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1

The relationship between standards-based reporting systems and third-grade mathematics and science achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, accountability has been the driving force for many changes in education in the United States. One major educational reform effort is the standards-based movement with a focus of combining a number of processes that involve aligning curriculum, instruction, assessment and feedback to specific standards that are measureable and indicative of student achievement. The purpose of this study is to determine if the type of report card is a possible predictor of third grade student achievement on standardized tests in mathematics and science for the 2012 Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). The results of this study concluded that the difference in test scores in mathematics and science for students in the traditional report card group was not statistically significant when compared to the scores of students in the standards-based report card group when controlling for poverty level, school locale, and school district. However, students in the traditional report card group scored an average of 1.01 point higher in mathematics and 2.27 points higher in science than students in the standards-based report card group.

Prejean-Harris, Rose M.

2

The Benefits of Standards-Based Grading: A Critical Evaluation of Modern Grading Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the methodology and application of an assessment philosophy known as standards-based grading, via a critical comparison of standards-based grading to other assessment philosophies commonly employed at the elementary, secondary, and post-secondary levels of education. Evidenced by examples of increased student engagement and…

Iamarino, Danielle L.

2014-01-01

3

Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades 5-8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades 5-8 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates the titles of the…

Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

4

Evaluation of California's Standards-Based Accountability System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In June 1998, California started an evaluation of standards-based accountability. The evaluation focused on the status and impact of local accountability systems, content standards, assessment measures, use of data, consequences and incentives, and assistance in school districts across the state. In the course of the study, the California…

Guth, Gloria J. A.; Holtzman, Deborah J.; Schneider, Steven A.; Carlos, Lisa; Smith, James R.; Hayward, Gerald C.; Calvo, Naomi

5

Exemplary Science in Grades PreK-4: Standards-Based Success Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since their release in 1996, the National Science Education Standards have provided the vision for science education reform. But has that reform actually taken hold in elementary school? "Yes!," reports Robert Yager, editor of Exemplary Science in Grades PreK-4: Standards-Based Success Stories. "Probably the Standards have done more to change science in elementary schools than has occurred at the other grade levels." Evidence of change is apparent in this fourth volume of the Exemplary Science monograph series, an essay collection featuring educators in PreK-4 describing programs they've developed to fulfill the Standards' More Emphasis guidelines. The 14 programs are real-life examples you can learn from in carrying out reforms in teaching, assessment, professional development, and content. Among the topics covered: "Adapting Science Curricula in the Kindergarten Classroom," "Building on the Natural Wonder Inherent in Us All," "Guiding Students in Active and Extended Scientific Inquiry," "Active, Integrated Inquiry in an Afterschool Setting," and "Thinking Outside the Box: No Child Left Inside!" As Yager writes in the book's introduction, "The 14 exemplary programs can be seen as models for other teachers--not just to copy, but as ways of approaching science and encouraging their students to do more of what they like�. When both teachers and students are enthused, curious, and involved, science becomes central to the lives of students and others in the community and can tie the whole school experience together.

2006-01-01

6

Standards-Based Assessment, Grading, and Reporting in Classrooms: Can District Training and Support Change Teacher Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether school district support and training in standards-based assessment, grading, and reporting in classrooms can change teacher practice in these areas was studied in a Florida school district. This district, Bay District Schools of Panama City, has been working with the SERVE Regional Educational Laboratory on a project that involves teachers…

McMunn, Nancy; Schenck, Patricia; McColskey, Wendy

7

Grading and Reporting in a Standards-Based Environment: Implications for Students with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers at all levels of education today struggle in their efforts to assign fair, accurate, and meaningful grades to students with disabilities, especially those placed in general education classrooms. Lacking specific policies or recommendations, most teachers apply informal, individual grading adaptations for such students. Although these…

Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

2009-01-01

8

Exemplary Science in Grades 5-8: Standards-Based Success Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do the Standards really matter in middle school? Nine years after the National Science Education Standards' release, just how well do science teachers in grades 5 to 8 actually use them to plan content, define improved teaching, and assess real learning? Find out the answers to these key questions in this groundbreaking collection of 15 essays by teachers, researchers, and professors whose specialty is middle school. Nine years after the release of the Standards, these educators describe what they're doing to achieve the visions for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content. All the visions correspond to the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Among this collection's wide-ranging essay topics: "Teaching Science With Student Thinking in Mind," "The Relationship Between a Professional Development Model and Student Achievement," "Creating a Classroom Culture of Scientific Practices," "Traveling the Inquiry Continuum: Learning Through Teacher Action Research," "What Do We Get to Do Today? The Middle School Full Option Science System Program," and "Teach Them to Fish." This volume is the third in NSTA Press's Exemplary Science monograph series, which provides the results of an unprecedented national search to assess how well the Standards' vision has been realized.

2006-01-01

9

This standards-based program targets middle school grades. The physical and  

E-print Network

of Environmental Protection, Cornell Cooperative Extension, and the National Park Service at Gateway. The program Camping Students in grades 5-12 explore the environment, sleep overnight in tents, prepare meals outdoors

Columbia University

10

Fourth-grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-based Lunar Concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourth?grade students’ knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post?test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change. Interviews were conducted with 10 students on a

Kathy Cabe Trundle; Ronald K. Atwood; John E. Christopher

2007-01-01

11

Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

2006-01-01

12

Fourth-Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-Based Lunar Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth-grade students' knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change.…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

2007-01-01

13

Curriculum-Based Measurement and Standards-Based Mathematics: Monitoring the Arithmetic Word Problem-Solving Performance of Third-Grade Students at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a curriculum-based measure of word problem solving (CBM-WPS) as an indicator of performance and progress in a sample of 136 third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MDs) instructed in a standards-based mathematics curriculum. Students completed the CBM-WPS…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.

2014-01-01

14

New Teachers' Perceptions of a Standards-Based Performance Appraisal System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted with first-year teachers. It provided insight into two key research questions: (1) What were the perceptions of new teachers regarding a standards-based performance appraisal system as it was implemented on their campus? (2) What factors contributed to the perceptions of new teachers regarding this system as it was…

O'Pry, Stephen C.; Schumacher, Gary

2012-01-01

15

Student Grade History System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document describes the computerized procedures developed and utilized by Montgomery College (Maryland) to maintain records related to student academic progress. The new system was fully operable by fall 1972. Systems development included: (1) the conversion of past student records to a permanent grade history file; (2) the development of a…

White, Stephen R.

16

The Relationship between Prosodic Oral Reading Assessments and Standards-Based Reading Assessment in a 2nd Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prosodic oral reading and overall reading comprehension of second grade students. The sample consisted of ten students who were randomly selected from a second grade classroom. The students read aloud from the book "Bedtime for Frances" by Lillian and Russell Hoban for a total of…

Kariuki, Patrick; Baxter, Andrew

2011-01-01

17

Domain management OSSs: bridging the gap between legacy and standards-based network management systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid change in the telecommunications environment is forcing carriers to re-assess not only their service offering, but also their network management philosophy. The competitive carrier environment has taken away the luxury of throwing technology at a problem by using legacy and proprietary systems and architectures. A more flexible management environment is necessary to effectively gain, and maintain operating margins in the new market era. Competitive forces are driving change which gives carriers more choices than those that are available in legacy and standards-based solutions alone. However, creating an operational support system (OSS) with this gap between legacy and standards has become as dynamic as the services which it supports. A philosophy which helps to integrate the legacy and standards systems is domain management. Domain management relates to a specific service or market 'domain,'and its associated operational support requirements. It supports a companies definition of its business model, which drives the definition of each domain. It also attempts to maximize current investment while injecting new technology available in a practical approach. The following paragraphs offer an overview of legacy systems, standards-based philosophy, and the potential of domain management to help bridge the gap between the two types of systems.

Lemley, Todd A.

1996-11-01

18

Design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent self-management system (PICS).  

PubMed

Against the background of demographic change and a diminishing care workforce there is a growing need for personalized decision support. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent care systems (PICS). PICS makes consistent use of internationally accepted standards such as the Health Level 7 (HL7) Arden syntax for the representation of the decision logic, HL7 Clinical Document Architecture for information representation and is based on a open-source service-oriented architecture framework and a business process management system. Its functionality is exemplified for the application scenario of a patient suffering from congestive heart failure. Several vital signs sensors provide data for the decision support system, and a number of flexible communication channels are available for interaction with patient or caregiver. PICS is a standards-based, open and flexible system enabling personalized decision support. Further development will include the implementation of components on small computers and sensor nodes. PMID:23542984

von Bargen, Tobias; Gietzelt, Matthias; Britten, Matthias; Song, Bianying; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Kohlmann, Martin; Marschollek, Michael; Haux, Reinhold

2013-01-01

19

International Water Information Systems: Evolving the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System to a Standards-based Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project is migrating core components of its service-oriented infrastructure to information models and service interfaces being standardized by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), through coordination with the joint Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG) of the OGC and the World Meteorological Organization. The CUAHSI cyberinfrastructure for hydrologic observations will rely on OGC service standards including Web Map Service (WMS) for map portrayal, Web Feature Service (WFS) for delivery of geographic feature information, Catalog Services for the Web (CSW) for discovery in service catalogs, and Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for data delivery. These standards will be supplemented by additional services and corresponding standards, such as the Water Quality Exchange (WQX), which is presently in use at the USGS and US EPA for delivery of water quality and ex situ analytical data. One of the key standards being developed through the OGC process is Water Markup Language (WaterML) 2.0, which specifies standard encoding for the representation of in-situ hydrological observations. Implemented as an application schema of OGC Observations and Measurements (O&M) standard, WaterML 2.0 incorporates the semantics of the hydrologic information: location, procedure, and observations, focusing on encoding different types of hydrologic time series. In addition to developing this exchange standard, the HDWG conducts Interoperability Experiments (IE) to test WaterML 2.0 and OGC services to see they meet the requirements of the Hydrologic community. The Groundwater IE tested cross border exchange of water information between the US and Canada, and exercised, not only a prototype of WaterML 2.0, but existing standards GeoSciML and GroundwaterML. A Surface Water IE is testing 3 use cases focusing on cross-border exchange of surface water information, hydrologic forecasting, and automated monthly and yearly volume calculations from large rivers discharging to the oceans. HDWG IEs provide important experience on best practices in developing hydrologic infrastructure and the use of the WaterML 2.0 standard in different scenarios. Over time interoperability experiments will provide feedback on the best practices, refinements to the standards, and the HDWG will continue to evolve cyberinfrastructure for the Hydrologic community. These standards provide modular and open methods to publish, exchange, and analyze hydrologic information, and will lead to the greater availability of hydrologic information as commercial and open source software organizations implement the standards.

Valentine, D. W.; Taylor, P.; Arctur, D. K.; Zaslavsky, I.

2011-12-01

20

An Alternative to the Traditional Grading System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this practicum was to change the grading policy in the San Juan Unified School District (California) through a two-state process. The first stage was to change the traditional ABCDF grading system to a three-scale grading system in one high school, one intermediate school, and six elementary schools serving the same attendance area.…

Galvez, Ferdinand V.

21

Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

22

ACSYNT - A standards-based system for parametric, computer aided conceptual design of aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A group of eight US aerospace companies together with several NASA and NAVY centers, led by NASA Ames Systems Analysis Branch, and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory agreed, through the assistance of Americal Technology Initiative, in 1990 to form the ACSYNT (Aircraft Synthesis) Institute. The Institute is supported by a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement to continue the research and development in computer aided conceptual design of aircraft initiated by NASA Ames Research Center and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory. The result of this collaboration, a feature-based, parametric computer aided aircraft conceptual design code called ACSYNT, is described. The code is based on analysis routines begun at NASA Ames in the early 1970's. ACSYNT's CAD system is based entirely on the ISO standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System and is graphics-device independent. The code includes a highly interactive graphical user interface, automatically generated Hermite and B-Spline surface models, and shaded image displays. Numerous features to enhance aircraft conceptual design are described.

Jayaram, S.; Myklebust, A.; Gelhausen, P.

1992-01-01

23

A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…

Contino, Julie

2013-01-01

24

The influence of science standards on fourth and fifth-grade teachers' preparedness to teach standards-based science in a large urban school district located in central California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to examine science teaching in a representative sample of the population of fourth and fifth grade teachers in the largest urban school district in Central California. The study attempted to determine what influence science standards have had on their preparedness to practice standards-based science teaching and implement the intended science curriculum. This study consisted of an analysis of historical data collected by the school district, and was designed to investigate and identify the relationship between pre-service preparation, content preparation, pedagogical preparation, in-service professional development and a teacher's practice and classroom cultures, as affected by the emphasis on science content standards. A representative sample of Teacher Questionnaires (58.5%) were analyzed for the impact of science standards on teachers and their teaching reported by the extent of teacher involvement in professional development activities, their attitudes about teaching science, opinions about teacher efficacy, and their content and pedagogical preparation. Specific analyses of the data included descriptive statistics, correlations, chi-square, frequency distributions, percentage of responses, and t-tests. Findings revealed that although the sample considered themselves "somewhat" to "fairly well" prepared to teach science, less than an hour once per week is devoted to science instruction in grades four and five classrooms. One out of every five classrooms received no science instruction at all. The findings also revealed teachers who took science coursework as part of their teacher preparation program also tend to take more science coursework after completing their credential program. The study sample had limited to no experience with teacher professional development in science within the last academic year, and in general reported being more prepared pedagogically than with science content. Overall, the data revealed that teachers with high content and pedagogical preparedness were more likely to accept the instructional reform strategies supportive of standards-based science teaching. The findings also support the importance of content knowledge and pedagogical strategies as characteristics of highly effective science teachers.

Valadez, Jerry David

25

An objective fingerprint quality-grading system.  

PubMed

The grading of fingerprint quality by fingerprint examiners as currently practised is a subjective process. Therefore, an objective system was devised to remove the subjectivity. The devised grading system is quantitative and uses three separate, easily available, software packages to ultimately identify the portions of a fingerprint that correspond to low-, medium-, and high-quality definitive minutiae as defined on the Universal Latent Workstation of the US Federal Bureau of Investigation. PMID:23890638

Pulsifer, Drew P; Muhlberger, Sarah A; Williams, Stephanie F; Shaler, Robert C; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2013-09-10

26

A Computer Assisted System for Grading Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer assisted system called PEERRATE was used in a theater history course at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in Newark, in fall 1980, in order to give students an opportunity to anonymously grade one another's written work and to compare their own ratings with those of fellow students and the instructor. The PEERRATE system is a…

Borchardt, Donald A.

27

Lie Algebras Graded by 3Graded Root Systems and Jordan Pairs Covered by Grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let R be an irreducible root system. A Lie Algebra L is called graded by R if L is graded with grading group the root lattice of R such that the only nonzero homogeneous subspaces of L have degree 0 or a root in R, the grading is induced by the adjoint action of a split Cartan subalgebra of a

Erhard Neher

1996-01-01

28

CHARLES DARWIN UNIVERSITY OFFICIAL GRADING SYSTEM HIGHER EDUCATION  

E-print Network

prior to Semester 2, 2003 VET-NTU Vocational Education and Training grading system at NTU prior circumstances. Please refer to the CDU Grading Policy. COMPETENCY BASED TRAINING GRADES CA Competency Achieved

29

On-grade insulated panel floor system  

SciTech Connect

The on-grade insulated panel floor system combines floor and foundation to reduce cost, increase energy and structural performance, and provide easy dismantling and recycling upon demolition. The system uses one-sided structural insulated panels (SIPs with one layer of OSB attached to foam insulation), a compacted gravel bed, and engineered lumber for the perimeter beam. Tests show that an on-grade panel floor system of 20 ft by 36 ft (6.1 by 11.0 m) is $895 less expensive and has a 55% better insulating value than an insulated concrete slab, exceeds deflection and flatness criteria for wood and concrete slab floors and supports structural loads in excess of those in residential construction. The flexible nature of the foam and wood may also improve the standing comfort of the floor compared to a concrete slab floor. In addition, the panel and engineered wood components increase the recyclability of the floor. The system is easily adaptable to use over an existing concrete floor.

Bjornson, D.; Briscoe, J.; Brown, G.Z.; Fremouw, S.; Kline, J.; Northcutt, D.

1999-07-01

30

Experimental performance study of wireless ad hoc system utilizing 802.11a standard base on different routing protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wireless ad hoc network technology provides a flexible infrastructure for next generation mobile telecommunication. In this paper, the performances of the networks based on IEEE802.11a standard, including packets successful delivery rate, average end-to-end delay and system throughput, have been studied with different routing protocols (AODV, WRP, and FISHEYE) using GloMoSim to evaluate the effects of various factors, such as node mobility, node density, and node radio transmission range. The simulation results show that adaptive routing protocol will be more suitable for the variation ad hoc network and the results are helpful for the optimum design and deployment of an actual network.

Zhong, Xiao F.; Wang, You-Zheng; Mei, Shunliang; Wang, Jing

2002-08-01

31

FACULTY SENATE TOWN MEETING Plus/Minus Grading System  

E-print Network

not be adversely affected Dr. Teresa Heckert reported for Ruthie Dare-Halma Grade inflation could be increased TopFACULTY SENATE TOWN MEETING Plus/Minus Grading System February 13, 2001 Dr. Teresa Heckert opened the meeting at 4:30PM. Dr. Chad Mohler gave summary of information he has gathered regarding +/- grading

Gering, Jon C.

32

The Oxford Clinical Cataract Classification and Grading System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A composite slit-lamp based system for the clinical classification and grading of cataract is described. Cataract features are classified morphologically, and individual features are graded by comparison with standard diagrams mounted adjacent to the slit-lamp. Attention has been paid to relevant aspects of measurement theory, with equal interval steps between the grades. The image degrading effect of the cataract is

J. M. Sparrow; A. J. Bron; N. A. P. Brown; W. Ayliffe; A. R. Hill

1986-01-01

33

Effects of Standards-Based Report Cards on Student Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this causal-comparative study is to examine the effect of standards-based report cards on the growth and performance of Grade 4 students on the Massachusetts measure of accountability. This study examines the effect of the report card format on the grade level student growth percentiles (SGP) and composite performance index (CPI) on…

Craig, Theresa A.

2011-01-01

34

The “Good, Bad and Ugly” pin site grading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there is much in the literature regarding pin site infections, there is no accepted, validated method for documenting their state. We present a system for reliably labelling pin sites on any ring fixator construct and an easy-to-remember grading system to document the state of each pin site. Each site is graded in terms of erythema, pain and discharge to

S. A. Clint; D. M. Eastwood; M. Chasseaud; P. R. Calder; D. R. Marsh

2010-01-01

35

Social Studies, Grade 3. Teaching Systems II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall social studies recommended program is described in SO 000 675; the nature of this guide, and the emphasis and organization of the units are described in SO 000 679. The three units in this part of the third grade course are: Tropical Rainforest, Mountain Communities, and Grassland Communities involving the typical climatic conditions,…

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

36

British athletics muscle injury classification: a new grading system.  

PubMed

The commonly used muscle injury grading systems based on three grades of injury, representing minor, moderate and complete injuries to the muscle, are lacking in diagnostic accuracy and provide limited prognostic information to the clinician. In recent years, there have been a number of proposals for alternative grading systems. While there is recent evidence regarding the prognostic features of muscle injuries, this evidence has not often been incorporated into the grading proposals. The British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification proposes a new system, based on the available evidence, which should provide a sound diagnostic base for therapeutic decision-making and prognostication. Injuries are graded 0-4 based on MRI features, with Grades 1-4 including an additional suffix 'a', 'b' or 'c' if the injury is 'myofascial', 'musculo-tendinous' or 'intratendinous'. Retrospective and prospective studies in elite track and field athletes are underway to validate the classification for use in hamstring muscle injury management. It is intended that this grading system can provide a suitable diagnostic framework for enhanced clinical decision-making in the management of muscle injuries and assist with future research to inform the development of improved prevention and management strategies. PMID:25031367

Pollock, Noel; James, Steven L J; Lee, Justin C; Chakraverty, Robin

2014-09-01

37

49 CFR 234.9 - Grade crossing signal system failure reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grade crossing signal system failure reports...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Reports and Plans § 234.9 Grade crossing signal system failure...

2010-10-01

38

The Solar System Presentation for SRS 5th Grade  

E-print Network

The Solar System Presentation for SRS 5th Grade Prof. David Cohen, Swarthmore College #12;What astronomers try to answer: ·What are the things in the solar system like? Planets, moons, comets, asteroids, the Sun... ·Are there good conditions for life anywhere in the solar system? ·How did the solar system

Cohen, David

39

Anatomy of a Commercial-Grade Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have built the first commercial-grade immune system that can find, analyze and cure previously unknown viruses faster than the viruses themselves can spread. The system solves several important problems. A single console allows a customer administrator to decide whether viruses are submitted for analysis automatically, or whether explicit approval is required, and permits new virus definitions to be distributed

Steve R. White; Morton Swimmer; Edward J. Pring; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; John F. Morar

1999-01-01

40

Anatomy of a Commercial-Grade Immune System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have built the first commercial-grade immune system that can find, analyze and cure previously unknown viruses faster than the viruses themselves can spread. The system solves several important problems. A single console allows a customer administrator to decide whether viruses are submitted for analysis automatically, or whether explicit approval is required, and permits new virus definitions to be distributed

Steve R. White; Morton Swimmer; Edward J. Pring; William C. Arnold; David M. Chess; John F. Morar

41

Positive and Negative Incentives in the Classroom: An Analysis of Grading Systems and Student Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how particular grading systems motivate students. Since competency-based grading and point systems are most prevalent (Hendrickson and Gable, 1999), the current study is modeled around these systems. The grading systems used for this study were divided into two categories and defined as those students who earned their grades (\\

Tony N. Docan

2006-01-01

42

Standards Based Reform. Abbott Implementation Resource Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this guide is to provide information, support and practical tools that may help educators design, implement, and evaluate their school's standards-based education program. In order to work, a comprehensive, standards-based educational program must, by definition, be the organizing structure upon which the school program operates.…

Passantino, Claire; Kenyon, Susan

2004-01-01

43

Validation of a grading system for lateral nasal wall insufficiency.  

PubMed

This study was designed to validate a grading scheme for lateral nasal wall insufficiency with interrater and intrarater reliability measures. Representative endoscopic videos depicting varied degrees of lateral nasal wall insufficiency were collated into a 30-clip video (15 clips in duplicate). This was rated by five reviewers for a total of 150 observations. Interrater and intrarater reliability were determined using Fleiss kappa and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) statistics, respectively. Good agreement was established between reviewers (interrater reliability), with a Fleiss kappa of 0.7733 (p < 0.01). Analysis of intrarater variability with the ICC revealed a very strong agreement (ICC = 0.88; p < 0.01). The proposed grading system is shown to have good interrater and intrarater reliability. It provides a reliable instrument for assessing lateral wall insufficiency. PMID:24124639

Tsao, Gabriel J; Fijalkowski, Natalia; Most, Sam P

2013-01-01

44

Histological grading of papillary urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification system and comparison with conventional grading systems  

PubMed Central

Aim: To test the prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP (World Health Organisation/International Society of Urologic Pathology) consensus classification system in Ta papillary urothelial neoplasms of the bladder. Methods: The histological slides of 322 patients with a primary Ta tumour were classified according to the consensus classification system, and recurrence free survival (RFS) and progression free survival (PFS) were assessed for a mean follow up period of 79 months. In the same patient group, the RFS and PFS rates for the 1973 WHO grading system and a low grade/high grade system were analysed. Results: Recurrent tumours were seen in all categories of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification system and five year RFS was not significantly different between the groups (p = 0.12). The five year PFS showed a small but significant difference (p = 0.04) between papillary neoplasms of low malignant potential (PNLMP) and high grade papillary urothelial carcinomas (HGPUCs). In the 1973 WHO classification, no significant difference was found in RFS and PFS between the different grades. In the low grade/high grade classification PFS was significantly better for low grade tumours (p = 0.01). Conclusion: The prognostic value of the 1998 WHO/ISUP classification system is limited to predicting PFS, especially between PNLMP and HGPUC. The prognostic value of this system over other grading systems is questionable. PMID:12461053

Oosterhuis, J W A; Schapers, R F M; Janssen-Heijnen, M L G; Pauwels, R P E; Newling, D W; ten Kate, F

2002-01-01

45

Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems  

DOEpatents

A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel.

Kuznetsov, Stephen B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01

46

Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems  

DOEpatents

A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel. 4 figs.

Kuznetsov, S.B.

1986-04-01

47

LIE SUPERALGEBRAS GRADED BY THE ROOT SYSTEM B(m,n)  

E-print Network

LIE SUPERALGEBRAS GRADED BY THE ROOT SYSTEM B(m,n) Georgia Benkart1 Alberto Elduque2 September 3, 2001 Abstract. We determine the Lie superalgebras that are graded by the root system B(m, n) of the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra osp(2m + 1, 2n). §1. Introduction The notion of a Lie algebra graded by a finite

48

Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses.  

PubMed

The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal width of its response options. No study has systematically examined, through modern psychometric approach, whether physicians are able to properly use the Medical Research Council grades. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate physicians' ability to discriminate among the Medical Research Council categories in patients with different neuromuscular disorders and with various degrees of weakness through thresholds examination using Rasch analysis as a modern psychometric method; (ii) to examine possible factors influencing physicians' ability to apply the Medical Research Council categories through differential item function analyses; and (iii) to examine whether the widely used Medical Research Council 12 muscles sum score in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy would meet Rasch model's expectations. A total of 1065 patients were included from nine cohorts with the following diseases: Guillain-Barré syndrome (n?=?480); myotonic dystrophy type-1 (n?=?169); chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n?=?139); limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (n?=?105); multifocal motor neuropathy (n?=?102); Pompe's disease (n?=?62) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined related polyneuropathy (n?=?8). Medical Research Council data of 72 muscles were collected. Rasch analyses were performed on Medical Research Council data for each cohort separately and after pooling data at the muscle level to increase category frequencies, and on the Medical Research Council sum score in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Disordered thresholds were demonstrated in 74-79% of the muscles examined, indicating physicians' inability to discriminate between most Medical Research Council categories. Factors such as physicians' experience or illness type did not influence these findings. Thresholds were restored after rescoring the Medical Research Council grades from six to four options (0, paralysis; 1, severe weakness; 2, slight weakness; 3, normal strength). The Medical Research Council sum score acceptably fulfilled Rasch model expectations after rescoring the response options and creating subsets to resolve local dependency and item bias on diagnosis. In conclusion, a modified, Rasch-built four response category Medical Research Council grading system is proposed, resolving clinicians' inability to differentiate among its original response categories and improving clinical applicability. A modified Medical Research Council sum score at the interval level is presented and is recommended for future studies in Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. PMID:22189568

Vanhoutte, Els Karla; Faber, Catharina Gerritdina; van Nes, Sonja Ingrid; Jacobs, Bart Casper; van Doorn, Pieter Antoon; van Koningsveld, Rinske; Cornblath, David Reid; van der Kooi, Anneke Jelly; Cats, Elisabeth Aviva; van den Berg, Leonard Hendrik; Notermans, Nicolette Claudia; van der Pol, Willem Lodewijk; Hermans, Mieke Catharina Elisabeth; van der Beek, Nadine Anna Maria Elisabeth; Gorson, Kenneth Craig; Eurelings, Marijke; Engelsman, Jeroen; Boot, Hendrik; Meijer, Ronaldus Jacobus; Lauria, Giuseppe; Tennant, Alan; Merkies, Ingemar Sergio José

2012-05-01

49

Clinical Information System Services and Capabilities Desired for Scalable, Standards-Based, Service-oriented Decision Support: Consensus Assessment of the Health Level 7 Clinical Decision Support Work Group  

PubMed Central

A standards-based, service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support (CDS) has the potential to significantly enhance CDS scalability and robustness. To enable such a CDS architecture, the Health Level 7 CDS Work Group reviewed the literature, hosted multi-stakeholder discussions, and consulted domain experts to identify and prioritize the services and capabilities required from clinical information systems (CISs) to enable service-oriented CDS. In addition, relevant available standards were identified. Through this process, ten CIS services and eight CIS capabilities were identified as being important for enabling scalable, service-oriented CDS. In particular, through a survey of 46 domain experts, five services and capabilities were identified as being especially critical: 1) the use of standard information models and terminologies; 2) the ability to leverage a Decision Support Service (DSS); 3) support for a clinical data query service; 4) support for an event subscription and notification service; and 5) support for a user communication service. PMID:23304315

Kawamoto, Kensaku; Jacobs, Jason; Welch, Brandon M.; Huser, Vojtech; Paterno, Marilyn D.; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Shields, David; Strasberg, Howard R.; Haug, Peter J.; Liu, Zhijing; Jenders, Robert A.; Rowed, David W.; Chertcoff, Daryl; Fehre, Karsten; Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Curtis, A. Clayton

2012-01-01

50

The Instructional Demands of Standards-Based Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards-based reform envisions school systems driven by agreements about what every student should know and do; guided by data from assessments which tell whether or not students have adequately learned those things; and motivated by accountability mechanisms designed to assure every student access to effective opportunities to learn.…

American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2009

2009-01-01

51

Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

1998-12-31

52

Optical system components for navigation grade fiber optic gyroscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes belong to the class of inertial sensors. Due to their high accuracy they are used for absolute position and rotation measurement in manned/unmanned vehicles, e.g. submarines, ground vehicles, aircraft or satellites. The important system components are the light source, the electro optical phase modulator, the optical fiber coil and the photodetector. This paper is focused on approaches to realize a stable light source and fiber coil. Superluminescent diode and erbium doped fiber laser were studied to realize an accurate and stable light source. Therefor the influence of the polarization grade of the source and the effects due to back reflections to the source were studied. During operation thermal working conditions severely affect accuracy and stability of the optical fiber coil, which is the sensor element. Thermal gradients that are applied to the fiber coil have large negative effects on the achievable system accuracy of the optic gyroscope. Therefore a way of calculating and compensating the rotation rate error of a fiber coil due to thermal change is introduced. A simplified 3 dimensional FEM of a quadrupole wound fiber coil is used to determine the build-up of thermal fields in the polarization maintaining fiber due to outside heating sources. The rotation rate error due to these sources is then calculated and compared to measurement data. A simple regression model is used to compensate the rotation rate error with temperature measurement at the outside of the fiber coil. To realize a compact and robust optical package for some of the relevant optical system components an approach based on ion exchanged waveguides in thin glass was developed. This waveguides are used to realize 1x2 and 1x4 splitter with fiber coupling interface or direct photodiode coupling.

Heimann, Marcus; Liesegang, Maximilian; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

2013-10-01

53

Problems with Standards-based Mathematics Tests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alan Tucker, an Applied Math professor at Stony Brook University took it upon himself to analyze the reliability of the scoring of the Math A test, New York's standards-based exam. Tucker was part of the New York Board of Regents special panel which investigated the high failure rates on the June 2003 exam. He reports here on his findings regarding "flaws in annual math tests mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act." In particular, he is concerned about the likelihood that students scores on standards-based test can be compared over time at the level of precision needed to make decisions that come with high-stakes consequences. A short report and a full report are available from this website, explaining his model and statistical analysis.

54

Correlation of the Havemeyer endoscopic laryngeal grading system with histopathological changes in equine Cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscles.  

PubMed

The establishment of a single validated endoscopic laryngeal grading system for assessing recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) is desirable to facilitate direct comparisons between the findings of different clinical and research groups worldwide. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the Havemeyer endoscopic laryngeal grading system and histopathological changes consistent with RLN in the left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) muscle of horses of different breeds with a full range of clinical severities of RLN, i.e., from normal endoscopic laryngeal function to complete laryngeal hemiplegia. Endoscopic grading of laryngeal function of 22 horses was performed using the Havemeyer endoscopic laryngeal grading system. A biopsy sample of the left CAD muscle was obtained from each horse, either at post mortem examination (n = 16), or during routine laryngoplasty surgery (n = 6). A semi-quantitative histopathological scoring system was used to grade the severity of histopathological lesions consistent with RLN in the left CAD muscle of each horse. A significant positive correlation (rs = 0.705, p < 0.001) was found between the Havemeyer grades and sub-grades of laryngeal function and the semi-quantitative assessment of histopathological lesions consistent with RLN in the left CAD muscle. However, a wide spread of muscle histopathological scores was obtained, particularly from horses with Havemeyer sub-grades II.1, III.1 and III.2. In conclusion, the Havemeyer endoscopic laryngeal grading system was found to broadly correlate with histopathological changes consistent with RLN in equine cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle. PMID:21851734

Collins, N; Milne, E; Hahn, C; Dixon, P

2009-01-01

55

Correlation of the Havemeyer endoscopic laryngeal grading system with histopathological changes in equine Cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscles  

PubMed Central

The establishment of a single validated endoscopic laryngeal grading system for assessing recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) is desirable to facilitate direct comparisons between the findings of different clinical and research groups worldwide. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the Havemeyer endoscopic laryngeal grading system and histopathological changes consistent with RLN in the left cricoarytenoideus dorsalis (CAD) muscle of horses of different breeds with a full range of clinical severities of RLN, i.e., from normal endoscopic laryngeal function to complete laryngeal hemiplegia. Endoscopic grading of laryngeal function of 22 horses was performed using the Havemeyer endoscopic laryngeal grading system. A biopsy sample of the left CAD muscle was obtained from each horse, either at post mortem examination (n = 16), or during routine laryngoplasty surgery (n = 6). A semi-quantitative histopathological scoring system was used to grade the severity of histopathological lesions consistent with RLN in the left CAD muscle of each horse. A significant positive correlation (rs = 0.705, p < 0.001) was found between the Havemeyer grades and sub-grades of laryngeal function and the semi-quantitative assessment of histopathological lesions consistent with RLN in the left CAD muscle. However, a wide spread of muscle histopathological scores was obtained, particularly from horses with Havemeyer sub-grades II.1, III.1 and III.2. In conclusion, the Havemeyer endoscopic laryngeal grading system was found to broadly correlate with histopathological changes consistent with RLN in equine cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle. PMID:21851734

2009-01-01

56

Innovative Desalination Systems Using Low-grade Heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and energy crises have forced researchers to seek alternative water and energy sources. Seawater desalination can contribute towards meeting the increasing demand for fresh water using alternative energy sources like low-grade heat. Industrial waste heat, geothermal, solar thermal, could help to ease the energy crisis.\\u000aUnfortunately, the efficiency of the conventional power cycle becomes\\u000auneconomically low with low-grade heat

Chennan Li

2012-01-01

57

Equity in Standards-Based Elementary Mathematics Classrooms. Weaving Gender Equity into Math Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the issue of equity in standards-based elementary mathematics classrooms. It is argued that while some of the gaps in mathematics achievement have slowly diminished (e.g., differences in mathematics grades and participation rates between girls and boys in K-12 education have decreased), others remain intractable. Other…

Perez, Christina

58

Classification of two-dimensional quantum systems with Z{sub 3}-graded topological symmetries  

SciTech Connect

In this article, I have derived the general conditions on two-dimensional quantum systems possess Z{sub 3}-graded topological symmetries and calculated the solutions of two special cases of such systems.

Pouladsaz, D. [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany)

2012-12-15

59

Lesson Plans for the Busy Librarian: A Standards-Based Approach for the Elementary Library Media Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proven 20-minute standards-based instructional lessons, organized by grade level, provide the resources needed to effectively teach library and information literacy skills to students in kindergarten through fifth grade. Based on American Association of School Librarians and Association for Educational Communications and Technology…

Keeling, Joyce

60

Contract Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a contract grading system, the instructor defines the performance required for each grade, the student defines the performance level to which he or she will work, and signs a contract in which the instructor is committed to awarding this predetermined grade if the student attains the appropriate performance level. This paper is based on a…

Taylor, Hugh

61

Connections: Water, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural Resources for Grade 3 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of Learning for…

Ney, Catherine R.

62

A new CT grading system for hip osteoarthritis  

E-print Network

Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UK 2 = Department of Radiology, Box 218, Level 5, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK 3 = Department of Medicine, Box 157, Level 5, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK 4... = Department of Radiology, Hinchingbrooke Health Care NHS Trust, Hinchingbrooke Hospital, Hinchingbrooke Park, Huntingdon, PE29 6NT, UK KEY WORDS osteoarthritis; hip joint; computed tomography; grading; reliability. (3-6 words) RUNNING HEADLINE CT...

Turmezei, T. D.; Fotiadou, A.; Lomas, D. J.; Hopper, M. A.; Poole, K. E. S.

2014-03-15

63

A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Crictor"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

Coblin, Mary Payne; Huss, Dorothy; Kirk, Bonnie; Lonneman, Melissa; Melville, Claire

1998-01-01

64

Scheduling algorithms for carrier grade voice over IEEE 802.16 systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the use of IEEE 802.16 based networks for voice communications is considered. Specifically the system voice traffic performance is investigated in conjunction with the carrier grade QoS restrictions. The burstiness of voice traffic with VAD is taken into account. Analytical methods for carrier grade voice traffic over IEEE 802.16 system evaluation under different scheduling algorithms for UL

B. P. Tsankov; P. H. Koleva; K. M. Kassev

2008-01-01

65

Prostatic adenocarcinoma: reproducibility and correlation with clinical stages of four grading systems.  

PubMed

One hundred cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostate were independently examined by light microscopy by three pathologists and graded according to the Gleason, Mostofi, Böcking, and MD Anderson systems (MDAH). The results were compared in order to establish which one of these classifications was the most reproducible and then correlated to the clinical stage in order to determine how accurately each classification can predict the spread of the tumors. The MDAH system, based on the percentage of gland formation in the tumor, was the easiest to use and most reproducible system. On the other hand, the Mostofi and the Böcking systems had the best correlation between grade and stage while the MDAH system had the worst. The Böcking system was the best grading system when reproducibility and accuracy in predicting the prognosis were both taken into account. PMID:3371983

de las Morenas, A; Siroky, M B; Merriam, J; Stilmant, M M

1988-05-01

66

An empirical study of the predictive validity of number grades in medical school using 3 decades of longitudinal data: implications for a grading system.  

PubMed

Context It is important to establish the predictive validity of medical school grades. The strength of predictive validity and the ability to identify at-risk students in medical schools depends upon assessment systems such as number grades, pass/fail (P/F) or honours/pass/fail (H/P/F) systems. Objective This study was designed to examine the predictive validity of number grades in medical school, and to determine whether any important information is lost in a shift from number to P/F and H/P/F grading systems. Subjects The participants in this prospective, longitudinal study were 6656 medical students who studied at Jefferson Medical College over 3 decades. They were grouped into 10 deciles based on their number grades in Year 1 of medical school. Methods Participants were compared on academic accomplishments in Years 2 and 3 of medical school, medical school class rank, delayed graduation and attrition, performance on medical licensing examinations and clinical competence ratings in the first postgraduate year. Results Results supported the short- and longterm predictive validity of the number grades. Ratings of clinical competence beyond medical school were predicted by number grades in medical school. We demonstrated that small differences in number grades are statistically meaningful, and that important information for identifying students in need of remedial education is lost when students who narrowly meet faculty's expectations are included with the rest of the class in a broad 'pass' category. Conclusions The findings refute the argument that knowledge of sciences basic to medicine is not critical to subsequent performance in medical school and beyond if an appropriate evaluation system is used. Furthermore, the results of this study raise questions about abandoning number grades in favour of a pass/fail system. Consideration of these findings in policy decisions regarding assessment systems of medical students is recommended. PMID:15025644

Gonnella, Joseph S; Erdmann, James B; Hojat, Mohammadreza

2004-04-01

67

The SIGI Prediction System: Predicting College Grades With and Without Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes components of the Prediction System, one section of the computer-based System of Interactive Guidance and Information (SIGI). Students who use the SIGI Prediction System are provided with detailed criterion information and asked to rate themselves. Predictive validities for final grades in four courses were examined. Consistent findings…

Norris, Lila; Cochran, Donald J.

1977-01-01

68

Theoretical Analysis of a Water Desalination System Using Low Grade Solar Heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical analysis of a solar desalination system utilizing an innovative new concept, which uses low-grade solar heat, is presented. The system utilizes natural means of gravity and atmospheric pressure to create a vacuum, under which liquid can be evapo- rated at much lower temperatures and with less energy than conventional techniques. The uniqueness of the system is in the way

S. Al-Kharabsheh; D. Yogi Goswami

2004-01-01

69

Stability of aqueous food grade fibrillar systems against pH change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report that the stability of an aqueous food grade fibril system upon pH change is affected by the presence of peptides that are formed during the process of fibril formation. We discuss several other relationships between food relevant properties and nano-scale characteristics, and compare these relationships for aqueous fibril systems to those of oil based fibril systems. In such

A. Kroes-Nijboer; H. I. M. Sawalha; P. Venema; A. Bot; E. Flöter; Adel den R; W. G. Bouwman; Linden van der E

2012-01-01

70

Helping Standards Make the Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators can develop fair and accurate standards-based grading/reporting by switching to criterion-referenced grading practices; using differentiated criteria (denoting product, process, and progress); clarifying the purpose of each reporting tool; and developing a reporting form that identifies standards, facilitates interpretation, and…

Guskey, Thomas R.

2001-01-01

71

Urban Middle-Grade Student Mathematics Achievement Growth under Comprehensive School Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the need to implement standards-based instructional materials with school-wide coherence led some Philadelphia schools to adopt whole-school reform (WSR) models during the late 1990s. The authors report on the relation between mathematics achievement growth for middle-grade students on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessments and…

Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Mac Iver, Douglas J.

2009-01-01

72

Three-dimensional analysis of a functionally graded coating/substrate system of finite thickness.  

PubMed

The concept of functionally graded material (FGM) is currently actively explored in coating design for the purpose of eliminating the mismatch of thermomechanical properties at the interfaces and thus increasing the resistance of coatings to functional failure. In the present paper, three-dimensional elastic deformation of a functionally graded coating/substrate system of finite thickness subjected to mechanical loading is investigated. A comparative study of FGM versus homogeneous coating is conducted to examine the effect of the coating type on stress and displacement fields in the system. PMID:18218596

Kashtalyan, M; Menshykova, M

2008-05-28

73

MRC: Overview of the Solar System Grades 6-8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about size and scale of the solar system. Learners will review the structure, content and size of the Solar System. This lesson is designed using the 5E instructional model and includes: teacher training, unit pacing guides, essential questions, a black-line master science notebook, a student presentation booklet, supplemental materials, and vocabulary for both students and teachers. This is lesson 1 as part of the Mars Rover Celebration Unit, a six week long curriculum.

74

New grading system for upper urinary tract dilation using magnetic resonance urography in patients with Neurogenic Bladder  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with neurogenic bladder (NB), elevated intravesical pressures can be transmitted to the upper urinary tract, causing hydronephrosis (HN) and ureteral dilation (UD), which are referred to as upper urinary tract dilation (UUTD). Ureteral obstruction at the bladder wall is another cause for UUTD, but is less of a concern. UUTD can lead to chronic renal failure. Therefore, evaluation and protection of UUT function is extremely important in the management for NB. Currently, the most common method by which to detect HN and UD is ultrasonography (US). The Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) established an US HN grading system in 1993, but this system was found to have some defects. The purpose of this study is to describe a new grading system for UUTD, including both HN and UD, based on magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and to correlate the new grading system with the SFU grading system for HN. Methods A retrospective review of 70 patients with unilateral or bilateral UUTD was completed. Ninety-five sides in patients with UUTD were graded by the MRU-UUTD and SFU-HN grading systems. The results from the two grading systems were compared for each UUTD. Results The MRU-UUTD grading system revealed the following percentages for each grade: grade 0, 0; 1, 10.5%; 2, 19%; 3, 42.1%; and 4, 28.4%. The SFU-HN grading system revealed the following percentages for each grade: 0, 0; 1, 10.5%; 2, 19%; 3, 36.8%; and 4, 33.7%. There was no significant systematic difference between the two grading systems (p?>?0.05), but a significant difference between grades 3 and 4 (p?grading system correlates well with SFU-HN grade, provides an objective and comprehensive evaluation for UUTD, and can be used for longitudinal monitoring of UUTD. This new grading system allows for better informed clinical decision-making, identifying changes in UUTD. PMID:24885460

2014-01-01

75

Assessing the Promise of Standards-Based Performance Evaluation for Principals: Results from a Randomized Trial  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Principals (N = 76) in a large western U.S. school district were randomly assigned to be evaluated using either a new standards-based system or to continue with the old system. It was hypothesized that principals evaluated with the new system would report clearer performance expectations, better feedback, greater fairness and system satisfaction,…

Kimball, Steven Miller; Milanowski, Anthony; McKinney, Sarah A.

2009-01-01

76

A real-time apple grading system using multicolor space.  

PubMed

This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter "a" of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

Toylan, Hayrettin; Kuscu, Hilmi

2014-01-01

77

Ultrasound grading of hydronephrosis: Introduction to the system used by the society for fetal urology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) was founded in 1988 to study the postnatal evolution of prenatally detected anomalies of the urinary tract by following those neonates whose prenatal studies have brought them to medical attention while asymptomatic. The SFU has attempted to standardize methods of performing and grading the ultrasound and radionuclide examinations in this population. A system to

S. K. Fernbach; M. Maizels; J. J. Conway

1993-01-01

78

Enhancing On-Task Behavior in Fourth-Grade Students Using a Modified Color Wheel System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel System (M-CWS) on the on-task behavior of 7 students enrolled in the 4th grade. Standard CWS procedures were modified to include a 4th set of rules designed to set behavioral expectation for cooperative learning activities. Mean data showed that immediately…

Blondin, Carolyn; Skinner, Christopher; Parkhurst, John; Wood, Allison; Snyder, Jamie

2012-01-01

79

From the notch to a glioma grading system: the neurological contributions of James Watson Kernohan.  

PubMed

During his lifetime and a career spanning 42 years, James Watson Kernohan made numerous contributions to neuropathology, neurology, and neurosurgery. One of these, the phenomenon of ipsilateral, false localizing signs caused by compression of the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorial edge, has widely become known as "Kernohan's notch" and continues to bear his name. The other is a grading system for gliomas from a neurosurgical viewpoint that continues to be relevant for grading of glial tumors 60 years after its introduction. In this paper, the authors analyze these two major contributions in detail within the context of Kernohan's career and explore how they contributed to the development of neurosurgical procedures. PMID:24684337

Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Maurer, Adrian J; Archer, Jacob B; Hanel, Ricardo A; Sughrue, Michael E; Theodore, Nicholas; Preul, Mark C

2014-04-01

80

Symposium: Language Assessment in Standards-Based Education Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This symposium article, to which three authors contribute distinct parts, presents the rationale for standards-based language assessment and examines both the uses and misuses of language assessments in English-speaking countries that are engaged in standards-based education reform. Specifically, they focus on the assessment of emergent bilinguals…

Menken, Kate; Hudson, Thom; Leung, Constant

2014-01-01

81

Incentives and Equity under Standards-Based Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards-based reform is a strategy that includes specifying what is to be learned, devising tests to measure learning, and establishing consequences of performance for students and schools. Popular support remains strong for standards-based reform, according to national polling data as well as local data in the states implementing this strategy.…

Costrell, Robert M.; Betts, Julian R.

2001-01-01

82

MRC: Overview of the Solar System Grades 3-5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the size and scale of planets in the solar system. Learners will kinesthetically model the order of the planets outward from the sun. Then they will use a string and beads to create a model to represent the relative distances between the planets. Finally they will explore another model (using a beach ball for the sun) to discuss relative size of the planets to the sun. The lesson uses the 5E instructional model and includes teacher training, pacing guides, essential questions, a black-line master science notebook, a student presentation booklet, supplemental materials, and vocabulary for both students and teachers. This is lesson 1 as part of the Mars Rover Celebration Unit, a six week long curriculum.

83

Graded Si1-xGex Metrology Using a Multi-Technology Optical System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graded Si1-xGex structures have been measured with good accuracy, stability and tool-tool matching by utilizing different measurement methods in one system (Opti-Probe®). The measurement methods utilized are (i) laser reflectivity versus angle for S and P polarization (BPR®), (ii) visible-DUV reflectometry (BB), and (iii) spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). An alloy dispersion model, along with a multi-layer linear graded-material model, were used to process the data and extract the thickness of the cap-Si, graded and spacer Si1-xGex layers, as well as the Ge%, simultaneously. The results were found to be in agreement with subsequent SIMS analysis to within 50Å for all layers and 0.5% atomic Ge%. Stability and matching results for thickness were <13Å (3?) for all layers, and for the Ge% the stability was <0.25-0.6% (3?).

Pois, Heath; Huang, Jacky; Morris, Stephen; Peterlinz, Kevin; Zangooie, Shahin; Liu, JinPing; Tan, Boon Lay; Sohn, Dong Kyun; Jones, Robert; Scheirer, Curry

2003-09-01

84

Monitoring subsurface microbial and nutrient transport to assess treatment capability of at- grade septic system designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By design, septic systems release pathogenic microbes, nutrients and other chemical contaminants into the subsurface and have the potential to adversely impact groundwater quality. Newer at-grade septic system designs discharge wastewater effluent on the soil surface, however, relatively little research has been conducted on transport processes and treatment efficacy for these systems. The objective of this study was to investigate physical, biological, and chemical processes beneath two at-grade wastewater treatment systems. Secondary treated effluent from the Fish Creek wastewater treatment plant in Calgary is being applied to soil through the two at-grade systems in volumes equivalent to a three-bedroom household. A dye tracer was also introduced with the effluent to aid in the evaluation of subsurface flow patterns and the identification of soil sampling locations. An extensive vadose zone monitoring system, consisting of suction lysimeters, tensiometers, time domain reflectometry probes, thermistors, and soil vapour probes, was installed to track the effluent through the soil profile. Fecal coliform, total coliform, and E. Coli, as well as other physical and chemical parameters, are being monitored in-situ. Soil samples for microbial and chemical analysis have also been obtained by excavating portions of the infiltration area beneath the two systems. Chemical and dye tracers showed relatively rapid migration of effluent to depths of up to 1.5 m below surface. Preliminary pathogen results indicate an approximately four log reduction in E. Coli concentrations at 10 cm depth and six log reduction at 60 cm depth. Continued monitoring of these pilot systems will provide valuable data on subsurface pathogen migration and the suitability of at-grade systems for treating wastewater and reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

Cey, E.; Motz, E.; Chu, A.; Ryan, C.

2009-05-01

85

Site-specific tumor grading system in colorectal cancer: multicenter pathologic review of the value of quantifying poorly differentiated clusters.  

PubMed

The study aimed to determine the value of a novel site-specific grading system based on quantifying poorly differentiated clusters (PDC; Grade(PDC)) in colorectal cancer (CRC). A multicenter pathologic review involving 12 institutions was performed on 3243 CRC cases (stage I, 583; II, 1331; III, 1329). Cancer clusters of ?5 cancer cells and lacking a gland-like structure (PDCs) were counted under a ×20 objective lens in a field containing the maximum clusters. Tumors with <5, 5 to 9, and ?10 PDCs were classified as grades G1, G2, and G3, respectively. According to Grade(PDC), 1594, 1005, and 644 tumors were classified as G1, G2, and G3 and had 5-year recurrence-free survival rates of 91.6%, 75.4%, and 59.6%, respectively (P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that Grade exerted an influence on prognostic outcome independently of TNM staging; approximately 20% and 46% of stage I and II patients, respectively, were selected by Grade(PDC) as a population whose survival estimate was comparable to or even worse than that of stage III patients. Grade(PDC) surpassed TNM staging in the ability to stratify patients by recurrence-free survival (Akaike information criterion, 2915.6 vs. 2994.0) and had a higher prognostic value than American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) grading (Grade(AJCC)) at all stages. Regarding judgment reproducibility of grading tumors, weighted ? among the 12 institutions was 0.40 for Grade(AJCC) and 0.52 for Grade(PDC). Grade(PDC) has a robust prognostic power and promises to be of sufficient clinical value to merit implementation as a site-specific grading system in CRC. PMID:24418853

Ueno, Hideki; Hase, Kazuo; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Masafumi; Miyake, Ohki; Masaki, Tadahiko; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Kameoka, Shingo; Sato, Yu; Matsuda, Keiji; Nakadoi, Koichi; Shinto, Eiji; Nakamura, Takahiro; Sugihara, Kenichi

2014-02-01

86

A relation between Z3-graded symmetry and shape invariant supersymmetric systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a notable property of shape invariant supersymmetric quantum mechanical systems. Particularly, we demonstrate that each shape invariant supersymmetric system can constitute a Z3-graded symmetric algebra. The latter is known from the literature to provide topological invariants which are generalizations of the Witten index. In addition, we relate the Z3-graded algebra to the generators of a deformed SO(2,1) Lie algebra underlying each shape invariant system. We generalize the results to the case of sequential shape invariant systems, in which case we find a sequence of Z3-graded algebras. Finally, we present an example of shape invariant supersymmetric quantum system for which we express the elements of the Z3 in terms of the operators that constitute the supersymmetric algebra of the quantum system. In view of the fact that the shape invariance condition is somewhat an additional algebraic condition to supersymmetric quantum systems, with no origin to some concrete algebraic structure, our results might be useful towards this line of research.

Oikonomou, V. K.

2014-10-01

87

Grading Teachers' Grading Policies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes guidelines for principals attempting to evaluate teachers' grading policies. Principals should understand teachers' perspectives, ask for copies of their grading policies, be wary of traits (like "effort") not measuring achievement, consider grading information quality, think about homework's role, expect teachers to use numbers and…

Friedman, Stephen J.

1998-01-01

88

Integrated switching system interface for the voice-grade services of a hybrid fiber-coax system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid fiber-coax (HFC) systems have been developed to efficiently deliver television and other broadband services along with voice-grade services to the subscriber's premises. The efficiency of an HFC system, from both a call processing and an economic point of view, is enhanced by providing an integrated interface into the local digital switch (LDS) for the voice- grade services. Two interfaces in the public domain that can be used to provide the integrated voice-grade interface to the LDS are known as the TR-08 Interface, defined in Bellcore's Technical Reference document TR-NWT-000008, and the TR-303 Interface, defined in Bellcore's Technical Reference document TR-NWT-000303. This paper presents a brief overview of the TR-08 and TR-303 interfaces to LDSs. The advantages of using the TR-303 Interface for an HFC system's voice-grade interface to the LDS are discussed for the operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning (OAM&P) functions. Also discussed are the economic considerations of providing plain old telephone service (POTS) and integrated services digital network circuits in HFC systems via TR-08 and TR-303 interfaces to the LDS.

Arvidson, Wayne; Jiang, Song

1995-11-01

89

Enhancing On-Task Behavior in Fourth-Grade Students Using a Modified Color Wheel System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel System (M-CWS) on the on-task behavior of 7 students enrolled in the 4th grade. Standard CWS procedures were modified to include a 4th set of rules designed to set behavioral expectation for cooperative learning activities. Mean data showed that immediately after the M-CWS was applied,

Carolyn Blondin; Christopher Skinner; John Parkhurst; Allison Wood; Jamie Snyder

2012-01-01

90

Cerebellar Arteriovenous Malformations: Anatomical Subtypes, Surgical Results, and Increased Predictive Accuracy of the Supplementary Grading System  

PubMed Central

Background Anatomical diversity amongst cerebellar AVMs calls for a classification that is intuitive and surgically informative. Selection tools like the Spetzler-Martin grading system are designed to work best with cerebral AVMs, but have shortcomings with cerebellar AVMs. Objective To define subtypes of cerebellar AVMs that clarify anatomy and surgical management, determine results according to subtypes, and compare predictive accuracies of Spetzler-Martin and supplementary systems. Methods From a consecutive surgical series of 500 patients, 60 had cerebellar AVMs, 39 had brain stem AVMs and were excluded, and 401 had cerebral AVMs. Results Cerebellar AVM subtypes were: 18 vermian, 13 suboccipital, 12 tentorial, 12 petrosal, and 5 tonsillar. Patients with tonsillar and tentorial AVMs fared best. Cerebellar AVMs presented with hemorrhage more than cerebral AVMs (p<0.001). Cerebellar AVMs were more likely to drain deep (p=0.036) and less likely eloquent (p<0.001). The predictive accuracy of supplementary grade was better than that of Spetzler-Martin grade with cerebellar AVMs (areas under the ROC curve 0.74 and 0.59, respectively). The predictive accuracy of the supplementary system was consistent for cerebral and cerebellar AVMs, whereas that of the Spetzler-Martin system was greater with cerebral AVMs. Conclusion Patients with cerebellar AVMs present with hemorrhage more than patients with cerebral AVMs, justifying an aggressive treatment posture. The supplementary system is better than the Spetzler-Martin system at predicting outcomes after cerebellar AVM resection. Key components of the Spetzler-Martin system, like venous drainage and eloquence, are distorted by cerebellar anatomy in ways that components of the supplementary system are not. PMID:22986595

Rodriguez-Hernandez, Ana; Kim, Helen; Pourmohamad, Tony; Young, William L.; Lawton, Michael T.

2013-01-01

91

A Food-Grade Cloning System for Industrial Strains of Lactococcus lactis  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported the construction of a food-grade cloning vector for Lactococcus using the ochre suppressor, supB, as the selective marker. This vector, pFG1, causes only a slight growth inhibition in the laboratory strain MG1363 but is unstable in the industrial strains tested. As supB suppresses both amber and ochre stop codons, which are present in 82% of all known lactococcal genes, this undesirable finding may result from the accumulation of elongated mistranslated polypeptides. Here, we report the development of a new food-grade cloning vector, pFG200, which is suitable for overexpressing a variety of genes in industrial strains of Lactococcus lactis. The vector uses an amber suppressor, supD, as selectable marker and consists entirely of Lactococcus DNA, with the exception of a small polylinker region. Using suppressible pyrimidine auxotrophs, selection and maintenance are efficient in any pyrimidine-free medium including milk. Importantly, the presence of this vector in a variety of industrial strains has no significant effect on the growth rate or the rate of acidification in milk, making this an ideal system for food-grade modification of industrially relevant L. lactis strains. The usefulness of this system is demonstrated by overexpressing the pepN gene in a number of industrial backgrounds. PMID:10742196

S?rensen, Kim I.; Larsen, Rasmus; Kibenich, Annette; Junge, Mette P.; Johansen, Eric

2000-01-01

92

Positional accuracy of the Wide Area Augmentation System in consumer-grade GPS units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global Positioning System devices are increasingly being used for data collection in many fields. Consumer-grade GPS units without differential correction have a published horizontal positional accuracy of approximately 10-15 m (average positional accuracy). An attractive option for differential correction for these GPS units is the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Most consumer-grade GPS units on the market are WAAS capable. According to the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA), the WAAS broadcast message provides integrity information about the GPS signal as well as accuracy improvements, which are reported to improve accuracy to 3-5 m. Limited empirical evidence has been published on the accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS compared to autonomous GPS. An empirical study was conducted comparing the horizontal and vertical accuracy of WAAS-corrected GPS and autonomous GPS under ideal conditions using consumer-grade receivers. Data were collected for 30-min time spans over accurately surveyed control points. Metrics of median, 68th and 95th percentile, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and average positional accuracy in the horizontal and vertical dimensions were computed and statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was found between WAAS and autonomous position fixes when using two different consumer-grade units. When using WAAS, a third unit type exhibited a statistically significant improvement in positional accuracy. Analysis of data collected for a 27-h time span indicates that while WAAS is altering the estimated position of a point compared to an autonomous position estimate, WAAS augmentation actually appears to decrease the positional accuracy.

Arnold, Lisa L.; Zandbergen, Paul A.

2011-07-01

93

The Impact of Two Standards-Based Mathematics Curricula on Student Achievement in Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the passage of the Education Reform Act in 1993, Massachusetts has developed curriculum frameworks and a new statewide testing system. As school districts align curriculum and teaching practices with the frameworks, standards-based mathematics programs are beginning to replace more traditional curricula. This paper presents a quasi-experimental study using matched comparison groups to investigate the impact of one elementary and

Julie E. Riordan; Pendred E. Noyce

94

Consultation to Support Inclusive Accountability and Standards-Based Reform: Facilitating Access, Equity, and Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current federal legislation (i.e., No Child Left Behind (NCLB)) requires states to set rigorous academic standards, ensure classroom instruction addresses these standards, and measure and report students' progress via large-scale assessments. NCLB assumes that inclusive accountability systems and standards-based reform will result in improved…

Roach, Andrew T.; Elliott, Stephen N.

2009-01-01

95

Grading the severity of soft tissue changes associated with metal-on-metal hip replacements: reliability of an MR grading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Metal-on-metal (MoM) soft tissue reactions or aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL) are being recognised\\u000a using metal artefact reduction (MAR) MR with increasing frequency following the advent of second generation metal-on-metal\\u000a bearings, but there is no standardised technique for reporting of MR appearances in this disease. The aim of this study was\\u000a to measure the reliability of a grading system designed

Helen Anderson; Andoni Paul Toms; John G. Cahir; Richard W. Goodwin; James Wimhurst; John F. Nolan

2011-01-01

96

Effect of the Iranian hospital grading system on patients' and general practitioners' behaviour: an examination of awareness, belief and choice.  

PubMed

There is considerable international interest in the use of performance measurement and their public release in order to improve the quality of care. However, few studies have assessed stakeholders' awareness and use of performance data. Iranian hospitals have been graded annually since 1998 and hospital hotel charges vary by grade, but this system has never been evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 104 outpatients at eight Teheran hospitals and 103 general practitioners (GPs) to assess the awareness of and attitudes towards hospital grading system. Only 5.8% of patients (95% CI: 1.3-10.3%) and 11.7% of GPs (95% CI: 5.5-17.9%) were aware of grading results. Patients' awareness was positively associated with their education level (P = 0.016). No patient used the grading results for choosing a hospital and only one GP (1%, 95% CI: 0-2%) reported using hospital grade to influence referral decisions. Patients were more influenced by hospitals' public reputation and that of their specialists. GPs believed that the grading system did not reflect the quality of care in hospitals. When developing performance measurement systems, public release of data should be accompanied by evaluation of its impact on awareness and health-care choices. PMID:20702891

Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor

2010-08-01

97

Relating Prognosis in Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Chromophobe Tumor Grading System  

PubMed Central

Purpose The chromophobe subtype of renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) has generally been associated with a better prognosis than the clear cell type; however, debate continues as to absolute prognosis as well as the significance of certain prognostic variables. We investigated the significance of pathologic stage and a recently proposed chromophobe tumor grading (CTG) scheme in predicting chRCC outcomes. Materials and Methods All available chRCCs were identified from our surgical pathology archives from 1987-2010. Original slides were reviewed to verify diagnoses and stage, and each case was graded following a novel chromophobe tumor grade system criteria. Disease status was obtained from a clinical outcome database, and cancer specific deaths and recurrences were recorded. Results Eighty-one cases of chRCC were identified, and 73 had adequate follow-up information available. There were only 3 instances of cancer related recurrence or mortality, which included 1 disease specific mortality and 2 disease recurrences. Pathologic stage and CTG 3 were found to be significantly associated with the recurrences or death from chRCC, but there was no association with CTG 1 and CTG 2. Conclusions chRCC is associated with a very low rate of cancer specific events (4.1%) even at a tertiary referral center. In our study, pathologic stage and CTG 3, but not CTG 1 or 2, were significantly associated with the development of these events. PMID:24741411

Weinzierl, Elizabeth P; Thong, Alan E; McKenney, Jesse K; Jeon, Seung Hyun

2014-01-01

98

Standards-Based Mathematics Assessments Appearances May Be Deceiving  

E-print Network

to determine the worth of a high school diploma and compensate for the effects of years of grade-inflation grade level assessed, as well as the design of the assessments and related reporting mechanisms. Tests of five eighth grade mathematics tests used in the United States (three commercial tests and two designed

Klein, David

99

Hypoactivation of reward motivational system in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension grade I-II.  

PubMed

In patients with newly diagnosed untreated grade I-II hypertension, EEG oscillations were recorded under conditions activation of the two basic motivational systems, defensive motivational system and positive reinforcement system, evoked by recall of personally meaningful emotional events. The 64-channel EEG and cardiovascular reactivity (beat-by-beat technology) were simultaneously recorded. At rest, hypertensive patients had significantly reduced platelet serotonin concentrations in comparison with healthy individuals. The patients experiencing emotional activation were characterized by significantly lower intensity of positive emotions associated with more pronounced suppression of EEG activity in the delta (2-4 Hz) and theta (ranges of frequency 4-6 and 6-8 Hz) oscillators in the parieto-occipital cortex (zones P and PO) in both hemispheres of the brain. The findings attest to insufficient function of the brain serotonin system and hypoactivation of the reward/reinforcement system in patients with primary hypertension. PMID:25110077

Aftanas, L I; Brak, I V; Gilinskaya, O M; Korenek, V V; Pavlov, S V; Reva, N V

2014-08-01

100

An evaluation on the life cycle of photovoltaic energy system considering production energy of off-grade silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) cells and residential PV systems using off-grade silicon supplied from semiconductor industries were evaluated from a life cycle point of view. Energy payback time (EPT) of the residential PV system with the c-Si PV cells made of the off-grade silicon was estimated at 15.5 years and indirect CO2 emission per unit electrical

Kazuhiko Kato; Akinobu Murata; Koichi Sakuta

1997-01-01

101

Omnibus Guidelines: A Comprehensive Reference for Early Childhood and Elementary Educators. Volume 1: Preschool through Third Grade [and] Volume 2: Kindergarten through Fifth Grade. 3rd Edition. The Work Sampling System[R].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Work Sampling System is a performance assessment that provides an alternative to group-administered, norm-referenced achievement tests for preschool through fifth grade. This volume presents a compilation of the Work Sampling System Developmental Guidelines for preschool through third grade. The guidelines are grouped into these categories:…

Jablon, Judy R.; Marsden, Dorothea B.; Meisels, Samuel J.; Dichtelmiller, Margo L.

102

Aligning Transition and Standards-Based Education: Issues and Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eleven papers address issues in the alignment of standards-based education and individualized transition planning and service development for students with disabilities including differences in assumptions and principles, the transition planning model as a framework for achieving this alignment, and educational practices resulting from this…

Kochhar-Bryant, Carol, Ed.; Bassett, Diane S., Ed.

103

Including All Children in Standards-Based Physical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the inclusion of students with and without disabilities in physical education as the movement toward standards-based education progresses, examining whether standards should be applied to all students, obstacles to including all students, ways to include all students, and the importance of standards for teachers. An example of inclusive…

Johnson, Lynn V.; Kasser, Susan L.; Nichols, Beverly A.

2002-01-01

104

What's the Big Issue? Creating Standards-Based Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Technological Issues" is one of a series of standards-based curricula being developed through the Center for the Advancement of Teaching Technology and Science (CATTS). This curriculum has been developed by the author of this article over the past year and a half. In this article, the author describes what it takes to develop a curriculum that…

Hider, Glenn R.

2006-01-01

105

The Assumptions and Possible Futures of Standards-Based Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards-based education is the most important and widely implemented education reform idea of the last several decades in the USA, one supported by the full weight of the mainstream bipartisan educational establishment. Motivated by "global economic competitiveness" as the ideological driver and big business as the empirical driver, it…

Brown, Boyce

2013-01-01

106

Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Essay titles reveal the range of programs--and creativity--this book encompasses. Among the titles are "Technology and Cooperative Learning: The IIT Model for Teaching Authentic Chemistry Curriculum," "Modeling: Changes in Traditional Physics Instruction," "Guided by the Standards: Inquiry and Assessment in Two Rural and Urban Schools," and even "Sing and Dance Your Way to Science Success." The book ends with a summary chapter by editor Robert Yager on successes and continuing challenges in meeting the Standards' visions for improving high school science. As Yager notes, "The exemplary programs described in this monograph give inspiration while also providing evidence that the new directions are feasible and worth the energy and effort needed for others to implement changes.

2005-01-01

107

Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Essay titles reveal the range of programs--and creativity--this book encompasses. Among the titles are "Technology and Cooperative Learning: The IIT Model for Teaching Authentic Chemistry Curriculum," "Modeling: Changes in Traditional Physics Instruction," "Guided by the Standards: Inquiry and Assessment in Two Rural and Urban Schools," and even "Sing and Dance Your Way to Science Success." The book ends with a summary chapter by editor Robert Yager on successes and continuing challenges in meeting the Standards' visions for improving high school science. As Yager notes, "The exemplary programs described in this monograph give inspiration while also providing evidence that the new directions are feasible and worth the energy and effort needed for others to implement changes.

2009-05-18

108

Video image analysis as a potential grading system for Uruguayan beef carcasses.  

PubMed

A study was conducted in 2 phases to evaluate the effectiveness of 1) the VIAscan Beef Carcass System (BCSys; hot carcass system) and the CVS BeefCam (chilled carcass system), used independently or in combination, to predict Uruguayan beef carcass fabrication yields; and 2) the CVS BeefCam to segregate Uruguayan beef carcasses into groups that differ in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values of their LM steaks. The results from the meat yield phase of the present study indicated that the prediction of saleable meat yield percentages from Uruguayan beef carcasses by use of the BCSys or CVS BeefCam is similar to, or slightly better than, the use of USDA yield grade calculated to the nearest 0.1 and was much more effective than prediction based on Uruguay National Institute of Meat (INAC) grades. A further improvement in fabrication yield prediction could be obtained by use of a dual-component video image analysis (VIA) system. Whichever method of VIA prediction of fabrication yield is used, a single predicted value of fabrication yield for every carcass removes an impediment to the implementation of a value-based pricing system. Additionally, a VIA method of predicting carcass yield has the advantage over the current INAC classification system in that estimates would be produced by an instrument rather than by packing plant personnel, which would appeal to cattle producers. Results from the tenderness phase of the study indicated that the CVS BeefCam output variable for marbling was not (P > 0.05) able to segregate steer and heifer carcasses into groups that differed in WBSF values. In addition, the results of segregating steer and heifer carcasses according to muscle color output variables indicate that muscle maturity and skeletal maturity were useful for segregating carcasses according to differences in WBSF values of their steaks (P > 0.05). Use of VIA to predict beef carcass fabrication yields could improve accuracy and reduce subjectivity in comparison with use of current INAC grades. Use of VIA to sort carcasses according to muscle color would allow for the marketing of more consistent beef products with respect to tenderness. This would help facilitate the initiation of a value-based marketing system for the Uruguayan beef industry. PMID:19395512

Vote, D J; Bowling, M B; Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Montossi, F; Smith, G C

2009-07-01

109

An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu2+ anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60?°C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat.

Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

2014-05-01

110

An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy.  

PubMed

Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu(2+) anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60 °C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat. PMID:24845707

Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

2014-01-01

111

Evaluation of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study Clinical Lens Grading System AREDS Report No. 31  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the grading (inter-rater) reliability of the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) Clinical Lens Grading System (ARLNS). Design Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology Participants 150 volunteers (284 eyes) Methods Participants with lens opacities of varying severity were independently graded at the slit lamp for cataract severity by 2 examiners (retinal or anterior segment specialists) using the ARLNS, which employs 3 standard photographs of increasing severity for classifying each of the 3 major types of opacity. Lens photographs were taken and graded at a reading center using the more detailed AREDS System for Classifying Cataracts from Photographs. Main Outcome Measures The Pearson correlation, weighted-kappa, and limits-of-agreement statistics were used to assess the inter-rater agreement of the gradings. Results Examinations were performed on 284 lenses (150 participants). Tests of inter-rater reliability between pairs of clinicians showed substantial agreement between clinicians for cortical and posterior subcapsular opacities and moderate agreement for nuclear opacities. A similar pattern and strength of agreement was present when comparing scores of retinal versus anterior segment specialists. Inter-rater agreement between clinical and reading center gradings was not as great as inter-clinician agreement. Conclusions Inter-rater agreements were in the moderate to substantial range for the clinical assessment of lens opacities. Inherent differences in cataract classification systems that rely on slit lamp vs photographic assessments of lens opacities may explain some of the disagreement noted between slit lamp and photographic gradings. Given the inter-rater reliability statistics for clinicians and the simplicity of the grading procedure, ARLNS is presented for use in studies requiring a simple, inexpensive method for detecting the presence and severity of the major types of lens opacities. PMID:20561686

Chew, Emily Y.; Kim, Jonghyeon; Sperduto, Robert D.; Datiles, Manuel B.; Coleman, Hanna R.; Thompson, Darby J. S.; Milton, Roy C.; Clayton, Janine A.; Hubbard, Larry D.; Danis, Ronald P.; Ferris, Frederick L.

2010-01-01

112

A new coronary artery disease grading system correlates with numerous routine parameters that were associated with atherosclerosis: a grading system for coronary artery disease severity  

PubMed Central

Background Several scoring systems have tried to determine the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) to investigate the connection between CAD severity and laboratory parameters. Methods In total, 189 male (mean age: 61.86±10.77 years) and 75 female CAD patients (mean age: 67.84±7.70 years) were recruited and underwent angiography, which determined stenosis grade, of 17 coronary segments: no points for each nonstenosed segment or only calcified segments, one point for each stenosis from <30% to <50%, two points for each stenosis from 50% to <70%, and three points for each stenosis >70%. The points were added and should represent the severity of patients’ CAD. Results The coronary score correlated positively with systolic blood pressure, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lipase, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen Clauss, and leukocytes, and correlated negatively with Cl?, iron, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Stepwise multiple regression analysis with backward elimination revealed diabetes status, sex, and fibrinogen Clauss as significant predictors of coronary score. Conclusion The coronary score delivers a quite simple but very precise tool for the quantification of CAD severity. These results show plainly the connection between CAD severity and the lipid, glucose, coagulation, and immunologic status of CAD patients, and substantiate the importance of sufficient treatment in this group of patients – in particular, CAD patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. The coronary score would offer a suitable tool for the investigation of the connection between CAD and new biomarkers. Further studies are needed to investigate the correlation of the coronary score with outcome parameters (eg, death).

Sponder, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Marculescu, Rodrig; Litschauer, Brigitte; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

2014-01-01

113

Standards-based Reform: Leaving the Teachers Behind  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the national implementation of a revised model of standards-based reform public education, brought about by the authorization of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-110), it is important to assess its consequences not simply on our schools as a whole, i.e. do they pass or fail, but also and significantly on the educators who teach

Michelle Suchenski

2007-01-01

114

Examining the Factor Structure of a State Standards-Based Science Assessment for Students with Learning Disabilities. Research Report. ETS RR-11-38  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the scores on a state standards-based Grade 5 Science assessment obtained by a group of students without learning disabilities who took the standard form of the test and by three groups of students with learning disabilities: one taking the standard form of the test without accommodations or modifications, a second taking the…

Steinberg, Jonathan; Cline, Frederick; Sawaki, Yasuyo

2011-01-01

115

Graded photonic quasicrystals.  

PubMed

We introduce graded photonic quasicrystals and investigate properties of such structures on the example of a Luneburg lens based on a dodecagonal photonic quasicrystal. It is shown that the graded photonic quasicrystal lens has better focusing properties as compared with the graded photonic crystal lens in a frequency range suitable for experimental realization. The proposed graded photonic quasicrystals can be used in optical systems where compact and powerful focusing elements are required. PMID:22739847

Dyachenko, Pavel N; Pavelyev, Vladimir S; Soifer, Victor A

2012-06-15

116

Development and testing of a radiosurgery-based arteriovenous malformation grading system.  

PubMed

Stereotactic radiosurgery is an accepted management option for many patients with intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The Spetzler-Martin grading scale is the most widely accepted and utilized method to predict outcomes after surgical resection of intracranial AVMs but is not sensitive to factors that correlate with successful AVM radiosurgery. The need for a system that accurately predicts patient outcomes after AVM radiosurgery led to the development of the radiosurgery-based AVM score (RBAS). The RBAS has evolved and has been modified over the years to reflect changes in AVM radiosurgical technique and has been validated by numerous centers using the Gamma Knife®, modified LINAC and the CyberKnife®. Use of the RBAS permits an accurate prediction of outcomes from radiosurgery to guide choices between observation, surgical resection or radiosurgery for individual AVM patients, and should be used in future studies on AVM radiosurgery to stratify patients for more precise comparative analyses. PMID:23258509

Pollock, Bruce E

2013-01-01

117

The effects of hyperthermia on normal mesenchymal tissues. Application of a histologic grading system  

SciTech Connect

The alterations produced by radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia of 42 to 48 degrees C for 30 minutes were studied in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of swine. Acute lesions (18 to 24 hours) included edema, hemorrhage, necrosis (predominantly of myocytes) and granulocytic exudate in fat or muscle. The most important chronic lesion (28 to 31 days) was fibrosis replacing either tissue. There was a histiolymphocytic exudate with foreign-body giant cells around large lipid vacuoles. Muscle necrosis persisted and there was variable myocyte regeneration. Several specimens showed deep necrosis and abscesses. A grading system was developed to quantitate independently acute and chronic damage in each tissue. Acute lesions were usually less severe and extensive than chronic ones, without obvious dose response. Chronic lesions showed clearly a dose response, which began at 43 degrees C and increased with temperature. The latter appear to be reliable indicators of hyperthermic damage in deep soft tissues.

Meshorer, A.; Prionas, S.D.; Fajardo, L.F.; Meyer, J.L.; Hahn, G.M.; Martinez, A.A.

1983-06-01

118

A DHT Key-Value Storage System with Carrier Grade Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology being widely adopted in today’s both academic research and practical service providing, has many potential advantages and achieves a great success in Information Technology scope. Recently some researchers have proposed that P2P inspired architecture also might be one choice for the telecom network evolution. Most of such works adopted structured P2P (DHT) as the basic solutions, but they seldom discussed how to eliminate the huge gap between the telecom underlay performance requirement and the performance of existed DHT which mainly originated from the Internet applications. This paper presents the design and implementation of SandStone, a DHT based key-value storage system with carrier grade performance, such as good scalability, strong consistency and high reliability, which could be deployed as the cornerstone in such new P2P inspired networking architectures.

Shi, Guangyu; Chen, Jian; Gong, Hao; Fan, Lingyuan; Xue, Haiqiang; Lu, Qingming; Liang, Liang

119

Prevalence of systemic co-morbidities in patients with various grades of diabetic retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Background & objectives: Though diabetes affects multiple organs, most studies highlight the occurence of only one complication in isolation. We conducted a hospital-based study to estimate the co-existence of significant systemic co-morbid conditions in patients with varying grades of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: A total of 170 consecutive patients with diabetic retinopathy were prospectively recruited for the study between June 2009 to June 2010 at a tertiary care eye centre in north India. Retinopathy was graded by fundus biomicroscopy and fundus photography and classified into three categories (mild-moderate nonproliferative retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy requiring only laser and proliferative retinopathy requiring surgery). Nephropathy was classified by calculating the six variable estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for all patients. Nerve conduction studies and clinical assessment were used to determine presence of neuropathy. Co-existence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease was also ascertained. Results: The percentages of patients with overt nephropathy in the three groups were 19.2, 38.0 and 41.2, respectively. Significant linear trends were observed for serum creatinine (P=0.004), albumin (P=0.017) and eGFR (P=0.030). A higher per cent had abnormal nerve conduction on electrophysiology than that diagnosed clinically (65.4 vs. 44.2, 76.0 vs. 40.0 and 64.8 vs. 48.6, respectively). The odds ratio (95% CI) for co-existence of nephropathy, neuropathy, CVA (cerebrovascular accidents) and PVD (peripheral vascular disease) was 2.9, 0.9, 4.8 and 3.5, respectively. Independent of retinopathy severity, patients with clinically significant macular oedema (CSME) had a higher percentage of nephropathy (P < 0.005). Interpretation & conclusions: The co-existence of overt nephropathy, nerve conduction based neuropathy and macrovascular co-morbidity in patients with early grades of diabetic retinopathy was significant. Screening for overt nephropathy by eGFR should be considered in all patients with clinically significant macular oedema. PMID:25222781

Venkatesh, Pradeep; Tibrewal, Sapna; Bhowmik, Dipankar; Tripathi, Manjari; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Vashist, Naginder; Vohra, Rajpal; Garg, Satpal

2014-01-01

120

Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood.  

PubMed

Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one's status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9-16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child's role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

Copeland, William E; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E Jane

2014-05-27

121

A Case Study of Systemic Reform to Improve Ninth Grade Advancement toward Graduation in a Multi-High School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Too many freshmen students remain mired in the ninth grade, presenting a growing problem for America's secondary schools as they struggle to improve high school completion rates. In an effort to stem the tide of high school dropouts, a southeast Texas suburban school district with five comprehensive high schools engaged in a systemic reform effort…

Lewis, Kirk

2008-01-01

122

Effective Summer B 2013 PLEASE NOTE: G.P.A. is calculated using UF's grade point system.  

E-print Network

by major and specialization. Application Process Students may apply to CALS by completing the onlineEffective Summer B 2013 #12;PLEASE NOTE: G.P.A. is calculated using UF's grade point system. Refer Studies 24 Environmental Science 25 Family, Youth and Community Sciences 27 Food and Resource Economics 28

Jawitz, James W.

123

A Study of the Effects of Two Evaluation/Reward Grading Systems on Cognition Performance in College Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Qualitative and quantitative differences in cognitive performance resulting from two different evaluation and reward grading systems were studied among 88 students enrolled in a one-semester "Biological Concepts" course with content from the field of ecology. Students were randomly divided into the experimental and the control groups. One group…

Howell, Dillon Lee

124

Translation into Brazilian Portuguese and validation of the "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Post-acne Scarring" *  

PubMed Central

The "Quantitative Global Scarring Grading System for Postacne Scarring" was developed in English for acne scar grading, based on the number and severity of each type of scar. The aims of this study were to translate this scale into Brazilian Portuguese and verify its reliability and validity. The study followed five steps: Translation, Expert Panel, Back Translation, Approval of authors and Validation. The translated scale showed high internal consistency and high test-retest reliability, confirming its reproducibility. Therefore, it has been validated for our population and can be recommended as a reliable instrument to assess acne scarring. PMID:25184939

Cachafeiro, Thais Hofmann; Escobar, Gabriela Fortes; Maldonado, Gabriela; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

2014-01-01

125

Development and characterization of food-grade tracers for the global grain tracing and recall system.  

PubMed

Tracing grain from the farm to its final processing destination as it moves through multiple grain-handling systems, storage bins, and bulk carriers presents numerous challenges to existing record-keeping systems. This study examines the suitability of coded caplets to trace grain, in particular, to evaluate methodology to test tracers' ability to withstand the rigors of a commercial grain handling and storage systems as defined by physical properties using measurement technology commonly applied to assess grain hardness and end-use properties. Three types of tracers to dispense into bulk grains for tracing the grain back to its field of origin were developed using three food-grade substances [processed sugar, pregelatinized starch, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC)] as a major component in formulations. Due to a different functionality of formulations, the manufacturing process conditions varied for each tracer type, resulting in unique variations in surface roughness, weight, dimensions, and physical and spectroscopic properties before and after coating. The applied two types of coating [pregelatinized starch and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] using an aqueous coating system containing appropriate plasticizers showed uniform coverage and clear coating. Coating appeared to act as a barrier against moisture penetration, to protect against mechanical damage of the surface of the tracers, and to improve the mechanical strength of tracers. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed the type of tracer, coating material, conditioning time, and a theoretical weight gain significantly influenced the morphological and physical properties of tracers. Optimization of these factors needs to be pursued to produce desirable tracers with consistent quality and performance when they flow with bulk grains throughout the grain marketing channels. PMID:20883029

Lee, Kyung-Min; Armstrong, Paul R; Thomasson, J Alex; Sui, Ruixiu; Casada, Mark; Herrman, Timothy J

2010-10-27

126

Using the GRADE system in diagnostic strategy: the case of antiphospholipid syndrome.  

PubMed

Diagnostic strategy studies commonly focus on the accuracy of tests in diagnosing, and grading this body of evidence is a challenge in itself because (1) standard tools for grading evidence were designed for questions about treatment rather than diagnostic testing; and (2) the clinical usefulness of a diagnostic strategy depends on multiple links in a chain of evidence connecting the performance of a test to changes in clinical outcomes. The application of the GRADE approach requires a shift in clinicians' thinking to clearly recognize that, whatever their accuracy, diagnostic tests are valuable only if they result in improved outcomes for patients. PMID:25228730

de Abreu, M Mendes; Levy, Ra; Wahl, D

2014-10-01

127

Application of a new histological staging and grading system for primary biliary cirrhosis to liver biopsy specimens: Interobserver agreement.  

PubMed

Recently the authors proposed a new staging and grading system for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) that takes into account necroinflammatory activity and histological heterogeneity. Herein is proposed a convenient version of this system. Scores for fibrosis, bile duct loss, and chronic cholestasis were combined for staging: stage 1, total score of 0; stage 2, score 1-3; stage 3, score 4-6; and stage 4, score 7-9. Cholangitis activity (CA) and hepatitis activity (HA) were graded as CA0-3, and HA0-3, respectively. Analysis of interobserver agreement was then conducted. Digital images of 62 needle liver biopsy specimens of PBC were recorded as virtual slides on DVDs that were sent to 28 pathologists, including five located overseas. All participants were able to apply this version in all 62 cases. For staging, kappa was 0.385 (fair agreement) and the concordance rate was 63.9%. For necroinflammatory activity, the kappa and concordance rate were 0.110 (slight agreement) and 36.9% for CA, and 0.197 (slight agreement) and 47% for HA, respectively. In conclusion, this new staging and grading system for PBC seems to be more convenient and practical than those used at present, but more instruction and guidance are recommended for the grading of necroinflammatory activity in practice. PMID:20403042

Nakanuma, Yasuni; Zen, Yoh; Harada, Kenichi; Sasaki, Motoko; Nonomura, Akitaka; Uehara, Takeshi; Sano, Kenji; Kondo, Fukuo; Fukusato, Toshio; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Ito, Masahiro; Wakasa, Kenichi; Nomoto, Minoru; Minato, Hiroshi; Haga, Hironori; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa; Haratake, Joji; Aishima, Shinichi; Masuda, Tomoyuki; Aoyama, Hajime; Miyakawa-Hayashino, Aya; Matsumoto, Toshiharu; Sanefuji, Hayato; Ojima, Hidenori; Chen, Tse-Ching; Yu, Eunsil; Kim, Ji-Hun; Park, Young Nyun; Tsui, Wilson

2010-03-01

128

International society of neuropathology-haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading.  

PubMed

Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of neuropathologists with expertise in molecular diagnosis was held in Haarlem, the Netherlands, under the sponsorship of the International Society of Neuropathology (ISN). Prior to the meeting, participants solicited input from clinical colleagues in diverse neuro-oncological specialties. The present "white paper" catalogs the recommendations of the meeting, at which a consensus was reached that incorporation of molecular information into the next WHO classification should follow a set of provided "ISN-Haarlem" guidelines. Salient recommendations include that (i) diagnostic entities should be defined as narrowly as possible to optimize interobserver reproducibility, clinicopathological predictions and therapeutic planning; (ii) diagnoses should be "layered" with histologic classification, WHO grade and molecular information listed below an "integrated diagnosis"; (iii) determinations should be made for each tumor entity as to whether molecular information is required, suggested or not needed for its definition; (iv) some pediatric entities should be separated from their adult counterparts; (v) input for guiding decisions regarding tumor classification should be solicited from experts in complementary disciplines of neuro-oncology; and (iv) entity-specific molecular testing and reporting formats should be followed in diagnostic reports. It is hoped that these guidelines will facilitate the forthcoming update of the fourth edition of the WHO classification of central nervous system tumors. PMID:24990071

Louis, David N; Perry, Arie; Burger, Peter; Ellison, David W; Reifenberger, Guido; von Deimling, Andreas; Aldape, Kenneth; Brat, Daniel; Collins, V Peter; Eberhart, Charles; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Fuller, Gregory N; Giangaspero, Felice; Giannini, Caterina; Hawkins, Cynthia; Kleihues, Paul; Korshunov, Andrey; Kros, Johan M; Beatriz Lopes, M; Ng, Ho-Keung; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Paulus, Werner; Pietsch, Torsten; Rosenblum, Marc; Rushing, Elisabeth; Soylemezoglu, Figen; Wiestler, Otmar; Wesseling, Pieter

2014-09-01

129

Teacher Survey of Standards-Based Instruction: Addressing Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study estimated the amount of time required to teach standards at four grade levels (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12) as compared to the time available for instruction. Teachers from four districts in Wyoming, Colorado, and North Dakota made three types of judgments regarding each benchmark within a standard: amount of time needed to teach a given…

Florian, Judy

130

Analysis of improvements in system efficiency and safety at highway-railroad-pedestrian grade crossings  

E-print Network

The purpose of this project was to perform micro-simulation analyses on intersections near Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings to determine if controlling mean train speed and train speed variability would improve safety and reduce delays. The first...

Tydlacka, Jonathan Michael

2013-02-22

131

Investment-Grade Compressed Air System Audit, Analysis, and Upgrade in a Pulp and Paper Mill  

E-print Network

An investment-grade compressed air audit, analysis, design, and upgrade in an industrial facility requires a thorough understudying of original design basis, current problem definition, goal settings, load assessment, base case model development...

Parekh, P. S.

132

Endoscopic ablation of intestinal metaplasia containing high-grade dysplasia in esophagectomy patients using a balloon-based ablation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study aimed to determine the optimal treatment parameters for the ablation of intestinal metaplasia (IM) containing high-grade dysplasia (HGD) using a balloon-based ablation system for patients undergoing esophagectomy. Methods: Immediately before esophagectomy, patients underwent ablation of circumferential segments of the esophagus containing IM-HGD using the HALO360 system. The treatment settings were randomized to 10, 12, or 14 J\\/cm2

C. D. Smith; P. A. Bejarano; W S. Melvin; M. G. Patti; R. Muthusamy; B. J. Dunkin

2006-01-01

133

Complications of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Classified by the Modified Clavien Grading System: A Single Center's Experience over 16 Years  

PubMed Central

Purpose To stratify complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) in a single, tertiary hospital by use of the modified Clavien system. Materials and Methods From May 1987 to December 2010, 1,236 cases of PCNL were performed at our institute. Medical records were available for 826 cases of PCNL from 698 patients, from February 1995 to December 2010. Using multiple factors, we retrospectively reviewed and analyzed 698 patients for complication rates classified by the modified Clavien grading system, along with success rates. Results In 698 patients, staghorn stone patients accounted for 33.8% (236 patients). Initial and overall stone-free rates were 69.9% and 88.8%. A total of 297 complications were documented in 282 patients. According to the modified Clavien classification, grade I, II, IIIa, IIIb, IVa, IVb, and V complications were observed in 88 (12.6%), 145 (20.8%), 31 (4.4%), 5 (0.7%), 6 (0.9%), 4 (0.6%), and 3 (0.4%) patients, respectively. Transient peri-nephrostomy catheter urine leakage (15.2%) was the most common complication, followed by transient fever >38° (11%) and transfusion (6.9%). Other individual complications occurred in less than 1.5% of cases. In patients with staghorn stones, grade I, II, IIIb, and IVa complications were significantly more common, and all grade IVb and V complications occurred in patients with staghorn stones. Conclusions The modified Clavien classification provides a standardized grading system for complications of PCNL, although consensus on specific complications would prompt better comparison between centers. A shorter operation time is imperative to achieve less bleeding. Previous stone-related fever and staghorn stones are significant contributing factors for developing postoperative fever. PMID:22195267

Shin, Tae Seung; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Hong, Sung-Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Kim, Sae Woong

2011-01-01

134

Apprenticeship Training in Ireland: From Time-Served to Standards Based; Potential and Limitations for the Construction Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with construction industry personnel (15 employers, 14 instructors) in Ireland found satisfaction with a new standards-based apprenticeship system that focused on competence rather than length of apprenticeship. Criticisms were related to problems in gaining access to training courses. (SK)

O'Connor, Len; Harvey, Noel

2001-01-01

135

Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

2014-01-01

136

Free vibration analysis of a rotating hub-functionally graded material beam system with the dynamic stiffening effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive dynamic model of a rotating hub-functionally graded material (FGM) beam system is developed based on a rigid-flexible coupled dynamics theory to study its free vibration characteristics. The rigid-flexible coupled dynamic equations of the system are derived using the method of assumed modes and Lagrange's equations of the second kind. The dynamic stiffening effect of the rotating hub-FGM beam system is captured by a second-order coupling term that represents longitudinal shrinking of the beam caused by the transverse displacement. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system with the chordwise bending and stretching (B-S) coupling effect are calculated and compared with those with the coupling effect neglected. When the B-S coupling effect is included, interesting frequency veering and mode shift phenomena are observed. A two-mode model is introduced to accurately predict the most obvious frequency veering behavior between two adjacent modes associated with a chordwise bending and a stretching mode. The critical veering angular velocities of the FGM beam that are analytically determined from the two-mode model are in excellent agreement with those from the comprehensive dynamic model. The effects of material inhomogeneity and graded properties of FGM beams on their dynamic characteristics are investigated. The comprehensive dynamic model developed here can be used in graded material design of FGM beams for achieving specified dynamic characteristics.

Li, L.; Zhang, D. G.; Zhu, W. D.

2014-02-01

137

Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objective Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Materials and methods Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. Results We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. Discussions This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Conclusions Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites. PMID:24699371

Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

2014-01-01

138

Comparison of visual grading analysis and determination of detective quantum efficiency for evaluating system performance in digital chest radiography.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to compare physical and clinical system performance in digital chest radiography. Four digital X-ray modalities, two storage-phosphor based systems and two generations of a CCD-based system, were evaluated in terms of both their imaging properties (determination of presampling MTF and DQE) and clinical image quality (grading of the reproduction of anatomical details of 23 healthy volunteers using both absolute and relative visual grading analysis). One of the two storage-phosphor systems performed best in both evaluations and the first generation of the CCD-based system was rated worst; however, the other two systems were ranked differently with the two methods. The newest CCD-based system yielded a higher clinical image quality than the second storage-phosphor system, although the latter presented a DQE substantially higher than the former. The results show that clinical performance cannot be predicted from determinations of DQE alone, and that a system with lower DQE, under the quantum-saturated conditions in chest radiography, can outperform a system with higher DQE if the image processing used on the former is more effective in presenting the information in the image to the radiologist. PMID:14564469

Sund, Patrik; Båth, Magnus; Kheddache, Susanne; Månsson, Lars Gunnar

2004-01-01

139

Toward a Political Explanation of Grade Retention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policies that mandate in-grade retention of low-performing students have become central components of standards-based reforms across the country. While educational researchers have extensively studied the student-level correlates of retention and the consequences of retention for student achievement, little attention has been focused on…

Bali, Valentina A.; Anagnostopoulos, Dorothea; Roberts, Reginald

2005-01-01

140

The Impact of Classroom Performance System-Based Instruction with Peer Instruction upon Student Achievement and Motivation in Eighth Grade Math Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The researcher employed two designs to address the research question for this particular study. This quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group study compared the math achievement of 92 eighth grade students who received Classroom Performance System (CPS)-based instruction using Peer Instruction (PI) to 76 eighth grade students who received…

Allison, Tracy Michelle Hunter

2012-01-01

141

Providing Fourth Grade Students with Support Systems and Experiences To Enhance Academic Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A practicum was designed to utilize various techniques to: (1) improve the involvement of parents and volunteers in the education of fourth grade students; (2) help the students develop a more positive attitude toward self, school, home, and community; and (3) increase students' school attendance rate and participation in school and community…

Jennings, Mary H.

142

Energy Systems - Present, Future: Extra Terrestrials, Grades 7, 8, 9,/Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 lessons presented in this guide are structured so that they may be integrated into science lessons in 7th-, 8th-, or 9th-grades. Suggestions are made for extension of study. Lessons are approached through classroom role-playing of outer space visitors who seek to understand energy conversion principles used on Earth. Major emphasis is…

National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

143

Grading to Communicate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school teacher and instructional coach Tony Winger laments how traditional classroom grading practices lead to grades becoming a distraction from learning--a commodity students feel they work the system to attain--rather than a clear message to students and parents. Teachers' passion for their subjects is too often met with students'…

Winger, Tony

2005-01-01

144

Classroom: Efficient Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

2014-01-01

145

Utilization of the graded universal testing system to increase the efficiency for assessing aerobic and anaerobic capacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The in-flight exercise test performed by cosmonauts as part of the Russian Exercise Countermeasure Program is limited to 5 minutes due to communication restrictions. During a recent graded exercise test on a U.S. Shuttle flight, the test was terminated early due to an upcoming loss of signal (LOS) with the ground. This exercise test was a traditional test where the subject's exercise capacity dictates the length of the test. For example, one crew member may take 15 minutes to complete the test, while another may take 18 minutes. The traditional exercise test limits the flight schedulers to large blocks of space flight time in order to provide medical and research personnel information on the fitness capacity (maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max) of crew members during flight. A graded exercise test that would take a finite amount of time and a set preparation and recovery time would ease this problem by allowing flight schedulers to plan exercise tests in advance of LOS. The Graded Universal Testing System (GUTS) was designed to meet this goal. Fitness testing of astronauts before and after flight provides pertinent data on many variables. The Detailed Supplemental Objective (DSO608) protocol (6) is one of the graded exercise tests (GXT) currently used in astronaut testing before and after flight. Test times for this protocol have lasted from 11 to 18 minutes. Anaerobic capacity is an important variable that is currently not being evaluated before and after flight. Recent reports (1,2,5) from the literature have suggested that the oxygen deficit at supramaximal exercise is a measure of anaerobic capacity. We postulated that the oxygen deficit at maximal exercise would be an indication of anaerobic capacity. If this postulate can be accepted, then the efficiency of acquiring data from a graded exercise test would increase at least twofold. To examine this hypothesis anaerobic capacity was measured using a modified treadmill test (3,4) designed to exhaust the anaerobic systems in approximately 45 to 75 seconds. Lactate concentration in the blood was analyzed after all tests, since lactate is the end-product of anaerobic energy production. Therefore, the peak lactate response is an additional indication of anaerobic capacity. A preliminary comparison of the GUTS and the DSO608 suggests that the GUTS protocol would increase the efficiency of VO2max testing of astronauts before and after flight. Results for anaerobic capacity have not been tabulated.

Rodgers, Sandra L.

1992-01-01

146

The Dinosaur Education Project: A Curriculum Model for Standards-Based Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This curriculum model represents an entire school district's attempt to use paleontology to implement standards-based education reforms. While most colleges do not have a dinosaur available for student and teacher use, the project provides a template for partnerships between colleges and local school districts. The curriculum can be adopted by teachers to institute standards-based classroom practice and by education professors to model standards-based pedagogy for pre-service teachers. Examples of curriculum activities are included.

Wixom, Jo

147

An ensemble-based system for microaneurysm detection and diabetic retinopathy grading.  

PubMed

Reliable microaneurysm detection in digital fundus images is still an open issue in medical image processing. We propose an ensemble-based framework to improve microaneurysm detection. Unlike the well-known approach of considering the output of multiple classifiers, we propose a combination of internal components of microaneurysm detectors, namely preprocessing methods and candidate extractors. We have evaluated our approach for microaneurysm detection in an online competition, where this algorithm is currently ranked as first, and also on two other databases. Since microaneurysm detection is decisive in diabetic retinopathy (DR) grading, we also tested the proposed method for this task on the publicly available Messidor database, where a promising AUC 0.90 ± 0.01 is achieved in a "DR/non-DR"-type classification based on the presence or absence of the microaneurysms. PMID:22481810

Antal, Bálint; Hajdu, András

2012-06-01

148

Transformative Shifts in Art History Teaching: The Impact of Standards-Based Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines pedagogical shifts in art history teaching that have developed as a response to the implementation of a standards-based assessment regime. The specific characteristics of art history standards-based assessment in the context of New Zealand secondary schools are explained to demonstrate how an exacting form of assessment has…

Ormond, Barbara

2011-01-01

149

Urban African-American Middle School Science Students: Does Standards-based Teaching Make a Difference?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the influence of standards-based teaching practices on the achievement of urban, African-American, middle school science students. Indicates that teachers who frequently used standards-based teaching practices positively influenced students' achievement and attitudes. Supports the efficacy of high-quality professional development to…

Kahle, Jane Butler; Meece, Judith; Scantlebury, Kathryn

2000-01-01

150

Dynamic Bilingualism as the Norm: Envisioning a Heteroglossic Approach to Standards-Based Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards-based reforms in many Anglophone nations have been informed by "monoglossic language ideologies" that marginalize the dynamic bilingualism of emergent bilinguals. Recent developments in applied linguistics that advocate for "heteroglossic language ideologies" offer an alternative for standards-based reform. This…

Flores, Nelson; Schissel, Jamie L.

2014-01-01

151

Improving the Quality of Maternal and Neonatal Care: the Role of Standard Based Participatory Assessments  

PubMed Central

Background Gaps in quality of care are seriously affecting maternal and neonatal health globally but reports of successful quality improvement cycles implemented at large scale are scanty. We report the results of a nation-wide program to improve quality of maternal and neonatal hospital care in a lower-middle income country focusing on the role played by standard-based participatory assessments. Methods Improvements in the quality of maternal and neonatal care following an action-oriented participatory assessment of 19 areas covering the whole continuum from admission to discharge were measured after an average period of 10 months in four busy referral maternity hospitals in Uzbekistan. Information was collected by a multidisciplinary national team with international supervision through visit to hospital services, examination of medical records, direct observation of cases and interviews with staff and mothers. Scores (range 0 to 3) attributed to over 400 items and combined in average scores for each area were compared with the baseline assessment. Results Between the first and the second assessment, all four hospitals improved their overall score by an average 0.7 points out of 3 (range 0.4 to 1), i.e. by 22%. The improvements occurred in all main areas of care and were greater in the care of normal labor and delivery (+0.9), monitoring, infection control and mother and baby friendly care (+0.8) the role of the participatory action-oriented approach in determining the observed changes was estimated crucial in 6 out of 19 areas and contributory in other 8. Ongoing implementation of referral system and new classification of neonatal deaths impede the improved process of care to be reflected in current statistics. Conclusions Important improvements in the quality of hospital care provided to mothers and newborn babies can be achieved through a standard-based action-oriented and participatory assessment and reassessment process. PMID:24167616

Tamburlini, Giorgio; Yadgarova, Klara; Kamilov, Asamidin; Bacci, Alberta

2013-01-01

152

A comparison of contemporary definitions of contrast nephropathy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention and a proposal for a novel nephropathy grading system.  

PubMed

Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has multiple definitions. We attempted to identify the optimal definition of CIN. In 985 patients undergoing PCI (derivation group), we assessed the prognostic significance of 4 commonly used contemporary definitions of CIN (increases in serum creatinine after PCI [deltaCr] >1.0 mg/dl, >0.5 mg/dl, and >25% after PCI; and the American College of Cardiology National Cardiovascular Data Registry definition) with respect to 6-month major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) and all-cause mortality (at 863 +/- 324 days). Incidence of CIN ranged widely (2.0% to 15%) depending on the definition used. Only 2 definitions (deltaCr >0.5 mg/dl, >25%) consistently correlated with study outcomes. Using these 2 definitions, we devised a new grading system (grade 0 deltaCr grade 1 deltaCr >25% but grade 2 deltaCr >0.5 mg/dl). Nephropathy grades (0 vs 1 vs 2) showed significant correlation with 6-month MACEs (12.4 vs 19.4 vs 28.6%, p = 0.003) and all-cause mortality (10.2 vs 10.4 vs 40.9%, p <0.0001). In multivariate analyses, the grading system showed an independent association with MACEs and mortality. The prognostic value of nephropathy grades was prospectively confirmed in an independent validation group of 539 patients. In conclusion, of the 4 contemporary definitions of CIN, only deltaCr >25% and >0.5 mg/dl consistently predicted adverse events after PCI. By unifying these 2 definitions, we devised a novel nephropathy grading system that is predictive of 6-month MACEs and all-cause mortality after PCI. PMID:18328846

Harjai, Kishore J; Raizada, Amol; Shenoy, Chetan; Sattur, Sudhakar; Orshaw, Pamela; Yaeger, Karl; Boura, Judy; Aboufares, Ali; Sporn, Daniel; Stapleton, Dwight

2008-03-15

153

Grading of Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcoma in Children and Adolescents: A Comparison of Parameters Used for the FNCLCC and POG systems  

PubMed Central

Two systems for grading soft tissue sarcoma are widely used currently: the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Fédération Nationale des Centers de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) systems. Both were developed using cohorts of predominantly adult patients. The Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) system, based on the NCI system, was adapted for grading pediatric non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS). The applicability and prognostic utility of the FNCLCC system in pediatric NRSTS has not been assessed or compared to the POG system. Tumors from 130 patients with malignant NRSTS enrolled on three completed multi-institutional clinical trials were assessed. Of 130 tumors, 102 (78%) were localized and 28 (22%) metastatic. Of the localized tumors, 55/102 (54%) were >5cm. The estimated 5-year EFS for the entire group was 47%. As expected, stage and tumor size were predictive of EFS (p<0.001). Both systems were predictive of 5-year event-free survival (EFS) (POG p=0.0095 and FNCLCC p=0.0075). Patients whose tumors received discrepant grades (POG-G3 vs. FNCLCC-G2/G1) (n=44) had an intermediate outcome between those with concordant (G3 (n=44) or G1/G2 (n=42)) grades on both systems (p=0.0018). By multivariate analysis, the mitotic index was predictive of EFS using a cutoff of 10 mitotic figures per 10 high power fields (p<0.001). In conclusion, both the FNCLCC and POG systems provide an adequate prognostic measure of outcome for pediatric NRSTS; albeit, a sizeable subset of cases with apparently intermediate prognosis was graded differently by the two systems. The mitotic index appears to be a key parameter in grading pediatric NRSTS. PMID:20166208

Khoury, Joseph D.; Coffin, Cheryl M.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Anderson, James R.; Meyer, William H.; Parham, David M.

2010-01-01

154

Strategic Plan for Standards-Based Reform. Report of Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the expectations, mission, guiding principles, standards, assessments, and time line for standards implementation for the state of Hawai'i. Implementation was scheduled for completion by August 2000. A technical reference matrix tracks the development of the assessment and accountability system. The completion of specific…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of the Superintendent.

155

Conceptualizing Teaching to the Test under Standards-Based Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher and school accountability systems based on high-stakes tests are ubiquitous throughout the United States and appear to be growing as a catalyst for reform. As a result, educators have increased the proportion of instructional time devoted to test preparation. Although guidelines for what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate test…

Welsh, Megan E.; Eastwood, Melissa; D'Agostino, Jerome V.

2014-01-01

156

[Auricular acupuncture for primary insomnia: a systematic review based on GRADE system].  

PubMed

The clinical efficacy and safety of auricular acupuncture (AA) for treatment of primary insomnia was evaluated. After a comprehensive retrieval in domestic and foreign databases, literatures were strictly screened and Revman 5.2 software was applied to perform a Meta-analysis on eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The evidence quality was assessed with GRADE profiler 3.6 software. As a result, 8 articles were included involving 894 patients. Compared among AA and sham AA, placebo AA, blank control, there was significant difference in Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) [WMD = -3.48, 95% CI (-3.96, -3.00)], sleep latency LWMD = -10.14, 95% CI (-17.16, -3.12)] and sleep awakening times [WMD = -9.98, 95% CI (-1.10,-0.48)]. Compared between AA and western medication, there was significant difference in PSQI [WMD = -3.62, 95% CI (-4.59, -2.65)]. The evidence quality was moderate in AA vs. sham AA, placebo AA or blank control, while that of the rest was extremely low. No reports of adverse events were described in all studies. In conclusion, for the treatment of primary insomnia, AA could effectively improve sleep quality, but due to the low evidence quality, cautious attitude should be taken on this conclusion, and clinical trials with large sample and high quality were needed in the further. PMID:25233674

Tan, Hui-Juan; Lan, Ying; Wu, Fu-Sheng; Zhang, Han-Dan; Wu, Li; Wu, Xi; Liang, Fan-Rong

2014-07-01

157

What Does Grading Mean, Anyway?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most English teachers probably find it difficult to develop a grading system that takes into account the problems of individual students and that effectively communicates to students the quality of their work. Educators have been experimenting with written grading systems since the first system, one of predetermined adjectives, was used at Yale…

Presley, John C.

158

The FBE development project: toward flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social individual records.  

PubMed

Under the ARCHITRAVE programme aimed at redesigning the regional health and social information system, the alpha version of a new web application was developed using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and other medical terminology systems as a basis for a flexible electronic standards-based bio-psycho-social record. The web application was developed in order to collect information according to a multiaxial assessment framework consistent with the model of functioning adopted by the ICF. The web application translates information collected in natural language into ICF and releases outputs at different stages of the assessment process useful in evaluating clinical and social outcomes, distinguishing between functioning and disability in the same functioning profile and planning reasonable adaptations to overcome disability. The alpha version works in Italian and was adapted to the Italian welfare system/services/policies, but an international version working in other languages/welfare systems can be designed. The first field trial is ongoing in the Friuli Venezia Giulia Region, implementing the regional Health and Social Action Plan 2010-2012. PMID:22874272

Frattura, Lucilla; Simoncello, Andrea; Bassi, Giovanni; Soranzio, Andrea; Terreni, Stefano; Sbroiavacca, Fulvio

2012-01-01

159

The Nature of Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses grading in elementary and secondary schools, focusing on the following topics: combining and weighting data, grading criteria, absolute grade standards, relative grade standards, contracting for grades, mastery and continuous progress grading, grading for effort or improvement, report cards, and procedures for grading students. (SR)

Ornstein, Allan C.

1989-01-01

160

GP connector - a tool to enable access for general practitioners to a standards-based personal and electronic health record in the Rhine-Neckar region.  

PubMed

Electronic health records (EHR) as well as personal health records (PHR) are in widespread use today. Since several years the University Hospital Heidelberg is implementing a so-called personal and electronic health record (PEHR). The joint approach is standards-based and includes several needed services. However a remained unresolved issue is how to connect general practitioners (GP) and their systems to the record. This work describes a tool called GP Connector that provides access for GPs to the PEHR within the law. GPs can profit from all advantages of the PEHR usage. Only adding documents to the record comfortably through standards-based interfaces remains still open. Thus, deep integration of the PEHR into primary systems is preferable anytime. Yet the continuous trend towards multi-institutional health network may also pave the way for standards-based interfaces also in the field of practice management systems. PMID:21893770

Heinze, Oliver; Schmuhl, Holger; Bergh, Björn

2011-01-01

161

A Standards-Based Professional Development Program and the Resulting Impact on Two Sixth Grade Teachers' Classroom Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, California introduced science content standards as part of an across the curriculum reform. This presented a special challenge for elementary teachers due to an increased emphasis on math and language arts, and limited science background and resources. This two year qualitative study looks at a professional development program that resulted from collaboration between a university and an elementary

Debra Lynn Bereki

2010-01-01

162

The relationship of aptitude, course grades, and program length, to performance on a standards based test (NCLEX-RN)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was threefold: first, to investigate variables associated with learning, and performance as measured by the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). The second purpose was to validate the predictive value of the Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) achievement exit exam, and lastly, to provide a model that could be used to predict performance on

Lenora Yates

2007-01-01

163

Standards-Based Education and Its Implications for Mathematics Faculty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mathematical Association of America offers a collection of articles on standardizing secondary education. This specific article, written by Robby Robson and Paul Latiolais of Oregon State and Portland State Universities, discusses creating a system of comparable standards for higher education. As the authors point out, there are annual standards met for primary education, from standardized tests like the ACT and SAT to year-end examinations. However, once students reach the university level, such methods of comparison disappear among college-level mathematics. Robson and Latiolais propose a series of changes that could be made across the level of nationally accredited universities to ensure an established set of standards for college degrees, credits, and skill sets. While not all of their suggestions could be adopted immediately, Robson and Latiolais make great strides in beginning a national dialogue on holding our universities accountable for the education they provide.

Latiolais, P. (Paul); Robson, Robert O., 1954-

2008-07-25

164

A standards-based content analysis of selected biological science websites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled with criteria derived from the Web-based Inquiry (WBI) for Learning Science instrument (Bodzin, 2005) and other pertinent published educational literature, was utilized. The analysis focused on elucidating the appropriateness of the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment tools of selected websites for facilitating the biological science education of Grade 12 students. Frequencies of agreement and disagreement of the content of each selected website with criteria included in the data collection instrument were used for alignment determination of the content of each website with the NSES. Chi-square tests were performed by Microsoft Excel to determine the statistical significance of differences of actual and expected 85% frequencies of alignment of the analyzed website parameters with indicators of alignment to NSES. Chi-square tests indicated that at a 0.05 level of significance there was an overall difference between the actual and expected 85% frequencies of alignment of biology content, instructional strategies and assessment methods with website indicators of alignment with the NSES (p < 0.05). Chi-square tests also indicated that there was a significant difference between the actual and expected frequencies of alignment of analyzed categories (biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods) of the sampled websites with website indicators of alignment with the NSES ( p < 0.05). Major findings of this study indicated that 3 out of 4 of the analyzed content attributes, 12 out of 13 of the instructional strategies, and all the assessment methods of the researched biological science websites were less than 85% aligned with the NSES. Only 11 out of 80 (13.75%) of the analyzed websites had collective biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods attributes that were 85% or more aligned with the NSES. Appropriately sequenced content that fostered acquisition of fundamental biology knowledge was the only content attribute with significantly more than 85% alignment with the NSES. Provision of illustrative examples to enhance understanding of facts and/or ideas in the context of a conceptual framework was the only instructional strategies attribute that was significantly more than 85% aligned with the NSES. Alignment of website attributes with the NSES has the potential to enhance the educational value of science websites. It is hoped that the findings of this study will motivate science website designers to comply with the NSES. Hope also exists that educators will be motivated to engage in standards-based reform measures for promoting scientific literacy among students.

Stewart, Joy E.

165

Is the television rating system valid? Indirect, verbal, and physical aggression in programs viewed by fifth grade girls and associations with behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study had two goals: first, to examine the validity of the television rating system for assessing aggression in programs popular among girls; second, to evaluate the importance of inclusion of non-physical forms of aggression in the ratings system by examining associations between television aggression exposure and behavior. Ninety-nine fifth grade girls listed their favorite programs; 76 programs were coded

Jennifer Ruh Linder; Douglas A. Gentile

2009-01-01

166

School Organization: Grade Span. Trends and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines grade spans (grade configurations) and their importance in community school systems. Research has shown that geographic location often dictates the kind of grade configuration districts use. Furthermore, every grade configuration has strengths and weaknesses, and school officials must focus on developing the positive potential…

Renchler, Ron

167

Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standby Power System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

PFP's Standby Power System consists of the diesel generators, the generator control system, Rm 308 UPS, switchgear batteries, and the electrical equipment used to distribute this power. Due to the nature of the equipment and its use throughout general industry, the majority of the system falls within the CGI definition HNF-PRO-268, ''Control of Purchased Items and Services'' and HNF-PRO-1819, ''PHMC Engineering Requirements'' require that the critical characteristics of CGI-procured equipment be established in an engineering document prior to placing the order. HNF-5043 established these critical characteristics for the Standby Power System. This modification adds several items to the document.

DEHKORDI, N.H.

2000-04-12

168

Special Automotive Repair Service Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Vehicle Emission Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum is intended to serve as a guide for high school instructors teaching a basic course on emission control systems on General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler products. The material may also be incorporated on an engine system basis and inserted into an overall tune-up curriculum. Other uses of the curriculum include specialized training…

Gubbins Associates, Hadlyme, CT.

169

Research on Coordination of the Multi-grade Surge Protective for Secondary System in Substation  

Microsoft Academic Search

If lightning damage occurs in substations, huge block would be caused out in a large area, and lots of trouble would be brought to social production and daily life. So it requires that lightning protection should be reliable. Presently, the lightning protection measures of high voltage system are perfect, while the secondary system mainly consists of plenty of electronic, micro-electronic,

Gang Xu; Hengbin Si

2010-01-01

170

Self-determination and student involvement in standards-based reform  

E-print Network

of the current educational context. We particularly examine the role of promoting self-determination in light of federal standards-based reform initiatives. We conclude that school reform efforts provide an opportunity to infuse instruction in self...

Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Field, Sharon; Doren, Bonnie; Jones, Bonnie; Mason, Christine

2004-01-01

171

77 FR 43018 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...proposed rulemaking (NPRM) with regard to the construction industry head protection standards to eliminate...

2012-07-23

172

77 FR 42988 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...correcting a direct final rule (DFR) with regard to the construction industry head protection standards to eliminate...

2012-07-23

173

Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standby Power System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

PEP's Standby Power System consists of the diesel generators, the generator control system, Rm 308 UPS, switchgear batteries, and the electrical equipment used to distribute this power. Due to the nature of the equipment and its use throughout general industry, the majority of the system falls within the CGI definition HNF-PRO-268. ''Control of Purchased Items and Services'' and HNF-PRO-1819, ''PHMC Engineering Requirements'' require that the critical characteristics of CGI-procured equipment be established in an engineering document prior to placing the order. HNF-5043 establishes these critical characteristics for the Standby Power System. Equipment will be added to the list as required to support future CGI procurements.

BUSCH, M.S.

1999-09-16

174

Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO): Exploration Begins Here [Grades 5-8  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school students of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

Hill, Trudy

2012-01-01

175

Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO): Exploration Begins Here [Grades K-4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

Hill, Trudy

2012-01-01

176

System design considerations for a production-grade, ESR-based x-ray lithography beamline  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As electron storage ring (ESR) based x-ray lithography technology moves closer to becoming an industrial reality, more and more attention has been devoted to studying problem areas related to its application in the production environment. A principle component is the x-ray lithography beamline (XLBL) and its associated design requirements. XLBL, an x-ray radiation transport system, is one of the three major subunits in the ESR-based x-ray lithography system (XLS) and has a pivotal role in defining performance characteristics of the entire XLS. Its major functions are to transport the synchrotron orbital radiation (SOR) to the lithography target area with defined efficiency and to modify SOR into the spectral distribution defined by the lithography process window. These functions must be performed reliably in order to satisfy the required high production rate and ensure 0.25 micron resolution lithography conditions. In this paper the authors attempt to answer some specific questions that arise during the formulation of an XLBL system design. Three principle issues that are essential to formulating a design are (1) Radiation transport efficiency, (2) X-ray optical configurations in the beamline, (3) Beamline system configurations. Some practical solutions to thee problem areas are presented, and the effects of these parameters on lithography production rate are examined.

Kovacs, Stephen; Melore, Dan; Cerrina, Franco; Cole, Richard K.

1991-08-01

177

Mechanisms & Other Systems. Stuff That Works! A Technology Curriculum for the Elementary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on devices and systems that transform motion or convert energy. Contents are divided into six chapters: (1) "Appetizers" includes activities that can be done individually to become familiar with the topic of machines and mechanisms; (2) "Concepts" provides a basis for machine and mechanism development; (3) "Activities" features…

Benenson, Gary

178

Reverse micellar extraction systems for the purification of pharmaceutical grade plasmid DNA.  

PubMed

Plasmid DNA as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is gaining more and more importance. For the production of multigram quantities of this substance robust and scalable processes comprising several purification steps have to be designed. One main challenge is the initial separation of plasmid DNA and RNA in such a purification scheme. In this study we investigated the distribution of plasmid DNA and RNA in reverse micellar two-phase systems which is considered to be the basis for the development of an extractive purification step that can easily be integrated into common processes. For this purpose the distribution of the 4.6kb plasmid pUT649 and Escherichia coli RNA in systems comprising isooctane, ethylhexanol, and the surfactant methyltrioctylammoniumchloride (TOMAC) under the influence of different salts was studied. Anion concentrations at which the partitioning behaviour for nucleic acids inverted (inversion point) were identified. Systems capable of separating RNA from plasmid DNA were further analysed and applied to extract RNA from plasmid DNA out of a preconditioned cleared lysate. The capability of reverse micellar systems for plasmid form separation was also shown by capillary and agarose gel electrophoresis. PMID:17673324

Streitner, Nadine; Voss, Carsten; Flaschel, Erwin

2007-08-31

179

Towards Automatic Recognition and Grading of Ganoderma Infection Pattern Using Fuzzy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the extraction of information from the experts to automatically identify and recognize Ganoderma infection in oil palm stem using tomography images. Expert's knowl- edge are used as rules in a Fuzzy Inference Systems to classify each individual patterns observed in he tomography image. The classi- fication is done by defining membership functions which assigned a set

Mazliham Mohd; Idris Abu Seman

2007-01-01

180

Comparisons of local and systemic aerobic fitness parameters between finswimmers with different athlete grade levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the relationship between the local and systemic aerobic fitness parameters, and between the muscle oxygenation and\\u000a aerobic performance, 16 female finswimmers were recruited and divided into high-level (HL) group and low-level group. Cardiorespiratory\\u000a function, blood lactate concentration and near infrared spectroscopy muscle oxygenation in the vastus lateralis (VL) were\\u000a monitored simultaneously during a maximal incremental exercise. We found

Bangde Wang; Qingping Tian; Zhongxing Zhang; Hui Gong

181

An Evaluation of Current and Alternative Systems for Quality Grading Carcasses of Mature Slaughter Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strip loins from 354 female bovine carcasses, selected to represent 30 skeletal maturity (A, B, C, D, and E) × marbling score (SA\\/MA\\/AB, MD, MT, SM, SL, and TR\\/PD) subclasses, were used to evaluate current and alternative systems for classifying cow carcasses into expected-palatability groups. Strip loins were vacuum-packaged, stored for 14 d postmortem at 2°C, and frozen ( -27°C).

G. G. Hilton; J. D. Tatum; S. E. Williams; K. E. Belk; F. L. Williams; J. W. Wise; G. C. Smith

2010-01-01

182

A field evaluation of experimental passive railroad-highway grade crossing warning systems  

E-print Network

the reaction of drivers to two experimental passive sign systems under field conditions. The experimental signs were installed at 90 crossings in three Texas counties, with eight crossings identified as test crossings. A before-and-after study was conducted... at each of the eight test crossings. Quantitative measures of driver speeds on the approaches to these crossings, as well as qualitative measures of driver looking behavior and driver responses to exit surveys, were analyzed. The results...

Beitler, Michael Morgan

2012-06-07

183

The Food Intake Recording Software System is Valid Among Fourth-grade Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the validity of the Food Intake Recording Software System (FIRSSt) against observation of school lunch and a 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR); and to test the effects of sequencing, observation and a hair sample as a bogus pipeline on accuracy of dietary report.Design Six-group design systematically varying sequence of self-report (FIRSSt vs 24hDR), observation of school lunch, and

TOM BARANOWSKI; NOEMI ISLAM; JANICE BARANOWSKI; KAREN W. CULLEN; DAWNELL MYRES; TARA MARSH; CARL de MOOR

2002-01-01

184

Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

2014-06-01

185

Industry-Grade Seismic Processing System for Controlled- (and Passive-) Source Research in Seismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Open-source seismic processing provides flexibility, functionality and value that are not found in commercial packages. A seismic processing system called SIA, initially developed at the University of Wyoming and continued at the University of Saskatchewan, represents one of the most extensive efforts to integrate the flexibility of academic seismic data analysis with polish and performance of a commercial processor. At present, SIA offers capabilities for nearly complete reflection processing, combined with built-in support for multicomponent, variable-format seismic data, extensive database capabilities, input/output in several data formats accepted in exploration and earthquake seismology (e.g., SEG-Y, SEG-2, Seismic UNIX, PASSCAL-SEGY, GSE3.0, SAC), original inversion codes (e.g., 2-D and 3-D reflection and receiver function migration, genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks), software and documentation maintenance, and interfaces to popular packages such as Datascope, GMT, rayinvr, reflectivity, and Seismic UNIX. Recently, we included in the system a modern graphical user interface (GUI) based on the open-source, platform-independent QT technology by TrollTech. The interface organizes project data while hiding the system structure from the user and generally resembles that of ProMAX (by Landmark Graphics). Nearly 200 tools are arranged into packages (e.g., reflection, travel-time, earthquake data processing, or graphics), and processing flows are constructed by dragging these tools and dropping them in the flows. Multiple processing flows may be opened simultaneously allowing the user to edit and execute concurrent jobs. Context-sensitive help can be accessed through the interface, in addition to the full HTML documentation automatically generated by the system. Context-dependent color highlighting is used to improve readability of the parameters. Processing jobs are submitted through the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) which allows multiple processes to be initiated and controlled from a single interface. Jobs may be executed either locally or on a single or multiple remote systems in a heterogeneous computing environment. The GUI includes tools for run-time control of both local and remote processes.. The GUI also includes provisions for cluster scheduling, allowing processes to be executed on Beowulf clusters. Depending on their design, individual tools or flows can be parallelized using either PVM or MPI (Message Passing Interface). With the decentralized processing concept implemented in SIA, grid computing and seamless data exchange could become a reality without any effort from the users. In passive-source work, which is quickly adopting reflection processing techniques, this industry-style processing could provide sophisticated, inexpensive, and high performance approaches to data retrieval and access to hundreds of signal enhancement tools developed in reflection seismics.

Chubak, G.; Morozov, I.

2004-05-01

186

Performance evaluation of consumer-grade 3D sensors for static 6DOF pose estimation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-cost 3D depth and range sensors are steadily becoming more widely available and affordable, and thus popular for robotics enthusiasts. As basic research tools, however, their accuracy and performance are relatively unknown. In this paper, we describe a framework for performance evaluation and measurement error analysis for 6 degrees of freedom pose estimation systems using traceable ground truth instruments. Characterizing sensor drift and variance, and quantifying range, spatial and angular accuracy, our framework focuses on artifact surface fitting and static pose analysis, reporting testing and environmental conditions in compliance with the upcoming ASTM E57.02 standard.

Marvel, J. A.; Franaszek, M.; Wilson, J. L.; Hong, T.

2012-10-01

187

The Beckett System Recovery and Utilization of Low Grade Waste Heat From Flue Gas  

E-print Network

standard fire tube boiler as the gas-to water heat exchange 6 , the flue gas exit tempera ture is normally 10 F higher than the temperature of the water in the shell. 1---+--/?---+-----+I7,L+V'+H 1 1/ 7 7 ./ I i IR......, '" ---:7'" V 1- Wnl4lm... system was selected as the secondary heat sink. Originally heated by 11 steam unit heaters and 7 door heaters, the machine shop has a series of exhaust fans extracting 7500 CFM without any 68 ESL-IE-83-04-10 Proceedings from the Fifth Industrial...

Henderson, W. R.; DeBiase, J. F.

1983-01-01

188

Implementation of an integrated learning system in tenth grade remedial English courses and an examination of achievement, attendance, behavior, and attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the implementation and results of using an integrated learning system as the primary instructional methodology in tenth grade remedial English courses. The 76 students who were the subjects of the study were assigned to either traditional classrooms without access to computers or to a computer laboratory where instruction was presented using

Bernice A. Schmelz

1994-01-01

189

Multi-tiered Systems of Supports: An Investigative Study of Their Impact on Third Grade Reading Test Scores in an Urban District  

E-print Network

and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. _______________________________ Chairperson Wayne Sailor _______________________________ Bruce Frey... version of the following dissertation: MULTI-TIERED SYSTEMS OF SUPPORTS: AN INVESTIGATIVE STUDY OF THEIR IMPACT ON THIRD GRADE READING TEST SCORES IN AN URBAN DISTRICT _______________________________ Chairperson Wayne Sailor...

Haynes, Heather

2012-05-31

190

The Development and Technical Adequacy of Seventh-Grade Reading Comprehension Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System. Technical Report #1102  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical report describes the process of development and piloting of reading comprehension measures that are appropriate for seventh-grade students as part of an online progress screening and monitoring assessment system, http://easycbm.com. Each measure consists of an original fictional story of approximately 1,600 to 1,900 words with 20…

Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

2011-01-01

191

Additive manufacturing of graded dielectrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for the fabrication of graded dielectrics within a structural composite is presented. This system employs an ultrasonic powder deposition head to print high dielectric powders onto a woven fabric composite substrate. It is shown how this system can integrate 3D variations of dielectric properties at millimeter resolution within a mechanically rugged substrate. To conclude, the system’s practical application is demonstrated with experimental results from a graded index lens.

Roper, David A.; Good, Brandon L.; McCauley, Raymond; Yarlagadda, Shridhar; Smith, Jared; Good, Austin; Pa, Peter; Mirotznik, Mark S.

2014-04-01

192

Low-grade systemic inflammation connects aging, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.  

PubMed

Aging is associated with immunosenescence and accompanied by a chronic inflammatory state which contributes to metabolic syndrome, diabetes and their cardiovascular consequences. Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes overlap, leading to the hypothesis that both share an inflammatory basis. Obesity is increased in the elderly population, and adipose tissue induces a state of systemic inflammation partially induced by adipokines. The liver plays a pivotal role in the metabolism of nutrients and exhibits alterations in the expression of genes associated with inflammation, cellular stress and fibrosis. Hepatic steatosis and its related inflammatory state (steatohepatitis) are the main hepatic complications of obesity and metabolic diseases. Aging-linked declines in expression and activity of endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperones and folding enzymes compromise proper protein folding and the adaptive response of the unfolded protein response. These changes predispose aged individuals to CVDs. CVDs and endothelial dysfunction are characterized by a chronic alteration of inflammatory function and markers of inflammation and the innate immune response, including C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, TNF-?, and several cell adhesion molecules are linked to the occurrence of myocardial infarction and stroke in healthy elderly populations and patients with metabolic diseases. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:25341516

Guarner, Verónica; Rubio-Ruiz, Maria Esther

2015-01-01

193

Grading Practices: The Third Rail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although Social Security funds are in decline and no solution is evident, few politicians have the temerity to try to change the system. Why? Because Social Security is the third rail in politics: if one touches it, he or she will die. The field of education has an issue that is equally as lethal: grading. Grading is one of the most private…

Erickson, Jeffrey A.

2010-01-01

194

Comprehensive review of post-liver resection surgical complications and a new universal classification and grading system.  

PubMed

Liver resection is the gold standard treatment for certain liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver tumors. Some patients with such tumors already have reduced liver function due to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis before surgery. Therefore, complications due to poor liver function are inevitable after liver resection. Although the mortality rate of liver resection has been reduced to a few percent in recent case series, its overall morbidity rate is reported to range from 4.1% to 47.7%. The large degree of variation in the post-liver resection morbidity rates reported in previous studies might be due to the lack of consensus regarding the definitions and classification of post-liver resection complications. The Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification of post-operative complications is widely accepted internationally. However, it is hard to apply to some major post-liver resection complications because the consensus definitions and grading systems for post-hepatectomy liver failure and bile leakage established by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery are incompatible with the CD classification. Therefore, a unified classification of post-liver resection complications has to be established to allow comparisons between academic reports. PMID:25349645

Ishii, Masayuki; Mizuguchi, Toru; Harada, Kohei; Ota, Shigenori; Meguro, Makoto; Ueki, Tomomi; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Okita, Kenji; Hirata, Koichi

2014-10-27

195

Comprehensive review of post-liver resection surgical complications and a new universal classification and grading system  

PubMed Central

Liver resection is the gold standard treatment for certain liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver tumors. Some patients with such tumors already have reduced liver function due to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis before surgery. Therefore, complications due to poor liver function are inevitable after liver resection. Although the mortality rate of liver resection has been reduced to a few percent in recent case series, its overall morbidity rate is reported to range from 4.1% to 47.7%. The large degree of variation in the post-liver resection morbidity rates reported in previous studies might be due to the lack of consensus regarding the definitions and classification of post-liver resection complications. The Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification of post-operative complications is widely accepted internationally. However, it is hard to apply to some major post-liver resection complications because the consensus definitions and grading systems for post-hepatectomy liver failure and bile leakage established by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery are incompatible with the CD classification. Therefore, a unified classification of post-liver resection complications has to be established to allow comparisons between academic reports.

Ishii, Masayuki; Mizuguchi, Toru; Harada, Kohei; Ota, Shigenori; Meguro, Makoto; Ueki, Tomomi; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Okita, Kenji; Hirata, Koichi

2014-01-01

196

The Pathology of full-thickness cadaver skin transplant for large abdominal defects: a proposed grading system for skin allograft acute rejection.  

PubMed

Closure of large abdominal defects after extensive abdominal surgery is a major technical surgical problem. Failure to close the abdomen leaves the patient at risk for grave complications. Full-thickness abdominal wall skin transplantation appears to solve this problem. This is the first time that detailed histopathologic features of skin abdominal wall transplantation from cadaver donors are described. Five adults and four children underwent 10 transplants because of large abdominal wall defects. Twenty-two posttransplantation skin specimens were evaluated during a mean follow-up of 23.5 weeks, and the findings were compared with the clinical appearance of the skin. Rejection was manifested as a maculopapular rash. The histologic features were categorized as perivascular infiltrates, epidermal changes, and stromal changes. A grading system is proposed based on the number of cases encountered: No rejection, grade 0 (n = 9): No perivascular infiltrates. Indeterminate for rejection, grade 1 (n = 2): Up to 10% of vessels show infiltrates of small lymphocytes. No eosinophils, large lymphocytes, spongiosis, epidermal, or stromal inflammation are seen. Mild rejection, grade 2 (n = 5): 11% to 50% of vessels are infiltrated by small lymphocytes. Eosinophils and mild spongiosis may or may not be present. No epidermal infiltrates, stromal infiltrates, or large lymphocytes are seen. Moderate rejection, grade 3 (n = 4): Greater than 50% of vessels show lymphocytic infiltrates that may be accompanied by epidermal and stromal inflammation. Spongiosis is absent or mild. Endothelial plumping, eosinophils, and large lymphocytes may be seen. Severe rejection, grade 4 (n = 2): Greater than 50% of vessels show infiltrates, but different from moderate rejection, there is dyskeratosis and the epidermis shows heavier lymphocytic infiltrates and moderate to severe spongiosis. The stroma shows infiltrates extending into the base of the epidermis. Endothelial plumping, eosinophils, and large lymphocytes are present. The mean number of weeks after transplantation for the development of clearcut rejection (grades 2-4) was 8.36. Among the 9 nonrejection cases, 4 specimens from 3 patients had thrombosis of the vessels feeding the graft. A grading system serves to better assess skin allograft rejection. PMID:15105657

Bejarano, Pablo A; Levi, David; Nassiri, Mehdi; Vincek, Vladimir; Garcia, Monica; Weppler, Deborah; Selvaggi, Gennaro; Kato, Tamoaki; Tzakis, Andreas

2004-05-01

197

Composition-graded nanowire solar cells fabricated in a single process for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems.  

PubMed

Nanomaterials such as semiconductor nanowires have unique features that could enable novel optoelectronic applications such as novel solar cells. This paper aims to demonstrate one such recently proposed concept: Monolithically Integrated Laterally Arrayed Multiple Band gap (MILAMB) solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems. Two cells with different band gaps were fabricated simultaneously in the same process on a single substrate using spatially composition-graded CdSSe alloy nanowires grown by the Dual-Gradient Method in a chemical vapor deposition system. CdSSe nanowire ensemble devices tested under 1 sun AM1.5G illumination achieved open-circuit voltages up to 307 and 173 mV and short-circuit current densities as high as 0.091 and 0.974 mA/cm(2) for the CdS- and CdSe-rich cells, respectively. The open-circuit voltages were roughly three times those of similar CdSSe film cells fabricated for comparison due to the superior optical quality of the nanowires. I-V measurements were also performed using optical filters to simulate spectrum-splitting. The open-circuit voltages and fill factors of the CdS-rich subcells were uniformly larger than the corresponding CdSe-rich cells for similar photon flux, as expected. This suggests that if all wires can be contacted, the wide-gap cell is expected to have greater output power than the narrow-gap cell, which is the key to achieving high efficiencies with spectrum-splitting. This paper thus provides the first proof-of-concept demonstration of simultaneous fabrication of MILAMB solar cells. This approach to solar cell fabrication using single-crystal nanowires for spectrum-splitting photovoltaics could provide a future low-cost high-efficiency alternative to the conventional high-cost high-efficiency tandem cells. PMID:25203692

Caselli, Derek; Liu, Zhicheng; Shelhammer, David; Ning, Cun-Zheng

2014-10-01

198

25 CFR 36.30 - Standard X-Grading requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Each school shall implement a uniform grading system...the courses of study undertaken...student grades on report cards...between home and school. Residential...student grades on report cards... (d) Each school shall...

2011-04-01

199

25 CFR 36.30 - Standard X-Grading requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Each school shall implement a uniform grading system...the courses of study undertaken...student grades on report cards...between home and school. Residential...student grades on report cards... (d) Each school shall...

2013-04-01

200

25 CFR 36.30 - Standard X-Grading requirements.  

... (a) Each school shall implement a uniform grading system...the courses of study undertaken...student grades on report cards...between home and school. Residential...student grades on report cards... (d) Each school shall...

2014-04-01

201

25 CFR 36.30 - Standard X-Grading requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Each school shall implement a uniform grading system...the courses of study undertaken...student grades on report cards...between home and school. Residential...student grades on report cards... (d) Each school shall...

2010-04-01

202

25 CFR 36.30 - Standard X-Grading requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Each school shall implement a uniform grading system...the courses of study undertaken...student grades on report cards...between home and school. Residential...student grades on report cards... (d) Each school shall...

2012-04-01

203

Dimensions of Norm-Referenced Compulsory School Grades and Their Relative Importance for the Prediction of Upper Secondary School Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Irrespective of the grading system, grades are the most valid instrument for predicting educational success. Previous studies have shown that criterion-referenced compulsory school grades are multidimensional, reflecting subject-specific dimensions and a common grade dimension, both of which contribute to the predictive validity of grades. This…

Thorsen, Cecilia

2014-01-01

204

"Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics achievement.…

Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

2007-01-01

205

The Tension between Teacher Accountability and Flexibility: The Paradox of Standards-Based Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anticipated constraints imposed by the accountability process associated with standards-based reform on teachers' practice suggest a tension between teachers' desire for flexibility and the accountability mandates associated with reform initiatives. In particular, we posited that the teachers would negatively perceive the influence of…

Nadelson, Louis S.; Fuller, Michael; Briggs, Pamela; Hammons, David; Bubak, Katie; Sass, Margaret

2012-01-01

206

Validity and Fairness of State Standards-Based Assessments for English Language Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

English language learners (ELLs) constitute one of the fastest growing subpopulations of students in the United States. It is important to determine whether the assessments used by states in determining students' proficiencies are valid and fair for ELLs. This study focused on several standards-based assessments in mathematics and science administered to 5th and 8th graders. In assessing construct validity, all

John W. Young; Yeonsuk Cho; Guangming Ling; Fred Cline; Jonathan Steinberg; Elizabeth Stone

2008-01-01

207

A Standards-Based Open Source Application to Gather Health Assessment Data in Developing  

E-print Network

A Standards-Based Open Source Application to Gather Health Assessment Data in Developing Countries Email: torkroth@yahoo.com Health Records for Everyone Email:pcstrong@comcast.net §UC Santa Cruz Email health care organizations and infrastruc- ture to provide sustainable, community-based health care

Davis, James E.

208

Validating a Standards-Based Classroom Assessment of English Proficiency: A Multitrait-Multimethod Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of standards-based classroom assessments to test English learners' language proficiency is increasingly prevalent in the United States and many other countries. In a large urban school district in California, for example, a classroom assessment is used to make high-stakes decisions about English learners' progress from one level to the…

Llosa, Lorena

2007-01-01

209

Historicizing and Contextualizing Global Policy Discourses: Test- and Standards-Based Accountabilities in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper in commenting on the contributions to this special number demonstrates the necessity of historicizing and contextualizing the rise of test- and standards-based modes of accountability in contemporary education policy globally. Both are imperative for understanding specific national manifestations of what has become a globalized…

Lingard, Bob

2013-01-01

210

EconoGrid: A detailed Simulation Model of a Standards-based Grid Compute Economy  

E-print Network

EconoGrid: A detailed Simulation Model of a Standards-based Grid Compute Economy EconoGrid is a detailed simulation model, implemented in SLX1 , of a grid compute economy that implements selected of users. In a grid compute economy, computing resources are sold to users in a market where price

211

American Sign Language as an Accommodation During Standards-Based Assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many states, standards-based education reform includes high-stakes assessment of children. Due to increasing pressure from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to include all children in state and district standards and assessments, many states have developed testing accommodation policies for special populations. In this study, we report specific challenges to the inclusion of deaf and hard of hearing students

Evelyn Johnson; Kathy Kimball; Shawn Olson Brown

2001-01-01

212

ONTOLOGIES-AND STANDARDS-BASED APPROACHES TO INTEROPERABILITY FOR CONCURRENT ENGINEERING  

E-print Network

, ontology engineering contributes to knowledge sharing and re-use (Gomez-Perez 1998). Ontology engineering1 Chapter 7 ONTOLOGIES- AND STANDARDS-BASED APPROACHES TO INTEROPERABILITY FOR CONCURRENT ENGINEERING L. C. Pouchard, A.F. Cutting-Decelle 7.1. INTRODUCTION As the use of information technology

Pouchard, Line

213

Increasing On-Task Behavior in Every Student in a Second-Grade Classroom during Transitions: Validating the Color Wheel System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A single-case (B-C-B-C) experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel classroom management system (CWS) on on-task (OT) behavior in an intact, general-education, 2nd-grade classroom during transitions. The CWS included three sets of rules, posted cues to indicate the rules students are expected to be following at that…

Fudge, Daniel L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Jacqueline L.; Cowden, Dan; Clark, Janice; Bliss, Stacy L.

2008-01-01

214

The backwash effect on SQL skills grading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of grading approaches for SQL query formulation on students' learning strategies. The way that students are graded in a subject has a significant impact on their learning approach, and it is crucial that graded tasks are carefully designed and implemented to inculcate a deep learning experience. An online examination system is described and evaluated.

Julia Coleman Prior; Raymond Lister

2004-01-01

215

Institution Credits Grade  

E-print Network

Institution Foreign Credits ECTS Credits US Credits Grade Grade Conversion University of Neveda - Reno US credits and grades Study Abroad Conversion USAC #12;(Agrentina) Institution Foreign Credits ECTS Credits US Credits Grade Grade Conversion Universidad Catolica Agrentina 4 4.2 10 - Sobresaliente

Duchowski, Andrew T.

216

The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading system for renal cell carcinoma and other prognostic parameters.  

PubMed

The International Society of Urological Pathology 2012 Consensus Conference made recommendations regarding classification, prognostic factors, staging, and immunohistochemical and molecular assessment of adult renal tumors. Issues relating to prognostic factors were coordinated by a workgroup who identified tumor morphotype, sarcomatoid/rhabdoid differentiation, tumor necrosis, grading, and microvascular invasion as potential prognostic parameters. There was consensus that the main morphotypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were of prognostic significance, that subtyping of papillary RCC (types 1 and 2) provided additional prognostic information, and that clear cell tubulopapillary RCC was associated with a more favorable outcome. For tumors showing sarcomatoid or rhabdoid differentiation, there was consensus that a minimum proportion of tumor was not required for diagnostic purposes. It was also agreed upon that the underlying subtype of carcinoma should be reported. For sarcomatoid carcinoma, it was further agreed upon that if the underlying carcinoma subtype was absent the tumor should be classified as a grade 4 unclassified carcinoma with a sarcomatoid component. Tumor necrosis was considered to have prognostic significance, with assessment based on macroscopic and microscopic examination of the tumor. It was recommended that for clear cell RCC the amount of necrosis should be quantified. There was consensus that nucleolar prominence defined grades 1 to 3 of clear cell and papillary RCCs, whereas extreme nuclear pleomorphism or sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation defined grade 4 tumors. It was agreed upon that chromophobe RCC should not be graded. There was consensus that microvascular invasion should not be included as a staging criterion for RCC. PMID:24025520

Delahunt, Brett; Cheville, John C; Martignoni, Guido; Humphrey, Peter A; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; McKenney, Jesse; Egevad, Lars; Algaba, Ferran; Moch, Holger; Grignon, David J; Montironi, Rodolfo; Srigley, John R

2013-10-01

217

State of Nebraska Reading Comprehension/Vocabulary Test and the Local American Literature Criterion-Referenced Test for Public School Eleventh Grade Students: A Correlational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the effectiveness of standards-based testing and was designed to determine the relationship of student scores on the locally constructed, standards-based, criterion-referenced test (CRT) for approximately 280 eleventh grade students at a Midwestern, Class III district, operating a Class A high school, and the scores of those…

Beckmann, Priscilla A.

2010-01-01

218

Comparative evaluation of rice bran wax as an ointment base with standard base.  

PubMed

Waxes have been used in many cosmetic preparations and pharmaceuticals as formulation aids. Rice bran wax is a byproduct of rice bran oil industry. Present investigation has been aimed to explore the possible utility of rice bran wax as ointment base compared to standard base. The rice bran wax obtained, purified and its physicochemical characteristics were determined. Ointment base acts as a carrier for medicaments. The ointment base composition determines not only the extent of penetration but also controls the transfer of medicaments from the base to the body tissues. Rice bran wax base was compared with standard base for appearance, spreadability, water number, wash ability and diffusibility. The results show that rice bran wax acts as an ointment base as far as its pharmaceutical properties are concerned and it could effectively replace comparatively costlier available ointment bases. PMID:20177466

Sabale, Vidya; Sabale, P M; Lakhotiya, C L

2009-01-01

219

Big Isn't Always Bad: School District Size, Poverty, and Standards-Based Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports results of the first systematic analysis of the progress of standards-based reform in U.S. school districts. Using data from a recent national survey of school districts (n=2,700) and a companion national survey of schools (n=1,177), it is found that not only do districts appear to play an important role, bigger districts appear…

Hannaway, Jane; Kimball, Kristi

220

IEEE 802.22: An Introduction to the First Wireless Standard based on Cognitive Radios  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November\\/2004, we witnessed the formation of the first worldwide effort to define a novel wireless air interface (i.e., MAC and PHY) standard based on Cognitive Radios (CRs): the IEEE 802.22 Working Group (WG). The IEEE 802.22 WG is chartered with the development of a CR-based Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) Physical (PHY) and Medium Access Control (MAC) layers for

Carlos De M. Cordeiro; Kiran S. Challapali; Dagnachew Birru

2006-01-01

221

IEEE 802.22: the first worldwide wireless standard based on cognitive radios  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November\\/2004, we witnessed the formation of the first worldwide effort to define a novel wireless air interface standard based on cognitive radios (CRs): the IEEE 802.22 working group (WG). The IEEE 802.22 WG is chartered with the development of a CR-based wireless regional area network (WRAN) physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers for use by license-exempt devices

Carlos Cordeiro; Kiran Challapali; Dagnachew Birru; N. Sai Shankar

2005-01-01

222

Best Practices for Making Scientific Data Discoverable and Accessible through Integrated, Standards-Based Data Portals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientists in the fields of hydrology, geophysics, and climatology are increasingly using the vast quantity of publicly-available data to address broadly-scoped scientific questions. For example, researchers studying contamination of nearshore waters could use a combination of radar indicated precipitation, modeled water currents, and various sources of in-situ monitoring data to predict water quality near a beach. In discovering, gathering, visualizing and analyzing potentially useful data sets, data portals have become invaluable tools. The most effective data portals often aggregate distributed data sets seamlessly and allow multiple avenues for accessing the underlying data, facilitated by the use of open standards. Additionally, adequate metadata are necessary for attribution, documentation of provenance and relating data sets to one another. Metadata also enable thematic, geospatial and temporal indexing of data sets and entities. Furthermore, effective portals make use of common vocabularies for scientific methods, units of measure, geologic features, chemical, and biological constituents as they allow investigators to correctly interpret and utilize data from external sources. One application that employs these principles is the National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) Data Portal (http://cida.usgs.gov/ngwmn), which makes groundwater data from distributed data providers available through a single, publicly accessible web application by mediating and aggregating native data exposed via web services on-the-fly into Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant service output. That output may be accessed either through the map-based user interface or through the aforementioned OGC web services. Furthermore, the Geo Data Portal (http://cida.usgs.gov/climate/gdp/), which is a system that provides users with data access, subsetting and geospatial processing of large and complex climate and land use data, exemplifies the application of International Standards Organization (ISO) metadata records to enhance data discovery for both human and machine interpretation. Lastly, the Water Quality Portal (http://www.waterqualitydata.us/) achieves interoperable dissemination of water quality data by referencing a vocabulary service for mapping constituents and methods between the USGS and USEPA. The NGWMN Data Portal, Geo Data Portal and Water Quality Portal are three examples of best practices when implementing data portals that provide distributed scientific data in an integrated, standards-based approach.

Lucido, J. M.

2013-12-01

223

Growth of Oreochromis aureus fed with diets containing graded levels of coffee pulp and reared in two culture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to compare growth and feed utilization of Oreochromis aureus fed graded levels of coffee pulp (CoP) and reared in aquaria or in pens. Diets contained 0, 130, 260 and 390 g kg?1 of oven-dried CoP. In aquaria, fish receiving increasing dietary CoP levels (from 0 to 390 g kg?1) showed a progressive reduction in final body

J. B. Ulloa Rojas; J. A. J. Verreth

2003-01-01

224

The formation of high-grade ignimbrites, I: Experiments on high- and low-concentration transport systems containing sticky particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-grade ignimbrites are thought to be deposited by pyroclastic flows at temperatures exceeding minimum welding temperature\\u000a or even solidus temperature. Corresponding pyroclastic-flow particles range from plastic to partially liquid and are able\\u000a to aggregate or coalesce. This contrasts with particles in pyroclastic flows producing unwelded ignimbrite, which are capable\\u000a of elastic grain interactions. The low aspect ratio and great areal

Armin Freundt

1998-01-01

225

Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades  

PubMed Central

Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the ‘increases in grade point average’ definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all.

Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

2014-01-01

226

Developing Knowledgeable Teachers: A Framework for Standards-Based Teacher Education Supported by Institutional Collaboration. The STEP Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers describes the process of creating a standards-based teacher education program through strong collaboration among arts and science, education, and P-12 faculty members and administrators. The Standards-based Teacher Education Project (STEP) was designed to help teacher education programs ensure that their graduates know…

Garvin, Patty, Ed.

227

40 CFR 1036.620 - Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...Compliance Provisions § 1036.620 Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...your compression-ignition engines to the CO2 standards of this section instead of...

2012-07-01

228

40 CFR 1036.620 - Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...Compliance Provisions § 1036.620 Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...your compression-ignition engines to the CO2 standards of this section instead of...

2013-07-01

229

Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

Superfine, Benjamin Michael

2009-01-01

230

Teachers' Perspectives on Standards-Based Education: Initial Findings from a High-Performing, High-Needs School District.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined elementary teachers' perspectives about key aspects of standard-based education reform. Using survey data from teachers in schools of varying poverty and student achievement levels, the study explored beliefs about elements of standards-based reform and perceptions of principals' emphases on instruction and test scores.…

Snow-Renner, Ravay

231

Plus and Minus Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current official policy of the California community colleges on grading prohibits the use of plus and minus symbols to modify a standard letter grade. Plus and minus grades may influence a student's grade point average (GPA) either through statistical effects or psychological effects on teachers and students. At its fall 1985 session, and…

Farland, Ronnald; Cepeda, Rita

232

7 CFR 810.105 - Grades and grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements. 810.105 Section 810.105 Agriculture...UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations §...

2010-01-01

233

High-gravity-assisted pulsed laser ablation system for the fabrication of functionally graded material thin film.  

PubMed

This paper describes a novel method for the fabrication of a thin film deposited on an appropriate substrate having a continuous composition gradient. The composition gradient was achieved by a combination of pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of the target material with a very strong acceleration field generated on a moving disk rotating at a very high speed. The PLA process was used to produce a cloud of high-energy particles of the target material that will be deposited on a substrate placed on the rotating disk. After deposition, the particles will diffuse on the surface of the thin film under a strong acceleration field. The high energy of the particles and their diffusion on the substrate surface in a high-vacuum environment produces a macroscopic composition distribution in the thin film. We have constructed an experimental apparatus consisting of a vacuum chamber in which a circular disk made of titanium is driven by a high-frequency inductive motor. An acceleration field of up to 10,000 G can be generated by this apparatus. Functionally graded material thin films of FeSi(2) with a continuous concentration gradient were successfully fabricated by this method under a gravity field of 5400 G. A significant advantage of this method is that it allows us to fabricate graded thin films with a very smooth surface covered by few droplets. PMID:19334931

Nishiyama, T; Morinaga, S; Nagayama, K

2009-03-01

234

Faculty/Staff Perceptions of a Standards-Based Exit Portfolio System for Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New standards for certification were recently developed for speech-language pathology graduate training programs by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. The new standards are outcomes-based rather than process-based. Using a collective case study approach, this article highlights the perceptions of faculty and staff regarding use of a…

McNamara, Tena L.; Bailey, Rita L.

2006-01-01

235

Standards-based publication and sharing of time series information in the DRIHM project: a EU-US collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enable a plug-and-play infrastructure, the European DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project aims to develop a comprehensive data publication and sharing system presenting uniform standards-based data discovery and access interfaces for hydrometeorological data collected by DRIHM partners in several European countries. This is a challenging task due to heterogeneity in types of data being collected and organized for modeling, and different semantic and structural conventions adopted by different data publishers. To meet this goal, the DRIHM project, and its DRIHM2US extension, collaborates with the recently funded US SCIHM (Standards-based Cyberinfrastructure for HydroMeteorology) project to develop a data sharing infrastructure for time series information. We report initial results of the application of the data integrating technologies developed by the NSF-funded CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Data, Inc., Hydrologic Information System) project, to information collected within DRIHM. The CUAHSI HIS system has been widely used in the US; it provides access to about a hundred water data collections that can be queried via uniform web services. The DRIHM partners initially implementing the system, include the CIMA Research Foundation (Italy), the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. The collected time series information was ingested into CUAHSI Observations Data Model databases, and water data services were created for each of the partners. At the time of writing, the water data services include SOAP and REST endpoints that provide access to the time series in WaterML 1 and WaterML 2.0 formats. The former encoding, developed by CUAHSI HIS, has been adopted by a number of federal agencies and research groups in the US, while the latter, created by an international group of experts under the aegis of the Hydrology Domain Working Group of the Open Geospatial Consortium and the World Meteorological Organization, has been recently adopted as an international standard for exchanging hydrologic data. The services are registered at the central catalog, which supports discovery of time series based on their spatio-temporal characteristics and on variable semantics. The semantics of the measurements is aligned , in the process of publication and service registration, with a set of centrally managed controlled vocabularies and a parameter vocabulary. Data from multiple collections can be discovered, accessed, visualized and analyzed using CUAHSI HydroDesktop software, or other clients that support water data service interfaces. While HydroDesktop relies on WaterML 1 format, the Delft FEWS system, maintained by a DRIHM partner Deltares, is already capable of ingesting WaterML 2.0 services, which enables interfacing WaterML 2.0-formatted streams with forecast models. Development of a consistent data sharing system is one of the first steps in realizing DRIHM objectives. Next steps include further integration of water data services with simulation models, WRF and WRF-Hydro in particular, and integrating point time series with gridded information to be used as model input. We discuss these additional steps and associated challenges, and demonstrate the complementarity and benefits of US-EU collaboration in the development of global standards-based infrastructure for hydrometeorological data.

Hooper, Richard; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Parodi, Antonio; Gochis, David; Jha, Shantenu; Whitenack, Thomas; Valentine, David; Caumont, Olivier; Dekic, Ljiljana; Ivkovic, Marija; Molini, Luca; Bedrina, Tatiana; Gijsbers, Peter J. A.; de Rooij, Erik; Rebora, Nicola

2013-04-01

236

Menopause and ovariectomy cause a low grade of systemic inflammation that may be prevented by chronic treatment with low doses of estrogen or losartan.  

PubMed

The incidence of cardiovascular diseases in premenopausal women is lower than in men or postmenopausal women. This study reports the discovery of a low grade of systemic inflammation, including monocyte adhesion to arterial endothelium, elicited by menopause or estrogen depletion. Chronic treatment with low dose of 17-beta-estradiol or inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system reduced this inflammation. Using an in vitro flow chamber system with human arterial and venous endothelial cells, we found that leukocytes from healthy postmenopausal women were more adhesive to the arterial endothelium than those from premenopausal women regardless of the stimulus used on endothelial cells. Increased circulating levels of IL-8, MCP-1, RANTES, and MIP-1alpha and monocyte CD11b expression were also encountered in postmenopausal vs premenopausal subjects. This translational data led us to investigate the mechanisms in Sprague-Dawley rats. Using intravital microscopy, we imaged mesenteric arterioles and found significant increases in arteriolar leukocyte adhesion, cell adhesion molecule expression, and plasma levels of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC/KC), MCP-1, and MIP-1alpha in 1-mo ovariectomized rats. Chronic treatment of ovariectomized rats with low dose of 17-beta-estradiol, losartan, both, or benazepril inhibited ovariectomy-induced arteriolar mononuclear leukocyte adhesion by 77%, 58%, 92%, and 65% respectively, partly by inhibition of cell adhesion molecule up-regulation and the increase in circulating chemokines. These results demonstrate that menopause and ovariectomy generate a low grade of systemic inflammation. Therefore, administration of low doses of estrogens or inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system, at early stages of estrogen deficiency, might prevent the systemic inflammation associated with menopause and decrease the risk of suffering further cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19553526

Abu-Taha, May; Rius, Cristina; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Noguera, Inmaculada; Cerda-Nicolas, Jose-Miguel; Issekutz, Andrew C; Jose, Peter J; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Sanz, Maria-Jesus

2009-07-15

237

Beach Hopper Bonanza Grade Level: Second Grade  

E-print Network

Beach Hopper Bonanza Grade Level: Second Grade Developers: Jan Ward, Merry Lojkovic, Kara Davidson the characteristics, behavior, and anatomy of beach hoppers. !" Examine the relationships between the beach hopper (transparent) !" 1-2 buckets !" sieves !" shovel !" small plastic container with lid to hold beach hoppers

238

Metabolic syndrome, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease--the emerging role of systemic low-grade inflammation and adiposity.  

PubMed

The past decade has shed new light on the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is the consequence of interactions between numerous lesions. There is a growing body of evidence that the most beneficial effects of treatment might only be achieved in the preclinical stage of dementia, prior to the immense hallmarks of neurodegeneration. In view of this, several studies have focused on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a state, which represents a less severe form of the neuropathological process. However, early treatment interventions initiated in MCI have failed to slow down progression of the disease. Thus, great effort has been made to indicate modifiable risk factors for MCI. Consistent with the role of vascular malfunction in AD, this approach has shown the predictive value of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), which is a multidimensional entity and includes visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Despite the positive results of several epidemiological studies, the exact mechanisms underlying the connection between MetS and AD remain uncertain and various theories are being assessed. MetS, similarly to AD, has been attributed to a low-grade chronic inflammation. There is a general consensus that the aberrant inflammatory response underlying MetS may arise from a deregulation of the endocrine homeostasis of adipose tissue. Hence, it might be assumed that the subclinical inflammation of adipose tissue may interact with the impaired central inflammatory response, leading to neurodegeneration. This article reviews the role of low-grade inflammation of adipose tissue in the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment and translates several considerable and unexplored findings from studies focused on subjects with MetS and animal models mimicking the phenotype of MetS into the etiology of AD. PMID:22921944

Misiak, Blazej; Leszek, Jerzy; Kiejna, Andrzej

2012-11-01

239

Graded Fuzzy Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this contribution, we will recall graded fuzzy rules intro- duced in (6) and explain the difierence from the classical fuzzy rules. Moreover, properties of formulae, which are used to formalize the graded fuzzy rules, will be analyzed.

Martina Danková

2007-01-01

240

Grading in soft tissue tumors: principles and problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Histologic grading has been considered the most important prognostic factor for soft tissue sarcomas. Several grading systems have been proposed based on the assessment of morphologic features in heterogeneous groups of sarcomas. Currently, the French Federation of Cancer Centers (FNCLCC) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) grading systems are the most commonly used. These systems are based on a

Andre M. Oliveira; Antonio G. Nascimento

2001-01-01

241

The Meaning of Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that students see grades as an indicator of effort unconnected to the content of the course while teachers regard grades as a measure of achievement within a discipline. Discusses some of the current controversies and approaches concerning grades and how they relate to school reform. (MJP)

Teixeira, Serna E.

1996-01-01

242

Test Grading the 68332  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study on test grading a modular design, the 68332, Motorola's 32-bit, 68000 family microcontroller. The modular design approach implemented for the 68332 is described along with the testing strategy and benefits of modular design. The tools and methodology used to perform the test grade and to preserve the test grade integrity are also presented. Factors

Tony Cheng; Eric Hoang; David Rivera; Alan Haedge; Jamie Fontenot; Glenn Carson

1991-01-01

243

My Math Grade (percents)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work to calculate their own grades in the class. Students will want to keep all of their returned work so that they have access to the grades they received on tests, homework, etc (a study skill they should likely develop anyway), or if grades are on blackboard they can quickly retrieve their scores.

2010-01-01

244

Redesigning Grading--Districtwide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the first years of his career as a high school math teacher, Matt Townsley was bothered by the fact that his grades penalized students for not learning content quickly. A student could master every standard, but low quiz grades and homework assignments they didn't complete because they didn't understand would lower their final grade,…

Townsley, Matt

2014-01-01

245

A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "La Mujer Que Brillaba Aun Mas Que el Sol"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

Bullitt, Leslie Kay; Gonzalez, Augusta C.; Luna, Boni

1998-01-01

246

Evaluation and improvement of optical-grade LiTaO3 single crystals by the LFB ultrasonic material characterization system.  

PubMed

This paper describes the first demonstration for feeding back the results obtained by the line-focus-beam ultrasonic material characterization (LFB-UMC) system to the crystal growth conditions for optical-grade LiTaO3 crystals and for achieving much improved homogeneity of chemical composition. We evaluated a commercially available optical-grade LiTaO3 single crystal with a nominally congruent composition in detail, by measuring distributions of the velocities of leaky surface acoustic waves (LSAW) along the Y-axis direction for a Z-cut specimen plate prepared from the crystal grown in the Y-axis direction. We detected an increment of 0.66 m/s in LSAW velocity along the pulling axis direction corresponding to 0.024 mol% in Li2O content, and the compositional gradient was +0.346 x 10(-3) (Li2O-mol%)/mm. By experimentally obtaining the starting material composition dependence of the gradients, we developed a method of estimating the proper composition ratio that would lead to a more homogeneous crystal. We grew a new crystal with a Li2O content of 48.47 mol%, resulting in a very small compositional gradient of +0.046 x 10(-3) (Li2O-mol%)/mm and a compositional homogeneity of less than 0.012 Li2O-mol% in a Z-cut area of 50 mm x 50 mm used for device substrates. PMID:12152944

Kushibiki, Jun-ichi; Ohashi, Yuji; Ono, Yuu; Sasamata, Takeji

2002-07-01

247

Standards-based reform and its unintended consequences: Implications for science education within America's urban schools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This conceptual article examines the influence of the current standards-based reform upon science education policies and practices within urban schools. We identify four negative yet unforeseen effects of the reform movement: undermining urban teachers' professionalism, eroding teacher-student relationships, diluting the science curriculum, and disparate instruction based on predicted individual test performance. Our awareness of these nuisances emerged from our first-hand engagement with urban science teaching and through our collegial relationships with exemplary urban teachers. In closing, we propose mechanisms by which university-based science educators might address these issues by assisting exemplary urban teachers to resist the reform-induced perils and by incorporating the urban milieu as a substantive aspect of science teacher education.

Settlage, John; Meadows, Lee

2002-02-01

248

Improving performance of Zambia Defence Force antiretroviral therapy providers: evaluation of a standards-based approach  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: The Zambia Defence Force (ZDF) has applied the Standards-Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R®) approach, which uses detailed performance standards, at some health facilities to improve HIV-related services offered to military personnel and surrounding civilian communities. This study examines the effectiveness of the SBM-R approach in improving facility readiness and provider performance at ZDF facilities. Methods: We collected data on facility readiness and provider performance before and after the 2010–2012 intervention at 4 intervention sites selected for their relatively poor performance and 4 comparison sites. Assessors observed whether each facility met 16 readiness standards and whether providers met 9 performance standards during consultations with 354 returning antiretroviral therapy (ART) clients. We then calculated the percentages of criteria achieved for each readiness and performance standard and conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses of provider performance data. Results: Facilities' ART readiness scores exceeded 80% before the intervention at both intervention and comparison sites. At endline, scores improved on 4 facility readiness standards in the intervention group but on only 1 standard in the comparison group. Multivariate analysis found that the overall provider performance score increased significantly in the intervention group (from 58% to 84%; P<.01) but not in the comparison group (from 62% to 70%). The before-and-after improvement in scores was significantly greater among intervention sites than among comparison sites for 2 standards—initial assessment of the client's condition and nutrition counseling. Conclusion: The standards-based approach, which involved intensive and mutually reinforcing intervention activities, showed modest improvements in some aspects of providers' performance during ART consultations. Further research is needed to determine whether improvements in provider performance affect client outcomes such as adherence to ART.

Kim, Young Mi; Banda, Joseph; Kanjipite, Webby; Sarkar, Supriya; Bazant, Eva; Hiner, Cyndi; Tholandi, Maya; Reinhardt, Stephanie; Njobvu, Panganani Dalisani; Kols, Adrienne; Benavides, Bruno

2013-01-01

249

Should Grade Retention Decisions Be Indicators-Based or Model-Driven? CSE Technical Report 716  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates a large urban district's standards-based promotion policy decisions against a model-driven classification. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to explore factors related to grade retention at both the student and school level. Statistical results indicate that using students' next year achievement test scores as…

Wang, Jia; Wang, Haiwen

2007-01-01

250

Assessing Literacy with the Learning Record: A Handbook for Teachers, Grades 6-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Learning Record is a framework teachers can use to translate their observations of students into a disciplined, systematic, standards-based reporting process. This guide offers all the information necessary to use the Learning Record in the upper grades. The chapters are: (1) "Documenting Prior Experience"; (2) "Documenting Student Learning";…

Barr, Mary A.; Syverson, Margaret A.

251

Establishing an appropriate mode of comparison for measuring the performance of marbling score output from video image analysis beef carcass grading systems.  

PubMed

A beef carcass instrument grading system that improves accuracy and consistency of marbling score (MS) evaluation would have the potential to advance value-based marketing efforts and reduce disparity in quality grading among USDA graders, shifts, and plants. The objectives of this study were to use output data from the Video Image Analysis-Computer Vision System (VIA-CVS, Research Management Systems Inc., Fort Collins, CO) to develop an appropriate method by which performance of video image analysis MS output could be evaluated for accuracy, precision, and repeatability for purposes of seeking official USDA approval for using an instrument in commerce to augment assessment of quality grade, and to use the developed standards to gain approval for VIA-CVS to assist USDA personnel in assigning official beef carcass MS. An initial MS output algorithm was developed (phase I) for the VIA-CVS before 2 separate preliminary instrument evaluation trials (phases II and III) were conducted. During phases II and III, a 3-member panel of USDA expert graders independently assigned MS to 1,068 and 1,242 stationary carcasses, respectively. Mean expert MS was calculated for each carcass. Additionally, a separate 3-member USDA expert panel developed a consensus MS for each carcass in phase III. In phase II, VIA-CVS stationary triple-placement and triple-trigger instrument repeatability values (n = 262 and 260, respectively), measured as the percentage of total variance explained by carcasses, were 99.9 and 99.8%, respectively. In phases II and III, 95% of carcasses were assigned expert MS for which differences between individual expert MS, and for which the consensus MS in phase III only, was < or = 96 MS units. Two differing approaches to simple regression analysis, as well as a separate method-comparability analysis that accommodates error in both dependent and independent variables, were used to assess accuracy and precision of instrument MS predictions vs. mean expert MS. Method-comparability analysis was more appropriate in assessing the bias and precision of instrument MS predictions. Ether-extractable fat percentages (n = 257; phase II) differed among MS (P < 0.05) but were not suitable to predict or validate assigned MS. The performance and reproducibility of expert MS assignment in future evaluations was considered, and an official USDA performance standard was established, to which an instrument must conform to be approved for official on-line MS assessment. The VIA-CVS subsequently was approved to assign MS to carcasses on-line after completion of a 2006 USDA instrument approval trial conducted according to methods developed during completion of this study. PMID:20348376

Moore, C B; Bass, P D; Green, M D; Chapman, P L; O'Connor, M E; Yates, L D; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

2010-07-01

252

Power Conversion and Transmission Systems: A 9th and/or 10th Grade Industrial Education Curriculum Designed To Fulfill the Kansas State Department of Vocational Education's Level 2 Course Requirements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document is a guide to a 9th and 10th grade industrial education course investigating the total system of power--how man controls, converts, transmits, and uses energy; the rationale is that if one is to learn of the total system of industry, the subsystem of power must be investigated. The guide provides a "body of knowledge" chart…

Dean, Harvey R., Ed.

253

Equating Tests under the Graded Response Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The procedure of M.L. Stocking and F.M. Lord (1983) for computing equating coefficients for tests having dichotomously scored items is extended to the case of graded response items. A system of equations for obtaining the equating coefficients under the graded response model is derived. (SLD)

Baker, Frank B.

1992-01-01

254

Grading of alfalfa cubes using imaging and texture analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alfalfa cubes are grade according to many factors, including overall color, appearance, and particle size. The grading process is currently done manually, and particle sizing is an off-line process done by physically breaking apart the cubes and sieving the particles. This paper presents research which may lead to an automated on-line grading system for alfalfa cubes. A machine vision system

Philip W. Winter; Shahab Sokhansanj; Hugh C. Wood

1999-01-01

255

Algebraic Reasoning in the Middle Grades: A View of Student Strategies in Pictorial and Algebraic System of Equations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers use action research in order to improve their teaching and student learning. This action research will analyze students' algebraic reasoning in finding values of variables in systems of equations pictorially and algebraically. This research will look at students solving linear systems of equations without knowing the algebraic algorithms.…

Falcon, Raymond

2009-01-01

256

Correlation between Teacher Turnover Rates in the State of Alaska and Standardized Test Scores in the Area of Mathematics on the Standards Based Assessments/High School Qualifying Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study utilized bivariate correlations, partial correlations, multivariate analysis including Hotelling-T, and observed power to investigate the possible correlations and connections of teacher turnover in Alaska's public school system to performance on the standards-based assessment of the Alaska High School Qualifying Exam (HSQE). The study…

Roehl, Roy F., II

2010-01-01

257

77 FR 35163 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...system'' programs covering...funds for the development of software and hardware...demonstration program was initiated...makes this software freely available...with ENS programs to keep their...outlining the development of ENS...

2012-06-12

258

Standardization of grading embryo morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standardization of morphological assessment for embryo grading system was developed and is being implemented by the Society\\u000a for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART). A recent European consensus conference of embryologists from Europe and America\\u000a is working toward adopting an embryo classification system modeled similarly to that of SART which, if adopted, would produce\\u000a a de facto international standard to aid cross

Catherine Racowsky; Michael Vernon; Jacob Mayer; G. David Ball; Barry Behr; Kimball O. Pomeroy; David Wininger; William Gibbons; Joseph Conaghan; Judy E. Stern

2010-01-01

259

Hybrid pressure retarded osmosis-membrane distillation system for power generation from low-grade heat: thermodynamic analysis and energy efficiency.  

PubMed

We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 °C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance optimization. PMID:24724732

Lin, Shihong; Yip, Ngai Yin; Cath, Tzahi Y; Osuji, Chinedum O; Elimelech, Menachem

2014-05-01

260

Influence of elastic variations on crack initiation in functionally graded glass-filled epoxy  

E-print Network

factors (SIF) or SIF-histories in functionally graded materials (FGM) based on locally homogeneous. Keywords: Functionally graded materials; Elastic gradients; Crack initiation; Stress intensity factor systems with gradual variation in properties are collectively referred to as functionally graded materials

Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

261

7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810.1404 ...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum >grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. Grading factors Grades U.S....

2010-01-01

262

Transferrin receptor expression in tumours of the human nervous system: relation to tumour type, grading and tumour growth fraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The expression of transferrin receptor (Tr) was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry in 101 tumours of the human central and peripheral nervous system. The results were compared with the proliferative activity of the tumours, determined by immunostaining for the proliferation-associated antigen Ki-67. In addition to immunostaining of normal and proliferated blood vessel endothelium and of a fraction of tumour

Reinhard Prior; Guido Reifenberger; Wolfgang Wechsler

1990-01-01

263

Messages from Space: The Solar System and Beyond. Grades 508. Teacher's Guide. Great Explorations in Science (GEMS).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Building on collaborative work between the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute and the Lawrence Hall of Science, this curriculum takes advantage of humans' fascination with extraterrestrials to catalyze the study of the solar system and beyond. The unit begins when students attempt to decode a fictitious message from outer…

Beals, Kevin; Erickson, John; Sneider, Cary

264

Packing Up for the Moon: Human Exploration Project Engineering Design Challenge. Design, Build and Evaluate. A Standards-Based Middle School Unit Guide. Engineering By Design: Advancing Technological Literacy--A Standards-Based Program Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Human Exploration Project (HEP) units have several common characteristics. All units: (1) Are based upon the Technological Literacy standards (ITEA, 2000/2002); (2) Coordinate with Science (AAAS, 1993) and Mathematics standards (NCTM, 2000); (3) Utilize a standards-based development approach (ITEA, 2005); (4) Stand alone and coordinate with…

NASA Educator Resource Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, 2007

2007-01-01

265

Constructed-response, computer-graded homework  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes a computer-based homework grading system that accepts a constructed response by the student, multiple attempts, generation of new data for each student, records of performance, and provision of some feedback about answers.

Taylor, John; Deever, David

2005-10-17

266

Longitudinally Graded Optical Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along their length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight percent GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported for fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. Fibers with longitudinally uniform (i.e., not gradient) refractive index profiles but differing chemical compositions among various core layers were also fabricated to determine acoustic effects of the core slug method. The refractive index of the resulting preform varies by about +/- 0.00013 from the average. Upon core drilling, it was found that the core slugs had been drilled off-center from the parent preform, resulting in semi-circular core cross sections that were unable to guide light. As a result, optical analysis could not be conducted. Chemical composition data was obtained, however, and is described herein. A third fiber produced was actively doped with ytterbium (Yb3 ) and fabricated similarly to the previous fibers. The preforms were doped via the solution doping method with a solution of 0.015 M Yb 3 derived from ytterbium chloride hexahydrate and 0.30 M Al 3 derived from aluminum chloride hexahydrate. The doped preform was engineered to have two core layers of differing chemical composition, resulting in both a gradient refractive index profile as well as a gradient acoustic profile. While exhibiting higher loss than the original LGF, the Yb 3-doped fiber showed slightly better SBS suppression with preliminary calculations showing at least 6 dB reduction in Brillouin gain. Lastly, reported here is a straight-forward and flexible method to fabricate silica optical fibers of circular cladding cross-section and rectilinear cores whose aspect ratio and refractive index profile changes with position along the fiber in a deterministic way. Specifically, a modification to the process developed to produce longitudinally-graded optical fibers, was employed. Herein reported are MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers with rectangular cores where the aspect ratio changes by nearly 200 % and the average refractive index changed by about 5 %. Fiber losses were measured to be about 50 dB/km. Such rectangular core fibers are useful for a variety of telecommunication and biomedical applications and the dimensional and optical chirp provides a deterministic way to control further the modal properties of the fiber. Possible applications of longitudinally graded optical fibers and future improvements are also discussed. The methods employed are very straight-forward and technically simple, providing for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, that could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

Evert, Alexander George

267

Minimum Grading, Maximum Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fair and effective schools should assign grades that align with clear and consistent evidence of student performance (Wormeli, 2006), but when a student's performance is inconsistent, traditional grading practices can prove inadequate. Understanding this, increasing numbers of schools have been experimenting with the practice of assigning minimum…

Carey, Theodore; Carifio, James

2011-01-01

268

Grades out, Badges in  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grades are broken. Students grub for them, pick classes where good ones come easily, and otherwise hustle to win the highest scores for the least learning. As a result, college grades are inflated to the point of meaninglessness--especially to employers who want to know which diploma-holder is best qualified for their jobs. An alternative is to…

Young, Jeffrey R.

2012-01-01

269

Middle-Grades Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Forum to Accelerate Middle-Grades Reform, influential in middle-grades policy, advocates a three tiered approach envisioning high-performing schools as academically rigorous, developmentally responsive, and socially equitable. This report discusses pioneering programs, critics' concerns, exemplary Michigan programs, and urban schools'…

Norton, John; Lewis, Anne C.

2000-01-01

270

Modern Problems, Grade 12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GRADES OR AGES: Grade 12. SUBJECT MATTER: Modern economic, political, and sociological problems primarily in the United States. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into six units, each of which is laid out in two columns. Column headings are: content and suggested activities. The guide is mimeographed and perfect-bound with…

Wilmington Public Schools, DE.

271

Upper Grades Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes computer-oriented teaching activities for the upper grades. They focus on the use of databases in history classes, checking taxes, examining aspects of the joystick button on Atari microcomputers, printing control using Logo, and a Logo program that draws whirling squares. All activities can be adapted for lower grades. (JN)

Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

1985-01-01

272

Third Grade Reading Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

Rose, Stephanie

2012-01-01

273

Material Analysis and Processing Systems: A 9th and/or 10th Grade Industrial Education Curriculum Designed To Fulfill the Kansas State Department of Vocational Education's Level 2 Course Requirements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The teacher developed curriculum guide provides the industrial education teacher with the objectives, equipment lists, material, supplies, references, and activities necessary to teach students of the 9th and/or 10th grade the concepts of interrelationships between material analysis and processing systems. Career information and sociological…

Dean, Harvey R., Ed.

274

Quality of Maternal and Neonatal Care in Albania, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan: A Systematic, Standard-Based, Participatory Assessment  

PubMed Central

Background Progress in maternal and neonatal mortality has been slow in many countries despite increasing access to institutional births, suggesting deficiencies in the quality of care. We carried out a systematic assessment of the quality of maternal and newborn care in three CEE/CIS countries, using an innovative approach to identify priority issues and promote action. Methods A standard-based tool, covering over 400 items grouped in 13 main areas ranging from support services to case management, was used to assess a sample of ten maternity hospitals in Albania, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Sources of information were visit to services, medical records, observation of cases, and interviews with staff and mothers. A score (range 0 to 3) was attributed to each item and area of care. The assessment was carried out by a multidisciplinary team of international and national professionals. Local managers and staff provided the necessary information and were involved in discussing the findings and the priority actions. Results Quality of care was found to be substandard in all 13 areas. The lowest scores (between one and two) were obtained by: management of normal labour, delivery, obstetric complications and sick babies; infection prevention; use of guidelines and audits; monitoring and follow-up. Neonatal care as a whole scored better than obstetric care. Interviewed mothers identified lack of information, insufficient support during labour and lack of companionship as main issues. Actions to improve quality of care were identified at facility as well as at central level and framed according to main health system functions. Conclusions Quality of care is a key issue to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, particularly in countries such as CEE/CIS where access to institutional births is nearly universal. Approaches that involve health professionals and managers in comprehensive, action-oriented assessments of quality of care are promising and should be further supported. PMID:22216110

Tamburlini, Giorgio; Siupsinskas, Gelmius; Bacci, Alberta

2011-01-01

275

Towards Automatic Grading of Evidence Abeed Sarker1  

E-print Network

://www.csiro.au Abstract. The practice of Evidence Based Medicine requires practi- tioners to extract evidence from on the evidence grades. 1 Introduction An important step for physicians who practise Evidence Based Medicine (EBM building an automatic evidence grading system. 2 Evidence Based Medicine and Evidence Grading EBM

Aliod, Diego Mollá

276

Job Grading Standard for Wood Worker, WG-4604.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A job grading standard for Wood Worker WG-4604 is given for grading jobs under the Federal Wage System. The standard covers physical requirements, tools, job task, skills, and knowledge at three grade levels, and the limits placed on the requirements at each level. In general the wood worker makes and repairs such supply shipping, and storage…

Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

277

Love wave propagation in functionally graded piezoelectric material layer  

E-print Network

Love wave propagation in functionally graded piezoelectric material layer Jianke Du *, Xiaoying Jin is used to investigate Love waves in functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) layer bonded functionally graded material (FGM) was proposed to solve problems in the thermal- protection systems

Wang, Ji

278

Optical properties of graded colloidal nanocrystallines with tunable structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a class of graded colloidal crystalline materials which consist of polydisperse metallodielectric nanoshells stacked in layers. We take the Lekner Lishchuk summation method to treat the graded systems which are not tractable by conventional approach such as Ewald Kornfeld methods. It is demonstrated that this kind of graded materials exhibit a series of sharp peaks, which merge in

J. J. Xiao; Joseph T. A. Kwok; K. W. Yu

2007-01-01

279

Optical properties of graded colloidal nanocrystallines with tunable structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a class of graded colloidal crystalline materials which consist of polydisperse metallodielectric nanoshells stacked in layers. We take the Lekner–Lishchuk summation method to treat the graded systems which are not tractable by conventional approach such as Ewald–Kornfeld methods. It is demonstrated that this kind of graded materials exhibit a series of sharp peaks, which merge in a broadened

J. J. Xiao; Joseph T. A. Kwok; K. W. Yu

2007-01-01

280

Grassmann-graded Lagrangian theory of even and odd variables  

E-print Network

Graded Lagrangian formalism in terms of a Grassmann-graded variational bicomplex on graded manifolds is developed in a very general setting. This formalism provides the comprehensive description of reducible degenerate Lagrangian systems, characterized by hierarchies of non-trivial higher-order Noether identities and gauge symmetries. This is a general case of classical field theory and Lagrangian non-relativistic mechanics.

G. Sardanashvily

2012-06-12

281

Grading Homework to Emphasize Problem-Solving Process Skills  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process- based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.

Harper, Kathleen A.

2012-10-01

282

Department and Grade Level Chairs Grade Level Chairs  

E-print Network

7/25/2011 Department and Grade Level Chairs 2011­2012 Grade Level Chairs Nursery & Kindergarten Blaine: Elizabeth Roche Woodlawn: Maureen Campbell Kindergarten: Delores Rita Lower School 1st grade: Eli

Scherer, Norbert F.

283

The Role of End-of-Course Exams and Minimum Competency Exams in Standards-Based Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors looked at the effects of one old-style educational reform--higher course graduation requirements--and five standard-based reforms--(1) school report cards; (2) rewards for school improvement; (3) sanctions for failing schools; (4) minimum competency examinations; and (5) hybrid minimum competency exam…

Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael; Moriarty, Joan Y.

2001-01-01

284

oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades  

E-print Network

oZONE Faculty and Staff Exporting and Importing Grades Exporting/Importing Grades in oZONE The new - Log in to ozone.ou.edu using your OU Net ID (4+4) as you would in any other OU system. Click Importing Grades from a Exported oZONE template If you exported a course template from the oZONE grading

Oklahoma, University of

285

MAGNETIC LIQUID DEFORMABLE MIRRORS FOR ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS: ACTIVE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL ABERRATIONS FROM LOWER-GRADE OPTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

Borra, E. F., E-mail: borra@phy.ulaval.ca [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

2012-08-01

286

Functionally graded boron carbide  

SciTech Connect

Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

1998-12-31

287

Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

288

Risk factors in intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphomas of adults: a need for a new staging system.  

PubMed

This study included 120 adult patients of intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in clinical stages II, III and IV. They were treated at Kasr El-Aini Center of Oncology and Nuclear Medicine (NEMROCK) during the period 1984-1987, inclusive. All patients were prospectively treated using four different chemotherapy regimens: MEVP (31 patients), COPP/M (23 patients), COPP/A-V (26 patients) and CHOP (40 patients). The clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in the four groups were comparable. Fifty percent (59 patients) of the whole study group attained complete remission (CR). The highest CR was achieved with the CHOP regimen (58%) and the lowest was with MEVP (39%); the difference was statistically insignificant (p greater than 0.05). One third of CR relapsed during the follow-up period and two thirds remained disease-free for a median of 5 years and a range of 2 to 6 years. Eleven possible risk factors were tested for their correlation with survival. Five factors were identified as affecting survival significantly. When these five factors were subjected to stepwise regression analysis, only the quality of initial response and performance status sustained their prognostic significance. These factors were used to classify patients into three risk groups (low, intermediate, and high); the 5-year survivals were 79%, 36%, 17% respectively. When the Ann-Arbor staging system was used, no significant difference in 5-year survival was detected between stages II, III, and IV. The significance of the Ann-Arbor staging system as a prognostic indicator is questioned in G2 and G3 NHL. A new staging system is proposed. PMID:1797195

el-Ghamrawy, K A; Zawam, H Z; Abdel-Azim, H; Haggag, M

1991-08-01

289

Teacher Implementation of Reform-Based Mathematics and Implications for Algebra Readiness: A Qualitative Study of 4th Grade Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study looked at 4th grade classrooms to see "how" teachers implement NCTM standards-based or reform-based mathematics instruction and then analyzed it for the capacity to improve students' "algebra readiness." The qualitative study was based on classroom observations, teacher and administrator interviews, and teacher surveys. The study took…

Sher, Stephen Korb

2011-01-01

290

Graded Majorana spinors  

E-print Network

In many mathematical and physical contexts spinors are treated as Grassmann odd valued fields. We show that it is possible to extend the classification of reality conditions on such spinors by a new type of Majorana condition. In order to define this graded Majorana condition we make use of pseudo-conjugation, a rather unfamiliar extension of complex conjugation to supernumbers. Like the symplectic Majorana condition, the graded Majorana condition may be imposed, for example, in spacetimes in which the standard Majorana condition is inconsistent. However, in contrast to the symplectic condition, which requires duplicating the number of spinor fields, the graded condition can be imposed on a single Dirac spinor. We illustrate how graded Majorana spinors can be applied to supersymmetry by constructing a globally supersymmetric field theory in three-dimensional Euclidean space, an example of a spacetime where standard Majorana spinors do not exist.

A. F. Kleppe; Chris Wainwright

2005-01-31

291

Functionally Graded Media  

E-print Network

The notions of uniformity and homogeneity of elastic materials are reviewed in terms of Lie groupoids and frame bundles. This framework is also extended to consider the case Functionally Graded Media, which allows us to obtain some homogeneity conditions.

Campos, Cedric M; de Leon, Manuel

2007-01-01

292

Functionally Graded Media  

E-print Network

The notions of uniformity and homogeneity of elastic materials are reviewed in terms of Lie groupoids and frame bundles. This framework is also extended to consider the case Functionally Graded Media, which allows us to obtain some homogeneity conditions.

Cedric M. Campos; Marcelo Epstein; Manuel de Leon

2007-11-16

293

Engineering Lactococcus lactis for production of mannitol: high yields from food-grade strains deficient in lactate dehydrogenase and the mannitol transport system.  

PubMed

Mannitol is a sugar polyol claimed to have health-promoting properties. A mannitol-producing strain of Lactococcus lactis was obtained by disruption of two genes of the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-mannitol phosphotransferase system (PTS(Mtl)). Genes mtlA and mtlF were independently deleted by double-crossover recombination in strain L. lactis FI9630 (a food-grade lactate dehydrogenase-deficient strain derived from MG1363), yielding two mutant (Delta ldh Delta mtlA and Delta ldh Delta mtlF) strains. The new strains, FI10091 and FI10089, respectively, do not possess any selection marker and are suitable for use in the food industry. The metabolism of glucose in nongrowing cell suspensions of the mutant strains was characterized by in vivo (13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance. The intermediate metabolite, mannitol-1-phosphate, accumulated intracellularly to high levels (up to 76 mM). Mannitol was a major end product, one-third of glucose being converted to this hexitol. The double mutants, in contrast to the parent strain, were unable to utilize mannitol even after glucose depletion, showing that mannitol was taken up exclusively by PEP-PTS(Mtl). Disruption of this system completely blocked mannitol transport in L. lactis, as intended. In addition to mannitol, approximately equimolar amounts of ethanol, 2,3-butanediol, and lactate were produced. A mixed-acid fermentation (formate, ethanol, and acetate) was also observed during growth under controlled conditions of pH and temperature, but mannitol production was low. The reasons for the alteration in the pattern of end products under nongrowing and growing conditions are discussed, and strategies to improve mannitol production during growth are proposed. PMID:15006767

Gaspar, Paula; Neves, Ana Rute; Ramos, Ana; Gasson, Michael J; Shearman, Claire A; Santos, Helena

2004-03-01

294

Noninvasive Grading of Musculoskeletal Tumors Using PET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-five patients with mass lesions involving the muscu- toskeletat system were studied with positron emission tomog- raphy (PET) in order to determine if a relationship exists between histologic grade and tumor uptake of (fluorine-18} 2- deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). There were 6 benign lesions and 19 malignant lesions of various grades. A high correlation (Rho = 0.83) was found between the normalized

Lee P. Adler; F. Blair; Ronald P. Williams; Michael J; Greg Leisure; Floro Miraldi

1991-01-01

295

Desalination using low grade heat sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research

Veera Gnaneswar Gude

2007-01-01

296

Quality of Maternal and Neonatal Care in Albania, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan: A Systematic, Standard-Based, Participatory Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundProgress in maternal and neonatal mortality has been slow in many countries despite increasing access to institutional births, suggesting deficiencies in the quality of care. We carried out a systematic assessment of the quality of maternal and newborn care in three CEE\\/CIS countries, using an innovative approach to identify priority issues and promote action.MethodsA standard-based tool, covering over 400 items

Giorgio Tamburlini; Gelmius Siupsinskas; Alberta Bacci

2011-01-01

297

Low-field magnetic resonance imaging study on carpal arthritis in systemic sclerosis - low-grade erosive arthritis of carpal bones is an unexpected and frequent disease manifestation  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of subclinical arthritis of carpal and metacarpophalangeal joints in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Low-field (0.2 T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in consecutive patients with SSc attending our center between January 2010 and March 2011. Results were assessed in a standardized manner using the Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (RAMRIS) and standardized assessments of all hand joints. Patients with arthritis due to overlap syndromes were excluded. Results Of 38 inpatients and eight outpatients who were screened for inclusion, 30 patients participated in the study and 26 patients could be evaluated. Erosions, bone marrow edema, synovitis, and joint effusions were found in 87%, 37%, 68%, and 58%, respectively, and 24% of patients had additional tenovaginitis. Arthritis affected only a low number of joints per analyzed hand. All bones and joints could be affected, but synovitis and bone marrow edema occurred predominantly in the proximal row of carpal bones, most frequently affecting the lunate bone. The extent of inflammatory changes measured with the RAMRIS correlated significantly with the functional status assessed with the validated German functional score questionnaire Funktionsfragebogen Hannover. Conclusion Low-grade arthritic changes on low-field MRI are frequent in patients with pure SSc. The features of arthritis in SSc differ from rheumatoid arthritis. The distribution, the MRI pattern and the predilection for the lunate bone raise the hypothesis that arthritis in SSc may be caused not only by immunological inflammation but also by ischemic mechanisms. PMID:23289906

2013-01-01

298

Serving Grades Over the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper demonstrates a grade server that allows college students to access their grades over the Internet from the instructor's home page. Using a CGI (common gateway interface) program written in Visual Basic, the grades are read directly from an Excel spreadsheet and presented to the requester after he/she enters a password. The grade for…

Harris, James K.

299

Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 1. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standards 1997 ? Foundations (Grades 1-3); (2) Comprehensive Health Standards 1997 ? Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997 ? Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

Arizona State Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

300

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 3. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standards, 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (2) Comprehensive Health Standards, 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards, 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4) Reading…

Arizona State Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

301

Standards-based teaching and educational digital libraries as innovations: Undergraduate science faculty in the adoption process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes undergraduate science faculty in terms of their feelings of preparedness for and their use of standards-based teaching methods, their stages of concern related to Educational Digital Libraries (EDLs), and their adoption and diffusion of both innovations. These innovations may have a synergistic relationship that may result in enhanced adoption of both. The investigation began with a series of group meetings with life science, chemistry, physics, and geology faculty from a 2-year and a 4-year institution. Faculty were introduced to dimensions of standards-based teaching and examples of EDLs. Faculty completed the Demographics and Experience Questionnaire, the Standards-Based Teaching Instrument, and the Stages of Concern Questionnaire (SoCQ). Semi-structured interviews containing literature-based questions were conducted with one faculty member from each discipline from the 2-year and 4-year institutions. Document analyses were performed on mission/goal web-based statements for the institutions and their science departments. Triangulated data were used to construct individual faculty case studies based on four facets: background, standards-based teaching profile, EDLs profile, and rate of innovation diffusion. The individual case studies were used to perform cross-case analyses by type of institution, discipline, and locus of control. Individual case studies and cross-case analyses suggest the following conclusions: (a) faculty felt prepared to use and frequently used textbooks as a reference, (b) feelings of preparedness and frequency of use of standards-based teaching categories may be related to discipline, (c) all faculty had relatively high awareness and informational EDL concerns, and (d) faculty central to the locus of control were more likely to use methods to develop student conceptual understanding, use inquiry methods, and be agents of change. A grounded theoretical model connects study results with literature related to educational change and innovation adoption. The model suggests undergraduate science faculty professional developers and innovation developers should establish a shared understanding of vocabulary related to innovations, conduct national innovation awareness and informational campaigns, consider faculty pre-existing understanding of the innovations, align with organizational norms, and clarify the relationship between institutional mission/goal statements and the innovations. The study protocols and instruments may be valuable tools for others studying educational change and innovations.

Ridgway, Judith Sulkes

302

The effect of pressure on the combustion synthesis of a functionally-graded material: TiB[sub 2]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Al ceramic-metal composite system  

SciTech Connect

This article describes some recent research on the synthesis of functionally-graded materials (FGM) using combustion synthesis or self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). A model ceramic-metal SHS system was investigated. The effects of combustion mode, reactant stoichiometry (xAl), green density, and applied loads on the stability of the SHS reaction and density of the FGM product are described.

Feng, H.J.; Moore, J.J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)

1993-10-01

303

Expanding the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (Ex-GRADE) for Evidence-Based Clinical Recommendations: Validation Study  

PubMed Central

Clinicians use general practice guidelines as a source of support for their intervention, but how much confidence should they place on these recommendations? How much confidence should patients place on these recommendations? Various instruments are available to assess the quality of evidence of research, such as the revised Wong scale (R-Wong) which examines the quality of research design, methodology and data analysis, and the revision of the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (R-AMSTAR), which examines the quality of systematic reviews. The Grading of Recommendation Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group developed an instrument called the GRADE system in order to grade the quality of the evidence in studies and to evaluate the strength of recommendation of the intervention that is proposed in the published article. The GRADE looks at four factors to determine the quality of the evidence: study design, study quality, consistency, and directness. After combining the four components and assessing the grade of the evidence, the strength of recommendation of the intervention is established. The GRADE, however, only makes a qualitative assessment of the evidence and does not generate quantifiable data. In this study, we have quantified both the grading of the quality of evidence and also the strength of recommendation of the original GRADE, hence expanding the GRADE. This expansion of the GRADE (Ex-GRADE) permits the creation of a new instrument that can produce tangible data and possibly bridge the gap between evidence-based research and evidence-based clinical practice. PMID:22303416

Phi, Linda; Ajaj, Reem; Ramchandani, Manisha H; Brant, Xenia MC; Oluwadara, Oluwadayo; Polinovsky, Olga; Moradi, David; Barkhordarian, Andre; Sriphanlop, Pathu; Ong, Margaret; Giroux, Amy; Lee, Justin; Siddiqui, Muniza; Ghodousi, Nora; Chiappelli, Francesco

2012-01-01

304

Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM) and Teacher Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA-funded project, Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM), is designed to improve the climate literacy of California's 450,000 6th-grade students through teacher professional development that presents climate change as an engaging context for teaching earth science standards. The project fosters experience-based interaction among learners and encourages expressive creativity and idea-exchange via the web and social media. The heart of the CLINM project is the development of an online educator-friendly experience that provides content expert-reviewed, teacher-tested, standards-based educational resources, classroom activities and lessons that make meaningful connections to NASA data and images as well as new media tools (videos, web, and phone applications) based on the Green Ninja, a climate-action superhero who fights global warming by inspiring personal action (www.greenninja.info). In this session, we will discuss this approach to professional development and share a collection of teacher-tested CLINM resources. CLINM resources are grounded in earth system science; classroom activities and lessons engage students in exploration of connections between natural systems and human systems with a particular focus on how climate change relates to everyone's need for food, water, and energy. CLINM uses a team-based approach to resource development, and partners faculty in San José State University's (SJSU) colleges of Science, Education, and Humanities and the Arts with 6th-grade teachers from local school districts, a scientist from NASA Ames Research Center and climate change education projects at Stanford University, the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, and the University of Idaho. Climate scientists and other content experts identify relevant concepts and work with science educators to develop and/or refine classroom activities to elucidate those concepts; activities are piloted in pre-service science methods courses at SJSU and in teacher professional development workshops offered through the Bay Area Earth Science Institute (BAESI); workshop attendees frame the activities as lessons appropriate for their 6th grade students; participants who use the lessons and resources in their classrooms provide iterative feedback, which is used to improve the resources for other teachers involved in the project.

Smith, G.; Schmidt, C.; Metzger, E. P.; Cordero, E. C.

2012-12-01

305

Using Free and Open Source GIS to Automatically Create Standards-Based Spatial Metadata in Academia Using Free and Open Source GIS to  

E-print Network

Using Free and Open Source GIS to Automatically Create Standards-Based Spatial Metadata in Academia Using Free and Open Source GIS to Automatically Create Standards-Based Spatial Metadata in Academia.ellul@ucl.ac.uk Abstract The importance of understanding the quality of data used in any GIS operation has increased

Köbben, Barend

306

Code-Switching and Symbolic Power in a Second-Grade Two-Way Classroom: A Teacher's Motivation System Gone Awry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Code-switching is a natural part of being bilingual. Yet two-way immersion programs are known to insist upon separation of languages, discouraging both teachers and students from drawing on both linguistic codes at once. Drawing on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic power, I examine one second-grade classroom in which the teacher instituted a…

Palmer, Deborah K.

2009-01-01

307

The Development of a Strategic Plan for Networking the Kindergarten to Grade Eight School Library Media Centers in the Taunton School System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to determine the current status of the Taunton Public School's (Massachusetts) kindergarten to grade eight library program in terms of networking and resource sharing. It uses Diane Kester's model of the three stages of library networking in four key areas--human support, financial support, technological support, and…

Schene, Carol

308

Examining the Technical Adequacy of Second-Grade Reading Comprehension Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System. Technical Report # 08-08  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This technical report describes the development of reading comprehension assessments designed for use as progress monitoring measures appropriate for 2nd Grade students. The creation, piloting, and technical adequacy of the measures are presented. The following are appended: (1) Item Specifications for MC [Multiple Choice] Comprehension - Passage…

Alonzo, Julie; Liu, Kimy; Tindal, Gerald

2008-01-01

309

Health, Grade 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the fifth and last of the Vietnamese series of elementary health textbooks. This one was designed for fifth grade students in Vietnam. The thirty-five lessons are presented in the form of short stories with illustrations and a short summary. The four chapters cover the ordinary symptoms of illness, elementary notions of microbes and…

Bui Van Bao; And Others

310

Middle Grades Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents five activities suitable for middle grades. These include listings for a car race (BASIC) and poetry (Pilot) programs, and activities on graphics without programing, new meanings (related to computers) of old words, and developing a list of historical events. (JN)

Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

1984-01-01

311

Grade 1: School Neighborhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide presents a working draft of the first grade component of a K-6 social studies program using the expanding environments approach which was developed by the Allegany County Board of Education in Maryland. The overall objective is to help teachers assist their students in gaining the understanding needed to deal with the problems…

Allegany County Board of Education, Cumberland, MD.

312

Purpose-Driven Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Allowing students to improve their grade by revising their written work may help students learn to revise, but it gives them no incentive to turn in quality work from the start. This article proposes a way to invert the process, thereby teaching students how to revise, while enforcing a more disciplined approach to good writing. (Contains 3…

Carlson, Jane A. K.; Kimpton, Ann

2010-01-01

313

Career Awareness: Grade 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade five, performance…

Boise City Independent School District, ID.

314

World Cultures Grade 3  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Grade 3 Standard2 Objective 1 Objective: Students will learn to identify elements of cultures in the seven different continents. Assignment: You have just been hired to be a travel agent. Your first customer wants to take a trip around a continent. To be a good travel agent ...

Shunn-Mitchell, Ms.

2008-11-25

315

Flower gardens (grade 3)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 3 fraction standards. In this interactive three-part task students reason about fractions used to represent area or a location on a number line. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric, and background on the task itself.

2013-01-01

316

Social Studies: Grade 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

317

Reader. Grade 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This textbook is the last in the official reading series developed by the Ministry of Education in Saigon and used in all public schools in Vietnam. The books in this series have been reprinted in their entirety from the original editions for use in elementary schools in the United States which have Vietnamese students. This grade 5 reader…

Center for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, VA.

318

Health, Grade 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the third in a series of health primers for elementary education in Vietnam. It is written for Vietnamese children at the third grade level. The fifty-three lessons are integrated into one story. Each lesson is illustrated and briefly summarized. The eight chapters are: (1) Hygiene, at home, in school and in public places; (2) Food and…

Bui Van Bao; And Others

319

Upper Grades Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a collection of teaching activities suitable for students in the upper grades. These activities focus on practical programming projects, use of word processors for learning a foreign language, an Atari program for making a starburst, and a program (with deliberate errors) to determine the thickness of folded paper. (JN)

Classroom Computer Learning, 1985

1985-01-01

320

Mariana's fractions (grade 3)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 3 fraction standards. In this interactive five-part task students reason about fractions used to represent part of a whole or a location on a number line. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric, and background on the task itself.

2013-01-01

321

Early Grades Ideas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents computer-oriented teaching suggestions suitable for early grades. They include creating houses and stained glass ornaments using Logo, recording class activities with a database management program, making mazes with graphics programs, making drawings with a KoalaPad, and using a program to introduce computers to non-English speaking…

Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

1984-01-01

322

Career Awareness: Grade 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade two, performance…

Boise City Independent School District, ID.

323

Multicultural Resources for Literature. Grade One to Grade Six. Grade Seven to Grade Twelve.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bibliography provides teachers with a list of titles in literature that are available through the Multiculture Educational Resource Centre in Winnipeg, Canada. The citations are annotated and indicate appropriate grade level. Some of the books included in the bibliography depict the history of ethnic immigration in North America, while others…

Lecours, Sylvie

324

Extracting business vocabularies from business process models: SBVR and BPMN standards-based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approaches for the analysis and specification of business vocabularies and rules are very relevant topics in both Business Process Management and Information Systems Development disciplines. However, in common practice of Information Systems Development, the Business modeling activities still are of mostly empiric nature. In this paper, basic aspects of the approach for business vocabularies' semi-automated extraction from business process models are presented. The approach is based on novel business modeling-level OMG standards "Business Process Model and Notation" (BPMN) and "Semantics for Business Vocabularies and Business Rules" (SBVR), thus contributing to OMG's vision about Model-Driven Architecture (MDA) and to model-driven development in general.

Skersys, Tomas; Butleris, Rimantas; Kapocius, Kestutis

2013-10-01

325

Patterns of dietary intake and serum carotenoid and tocopherol status are associated with biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and cardiovascular risk.  

PubMed

Dietary modification may affect inflammatory processes and protect against chronic disease. In the present study, we examined the relationship between dietary patterns, circulating carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations, and biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in a 10-year longitudinal study of Scottish postmenopausal women. Diet was assessed by FFQ during 1997-2000 (n 3237, mean age 54·8 (sd 2·2) years). Participants (n 2130, mean age 66·0 (sd 2·2) years) returned during 2007-11 for follow-up. Diet was assessed by FFQ (n 1682) and blood was collected for the analysis of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-6, serum amyloid A, E-selectin, lipid profile and dietary biomarkers (carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol). Dietary pattern and dietary biomarker (serum carotenoid) components were generated by principal components analysis. A past 'prudent' dietary pattern predicted serum concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 (which decreased across the quintiles of the dietary pattern; P= 0·002 and P= 0·001, respectively; ANCOVA). Contemporary dietary patterns were also associated with inflammatory biomarkers. The concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 decreased across the quintiles of the 'prudent' dietary pattern (P= 0·030 and P= 0·006, respectively). hs-CRP concentration increased across the quintiles of a 'meat-dominated' dietary pattern (P= 0·001). Inflammatory biomarker concentrations decreased markedly across the quintiles of carotenoid component score (P< 0·001 for hs-CRP and IL-6, and P= 0·016 for E-selectin; ANCOVA). Prudent dietary pattern and carotenoid component scores were negatively associated with serum hs-CRP concentration (unstandardised ? for prudent component: - 0·053, 95 % CI - 0·102, - 0·003; carotenoid component: - 0·183, 95 % CI - 0·233, - 0·134) independent of study covariates. A prudent dietary pattern (which reflects a diet high in the intakes of fish, yogurt, pulses, rice, pasta and wine, in addition to fruit and vegetable consumption) and a serum carotenoid profile characteristic of a fruit and vegetable-rich diet are associated with lower concentrations of intermediary markers that are indicative of CVD risk reduction. PMID:25313576

Wood, Adrian D; Strachan, Anna A; Thies, Frank; Aucott, Lorna S; Reid, David M; Hardcastle, Antonia C; Mavroeidi, Alexandra; Simpson, William G; Duthie, Garry G; Macdonald, Helen M

2014-10-01

326

Interobserver reproducibility of Gleason grading of prostatic carcinoma: Urologic pathologists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gleason grading is now the most widely used grading system for prostatic carcinoma in the United States. However, there are only a few studies of the interobserver reproducibility of this system, and no extensive study of interobserver reproducibility among a large number of experienced urologic pathologists exists. Forty-six needle biopsies containing prostatic carcinoma were assigned Gleason scores by 10 urologic

William C Allsbrook; Kathy A Mangold; Maribeth H Johnson; Mahul B Amin; David G Bostwick; Peter A Humphrey; Edward C Jones; Victor E Reuter; Wael Sakr; Isabell A Sesterhenn; Patricia Troncoso; Thomas M Wheeler; Jonathan I Epstein

2001-01-01

327

Comparison of Dimension Reduction Methods for Automated Essay Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Automatic Essay Assessor (AEA) is a system that utilizes information retrieval techniques such as Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA), and Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) for automatic essay grading. The system uses learning materials and relatively few teacher-graded essays for calibrating the scoring…

Kakkonen, Tuomo; Myller, Niko; Sutinen, Erkki; Timonen, Jari

2008-01-01

328

Title Code Step/Grade Title Code Step/Grade  

E-print Network

Title Code Step/Grade Salary / to Title Code Step/Grade Salary / to Dist% TEMPORARY INTERCAMPUS) Code (ex: BYA, by-agreement: REG, regular pay etc) SD Fund Source to be charged (Index, Fund & Location

Tsien, Roger Y.

329

EDXRF analysis of aluminium and apcolite paint with A 109Cd radioactive source and standardization based on Compton peaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An annular cadmium-109 source in a stainless steel housing was used to study limits of detection of iron concentrations. With the help of samples of commercial and very pure aluminium, and standardization based on Compton peaks it has been shown that iron concentrations below 400 ppm level are difficult to determine with such a source housing, although concentrations at a few ppm level could be detected in the case of other medium Z elements. A simple technique is described for elemental analysis by the EDXRF technique in the case of paint samples with solvent varnish of unknown composition and concentration.

Lad, Saharsha M.; Kane, P. P.

1988-07-01

330

The Role of the Science Leader in Implementing Standards-Based Science Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although most of the literature of reform and systemic change focuses on policy, programs, and practices that the leaders should be responsible for producing, this chapter will emphasize what is known about how leaders bring about these improvements and what the research says about the skills, behaviors, and leadership styles of effective leaders. Finally, this chapter will highlight the concept of distributed leadership as presented in the National Science Education Standards. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Foreward, Preface, and Introduction.

Rhoton, Jack; Bowers, Patricia

2001-01-01

331

GRADING Effective September 1980 Dentistry Graduate Under-Grade Numerical  

E-print Network

GRADING ­ Effective September 1980 Dentistry Graduate Under- Grade Numerical (effective Grades graduate Points Scale 1987) Grades of Marks A A A 4.0 85 - 100 % A- A- A- 3.7 80 - 84 % B+ B+ B+ 3.3 75 - 79 % B B B 3.0 70 - 74 % B- B- B- 2.7 65 - 69 % C+ C+ 2.3 60 - 64 % C 2.0 55 - 59 % D 1.0 50 - 54 % F

Barthelat, Francois

332

Running WRF on various distributed computing infrastructures through a standard-based Science Gateway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelling system is a widely used meso-scale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both atmospheric research and operational forecasting needs. WRF has a large worldwide community counting more than 20,000 users in 130 countries and it has been specifically designed to be the state-of-the-art atmospheric simulation system being portable and running efficiently on available parallel computing platforms. Although WRF can be executed in many different environments ranging form the single core inside a stand-alone machine up to the most sophisticated HPC platforms, there are no solutions yet to match the e-Science paradigm where software, data and users are "linked" together by the network as components of distributed computing infrastructures. The topmost component of the typical e-Science model consists of Science Gateways, defined as community-developed sets of tools, applications, and data collections that normally are integrated via a portal to get access to a distributed infrastructure. One of the many available Science Gateway solutions is the Catania Science Gateway Framework (CSGF - www.catania-science-gateways.it) whose most descriptive keywords are: standard adoption, interoperability and standard adoption. The support of standards such as SAGA and SAML allows any CSGF user to seamlessly access and use both Grid and Cloud-based resources. In this work we present the CSGF and how it has been used in the context of the eI4frica project (www.ei4africa.eu) to implement the Africa Grid Science Gateway (http://sgw.africa-grid.org), which allows to execute WRF simulations on various kinds of distributed computing infrastructures at the same time, including the EGI Federated Cloud.

Barbera, Roberto; Bruno, Riccardo; La Rocca, Giuseppe; Markussen Lunde, Torleif; Pehrson, Bjorn

2014-05-01

333

Clicking for grades? Really? Investigating the use of clickers for awarding grade-points in post-secondary education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using classroom response systems (clickers) to accumulate grade-points has become a controversial practice as response systems have become more widely used in the last decade. Although some instructors opt to use clickers on a non-grades basis, it has become quite common to reward students for (a) correct answers, (b) participating in clicker questions regardless of whether their answer is correct

Peter White; David Syncox; Brian Alters

2011-01-01

334

Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related Yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7  

PubMed Central

Age-normed tests of Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression were administered in grades 1 (n=128), 3, and 5 or 3 (n=113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared one- and four- factor models at each grade level and supported a four- factor model of Language by Ear, Mouth, Eye, and Hand. Multiple regressions identified which of the three other language skills explained unique variance in each of the four language skill outcomes and provided additional evidence that language is not a single skill. Individuals’ ipsative scores (amount that the standard score for age on each language measure deviated from individual’s mean for all four measures) showed that 25% to 30% of individuals showed relative strengths or weaknesses (+ or ? 1 SD) in specific language skills, but only 7% were stable across grades 3 and 5. Findings are discussed in reference to (a) theoretical implications for idea comprehension and expression via language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand, and (b) educational applications of observed developmental and individual differences for general, special, and gifted education. PMID:21461140

Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

2011-01-01

335

Low-grade gliomas.  

PubMed

Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) are a diverse group of primary brain tumors that often arise in young, otherwise healthy patients and generally have an indolent course with longer-term survival in comparison with high-grade gliomas. Treatment options include observation, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combined approach, and management is individualized based on tumor location, histology, molecular profile, and patient characteristics. Moreover, in this type of brain tumor with a relatively good prognosis and prolonged survival, the potential benefits of treatment must be carefully weighed against potential treatment-related risks. We review in this article current management strategies for LGG, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. In addition, the importance of profiling the genetic and molecular properties of LGGs in the development of targeted anticancer therapies is also reviewed. Finally, given the prevalence of these tumors in otherwise healthy young patients, the impact of treatment on neurocognitive function and quality of life is also evaluated. PMID:24664484

Forst, Deborah A; Nahed, Brian V; Loeffler, Jay S; Batchelor, Tracy T

2014-04-01

336

School Mural ( Grade 3)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 3 operations and algebraic thinking standards as well as the measurement and data standards. In this interactive multi-step task students must write a number sentence that can be used to find how many tiles high the mural is at school and then show the value of the Distributive Property in solving a problem. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric and background on the task itself.

2013-01-01

337

Fourth Grade Lab Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These are a collection of sites related to the Fourth Grade CORE, to be explored in the computer lab. For SCIENCE explorations click below. 1. Clouds and the water cycle at the Enchanted Learning site. 2. Look at the Cloud Man&s pictures of clouds. 3. Cloud Types 4. Clouds and Precipitation: online meteorology guide 5. The Dirt on Soil 6. The Dirt on Soil 7. Soil Horizons For MATH activities click below. Math activities "A" ...

Boissonnault, Ms.

2005-06-23

338

GRADE guidelines: 1. Introduction-GRADE evidence profiles and summary of findings tables.  

PubMed

This article is the first of a series providing guidance for use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system of rating quality of evidence and grading strength of recommendations in systematic reviews, health technology assessments (HTAs), and clinical practice guidelines addressing alternative management options. The GRADE process begins with asking an explicit question, including specification of all important outcomes. After the evidence is collected and summarized, GRADE provides explicit criteria for rating the quality of evidence that include study design, risk of bias, imprecision, inconsistency, indirectness, and magnitude of effect. Recommendations are characterized as strong or weak (alternative terms conditional or discretionary) according to the quality of the supporting evidence and the balance between desirable and undesirable consequences of the alternative management options. GRADE suggests summarizing evidence in succinct, transparent, and informative summary of findings tables that show the quality of evidence and the magnitude of relative and absolute effects for each important outcome and/or as evidence profiles that provide, in addition, detailed information about the reason for the quality of evidence rating. Subsequent articles in this series will address GRADE's approach to formulating questions, assessing quality of evidence, and developing recommendations. PMID:21195583

Guyatt, Gordon; Oxman, Andrew D; Akl, Elie A; Kunz, Regina; Vist, Gunn; Brozek, Jan; Norris, Susan; Falck-Ytter, Yngve; Glasziou, Paul; DeBeer, Hans; Jaeschke, Roman; Rind, David; Meerpohl, Joerg; Dahm, Philipp; Schünemann, Holger J

2011-04-01

339

You Can Prevent Distorted Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grade inflation, which distorts the measurement process and reduces student effort, is caused, in part, by teachers' concern for students' emotional needs. Communication of classroom expectations and grading procedures, frequent evaluation, and utilization of standardized testing data can help reduce grade inflation. (Author/WD)

McCormick, Michael

1981-01-01

340

How Accurate Is Peer Grading?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previously we showed that weekly, written, timed, and peer-graded practice exams help increase student performance on written exams and decrease failure rates in an introductory biology course. Here we analyze the accuracy of peer grading, based on a comparison of student scores to those assigned by a professional grader. When students graded

Freeman, Scott; Parks, John W.

2010-01-01

341

Weighting and Distributing Course Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructors of nursing often face vexing questions concerning the assignment of grades, both during and at the end of the course: Should grade distributions follow a predetermined curve? How does a teacher bring together the several partial grades? Many variables influence evaluation decisions; the authors present theory and ground rules.…

Kramer, Sister Mary Albert; Cowles, John T.

1974-01-01

342

Optical Response of Graded Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graded materials have quite different physical properties from the homogeneous materials. Recently, it has been found that graded thin films may have better dielectric properties than a single-layer film. The materials properties of graded films can vary continuously in space. These materials have attracted much interest in various engineering applications. However, the traditional theories fail to deal with the composites

Joseph T. A. Kwok

2005-01-01

343

Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides information relating to Arizona Academic Standards for Grade 8. The following standards are reviewed: (1) the arts standards; (2) comprehensive health standards; (3) foreign and native language standards; (4) reading standard articulated by grade level 2003; (5) writing standard articulated by grade level 2004; (6)…

Arizona State Department of Education, 2004

2004-01-01

344

Standards-based approaches to 3D and multiview video coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extension of video applications to enable 3D perception, which typically is considered to include a stereo viewing experience, is emerging as a mass market phenomenon, as is evident from the recent prevalence of 3D major cinema title releases. For high quality 3D video to become a commonplace user experience beyond limited cinema distribution, adoption of an interoperable coded 3D digital video format will be needed. Stereo-view video can also be studied as a special case of the more general technologies of multiview and "free-viewpoint" video systems. The history of standardization work on this topic is actually richer than people may typically realize. The ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG), in particular, has been developing interoperability standards to specify various such coding schemes since the advent of digital video as we know it. More recently, the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG) has been involved as well in the Joint Video Team (JVT) work on development of 3D features for H.264/14496-10 Advanced Video Coding, including Multiview Video Coding (MVC) extensions. This paper surveys the prior, ongoing, and anticipated future standardization efforts on this subject to provide an overview and historical perspective on feasible approaches to 3D and multiview video coding.

Sullivan, Gary J.

2009-08-01

345

A new grading system focusing on neurological outcomes for brain metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery: the modified Basic Score for Brain Metastases.  

PubMed

Object The Basic Score for Brain Metastases (BSBM) proposed by Lorenzoni and colleagues is one of the best grading systems for predicting survival periods after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. However, it includes no brain factors and cannot predict neurological outcomes, such as preservation of neurological function and prevention of neurological death. Herein, the authors propose a modified BSBM, adding 4 brain factors to the original BSBM, enabling prediction of neurological outcomes, as well as of overall survival, in patients undergoing SRS. Methods To serve as neurological prognostic scores (NPSs), the authors scored 4 significant brain factors for both preservation of neurological function (qualitative survival) and prevention of neurological death (neurological survival) as 0 or 1 as described in the following: > 10 brain tumors = 0 or ? 10 = 1, total tumor volume > 15 cm(3) = 0 or ? 15 cm(3) = 1, MRI findings of localized meningeal dissemination (yes = 0 or no = 1), and neurological symptoms (yes = 0 or no = 1). According to the sum of NPSs, patients were classified into 2 subgroups: Subgroup A with a total NPS of 3 or 4 and Subgroup B with an NPS of 0, 1, or 2. The authors defined the modified BSBM according to the NPS subgroup classification applied to the original BSBM groups. The validity of this modified BSBM in 2838 consecutive patients with brain metastases treated with SRS was verified. Results Patients included 1868 with cancer of the lung (including 1604 with non-small cell lung cancer), 355 of the gastrointestinal tract, 305 of the breast, 176 of the urogenital tract, and 134 with other cancers. Subgroup A had 2089 patients and Subgroup B 749. Median overall survival times were 2.6 months in BSBM 0 (382 patients), 5.7 in BSBM 1 (1143), 11.4 in BSBM 2 (1011) and 21.7 in BSBM 3 (302), and pairwise differences between the BSBM groups were statistically significant (all p < 0.0001). One-year qualitative survival rates were 64.6% (modified BSBM 0A, 204 patients), 45.0% (0B, 178), 82.5% (1A, 825), 63.3% (1B, 318), 86.4% (2A, 792), 73.7% (2B, 219), 91.4% (3A, 268), and 73.5% (3B, 34). One-year neurological survival rates were 82.6% (0A), 52.4% (0B), 90.5% (1A), 78.1% (1B), 91.1% (2A), 83.2% (2B), 93.9% (3A), and 76.3% (3B), where A and B identify the subgroup. Statistically significant differences in both qualitative and neurological survivals between Subgroups A and B were detected in all BSBM groups. Conclusions The authors' new index, the modified BSBM, was found to be excellent for predicting neurological outcomes, independently of life expectancy, in SRS-treated patients with brain metastases. PMID:25434935

Serizawa, Toru; Higuchi, Yoshinori; Nagano, Osamu; Matsuda, Shinji; Ono, Junichi; Saeki, Naokatsu; Hirai, Tatsuo; Miyakawa, Akifumi; Shibamoto, Yuta

2014-12-01

346

Impact of Small-Group Tutoring Interventions on the Mathematical Problem Solving and Achievement of Third-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This intervention study compared the efficacy of small-group tutoring on the mathematics learning of third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulty using either a school-provided standards-based curriculum (SBC) or a schema-based instruction (SBI) curriculum. The SBI curriculum placed particular emphasis on the underlying mathematical…

Jitendra, Asha K.; Rodriguez, Michael; Kanive, Rebecca; Huang, Ju-Ping; Church, Chris; Corroy, Kelly A.; Zaslofsky, Anne

2013-01-01

347

Oncology is changing: the challenge of effectively assessing response within clinical trials in low-grade gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current WHO classification of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors recognizes four separate tumor grades (I?IV), which can be grouped into low-grade (I and II) or high-grade (III and IV), depending on the absence or presence of high-grade histopathological features, such as microvascular proliferation and necrosis. Low-grade gliomas are tumors that have glial differentiation and lack—by definition—the above high-grade

Ilaria Imarisio; Chiara Fumagalli

2011-01-01

348

Lunar Plant Growth Chamber: Human Exploration Project STS-118 Design Challenge. A Standards-Based High School Unit Guide. Engineering by Design: Advancing Technological Literacy. A Standards-Based Program Series. EP-2007-08-94-MSFC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May 2005, the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) was funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop curricular units for Grades K-12 on Space Exploration. The units focus on aspects of the themes that NASA Engineers and Scientists--as well as future generations of explorers--must consider, such…

Caron, Daniel W.; Fuller, Jeremy; Watson, Janice; St. Hilaire, Katherine

2007-01-01

349

Public Service Occupations: Grade 8. Cluster I  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Public Service Occupations." It is divided into six units: education, public utilities, community social and health services, law enforcement agencies, fire departments, and the postal system. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

Calhoun, Olivia H.

350

Hewlett packard's seismic grade MEMS accelerometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

HP has recently made its plans to develop an ultrahighresolution seismic sensing solution public. This solution is being developed with Royal Dutch Shell Corporation for oil and gas exploration [1]. Central to delivering this system is HP’s new single axis seismic grade MEMS accelerometer. The HP device uses both bulk micromachining methods and standard thin film technologies as well as

B. Homeijer; D. Lazaroff; D. Milligan; R. Alley; J. Wu; M. Szepesi; B. Bicknell; Z. Zhang; R. G. Walmsley; P. G. Hartwell

2011-01-01

351

Reading Resource Manual for Intermediate Grade Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes where specific skills are emphasized in the three reading texts (published by Ginn, Holt, and Lyons and Carnhan) used in the intermediate grades in the Stoneham (Massachusetts) Public School System. The four major sections of the book are color-coded and include phonetic and structural analysis, vocabulary development, study…

Conforti, Diane; Feeley, Dot

352

Optical switching in graded plasmonic waveguides  

E-print Network

A new mechanism of longitudinal confinement of optical energy via coupled plasmon modes is proposed in chains of noble metal nanoparticles embedded in a graded dielectric medium, which is analogous to the confinement of electrons in semiconductor quantum wells. In these systems, one can control the transmission of optical energy by varying the graded refractive index of the host medium or the separation between the nanoparticles to realize the photonic analogue of electronic transistors. Possible passband tunability by nanoparticle spacing and modulation of the refractive index in the host medium have been presented explicitly and compared favorably with numerical calculations.

J. J. Xiao; K. Yakubo; K. W. Yu

2006-04-27

353

Crafting Coherence from Complex Policy Messages: Educators' Perceptions of Special Education and Standards-Based Accountability Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Federal special education and accountability policies requires that educators individualize instruction for students with disabilities, while simultaneously ensuring that the vast majority of these students meet age-based grade-level standards and assessment targets. In this paper, we examine this dynamic interplay between policies through…

Russell, Jennifer Lin; Bray, Laura E.

2013-01-01

354

Computerized grading of anatomy laboratory practical examinations.  

PubMed

At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the items were anatomical structures that could be tagged on a given lab practical examination. Each lab exam featured an anatomy laboratory component and a computer laboratory component. For the anatomy lab component, students moved from one question station to another at timed intervals and identified tagged anatomical structures. As students identified a tagged structure, they referred to a copy of the list (provided with their answer sheet) and wrote the number corresponding to the structure on their answer sheet. Immediately after the anatomy lab component, students were escorted to a computer instruction laboratory where they typed their answer numbers into a secured testing component of a learning management system that recorded their answers for automatic grading. After a brief review of examination scores and item analysis by faculty, exam scores were reported to students electronically. Adding this brief computer component to each lab exam greatly reduced faculty grading time, reduced grading errors and provided faster performance feedback for students without changing overall student performance. PMID:19177415

Krippendorf, Beth B; Bolender, David L; Kolesari, Gary L

2008-01-01

355

7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304 Section 810...United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.304 Grades and...

2010-01-01

356

7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004 Section 810.1004 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application...1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test...

2013-01-01

357

7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.  

...false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004 Section 810.1004 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application...1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test...

2014-01-01

358

Liver trauma grading and biochemistry tests.  

PubMed

Among solid organ blunt traumas, the liver and spleen are mostly subject to injury. In addition, the liver is also commonly injured in penetrating traumas because of its size, location, and the ease of injury to the "Glisson Capsule". Several enzymes are known to be elevated following trauma. In our study, we evaluated the correlation between the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in 57 patients with blunt trauma to the liver and compared these values to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma trauma grading system. Additionally, we compared the enzyme level elevations in these patients to the enzyme levels of 29 healthy subjects. As expected, we found significant elevations in enzyme levels of trauma patients compared to the control group. The calculated point estimates were not significantly different between grades 1 and 2 trauma. However, grade 3 trauma group showed a significant increase in enzyme levels. PMID:23793528

Arslan, Gozde; Gemici, Aysegul Akdogan; Yirgin, Inci Kizildag; Gulsen, Esma; Inci, Ercan

2013-10-01

359

Grading the teacher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several fads ago there was a movement to grade teachers in terms of their competency — competency-based testing. Everyone knows that there are good teachers and there are bad teachers. The trouble is, it's hard to define the categories. It's like the Supreme Court justice who couldn't define pornography, but knew it when he saw it. In New York State, prospective teachers must take tests in both pedagogy and subject material. That seems reasonable. There ought to be some minimum standards, so I thought that I would try my hand at setting up such requirements.

Swartz, Clifford E.

2000-04-01

360

Text Leveling and Little Books in First-Grade Reading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the validity of two current approaches for estimating text difficulty at the first-grade level--the Scale for Text Accessibility and Support-Grade 1 (STAS-1) and the Fountas/ Pinnell system--and analyzed student performance in relation to each. Subjects, 105 first graders in two schools, used "little books"--easy to read…

Hoffman, James V.; Roser, Nancy L.; Salas, Rachel; Patterson, Elizabeth; Pennington, Julie

361

Project Based Learning in Multi-Grade Class  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to evaluate project based learning in multi-grade classes. This study, based on a student-centered learning approach, aims to analyze students' and parents' interpretations. The study was done in a primary village school belonging to the Centre of Batman, already adapting multi-grade classes in their education system,…

Ciftci, Sabahattin; Baykan, Ayse Aysun

2013-01-01

362

Grade Level Retention of Texas Students. 1994-95 Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Texas Education Code requires the Texas Education Agency to submit a comprehensive biennial report on the number of students retained in grade level in the Texas public school system. This report presents a summary of the literature on the effects of grade level retention on the academic, social, and psychological development of students,…

Texas Education Agency, Austin.

363

Ohio Ag in the Classroom. Fourth Grade Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adapted from Idaho's fourth grade agricultural education curriculum guide, this manual was created because there were insufficient resources available to Ohio students about the systems that provide human beings with food and fiber. Economically Ohio's largest industry, agriculture, serves as a basis for providing fourth-grade teachers with…

Ohio State Dept. of Agriculture, Columbus.

364

A survival analysis comparing women with ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma to those with high-grade histology  

PubMed Central

Ovarian low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) and high-grade serous carcinoma have distinct molecular profiles, clinical behaviors, and treatment responses. The survival advantage for patients with low-grade carcinoma compared with patients with high-grade histology remains controversial. We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 381 patients with ovarian serous carcinoma at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2007 to 2010. Patients were classified into two groups according to MD Anderson two-tier system: 35 (9.2%) cases with LGSC and 346 with high-grade serous carcinoma. Patients with low-grade serous ovarian cancer had a significantly younger age at diagnosis (46 versus 56 years, P=0.046), and their median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival values were 35.0 and 54.0 months, respectively. A multivariate analysis showed that, for serous ovarian cancer, the histological grade was a significant prognostic factor for PFS but not for overall survival (P=0.022 and P=0.0566, respectively). When stratified by the existence of a residual disease, patients with low-grade disease who underwent cytoreductive surgery without macroscopic residual disease (>1 cm) had a significantly improved median PFS time (36.0 months) compared with that of patients with high-grade carcinoma who received optimal cytoreductive surgery (16.0 months, P=0.017). Conversely, patients with low-grade and high-grade carcinoma who were left with macroscopic residue (>1 cm) experienced a similarly shorter median PFS (10.0 and 13.0 months, respectively, P=0.871). The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and residual disease were significant prognostic factors of low-grade carcinoma, while positive ascites was associated with a worse PFS value. Our data showed that LGSC is a different entity from high-grade carcinoma and that LGSC was associated with improved PFS after optimal cytoreductive surgery but not suboptimal operation. PMID:25342912

Chen, Ming; Jin, Ying; Bi, Yalan; Yin, Jie; Wang, Yongxue; Pan, Lingya

2014-01-01

365

[GRADE guidelines: 1. Introduction - GRADE evidence profiles and summary of findings tables].  

PubMed

This article is the first of a series providing guidance for the use of the GRADE system of rating quality of evidence and grading strength of recommendations in systematic reviews, health technology assessments, and clinical practice guidelines addressing alternative management options. The GRADE process begins with asking an explicit question, including specification of all important outcomes. After the evidence has been collected and summarised, GRADE provides explicit criteria for rating the quality of evidence that include study design, risk of bias, imprecision, inconsistency, indirectness, and magnitude of effect. Recommendations are characterised as strong or weak (alternative terms: conditional or discretionary) according to the quality of the supporting evidence and the balance between desirable and undesirable consequences of the alternative management options. GRADE suggests summarising evidence in succinct, transparent, and informative Summary of Findings tables that show the quality of evidence and the magnitude of relative and absolute effects for each important outcome and/or as evidence profiles that provide, in addition, detailed information about the reason for the quality of evidence rating. Subsequent articles in this series will address GRADE's approach to formulating questions, assessing quality of evidence, and developing recommendations. PMID:22818160

Langer, Gero; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Perleth, Matthias; Gartlehner, Gerald; Kaminski-Hartenthaler, Angela; Schünemann, Holger

2012-01-01

366

How do you grade peperites?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectacular, graded peperite of volcanic origin from the Palaeogene Mull Lava Field of NW Scotland, the Carraig Mhór Bed (CMB), consists of a basal facies of pale, sub-horizontally-aligned, fluidal-shaped clasts of hydrothermally-altered basalt set in a brown, complexly-laminated, silt- to clay-grade, host siliciclastic sediment. The basal facies of the CMB grades upwards over an interval of ?10 m into an

David J. Brown; Brian R. Bell

2007-01-01

367

Math Focal Points: Grade 5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For teachers of grade 5, NCTM offers online resources, many interactive, that support teaching of the specific areas defined by NCTM as Focal Points. Focal points are clusters of related knowledge, skills, and concepts, and for Grade 5 they are Division of Whole Numbers, Fractions and Decimals and 3-D Shapes. Commentary and links to Focal Points for grades K-8 are provided. Links to background information and further training opportunities are provided.

Herrera, Terese A.

2011-09-19

368

Second grade Number Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of Second Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, and Number and Operations in Base Ten) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

369

Third Grade Number Actiivities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of Third Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, Number and Operations in Base Ten, and Number Operations-Fractions) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

370

First Grade Number Actiivities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides examples of First Grade Number (Operations and Algebraic Thinking, and Number and Operations in Base Ten) activities aligned with the Common Core State Standards. A CCSS standard is stated and the possible activities are listed below and linked. All activities are suitable for use in Math Centers, small group or whole class settings and are designed to elicit a range of responses and provide opportunities for students to communicate their reasoning and mathematical thinking. Instructions for each task are typed in large print and written in child-friendly language to enable students to work on activities independently after a brief introduction to the task. All files listed are in PDF format.

Godwin, Nicola

2012-01-01

371

Mechanics of Graded Wrinkles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shark skin is known for its anti-fouling and self-cleaning properties. In attempts to mimic this pattern for getting similar properties, different surface patterns such as Sharklet and wrinkles have been previously introduced. Wrinkled patterns have gained importance in applications such as microfluidics, wetting and adhesion. Through buckling of a thin film of stiff material on a substrate of softer material, and maintaining symmetric geometries, ordered wrinkled patterns can be created. However, it can be shown that using the same principle, by changing the geometry of the surface, the dimensions of the wrinkles can be altered. This alteration turns ordered wrinkles into graded wrinkles which have more resemblance to shark skin than the ordered wrinkles, maintaining the same wave length while each wave having different amplitude. Here using finite element models, experiments and analytical solutions, the relations between different geometries and the resulting patterns were investigated.

Raayai-Ardakani, Shabnam; Boyce, Mary

2013-03-01

372

Simplification in Graded Readers: Measuring the Authenticity of Graded Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the characteristics and quality of simplification in graded readers as compared to those of "normal" authentic English. Two passages from graded readers are compared with the original passages. The comparison uses a computer programme, RANGE (Nation and Heatley, 2003) to analyse the distribution of high and low frequency words…

Claridge, Gillian

2005-01-01

373

Prediction of Grade of Dropout from 3rd Grade Data.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measures of background characteristics, school performance, and test achievement were analyzed for four race-by-sex samples of third graders who were known to have later become high school dropouts. In each sample, age in the third grade, course marks, and standardized achievement scores were found to be significantly related to the grade in which…

Lloyd, Dee Norman; Bleach, Gail

374

OVARIAN LOW-GRADE AND HIGH-GRADE SEROUS CARCINOMA: Pathogenesis, Clinicopathologic and Molecular Biologic Features, and Diagnostic Problems  

PubMed Central

Ovarian serous carcinomas have been graded using various systems. Recently, a 2-tier system in which tumors are subdivided into low-grade and high-grade has been proposed. This approach is simplistic, reproducible, and based on biologic evidence indicating that both tumors develop via different pathways. Low-grade serous carcinomas exhibit low-grade nuclei with infrequent mitotic figures. They evolve from adenofibromas or borderline tumors, have frequent mutations of the KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2 genes, and lack TP53 mutations (Type I pathway). The progression to invasive carcinoma is a slow step-wise process. Low-grade tumors are indolent and have better outcome than high-grade tumors. In contrast, high-grade serous carcinomas have high-grade nuclei and numerous mitotic figures. Identification of a precursor lesion in the ovary has been elusive and therefore the origin of ovarian carcinoma has been described as de novo. More recently, studies have suggested that a proportion appear to originate from intraepithelial carcinoma in the fallopian tube. The development of these tumors is rapid (Type II pathway). The vast majority are characterized by TP53 mutations and lack mutations of KRAS, BRAF, or ERBB2. Although both types of serous carcinomas evolve along different pathways, rare high-grade serous carcinomas seem to arise through the Type I pathway. Immunohistochemical stains for p53, p16, and Ki-67 for distinction of low- from high-grade tumors are of limited value but can be helpful in selected instances. This review provides an update on the pathogenesis and clinicopathologic features of these two types of serous carcinomas and addresses some of the diagnostic problems that are encountered in routine practice. PMID:19700937

Vang, Russell; Shih, Ie-Ming; Kurman, Robert J.

2009-01-01

375

Successful grading of renal-cell carcinoma in fine-needle aspirates.  

PubMed

Early-stage renal-cell carcinoma is more frequently diagnosed due to more frequent use of advanced radiologic techniques. Partial nephrectomy may be curative for small tumors and may sometimes be necessary if the opposite kidney is functionally compromised. This therapeutic option is however not possible in high-grade neoplasms. In the current study, we attempted to grade cases of renal-cell carcinoma on smears obtained from preoperative fine-needle aspirates (FNA). Eighteen cases of histologically proven renal-cell carcinoma formed the basis of this study. FNAs were performed prior to nephrectomy. FNA smears were blindly reviewed, and the cases were evaluated for cellularity, nuclear to cytoplasmic (N/C) ratios, nuclear pleomorphism, and the presence of naked nuclei and prominent nucleoli; cases were graded according to the presence or absence of these criteria and their combination. The cases were cytologically graded from grade I-IV and then were given a low grade if the tumor was considered grade I or II, or high grade if the tumor was considered grade III or IV. The histology of the neoplasms was reviewed, and the tumors were graded according to the Fuhrman nuclear grading system. Correlation between the cytologic and histologic grades within the same histologic grade was seen in 13 of the 18 cases (72.2%). The difference was no more than one grade for each discrepancy. When grading as high or low grade was used, agreement was seen in 100% of the cases. The most reliable cytologic features seen on cytology distinguishing low- from high-grade tumors were the N/C ratio and the presence or absence of nucleoli. Pleomorphism, naked nuclei, and increased cellularity were less distinguishing features. We conclude that grading of renal-cell carcinoma can be reliably achieved in FNA material. Preoperative FNAs can thus be performed on small renal neoplasms with subsequent conservative treatment if the tumor proves to be low grade. PMID:10787141

Al Nazer, M; Mourad, W A

2000-04-01

376

Challenges of standards-based reform: The example of California's science content standards and textbook adoption process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we debate the strengths and limitations of standards-based science education reform in the United States. Our purpose is to raise questions and encourage conversations about the mis/uses of standards to shape science curriculum and instructional practices at both state and national levels. We begin by examining the case of California: California recently developed science content standards and used these standards to guide the development, assessment, and adoption of K-8 science instructional materials, a process in which we participated. We offer substantive critique of the California standards themselves and the ways such standards narrowly frame science education for the state's teachers and students. We then move to more general challenges posed by fashioning standards as instruments of reform: the proliferation of increasingly unwieldy instructional materials and the muting of teachers' voices in local decision-making processes. While we do not call for the elimination of standards, we argue for greater awareness of the challenges in using standards to achieve science education reform and for renewed effort to include teachers in the translation of standards into local, responsive practice.

Bianchini, Julie A.; Kelly, Gregory J.

2003-05-01

377

Acute cellular rejection grading scheme for human gastric allografts.  

PubMed

The control of acute cellular rejection (ACR) in multivisceral transplantation improves long-term survival, but monitoring this process can be challenging because different allografts can display varying forms and degrees of rejection. Criteria for ACR of small bowel and liver have been established, but a systematic analysis for ACR in stomach is lacking. For this reason we have developed a comprehensive grading scheme for the evaluation of gastric allograft rejection. The grading scheme was designed to individually grade a variety of changes in the surface epithelium, lamina propria, and glandular structures. The individual values are cumulated, and the final score determines assignment of the rejection grade. The ACR grades range from no evidence of acute cellular rejection to severe rejection. We performed a retrospective study based on 70 gastric allograft biopsies from 20 patients who received multivisceral transplantation from 1995 to 2001. We found that the scoring system showed no significant interobserver variability and allowed for an accurate designation of the ACR grade to the gastric allografts. We found with this grading system that neither clinical symptoms nor gastric endoscopic findings could serve as specific indicators of gastric ACR. Our results also showed that there were differences in the occurrence and intensity of acute rejection between the stomach and other transplanted organs, suggesting that ACR can occur independently among different allografts of the same host. In conclusion, we find that this scheme for grading ACR in gastric transplants is objective and reproducible. This grading system will likely allow for improved correlation between gastric ACR grade and clinical symptoms, as well as improve interobserver uniformity within and between institutions. PMID:15017591

Garcia, Monica; Delacruz, Victor; Ortiz, Roque; Bagni, Alberto; Weppler, Deborah; Kato, Tomoaki; Tzakis, Andreas; Ruiz, Phillip

2004-03-01

378

78 FR 58915 - Highway-Rail Grade Crossing; Safe Clearance  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...positioning systems (GPS), and internet-generated...more frequently using GPS and other guidance technologies to plot routes. Because...been built into the technology's databases, ATA...grade crossings with GPS device...

2013-09-25

379

Doing Your Thing: Fourth Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourth grade instructional unit, part of a grade school level career education series, is designed to assist learners in relating present experiences to past and future ones. Before the main body of the lessons is described, field testing results are reported, and key items are presented: the concepts, the estimated instructional time, the…

Potter, Beverly

380

First Grade Pre-Screening  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The First Grade Pre-Screening is designed to be used at the start of the first grade school year so that teachers can obtain information about their incoming students. This information is intended to give teachers insight about what math and reading skills a student may or may not have at the beginning of the year. The information can aid teachers…

Center for Innovation in Assessment (NJ1), 2013

2013-01-01

381

Coastal Studies for Primary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a set of field trips for participants of the Coastal Environmental Education for Primary Grades program in Georgia. Includes a sample of the activities used by first- and second-grade students. Discusses follow-up activities and the need for more educational programs dealing with sand dunes and saltwater marshes. (TW)

Butler, Venetia R.; Roach, Ellen M.

1986-01-01

382

Science Grade 7, Long Form.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Grade 7 Science course of study was prepared in two parallel forms. A short form designed for students who had achieved a high measure of success in previous science courses; the long form for those who have not been able to maintain the pace. Both forms contain similar content. The Grade 7 guide is the first in a three-year sequence for…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development.

383

Teaching Literacy in First Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

First grade is a year of important new experiences for students and teachers alike. Some students will arrive knowing how to read, others will know a few letters of the alphabet, and most will be somewhere in between. Including dozens of reproducibles, this book guides first-grade teachers in the many decisions they face about how to orchestrate…

Lapp, Diane; Flood, James; Moore, Kelly; Nichols, Maria

2005-01-01

384

Learning-Centered Grading Practices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research on grading practice over two decades is clear: grading practices are firmly held beliefs that are near and dear to the teaching professional. At a time when government, business and industry, and the general public are calling for an accountability of student knowledge and abilities, classroom assessment practices could be…

Campbell, Conni

2012-01-01

385

Everybody is Somebody. Grade 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The overall objectives and teaching techniques for the supplementary primary grade social studies units are described in SO 001 457. The specific objectives of this unit for grade three are: 1) to show that ethnic differences are superficial, that we are all human beings and differences are a part of the American heritage; 2) to explore the…

Feeley, Dorothy M.

386

How Accurate Is Peer Grading?  

PubMed Central

Previously we showed that weekly, written, timed, and peer-graded practice exams help increase student performance on written exams and decrease failure rates in an introductory biology course. Here we analyze the accuracy of peer grading, based on a comparison of student scores to those assigned by a professional grader. When students graded practice exams by themselves, they were significantly easier graders than a professional; overall, students awarded ?25% more points than the professional did. This difference represented ?1.33 points on a 10-point exercise, or 0.27 points on each of the five 2-point questions posed. When students graded practice exams as a group of four, the same student-expert difference occurred. The student-professional gap was wider for questions that demanded higher-order versus lower-order cognitive skills. Thus, students not only have a harder time answering questions on the upper levels of Bloom's taxonomy, they have a harder time grading them. Our results suggest that peer grading may be accurate enough for low-risk assessments in introductory biology. Peer grading can help relieve the burden on instructional staff posed by grading written answers—making it possible to add practice opportunities that increase student performance on actual exams. PMID:21123695

Parks, John W.

2010-01-01

387

Alternatives to Grading Student Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The result of an investigation into the grading writing by the National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Alternatives to Grading Student Writing, this collection of essays offers the writing teacher several innovative and interesting options. Following an introduction by the editor (chair of the Committee), in which he delineates the…

Tchudi, Stephen, Ed.

388

Academic Effort and College Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the possibility that specification errors contributed to the Schuman et al. (1985) findings of a weak relationship between study time and college grades. Analyzes main and interactive effects, measures of quantity and quality of study, and various context-specific models of college grades. Results challenge previous findings. (Author/SV)

Michaels, James W.; Miethe, Terance D.

1989-01-01

389

Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

390

Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

391

RTP AREA ROAD GRADE MEASUREMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Grade data collection with GPS equipment is important because the load model component of the MEASURE model uses grade to predict the vehicle load. To date, data collection has been conducted for high priority roads and this task will include other roads not included in the firs...

392

Absolute and Relative Grading Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

K. K. Waltman and D. A. Frisbie (1994) observed that teachers and parents often interpret grades given to students in both absolute and relative senses. They conclude that this sort of interpretation is illogical and may indicate misunderstandings in several areas. Absolute and relative methods of assigning letter grades are approached from…

Johanson, George A.

393

Teaching Literacy in Fourth Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth grade is an important year for literacy learning. Having left the primary grades behind, students must grapple with more demanding texts and content material. Effective, motivating instruction can help them succeed. This book helps teachers create an energized and organized learning environment in which all students can improve their…

Johnson, Denise

2008-01-01

394

Graded infinite order jet manifolds  

E-print Network

The relevant material on differential calculus on graded infinite order jet manifolds and its cohomology is summarized. This mathematics provides the adequate formulation of Lagrangian theories of even and odd variables on smooth manifolds in terms of the Grassmann-graded variational bicomplex.

G. Sardanashvily

2007-08-17

395

Elementary Science Curriculum, Grade 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is one of a set of curriculum guides for the Stoneham Elementary School Science Program (see SE 012 153 - SE 012 158). Each guide contains a chart illustrating the scope and sequence of the physical, life, and earth sciences introduced at each grade level. For each of the topics introduced at this grade level an overview of the topic, a list…

Stoneham Public Schools, MA.

396

Hudson River Canyon GRADE LEVEL  

E-print Network

1 FOCUS Hudson River Canyon GRADE LEVEL 7-8 FOCUS QUESTION What are the effects of long activities at the DWD-106 mile site in the Hudson River Canyon. ADAPTATIONS FOR DEAF STUDENTS Teaching time in the Dumps #12;2 Deep East 2001 ­ Grades 7-8 Focus: Hudson River Canyon oceanexplorer.noaa.gov sites

397

The Impact of High-Stakes Testing in Chicago on Student Achievement in Promotional Gate Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed the impact of high-stakes testing in Chicago, Illinois, on student achievement in grades targeted for promotional decisions using data from the school system for grades 3, 6, and 8. Findings show that student achievement increased substantially following the introduction of high stakes tests in Chicago, especially at grades 6 and 8. (SLD)

Roderick, Melissa; Jacob, Brian A.; Bryk, Anthony S.

2002-01-01

398

Fundamentals of graded ferroic materials and devices Z.-G. Ban and S. P. Alpay  

E-print Network

Fundamentals of graded ferroic materials and devices Z.-G. Ban and S. P. Alpay Department-Ginzburg model is constructed and used to develop a methodology for analyzing graded ferroic materials. Material variation. Functionally graded ferroic systems are thus found to result in nonuniform free energies

Alpay, S. Pamir

399

Greens functions for transversely isotropic piezoelectric functionally graded multilayered half spaces  

E-print Network

graded material (FGM); Piezoelectric material; GreenÃ?s function; Multilayered structure; Systems, functionally graded materials (FGMs) can be utilized to provide the desirable thermo-mechanical, piezoelectricGreenÃ?s functions for transversely isotropic piezoelectric functionally graded multilayered half

Pan, Ernie

400

Computer-assisted grading of adenocarcinoma in prostatic aspirates.  

PubMed

Conventional cytologic grading of fine needle aspirates of prostatic adenocarcinoma has been shown neither to be reproducible nor to correlate well with histologic grading. This study developed a tumor grade classification based on computerized cytomorphometric features and compared the results to conventional grading of companion tissue sections. The image analysis system evaluated architectural features of the aspirates (mainly cell cluster features and interrelationships) as well as nuclear features. Thirty-five prostatic adenocarcinomas (8 well, 19 moderately and 8 poorly differentiated) were evaluated. Discriminant functions based on data collected at medium and high resolution distinguished between aspirates from low-grade (well-differentiated) and high-grade (poorly differentiated) adenocarcinomas with 81% accuracy. Moderately differentiated cancers could not be classified as a distinct group. This study suggests that accurate grading of prostatic adenocarcinoma in fine needle aspirate smears requires the evaluation of medium-resolution features related to specimen cellularity and uniformity or crowding of cell clusters as well as of high-resolution features of nuclear area, perimeter and coarseness of chromatin texture. These findings are compared to those of other schemes for the cytologic grading of prostatic aspirates. PMID:2190568

Schultz, D S; Harry, T; Wong, K L; Stilmant, M M; Zahniser, D J; Hutchinson, M L

1990-04-01

401

7 CFR 810.1005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...grades and special grade requirements. (a) Bleached oats. Oats that in whole or in part, have been treated with...

2013-01-01

402

7 CFR 810.1005 - Special grades and special grade requirements.  

...STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Special Grades and Special Grade Requirements § 810...grades and special grade requirements. (a) Bleached oats. Oats that in whole or in part, have been treated with...

2014-01-01

403

78 FR 33146 - Importance of Clear Safety Procedures for Temporary Removal From Service of Highway-Rail Grade...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Temporary Removal From Service of Highway-Rail Grade Crossing Warning Systems and Wayside...public and railroad employees when highway- rail grade crossing warning systems and wayside...procedures to ensure the safety of highway-rail grade crossing warning systems and...

2013-06-03

404

Comparison between teacher grading and student self-grading in different modules of agronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The adaptation of the Universities to European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves changes in the learning system. Students must obtain specific capabilities in the different degrees or masters. For example, in the degree of Agronomy at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain), they must command mathematics, English informatics or crop production. Moreover, students must attain personal skills such as leadership, team work, a critical spirit and a social, environmental and ethical commitment with the environment and the society. A way to evaluate the critical spirit of the students is to compare the grade obtained in a specific module with the grade that the students think he should get. The aim of this work is to evaluate the differences between teacher and student grading in different subjects related to soil science in different degrees and masters courses at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.

Méndez, A.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Guerrero, F.; Gascó, J. M.; Saá, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Gascó, G.

2012-04-01

405

7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

2010-01-01

406

7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.  

...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

2014-01-01

407

7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

2011-01-01

408

7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

2012-01-01

409

7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...grade(s) except in the case of bright, extra heavy, and heavy oats or plump rye, the special grades, “bright”, “extra heavy”, “heavy” and “plump” will precede the word “oats” or “rye” as applicable; and (6) When applicable,...

2013-01-01

410

Is the Television Rating System Valid? Indirect, Verbal, and Physical Aggression in Programs Viewed by Fifth Grade Girls and Associations with Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study had two goals: first, to examine the validity of the television rating system for assessing aggression in programs popular among girls; second, to evaluate the importance of inclusion of non-physical forms of aggression in the ratings system by examining associations between television aggression exposure and behavior. Ninety-nine fifth…

Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Gentile, Douglas A.

2009-01-01

411

Product Operation of Grade Upper Approximation Operator and Grade Lower Approximation Operator Based on Two Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grade is an important quantitative index, and graded rough set model is an important improved rough set model. The purpose of this paper is to explore product operation of grade approximation operators. Based on logical product operation of grade approximation operators, this paper proposes product operation of grade upper approximation operator and grade lower approximation operator based on two parameters.

Xianyong Zhang; Zhiwen Mo; Fang Xiong

2009-01-01

412

Fuzzy logic and a risk-based graded approach for developing S/RIDs: An introduction  

SciTech Connect

A Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) is the set of expressed performance expectations, or standards, for a facility. Critical to the development of an integrated standards-based management is the identification of a set of necessary and sufficient standards from a selected set of standards/requirements. There is a need for a formal, rigorous selection process for the S/RIDs. This is the first of three reports that develop a fuzzy logic selection process. In this report the fundamentals of fuzzy logic are discussed as they apply to a risk-based graded approach.

Wayland, J.R.

1996-01-01

413

Standards in Action. Using National Standards for Human Resource Management and Development in Further Education. 4. Standards-based Management Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is designed to assist management development tutors, universities and other providers, and mentors in implementing standards-based management development within British further education colleges. Section 1 presents the case for using national standards for management development in further education. Discussed in Section 2 are the…

Further Education Unit, London (England).

414

Discovering Learning, Discovering Self: The Effects of an Interdisciplinary, Standards-Based School Garden Curriculum on Elementary Students in Hawai'i  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the effects of an interdisciplinary standards-based school garden-based education program on student learning. The objective of the program is to help students learn to be self-directed learners, community contributors, complex thinkers, quality producers, effective communicators, and effective/ethical users of technology. For…

Koh, Ming Wei

2012-01-01

415

Limiting Opportunities to Learn in Upper-Secondary Schooling: Differentiation and Performance Assessment in the Context of Standards-Based Curriculum Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study presents an analysis of the consequences for students when performance assessment and differentiation practices are combined, as part of attempts to increase minimum standards within upper-secondary schooling. Recent standards-based curriculum reform in Australia demonstrates how a focus on minimum levels of achievement can limit the…

Fenwick, Lisl

2012-01-01

416

Severity grading in radial dysplasia.  

PubMed

A functional scoring method to grade the usefulness and quality of the upper limbs in congenital radial dysplasia is presented. It is based on the author's examinations of 44 arms with congenital deficiency of the radius. The hand (H), wrist (W) and proximal parts (P) of the extremity are each scored from 0 to 10 points for severity. The scoring is expressed similarly to the TNM (tumour, nodes, metastasis) tumour classification, for example as H5W4P2. The maximum severity index is 30 points. A severity grade of mild is between 1 and 8 points, moderate between 9 and 16 points and severe 17 points and over. In the author's series, the grades were mild in eight, moderate in 21 and severe in 15 cases. The functional severity grading should allow better comparison of radially deficient limbs and the results of treatment between groups of patients. PMID:24401744

Vilkki, S K

2014-11-01

417

The National Aeolian Detritus Project, A Student-controlled, Standards-based Research Opportunity for Middle and Hight School Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schools across the United States are adopting Standards-based philosophies and practices at a quickening pace. Two of the biggest challenges in this transition are the integration of concepts and the development of meaningful evaluation of student progress. The National Aeolian Detritus Project is a collaboration among Jamestown School, the University of Rhode Island, Hampshire College, the Rhode Island Space Grant Consortium at Brown University and the Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center. This Project provides students with an opportunity to integrate and enhance previous elements of instruction and allows them decision-making control over the direction of an extended research investigation. This project also provides opportunities for undergraduate community service development through University - Local School collaboration and mentoring. Students first collect Aeolian Detritus, that is, randomly deposited airborne particulate matter (APM) by deploying flat sheet collectors. Retained APM is removed from the collectors with repulpable tape and concentrated by vacuum filtration. APM is initially identified by simple light microscopy, solubility, density, and magnetic response. More advanced identification includes ICP and Neutron Activation. With assistance from collaborating universities, students craft research questions based on these initial samples and develop investigation designs. Sample research questions include: 1) Can insect infestations or possible defoliation events be predicted by identification of insect bodies, parts, and excrement? 2) What information can we collect about micrometeorites when typed, analyzed, and compared to NASA comet track data? 3) Can the distribution of flora be confirmed or modified based on pollen grain collection and mapping? 4) Can the distribution of mineral particulate matter be mapped by collection and comparison with wind patterns over known geologic features? Schools correlate collection data with National Weather Service wind records and submit their results to the NADP data center for posting as GIS data on the NADP website. In this way, co-operating collection sites may identify large scale patterns. As a result of pilot teacher training this summer, four test sites are being established to further refine the collection protocol and the extended research design process.

Sammons, J. I.; Murray, D. D.; Reid, J. B.

2001-12-01

418

Optical Response of Graded Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graded materials have quite different physical properties from the homogeneous materials. Recently, it has been found that graded thin films may have better dielectric properties than a single-layer film. The materials properties of graded films can vary continuously in space. These materials have attracted much interest in various engineering applications. However, the traditional theories fail to deal with the composites of graded inclusions. Recently, for treating these composites, we presented a first-principles approach [1] and differential effective dipole approximation [2]. In this work, we adopt a graded multilayer model by putting together infinite planes of square lattices. We adopted the Drude dielectric gradation profile for the polarizability of the spherical metallic particles. An external electric field is applied to the multilayer and the local field inside the multilayer has been calculated by Lekner summation method [3]. The effect of the boundary condition has also been examined. From this, the effective polarizability and hence the optical absorption as well as optical nonlinearity of the film can be obtained. Such theoretical studies on the dielectric properties of graded composite materials will be useful in diverse applications. [1]. L. Dong, G. Q. Gu, and K. W. Yu, Phys. Rev. B 67, 224205 (2003). [2]. J. P. Huang, K. W. Yu, G. Q. Gu, and M. Karttunen, Phys. Rev. E 67, 051405 (2003). [3]. S. V. Lishchuk, Mol. Phys. 100, 3789 (2002).

Kwok, Joseph T. A.

2005-03-01

419

Graded Photonic Bandgap Structures and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of periodic nanostructured materials with specific optical properties can significantly impact the development of optical based sensors. Moreover, the development of these structures in inexpensive polymer systems can reduce much of the costs in these systems related to wavelength filtering and spectral analysis. For example, highly reflective Bragg filters can be produced by creating a multilayered polymeric structure with a modulated refractive index profile. One mechanism to produce such periodic structures is by using spatially selective photoinitiated polymerization of a pre-polymer solution containing a photoinitiator, coinitiator, and monomer (along with various other components depending on the desired end product). In order to provide a periodic illumination pattern on the order of hundreds of nanometers, optical holography using laser beams can be used. For example, there has been significant research in the use of laser based holography to control the location, and size, of nanoscale droplets of liquid crystals in a polymeric structure - the appropriately named area of holographic polymer dispersed liquid cystals (H-PDLC). These structures have been demonstrated to be easily tuned and designed to have desired optical switching properties. The efforts presented in this dissertation build on that prior work and can be categorized into three parts: (1) Tailoring of the H-PDLC material systems to meet application needs in terms of bandwidth, absorption spectrum, resonant wavelength peak, background fluorescence, etc.; (2) Designing new architecture using these different material systems, e.g., graded gratings; and (3) Applying these reflection gratings and graded gratings in optical sensors and spectral analysis devices. Obviously, all these efforts are interconnected with each other. Chapter 1 and 2 describe the properties of the material systems and the fabricated samples. Specifically, we present how we modified the standard H-PDLC material systems to meet specific requirements. Different solvent systems and photoinitiators were compared to determine their effects on the resulting optical performance. In Chapter 2 we present the characterization of the fabricated polymeric gratings in terms of optical transmission and reflection, surface and cross-section morphologies and thickness variations. In addition, the expected (theoretical) optical properties of the grating structures are presented and compared to the experimental results in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 presents the application of the reflection gratings in enhancing the performance of an oxygen sensor in different platforms. A PBG oxygen sensor, integrated sensor and fiber based sensor will be discussed and the enhanced sensitivity and signal to noise ratio are reported. In Chapter 4, we present the first demonstration of a one-step holographic lithography process to fabricate a rainbow colored graded structure. The detailed characterization reveals that the graded structures exist in both the cross-section and on the surface at the nanometer level and micrometer level respectively. A model of the internal structure is proposed and verified experimentally. In Chapter 5 we present and demonstrate the potential applications of graded gratings as a spectrum analyzer and reflection grating for multispectral imaging. Finally our conclusions and some proposed future directions are presented in Chapter 6. Specifically, we present a description of the use of these structures in (1) introducing defect modes into the PBG structures (2) fabricating random surface multilayer structures using Focused ion beam or Reactive ion etching (3) fabrication of transmitted graded grating in a certain wavelength range with double exposures. Other research interests can be pursued including improved fluorescence optical sensors performance and graded grating and its sensing applications in the IR range.

Liu, Ke

420

Scintigraphic scoring system for grading severity of gastro-esophageal reflux on 99mTc sulfur colloid gastro-esophageal reflux scintigraphy: A prospective study of 39 cases with pre and post treatment assessment  

PubMed Central

Aim: The study aimed at developing a scoring system for scintigraphic grading of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER), on gastro-esophageal reflux scintigraphy (GERS) and comparison of clinical and scintigraphic scores, pre- and post-treatment. Materials and Methods: A total of 39 cases with clinically symptomatic GER underwent 99mTc sulfur colloid GERS; scores were assigned based on the clinical and scintigraphic parameters. Post domperidone GERS was performed after completion of treatment. Follow up GERS was performed and clinical and scintigraphic parameters were compared with baseline parameters. Results: Paired t-test on pre and post domperidone treatment clinical scores showed that the decline in post-treatment scores was highly significant, with P value < 0.001. The scintigraphic scoring system had a sensitivity of 93.9% in assessing treatment response to domperidone, specificity of 83.3% i.e., 83.3% of children with no decline in scintigraphic scores show no clinical response to Domperidone. The scintigraphic scoring system had a positive predictive value of 96.9% and a negative predictive value of 71.4%. Conclusion: GERS with its quantitative parameters is a good investigation for assessing the severity of reflux and also for following children post-treatment. PMID:24163511

Puranik, Ameya D; Nair, Gopinathan; Aggarwal, Rajiv; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Shinto, Ajit; Zade, Anand

2013-01-01

421

Grading nuclear cataract: reproducibility and validity of a new method  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo assess the reproducibility and validity of a new instrument for grading nuclear cataract—the laser slit lamp, by comparison with an established method of lens grading—the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III).METHODS62 volunteers (113 eyes) were examined on two occasions. At each visit, a video image of the anterior segment was captured with the laser slit lamp and stored

Nigel F Hall; Philip Lempert; Rosaleen P Shier; Rahila Zakir; David Phillips

1999-01-01

422

12Some Puzzling Thoughts about Space Radiation We have all heard, since grade school, that 1___________ affects living systems by causing cell  

E-print Network

___________ affects living systems by causing cell mutations. The particles such as fast-moving ions or 2____________ strike particular locations in the 3_________ of a cell, causing the cell to malfunction, or 4, or to the evolution of its species. When this happens you can get 6_______________. Cancer risks are generally related

423

Materials Science and Engineering A252 (1998) 117132 Optimization of 316 stainless steel/alumina functionally graded  

E-print Network

/alumina functionally graded material for reduction of damage induced by thermal residual stresses M. Grujicic *, H in a 316 stainless steel/Al2O3 functionally graded material [FGM] model system during cooling from; Thermal residual stress; Stainless steel/Al2O3; Functionally graded material; Model system; Cooling 1. I

Grujicic, Mica

424

Development of a novel combined fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy system for guiding high-grade glioma resections: confirmation of capability in lab experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total resection of glioblastoma multiform (GBM), the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor, is challenging among other things due to difficulty in intraoperative discrimination between normal and residual tumor cells. This project demonstrates the potential of a system based on a combination of autofluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to be useful as an intraoperative guiding tool. In this context, a system based on 5 LEDs coupled to optical fibers was employed to deliver UV/visible light to the sample sequentially. Remitted light from the tissue; including diffuse reflected and fluorescence of endogenous and exogenous fluorophores, as well as its photobleaching product, is transmitted to one photodiode and four avalanche photodiodes. This instrument has been evaluated with very promising results by performing various tissue-equivalent phantom laboratory and clinical studies on skin lesions.

Mousavi, Monirehalsadat; Xie, Haiyan; Xie, Zhiyuan; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Axelsson, Johan; Andersson-Engels, Stefan

2013-11-01

425

Toward a Clinical-Grade Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Sources: A Microcarrier-Based Culture System Under Xeno-Free Conditions  

PubMed Central

The immunomodulatory properties of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) make them attractive therapeutic agents for a wide range of diseases. However, the highly demanding cell doses used in MSC clinical trials (up to millions of cells/kg patient) currently require labor intensive methods and incur high reagent costs. Moreover, the use of xenogenic (xeno) serum-containing media represents a risk of contamination and raises safety concerns. Bioreactor systems in combination with novel xeno-free medium formulations represent a viable alternative to reproducibly achieve a safe and reliable MSC doses relevant for cell therapy. The main goal of the present study was to develop a complete xeno-free microcarrier-based culture system for the efficient expansion of human MSC from two different sources, human bone marrow (BM), and adipose tissue. After 14 days of culture in spinner flasks, BM MSC reached a maximum cell density of (2.0±0.2)×105 cells·mL?1 (18±1-fold increase), whereas adipose tissue-derived stem cells expanded to (1.4±0.5)×105 cells·mL?1 (14±7-fold increase). After the expansion, MSC expressed the characteristic markers CD73, CD90, and CD105, whereas negative for CD80 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR. Expanded cells maintained the ability to differentiate robustly into osteoblast, adipocyte, and chondroblast lineages upon directed differentiation. These results demonstrated the feasibility of expanding human MSC in a scalable microcarrier-based stirred culture system under xeno-free conditions and represent an important step forward for the implementation of a Good Manufacturing Practices–compliant large-scale production system of MSC for cellular therapy. PMID:21895491

dos Santos, Francisco; Andrade, Pedro Z.; Abecasis, Manuel M.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.; Chase, Lucas G.; Campbell, Andrew M.; Boucher, Shayne; Vemuri, Mohan C.; da Silva, Claudia Lobato

2011-01-01

426

BU BRAIN Self Service GRADING PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

1 BU BRAIN Self Service GRADING PROCEDURES FOR FACULTY Updated May 2014/PD #12;2 Table of Contents BRAIN Self Service icon on left side of page: #12;4 Entering Grades: Once in BU BRAIN Self Service, go BRAIN Self Service; Registered ­ student registered through the department). Grade: Student's grade

Suzuki, Masatsugu

427

7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades. 52.772 Section 52.772 Agriculture...PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.772 Grades. (a)...

2010-01-01

428

Predicting Eighth-Grade Algebra Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For 139 students, algebra prognosis test scores and performance in seventh-grade mathematics best predicted algebra grades in grade eight, whereas IQ, problem solving, and prognosis scores best predicted achievement on a standardized algebra test. No sex difference in achievement scores was found, but girls attained higher percentage grades. (MNS)

Flexer, Barbara K.

1984-01-01

429

ASTM A-710 GRADE B High Performance  

E-print Network

NUCu STEEL ASTM A-710 GRADE B High Performance Copper-Precipitation-Strengthened Steel With Low in Lake Villa, Illinois, build with NUCu 70W (ASTM A710 Grade B) Steel Right: NUCu 70W (ASTM A710 Grade BW (ASTM A710 Grade B) without pre-heat. #12;#12;WHAT IS NUCu STEEL? 3 for welding. As a result, its

430

The effect of effort grading on learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the fall of 2004, Benedict College – a Historically Black College in Columbia, SC – began enforcing a new grading policy called Success Equals Effort (SE2). Under this policy, students taking freshman and sophomore level courses were assigned grades that explicitly rewarded not only content learning (“knowledge” grade) but also measures of effort (“effort” grade). This paper examines the

Omari H. Swinton

2010-01-01

431

On-Demand Grades: The Effect of Online Grade Book Access on Student Mastery and Performance Goal Orientations, Grade Orientation, Academic Self Efficacy, and Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the widespread growth of broadband Internet access, teachers, and in many cases, schools and school districts are transitioning from traditional paper-based grade books to student accessible online (Web-based) grade books. Online grade books offer students 24/7, on demand access to grades and various other student data, and have the potential…

Seldow, Adam Lowell

2010-01-01

432

Grading student programs - a software testing approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an experience of automating the grading of student programs. A testing framework provides guidance for developing the assignment specification and the grading program. Automation saves time and improves grading consistency and feedback to students. After an adjustment period, student programs improved. Although the instructor invests more time writing a testable assignment specification and developing the grading program,

Edward L. Jones

2000-01-01

433

Invasive ductal carcinoma accompanied by ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS): comparison of DCIS grade with grade of invasive component  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years new approaches to the histological classification of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) have been developed in an effort to produce a system which is clinically relevant. In general these systems have emphasized the importance of cytological characteristics rather than architectural patterns. This study attempts to test two of these classification systems by comparing the histological grade of

B. A. Cadman; J. L. Ostrowski; C. M. Quinn

1997-01-01

434

Survival Analysis in Amputees Based on Physical Independence Grade Achievement  

PubMed Central

Backgound Survival implications of achieving different grades of physical independence after lower extremity amputation are unknown. Objectives To identify thresholds of physical independence achievement associated with improved 6-month survival and to identify and compare other risk factors after removing the influence of the grade achieved. Design Data were combined from 8 administrative databases. Grade was measured on the basis of 13 individual self-care and mobility activities measured at inpatient rehabilitation discharge. Setting Ninety-nine US Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. Patients Retrospective longitudinal cohort study of 2616 veterans who underwent lower extremity amputation and subsequent inpatient rehabilitation between October 1, 2002, and September 30, 2004. Main Outcome Measure Cumulative 6-month survival after rehabilitation discharge. Results The 6-month survival rate (95% confidence interval [CI]) for those at grade 1 (total assistance) was 73.5% (70.5%-76.2%). The achievement of grade 2 (maximal assistance) led to the largest incremental improvement in prognosis with survival increasing to 91.1% (95% CI, 85.6%-94.5%). In amputees who remained at grade 1, the 30-day hazards ratio for survival compared with grade 6 (independent) was 43.9 (95% CI, 10.8-278.2), sharply decreasing with time. Whereas metastatic cancer and hemodialysis remained significantly associated with reduced survival (both P ? .001), anatomical amputation level was not significant when rehabilitation discharge grade and other diagnostic conditions were considered. Conclusions Even a small improvement to grade 2 in the most severely impaired amputees resulted in better 6-month survival. Health care systems must plan appropriate interdisciplinary treatment strategies for both medical and functional issues after amputation. PMID:19528388

Stineman, Margaret G.; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Kwong, Pui L.; Maislin, Greg; Reker, Dean M.; Bruce Vogel, W.; Prvu-Bettger, Janet A.; Bidelspach, Douglas E.; Bates, Barbara E.

2010-01-01

435

Determination of nuclear DNA content and hormone receptors in breast cancer by the CAS 100 cell analysis system as related to morphologic grade and biochemical results.  

PubMed

Quantitative DNA analysis by the CAS 100 Cell Analysis System was performed on 120 cases of primary breast carcinoma using touch preparations from fresh biopsy specimens in 110 cases and archival, restrained fine needle preparations in 10 cases. Fifteen cases of metastatic breast carcinoma and 15 cases of benign breast lesions were also analyzed. Overall, 76.7% of the carcinomas examined were aneuploid, with most DNA indices between 1.6 and 2.0. DNA anomalies were strongly related to nuclear atypia but not to structural differentiation. The hormone receptor content, when compared with DNA data and morphologic features, emerged as a biologically independent factor. Agreement between quantitative immunocytochemical assay (QICA) using the CAS system and traditional dextran-coated charcoal assay (DCCA) in discriminating positive and negative status for estrogen receptors and progesterone receptors was 86% and 82%, respectively. Marked variations, however, occurred in the numerical values. Considering the advantages of QICA and the importance of tumor heterogeneity in particular, the use of traditional DCCA as the reference technique and only guide for therapy no longer seems justified. PMID:1930542

Rondez, R; Yoshizaki, C; Pirozynski, W

1991-08-01

436

The Relationship of Student Use of the Scholastic ReadAbout Software Systemon Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Reading Test Scores as Reported in Student Records of Third and Fourth Grade Students at Comal Independent School District, Texas  

E-print Network

grade and fourth grade students spent using the ReadAbout software system and their performance on the third and fourth grade TAKS reading tests. 2. No statistically significant relationships were determined for gender or socioeconomic status when...

McGlothlin, Ross M.

2010-01-14

437

Logical difference model of grade upper approximation operator and grade lower approximation operator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grade is an important quantitative index, and graded rough set model is an important improved rough set model. This paper is to explore new improved rough set model. Based on logical difference operation of grade approximation operators, it proposes logical difference model of grade upper approximation operator and grade lower approximation operator. In the new model, basic structure and properties

Xianyong Zhang

2010-01-01

438

Physical Education Grade One. Physical Education Grade 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The two curriculum guides presented in this document are designed to provide teachers with tools for planning instructional programs in physical education in grades 1 and 2 based on the Texas Education Agency essential elements and the goals and objectives of the Fort Worth Independent School District. Each guide includes six major instructional…

Fort Worth Independent School District, TX. Div. of Curriculum Development.

439

Communities Today. Social Studies Interim Grade Guide for Grade Three.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social studies curriculum for grade 3 in Manitoba, Canada, is presented. The focus of this guide is communities today. Main objectives are to explore: (1) needs, wants, advantages, and disadvantages of people living in communities; (2) ways in which communities depend upon, interact with, and change their environment; and (3) the extent to…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Curriculum Development Branch.

440

Changes. Social Studies Interim Grade Guide for Grade Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social studies curriculum is presented for grade 2 in Manitoba, Canada. The focus of this guide is change. Some objectives are to explore: (1) some of the ways children change physically, intellectually, emotionally, and socially; (2) some of the changes caused by technology that are occurring in family structure, particularly in the roles of…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Curriculum Development Branch.

441

Effect of Grade Retention in First Grade on Psychosocial Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a 4-year longitudinal study, the authors investigated effects of retention in first grade on children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors; social acceptance; and behavioral, cognitive, and affective engagement. From a large multiethnic sample (n = 784) of children below the median on literacy at school entrance, 124 retained children…

Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.; Hughes, Jan N.

2010-01-01

442

Science professors serve as mentors for early childhood preservice teachers in the design and implementation of standards-based science units  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the use of science professors acting as mentors to enhance the science competency of early childhood educators.\\u000a Findings indicate that mentor-mentee dyad interactions varied; however, mentors were able to assist with curriculum, science\\u000a content, and resources. Although standards-based units were developed, there was little “real” science inquiry present. Findings\\u000a did not support a higher-quality product that involved

Laurie Katz; Kim Sadler; Dorothy V. Craig

2005-01-01

443

7 CFR 29.6155 - Summary of standard grades.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Summary of standard grades. 29.6155 Section 29.6155 Agriculture...INSPECTION Standards Summary of Standard Grades § 29.6155 Summary of standard grades. Three grades of binder Three grades...

2010-01-01

444

Narrowing the Achievement Gap in Second-Grade Social Studies and Content Area Literacy: The Promise of a Project-Based Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the question: Do second-grade students from low- socioeconomic-status (SES) schools taught with an iteratively designed project-based approach to social studies and content literacy instruction: (a) make statistically significant gains on standards-based social studies and content area literacy assessments, and (b) reach a benchmark on these assessments set by a group of students from high-SES schools? If so,

Anne-Lise Halvorsen; Nell K. Duke; Kristy A. Brugar; Meghan K. Block; Stephanie L. Strachan; Meghan B. Berka; Jason M. Brown

2012-01-01

445

Evidence of system: A network model case-study of seventh grade science assessment practices from classrooms to the state test  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With science education in the United States entering a period of greater accountability, this study investigated how student learning in science was assessed by educators within one state, asking what systemic assessment approaches existed and how the information from them was used. Conducted during the 20o6-2007 school year, this research developed and piloted a network-model case study design that included teachers, principals, administrators, and the state test development process, as well as several state-level professional associations. The data analyzed included observations, interviews, surveys, and both public and private documents. Some data were secondary. This design produced an empirical depiction of practice with a web of related cases. The network model expands on the hierarchical (nested) models often assumed in the growing literature on how information is used in educational contexts by showing multiple ways in which individuals are related through organizational structures. Seven case study teachers, each employing assessment methods largely unique and invisible to others in their schools, illustrate one set of assessment practices. The only alternative to classroom assessments that could be documented was the annual state accountability test. These two assessment species were neither tightly coupled nor distinct. Some teachers were partners in developing state test instruments, and in some cases the annual test could be seen as a school management resource. Boundary practices---activities where these two systems connected---were opportunities to identify challenges to policy implementation in science education. The challenges include standards, cognition, vocabulary, and classroom equipment. The boundary practices, along with the web of connections, provide the outlines of potential (and often unrealized) synergistic relationships. This model shows diverse indigenous practices and adaptations by actors responding to pressures of change and persistent historical tensions of diversity and control. It provided evidence of a broadening instructional agenda and rapid deployment of information infrastructures for collection, dissemination, and analysis of student information. The model became a lens to view these changes and paths that policy for science education may take for implementation. It also became a lens to evaluate accountability policies to see how models embedded within policies may fit with current practice.

Piety, Philip John

446

The effectiveness of a standards-based integrated chemistry and mathematics curriculum on improving the academic achievement in chemistry for high school students in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether integrating chemistry and mathematics curricula and teaching practices significantly improves academic achievement in chemistry among high school students in Southern California. The study was conducted during the 2008--2009 academic year. A quasi-experimental research design was used to explore the effects of a standards-based integrated chemistry and mathematics curriculum (Integrated CHEMAT) and teaching practices on student academic achievement when compared to a traditional standards-based chemistry curriculum (Regular CHEM) and teaching practices. Academic achievement was based on a researcher-created Chemistry Achievement Assessment (CHAAS). The sample population involved in the research included 136 high school chemistry students attending high school in a Southern California rural school district. The research involved 2 groups of 68 students each: the experimental group and the control group. The data were analyzed using SPSS independent samples t-test, one-way multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), and profile analysis. Statistical significance was determined at the .05 and .001 levels. Significant differences were found when analyzing the effects of the standards-based integrated chemistry and mathematics curriculum and teaching practices. All 3 statistical analysis procedures (the independent samples t-test, MANCOVA, and profile analysis) indicated that students in the integrated CHEMAT program scored significantly higher than the students in the regular CHEM program in achievement scores based on the results of the CHAAS.

Mupanduki, Blessing T.

447

SCH3U Grade 11 Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tom Stretton, a science teacher in the Upper Canada District School Board, provides chemistry notes, figures, and quizzes intended for eleventh-grade chemistry students. Within the Databook link, students can learn the origins of names of the elements, electromagnetic spectrum, ionization energies, and much more. Visitors can find twelve laboratory activities, fun chemistry-related conundrums, a timetable of the history of alchemy and chemistry, and information on the metric system. The website offers details about molecules, ions, bonding, stoichiometry, and additional topics usually discussed in high school chemistry classes.

Stretton, Tom

2007-05-11

448

Effective use of e-grading in the dental simulation clinic.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to describe the development and implementation of a grading software system, accessible from any platform, that engages today's generation of students and replaces paper grading. Set up at one U.S. dental school in an all-access, anytime (24/7) web-based program accessed through tablets, the software allows for a comparison between students' self-grading and instructor grading. This comparison facilitates student-faculty interaction, promoting discussion and student learning. The software can also be used for practical examination grading in which blinded grading between instructors is possible. The data gathered can produce descriptive reports students can draw upon to encourage self-learning and guided learning, propelling students to a better understanding of critical principles as they progress through multiple psychomotor skill sets. Other reports generated by the software allow for instructor calibration, exporting of grades directly into the university grading report system, and visual analysis of trends within each class. In a post-course survey, students (56 percent response rate) and faculty (79 percent response rate) agreed that the electronic grading was more efficient and allowed more time for faculty-student interaction than the previous grading system, thus creating an environment more conducive to learning. Overall, the software has improved students' perception of enhanced kinetic skills, while facilitating administration of preclinical projects and practical examinations. PMID:24882768

Morrow, Jay A; Pulido, M Teresa; Smith, P Bradford; McDaniel, Thomas F; Willcox, Austin B

2014-06-01

449

Functionally graded materials for impedance matching in elastic media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When functionally graded material layers are inserted between two impedance mismatching media, passbands with extremely large bandwidths can appear in these layered systems. An accurate and effective iterative method is developed to deal with these layered systems with extremely large layer number.

Chen, Shi; Zhang, Yinhong; Hao, Changchun; Lin, Shuyu; Fu, Zhiqiang

2014-01-01

450

EDUCATIONAL TALENT GRADE COLLEGE VISIT  

E-print Network

EDUCATIONAL TALENT SEARCH 9TH -11TH GRADE COLLEGE VISIT March 5, 2014 Dear Guardian, Student, & Counselor: On Wednesday, March 26, 2014, Northern Kentucky University's Educational Talent Search (ETS Talent Search staff members o Bus driver Be aware of: o Your noise levels o Your language (no

Boyce, Richard L.

451

Modeling First Grade Reading Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested a hypothesized model examining reading proficiency across first grade. It addressed how alphabetics at the beginning of the year were mediated by applied and automated skills at the middle of the year to explain actualized reading at the end of the year. The alphabetic skills of 102 first graders were measured in October and the…

Mesmer, Heidi Anne E.; Williams, Thomas O.

2014-01-01

452

Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 7. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

453

Film Study Course, Tenth Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a language arts program developed under an ESEA Title 3 grant, this curriculum guide for film study in the 10th grade is intended to help students (1) view films more critically, (2) understand the procedures of film making, and (3) appreciate the film as a work of art. Nine films are recommended for viewing, and sample lessons, including…

Ziegler, Fred H.; Schulz, H. James

454

Grade Two, Environmental Education Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second grade environmental education guide is one of a series of guides, K-12, which were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design; it is the teacher's decision when the concepts, objectives, activities, and resources may best be integrated into the…

Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

455

Grade Three, Environmental Education Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This third grade environmental education guide is one of a series of guides, K-12, that were developed by teachers to help introduce environmental education into the total curriculum. The guides are supplementary in design; it is the teacher's decision when the concepts, objectives, activities, and resources may best be integrated into the…

Project I-C-E, Green Bay, WI.

456

Mentos Lesson Grades 4 -8  

E-print Network

before and after it is separated into parts 6th Grade Explain how the arrangement and motion of particles. It has mass and is moving, so we can feel the force of the gas on our hand. Pressure: Pressure/squeeze the surface of the balloon. The resistance to squeezing 4 #12;(force) is the gas inside the balloon pushing

457

Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's purpose, main…

Calhoun, Olivia H.

458

Grading Styles and Instructor Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined how instructor attitudes relate to grading behavior using two attitude instruments (ascription of responsibility and approval motivation) and resulting data collected from general education instructors at a midwestern comprehensive university. The results of the research show that approval motivation is significantly related…

Deboer, Betty V.; Anderson, Donna M.; Elfessi, Abdulaziz M.

2007-01-01

459

Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

Kolb, James A.

460

Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

Kolb, James A.

461

Homeside Activities--Grade 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing a low-key, nonthreatening way for teachers and parents to build partnerships for kids, this book presents short, concrete activities in English and Spanish to foster communication between teachers and parents and between parents and children. While the activities in the book are designed for grade 3, none of the activities have…

Developmental Studies Center, Oakland, CA.

462

Homeside Activities--Grade 2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing a low-key, nonthreatening way for teachers and parents to build partnerships for kids, this book presents short, concrete activities in English and Spanish to foster communication between teachers and parents and between parents and children. While the activities in the book are designed for grade 2, none of the activities have…

Developmental Studies Center, Oakland, CA.

463

Homeside Activities--Grade 1.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing a low-key, nonthreatening way for teachers and parents to build partnerships for kids, this book presents short, concrete activities in English and Spanish to foster communication between teachers and parents and between parents and children. While the activities in the book are designed for grade 1, none of the activities have…

Developmental Studies Center, Oakland, CA.

464

Homeside Activities--Grade 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing a low-key, nonthreatening way for teachers and parents to build partnerships for kids, this book presents short, concrete activities in English and Spanish to foster communication between teachers and parents and between parents and children. While the activities in the book are designed for grade 4, none of the activities have…

Developmental Studies Center, Oakland, CA.

465

Homeside Activities--Grade 5.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Providing a low-key, nonthreatening way for teachers and parents to build partnerships for kids, this book presents short, concrete activities in English and Spanish to foster communication between teachers and parents and between parents and children. While the activities in the book are designed for grade 5, none of the activities have…

Developmental Studies Center, Oakland, CA.

466

Grade III open tibial fractures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term functional outcome and the quality of life of patients who were treated for a (Gustilo) Grade III open tibial fracture.We included 43 patients with successful limb salvage (group A) and 21 amputees (group B). The groups were similar with regard to age, sex, and Injury Severity Score (ISS). The functional

J. M Hoogendoorn; Chr van der Werken

2001-01-01

467

Social Studies Curriculum: Grade Six.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document outlines the content of the grade 6 social studies curriculum of the Lebanon School District, Lebanon, New Hampshire. The program is essentially a chronological review of western civilization, which includes pre-historic man, early civilization, classical civilizations of Greece and Rome, Medieval period, and the Age of Expansion.…

Pease, Arthur

468

Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 4. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

469

Teacher's Guide, Ecology, Grade 10.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teacher's guide has been constructed to assist in developing and implementing a life science course with an environment/ecological unit for Grade 10. Designed primarily for use with other science units, it offers numerous multidisciplinary activities which emphasize involvement in problem-solving through open-ended investigation rather than…

Yadkin Valley Economic Development District, Inc., Walnut Cove, NC.

470

Teaching Literacy in Fifth Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For students, fifth grade is a time of increasing independence and responsibility. Yet fifth-graders vary widely in their reading and writing abilities--and they are still young enough to require considerable teacher support. Depicting an exemplary teacher in action, this indispensable book presents innovative, practical strategies for creating an…

McMahon, Susan I.; Wells, Jacqueline

2007-01-01

471

Health: Grade Two. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This health education guide for grade two is divided into six sections. A statement of the sub-goal for each section prefaces an outline for achieving that goal: (1) social-emotional well-being: to enhance self-awareness and increase skills that promote personal development and successful relationships; (2) physical well-being: to increase…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

472

Health: Grade Three. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This health education guide for grade three is divided into six sections. A statement of the sub-goal for each section prefaces an outline for achieving that goal: (1) social-emotional well-being: to enhance self-awareness and increase skills that promote personal development and successful relationships; (2) physical well-being: to increase…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

473

Health: Grade Four. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This health education guide for grade four is divided into six sections. A statement of the sub-goal for each section prefaces an outline for achieving that goal: (1) social-emotional well-being: to enhance self-awareness and increase skills that promote personal development and successful relationships; (2) physical well-being: to increase…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

474

Health: Grade Seven. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This health education guide for grade seven is divided into six sections. A statement of the sub-goal for each section prefaces an outline for achieving that goal: (1) social-emotional well-being: to enhance self-awareness and increase skills that promote personal development and successful relationships; (2) physical well-being: to increase…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

475

Health: Grade Six. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This health education guide for grade six is divided into six sections. A statement of the sub-goal for each section prefaces an outline for achieving that goal: (1) social-emotional well-being: to enhance self-awareness and increase skills that promote personal development and successful relationships; (2) physical well-being: to increase…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

476

Health: Grade One. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This health education guide for grade one is divided into six sections. A statement of the sub-goal for each section prefaces an outline for achieving that goal: (1) social-emotional well-being: to enhance self-awareness and increase skills that promote personal development and successful relationships; (2) physical well-being: to increase…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

477

Health: Grade Five. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This health education guide for grade five is divided into six sections. A statement of the sub-goal for each section prefaces an outline for achieving that goal: (1) social-emotional well-being: to enhance self-awareness and increase skills that promote personal development and successful relationships; (2) physical well-being: to increase…

1983

478

Health: Grade Eight Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This health education guide for grade eight is divided into six sections. A statement of the sub-goal for each section prefaces an outline for achieving that goal: (1) social-emotional well-being: to enhance self-awareness and increase skills that promote personal development and successful relationships; (2) physical well-being: to increase…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

479

Health: Grade Nine. Interim Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This health education guide for grade nine is divided into six sections. A statement of the sub-goal for each section prefaces an outline for achieving that goal: (1) social-emotional well-being: to enhance self-awareness and increase skills that promote personal development and successful relationships; (2) physical well-being: to increase…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

480

Science Equity in Third Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The earliest national accountability tests occur at the fourth-grade level and the outcomes are aggregated. This national study exposes the depth of science education inequities a full year earlier by disaggregating third graders' demographic data with the science performance. A full 3-way ANOVA model was applied to test the 3 main effects…

Kohlhaas, Kay; Lin, Hsin-Hui; Chu, Kwang-Lee

2010-01-01

481

Influence of slaughter weight and sex on yield and quality grades of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) carcasses.  

PubMed

To assess the effects of slaughter weight and sex on APGS (Animal Products Grading Service) quality and APGS yield grade of Korean Hanwoo (n = 20,881) cattle, data were collected from cow, bull, and steer carcasses during a 1-yr period. Factors used to determine quality grade (marbling, meat color, fat color, texture, and overall maturity score) and yield grade (cold carcass weight, adjusted fat thickness, and longissimus muscle area) by the Korean grading system were recorded. Both yield and quality grades were improved (P < 0.01) with heavier slaughter weight, but there was no difference in yield grade for Hanwoo cattle classes heavier than 551 kg (P > 0.01). Longissimus muscle area, adjusted fat thickness, and marbling score increased (P < 0.01) with carcass weight. Bull carcasses showed higher yield but lower quality than those of cows or steers (P < 0.01). The quality grade of steer carcasses was higher (P < 0.01) than that of cow carcasses due to higher marbling scores, lower maturity scores, and heavier carcass weights. Hanwoo carcasses with larger longissimus muscle areas in relation to their carcass weight had lower APGS quality grades. The APGS quality grades were different between yield grade A and B carcasses (P < 0.01), but quality grade was not improved by increased fat thickness beyond the point of yield grade B. Adjusted fat thickness and marbling score showed significant (P < 0.01) differences among all yield