmidt; Ullrich Hustadt

1995-01-01

481

The debate on automated essay grading  

Microsoft Academic Search

We look at a controversy: the use of computers for automated and semiautomated grading of exams. K. Kukich, the director of the Natural Language Processing group at Educational Testing Service, provides an insider's view of the history of the field of automated essay grading and describes how ETS is currently using computer programs to supplement human judges in the grading

Marti A. Hearst

2000-01-01

482

Analysis of Fall 1994 Course Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides data on withdrawal and success rates and grades earned in fall 1994 at the five campuses of Pima Community College (PCC), in Arizona. Following a literature review on national course grades, descriptions are provided of the following: (1) grades and withdrawals for fall 1979, 1984, 1989, and 1994, indicating that the number…

Pima Community Coll., Tucson, AZ. Office of Research and Planning.

483

Analysis of Fall 1995 Course Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides data on withdrawal and success rates and grades earned in fall 1995 at the five campuses of Pima Community College (PCC) in Arizona. Following a literature review on national course grades, descriptions are provided of the following: (1) grades and withdrawals for 1980, 1985, 1990, and 1995, indicating that the number of A…

Pima Community Coll., Tucson, AZ. Office of Institutional Research.

484

Analysis of Fall 1996 Course Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides data on withdrawal and success rates and grades earned in fall 1996 at the five campuses of Pima Community College (PCC) in Arizona. Following a literature review on national course grades, descriptions are provided of the following: (1) grades and withdrawals for 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1996, indicating that the number of A…

McGregor, Ellen N.; Reece, Dee; Garner, Doris

485

Graded Course of Study, Science (K-12).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course of study specifies the science skills and concepts that are to be taught in the various grades of the Euclid (Ohio) City Schools. Included are instructional objectives for the life, physical, and earth sciences for grades K to 6, suggested field trips and planetarium schedules (by elementary grade levels), and scope and sequence charts…

Euclid City Schools, OH.

486

The Effect of Effort Grading on Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In the fall of 2004, Benedict College--a Historically Black College in Columbia, SC--began enforcing a new grading policy called Success Equals Effort (SE[squared]). Under this policy, students taking freshman and sophomore level courses were assigned grades that explicitly rewarded not only content learning ("knowledge" grade) but also measures…

Swinton, Omari H.

2010-01-01

487

Best Practices in Grading. Research into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grading is one of the most enduring features of schooling. No matter what other reforms occur in a school, grading remains as one of the cornerstones of educational practice. But recently this long-standing tradition has come under scrutiny with some alarming results. Many traditional grading practices actually "depress" achievement, and may, in…

Johnston, Howard

2011-01-01

488

A food-grade system for production of pediocin PA-1 in nisin-producing and non-nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains: application to inhibit Listeria growth in a cheese model system.  

PubMed

Food-grade heterologous production of pediocin PA-1 in nisin-producing and non-nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains, previously selected because of their technological properties for cheese making, was achieved. Plasmid pGA1, which contains the complete pediocin operon under the control of the strong P32 promoter and is devoid of any antibiotic marker, was introduced into L. lactis ESI 153 and L. lactis ESI 515 (Nis+). Transformation of L. lactis ESI 515 with pGA1 did not affect its ability to produce nisin. The antimicrobial activity of the pediocin-producing transformants on the survival of Listeria innocua SA1 during cheese ripening was also investigated. Cheeses were manufactured from milk inoculated with 1% of the lactic culture and with or without approximately 4 log CFU/ml of the Listeria strain. L. lactis ESI 153, L. lactis ESI 515, and their transformants (L. lactis GA1 and GA2, respectively) were used as starter cultures. At the end of the ripening period, counts of L. innocua in cheeses made with the bacteriocin-producing lactococcal strains were below 50 CFU/g in the L. lactis GA1 cheeses and below 25 CFU/g in the L. lactis GA2 ones, compared with 3.7 million CFU/g for the controls without nisin or pediocin production. PMID:18044428

Reviriego, C; Fernández, L; Rodríguez, J M

2007-11-01

489

Tumor Regression Grading of Gastrointestinal Carcinomas after Neoadjuvant Treatment  

PubMed Central

Multimodal therapy concepts have been successfully implemented in the treatment of locally advanced gastrointestinal malignancies. The effects of neoadjuvant chemo- or radiochemotherapy such as scarry fibrosis or resorptive changes and inflammation can be determined by histopathological investigation of the subsequent resection specimen. Tumor regression grading (TRG) systems which aim to categorize the amount of regressive changes after cytotoxic treatment mostly refer onto the amount of therapy induced fibrosis in relation to residual tumor or the estimated percentage of residual tumor in relation to the previous tumor site. Commonly used TRGs for upper gastrointestinal carcinomas are the Mandard grading and the Becker grading system, e.g., and for rectal cancer the Dworak or the Rödel grading system, or other systems which follow similar definitions. Namely for gastro-esophageal carcinomas these TRGs provide important prognostic information since complete or subtotal tumor regression has shown to be associated with better patient’s outcome. The prognostic value of TRG may even exceed those of currently used staging systems (e.g., TNM staging) for tumors treated by neoadjuvant therapy. There have been some limitations described regarding interobserver variability especially in borderline cases, which may be improved by standardization of work up of resection specimen and better training of histopathologic determination of regressive changes. It is highly recommended that TRG should be implemented in every histopathological report of neoadjuvant treated gastrointestinal carcinomas. The aim of this review is to disclose the relevance of histomorphological TRG to accomplish an optimal therapy for patients with gastrointestinal carcinomas.

Thies, Svenja; Langer, Rupert

2013-01-01

490

Alternative Missing Data Techniques to Grade Point Average: Imputing Unavailable Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studied the use of grade point average as a missing data technique for unavailable grades in school grade records. Results of 2 studies, 1 involving 2,080 Dutch college students, and the other involving 446 Dutch college freshmen, show that alternative missing grade methods produced better and more consistent predictions than other missing data…

Smits, Niels; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; Vorst, Harrie C. M.

2002-01-01

491

Self-Graded and Teacher-Graded Achievement in a BSCS High School Biology Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The effect of self-grading on biology students exposed to the same instruction (except grading) in an upper-middle class public school was investigated by comparing self-graded and teacher-graded populations in (1) achievement in high school biology, (2) level of aspiration behavior, (3) critical thinking skills, and (4) productivity. The…

Good, Wallace Martin

492

Diabetic Retinopathy Grading by Digital Curvelet Transform  

PubMed Central

One of the major complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy. As manual analysis and diagnosis of large amount of images are time consuming, automatic detection and grading of diabetic retinopathy are desired. In this paper, we use fundus fluorescein angiography and color fundus images simultaneously, extract 6 features employing curvelet transform, and feed them to support vector machine in order to determine diabetic retinopathy severity stages. These features are area of blood vessels, area, regularity of foveal avascular zone, and the number of micro-aneurisms therein, total number of micro-aneurisms, and area of exudates. In order to extract exudates and vessels, we respectively modify curvelet coefficients of color fundus images and angiograms. The end points of extracted vessels in predefined region of interest based on optic disk are connected together to segment foveal avascular zone region. To extract micro-aneurisms from angiogram, first extracted vessels are subtracted from original image, and after removing detected background by morphological operators and enhancing bright small pixels, micro-aneurisms are detected. 70 patients were involved in this study to classify diabetic retinopathy into 3 groups, that is, (1) no diabetic retinopathy, (2) mild/moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, (3) severe nonproliferative/proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and our simulations show that the proposed system has sensitivity and specificity of 100% for grading.

Hajeb Mohammad Alipour, Shirin; Rabbani, Hossein; Akhlaghi, Mohammad Reza

2012-01-01

493

Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes  

PubMed Central

In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children’s externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children were matched with 251 promoted children on the basis of propensity scores (probability of being retained in first grade estimated from 72 baseline variables). Relative to promoted children, retained children were found to benefit from retention in both the short and longer terms with respect to decreased teacher-rated hyperactivity, decreased peer-rated sadness and withdrawal, and increased teacher-rated behavioral engagement. Retained children had a short-term increase in mean peer-rated liking and school belongingness relative to promoted children, but this advantage showed a substantial decrease in the longer term. Retention had a positive short-term effect on children’s perceived school belonging and a positive longer term effect on perceived academic self-efficacy. Retention may bestow advantages in the short-term, but longer term detrimental effects on social acceptance may lead to the documented longer term negative effects of retention.

Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

2010-01-01

494

Microfabricated temperature standard based on Johnson noise measurement for the calibration of micro- and nano-thermometers  

SciTech Connect

An instrument for the definition of absolute temperature on the scale of one micron based on the measurement of Johnson noise in a small metallic resistor has been constructed. The instrument uses conventional monolithic amplifiers and signal processing circuitry and a custom sensor fabricated by bulk micromachining and electron-beam lithography. The instrument is simple to use and accurate to better than 1 K over the range 300-600 K following a single point calibration to ambient temperature. The incorporation of an integrated thermocouple as a transfer standard allows the use of the instrument to define temperatures with a 1 K accuracy and a random error of better than 50 mK in a 1 kHz bandwidth, and permits its operation in electrically noisy environments. Extension to the measurement of temperature on a scale much smaller than 1 {mu}m is theoretically straightforward. The instrument has been used to calibrate a nano-thermometer (resistance thermometer atomic force microscopy probe) with applications in the temperature measurement of semiconductor devices. Finally the calibration of the system is confirmed by a calorimetric scan on a 100 pL sample of benzophenone.

Dobson, P.S.; Mills, G.; Weaver, J.M.R. [Kelvin Nanotechnology Ltd., Rankine Building, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT, Scotland (United Kingdom); Department of Electronics and Electrica