Note: This page contains sample records for the topic standards-based grading system from Science.gov.
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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Seven Reasons for Standards-Based Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past three years, Patricia L. Scriffiny has transformed the grading system in her high school mathematics classroom by replacing the traditional points-based system with a standards-based system. Instead of assigning points for assignments, she lists student progress toward meeting clearly defined course objectives. In this article,…

Scriffiny, Patricia L.

2008-01-01

2

The relationship between standards-based reporting systems and third-grade mathematics and science achievement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, accountability has been the driving force for many changes in education in the United States. One major educational reform effort is the standards-based movement with a focus of combining a number of processes that involve aligning curriculum, instruction, assessment and feedback to specific standards that are measureable and indicative of student achievement. The purpose of this study is to determine if the type of report card is a possible predictor of third grade student achievement on standardized tests in mathematics and science for the 2012 Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). The results of this study concluded that the difference in test scores in mathematics and science for students in the traditional report card group was not statistically significant when compared to the scores of students in the standards-based report card group when controlling for poverty level, school locale, and school district. However, students in the traditional report card group scored an average of 1.01 point higher in mathematics and 2.27 points higher in science than students in the standards-based report card group.

Prejean-Harris, Rose M.

3

Moving to Standards-Based Grading: Lessons from Omaha  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Getting a large, urban school district to use standards-based education and standards-based grading is challenging. Doing so in one year is monumental. During the 2009-10 school year, Omaha (NE) Public Schools began to study the feasibility of making changes to its traditional grading system. The more closely district personnel investigated the…

Proulx, Chris; Spencer-May, Karen; Westerberg, Tim

2012-01-01

4

An Analysis of the Correlation between Standards-Based, Non-Standards-Based Grading Systems and Achievement as Measured by the Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the correlation between the grades a student earns in his or her classroom and the scores that each student earned on the Colorado Student Assessment Program tests in Writing, Math, and Science. The study also examined the mean scores of varying sub-groups to determine if certain sub-groups demonstrated higher means, dependent…

Haptonstall, Kenneth G.

2010-01-01

5

Standards-Based Grading in Introductory University Physics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards-based grading (SBG) is an approach to assessment and reporting in which scores are attached to the specific learning objectives of a course, rather than to assignments or tests. Each score represents a student's mastery of that learning objective, and may change over time in response to evidence that her level of understanding has…

Beatty, Ian D.

2013-01-01

6

Standards-based grading with voice: Listening for students' understanding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Standards-based grading is gaining popularity at the high school level, including physics courses. The basic notion is to give your students a list of objectives upfront that they need to master. Students can reassess often and their final grade is determined solely by their last reassessment on each standard. It is the instructor's job to help students find ways of showing their mastery to you. I implemented this in a junior-level mechanics course where the small numbers allowed me to introduce a novel twist: all assessments had to include the student's voice. This meant that students turned in pencasts, screencasts, and in-person assessments. Several days were also set aside for collaborative oral assessments, where students offered up honest advice and scores were mutually determined. In this paper, I'll share my experience trying out this pedagogical experiment and try to convey how it has improved my own understanding of my students' understanding.

Rundquist, Andy

2012-05-15

7

Grading as a Reform Effort: Do Standards-Based Grades Converge with Test Scores?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standards-based progress reports (SBPRs) require teachers to grade students using the performance levels reported by state tests and are an increasingly popular report card format. They may help to increase teacher familiarity with state standards, encourage teachers to exclude nonacademic factors from grades, and/or improve communication with…

Welsh, Megan E.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Kaniskan, Burcu

2013-01-01

8

Easy as 1, 2, 3: Exploring the Implementation of Standards-Based Grading in Wake County Elementary Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wake County Public School System's (WCPSS) 102 elementary schools have implemented standards-based grading. This grading practice is aligned with North Carolina's Student Accountability Standards and the WCPSS Promotion/Intervention policy. Standards-based report cards were designed to reflect student mastery of state standards and provide an…

Paeplow, Colleen Graham

2011-01-01

9

Standards-Based Grading: New Report Cards Aim to Make Mastery Clear  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A growing band of teachers, schools, and entire districts have put their faith in standards-based grading, an innovative, albeit complex and sometimes controversial, method that aims to make grades more meaningful. A standards-based report card contains an overall grade for each course but also indicates how well a student has mastered each of the…

Spencer, Kyle

2012-01-01

10

Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades K-4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades K-4 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates the titles of the…

Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

11

Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades 5-8.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades 5-8 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates the titles of the…

Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

12

Standards-Based Grading and Reporting: A Model for Special Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although increasing numbers of students with disabilities are included in general education classrooms for greater portions of the day, little guidance or direction has come from the field of special education to help address the challenge of grading students in inclusive settings. The shift to standards-based grading and reporting has further…

Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

2007-01-01

13

"Standards"-Based Mathematics Curricula and Middle-Grades Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined achievement patterns of middle school students enrolled in Standards-based curricula, in particular those curricula that were funded from a solicitation of proposals through the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the early 1990s (NSF RFP 91-100). Approximately 1400 middle-grades students who had used either the Connected…

Post, Thomas R.; Harwell, Michael R.; Davis, Jon D.; Maeda, Yukiko; Cutler, Arnie; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.; Norman, Ke Wu

2008-01-01

14

Implementation of Standards-Based Grading at the Middle School Level  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to learn about the experiences of teachers as they transition from traditional grading practices to standards-based reporting (SBR). In order to achieve this overall objective, the following research questions framed this qualitative study: (1) What understandings related to practices do middle school teachers have as…

Urich, Laura Jill

2012-01-01

15

Evaluation of California's Standards-Based Accountability System. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In June 1998, California started an evaluation of standards-based accountability. The evaluation focused on the status and impact of local accountability systems, content standards, assessment measures, use of data, consequences and incentives, and assistance in school districts across the state. In the course of the study, the California…

Guth, Gloria J. A.; Holtzman, Deborah J.; Schneider, Steven A.; Carlos, Lisa; Smith, James R.; Hayward, Gerald C.; Calvo, Naomi

16

Exemplary Science in Grades PreK-4: Standards-Based Success Stories (e-Book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since their release in 1996, the National Science Education Standards have provided the vision for science education reform. But has that reform actually taken hold in elementary school? "Yes!," reports Robert Yager, editor of Exemplary Science in Grades PreK-4: Standards-Based Success Stories. "Probably the Standards have done more to change science in elementary schools than has occurred at the other grade levels." Evidence of change is apparent in this fourth volume of the Exemplary Science monograph series, an essay collection featuring educators in PreK-4 describing programs they've developed to fulfill the Standards' More Emphasis guidelines. The 14 programs are real-life examples you can learn from in carrying out reforms in teaching, assessment, professional development, and content. Among the topics covered: "Adapting Science Curricula in the Kindergarten Classroom," "Building on the Natural Wonder Inherent in Us All," "Guiding Students in Active and Extended Scientific Inquiry," "Active, Integrated Inquiry in an Afterschool Setting," and "Thinking Outside the Box: No Child Left Inside!" As Yager writes in the book's introduction, "The 14 exemplary programs can be seen as models for other teachers--not just to copy, but as ways of approaching science and encouraging their students to do more of what they like... When both teachers and students are enthused, curious, and involved, science becomes central to the lives of students and others in the community and can tie the whole school experience together.

2006-01-01

17

Standards-Based Assessment, Grading, and Reporting in Classrooms: Can District Training and Support Change Teacher Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether school district support and training in standards-based assessment, grading, and reporting in classrooms can change teacher practice in these areas was studied in a Florida school district. This district, Bay District Schools of Panama City, has been working with the SERVE Regional Educational Laboratory on a project that involves teachers…

McMunn, Nancy; Schenck, Patricia; McColskey, Wendy

18

Grading and Reporting in a Standards-Based Environment: Implications for Students with Special Needs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers at all levels of education today struggle in their efforts to assign fair, accurate, and meaningful grades to students with disabilities, especially those placed in general education classrooms. Lacking specific policies or recommendations, most teachers apply informal, individual grading adaptations for such students. Although these…

Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

2009-01-01

19

Safe To Be Smart. Building a Culture for Standards-Based Reform in the Middle Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Viewing standards from the perspective of classroom teachers, this book discusses the need to alter middle school culture to facilitate meaningful improvements in the teaching-learning environment. It emphasizes efforts by middle grades educators to make schools and classrooms places where more students work harder to do work of higher quality…

Wheelock, Anne

20

Fourth-Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-Based Lunar Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fourth-grade students' knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change.…

Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

2007-01-01

21

Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

2006-01-01

22

Pattern Grading System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pattern Grading System developed under this contract consists of three major subsystems: Digitizing, Grading and Plotting. Each of these subsystems is a computer program with accompanying directions for use.

1973-01-01

23

New Teachers' Perceptions of a Standards-Based Performance Appraisal System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was conducted with first-year teachers. It provided insight into two key research questions: (1) What were the perceptions of new teachers regarding a standards-based performance appraisal system as it was implemented on their campus? (2) What factors contributed to the perceptions of new teachers regarding this system as it was…

O'Pry, Stephen C.; Schumacher, Gary

2012-01-01

24

The Relationship between Prosodic Oral Reading Assessments and Standards-Based Reading Assessment in a 2nd Grade Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prosodic oral reading and overall reading comprehension of second grade students. The sample consisted of ten students who were randomly selected from a second grade classroom. The students read aloud from the book "Bedtime for Frances" by Lillian and Russell Hoban for a total of…

Kariuki, Patrick; Baxter, Andrew

2011-01-01

25

A wearable standards-based point-of-care system for home use  

Microsoft Academic Search

From a user's point of view, a point-of-care system for home use should be wearable and easy to use in addition to satisfying requirements for medical devices. In this paper, we address mobility, power consumption, data storage, data transmission, and device synchronization for wearable home care devices that comply with the IEEE 1073 (medical information bus) standard. A wearable, standards-based,

Jianchu Yao; Ryan Schmitz; Steve Warren

2003-01-01

26

Design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent self-management system (PICS).  

PubMed

Against the background of demographic change and a diminishing care workforce there is a growing need for personalized decision support. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent care systems (PICS). PICS makes consistent use of internationally accepted standards such as the Health Level 7 (HL7) Arden syntax for the representation of the decision logic, HL7 Clinical Document Architecture for information representation and is based on a open-source service-oriented architecture framework and a business process management system. Its functionality is exemplified for the application scenario of a patient suffering from congestive heart failure. Several vital signs sensors provide data for the decision support system, and a number of flexible communication channels are available for interaction with patient or caregiver. PICS is a standards-based, open and flexible system enabling personalized decision support. Further development will include the implementation of components on small computers and sensor nodes. PMID:23542984

von Bargen, Tobias; Gietzelt, Matthias; Britten, Matthias; Song, Bianying; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Kohlmann, Martin; Marschollek, Michael; Haux, Reinhold

2013-01-01

27

Splash, Flash, Crank, Slide, Alive! Interactive Standards-Based Science Experiences for Grades PreK-2 at Discovery Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discovery Center at Murfree Springs, a hands-on museum and environmental education center, has created a science tour for grades preK-2, called "Splash, Flash, Crank, Slide, Alive Tour," which is based on the National Science Education Standards. The Tour is designed to support students' natural curiosity in scientific exploration, and gives students the opportunity to learn skills in context of each exhibit's unique features. Facilitated by experienced staff, individual classes of students rotate in small groups through a series of hands-on learning centers. Pre- and post-activity packets for teachers help reinforce student learning. Results from evaluation surveys, as well as the survey instrument itself, are included.

Ervin, Bonnie T.; Sadler, Kim C.

2008-01-01

28

Discover, Visualize, and Deliver Geospatial Data through OGC Standards-based WebGIS System  

SciTech Connect

Geospatial data are important to understand the Earth - ecosystem dynamics, land cover changes, resource management, and human interactions with the Earth to name a few. One of the biggest difficulties users face is to discover, access, and assemble distributed, large volume, heterogeneous geospatial data to conduct geo-analysis. Traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery lack the capabilities of resource sharing and automation across systems or organizational boundaries. They require users to download the data ldquoas-isrdquo in their original file format, projection, and extent. Also, discovering data served by traditional methods requires prior knowledge of data location, and processing requires specialized expertise. These drawbacks of traditional methods create additional burden to users, introduce too much overhead to research, and also reduce the potential usage of the data. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), researchers working on NASA-sponsored projects: Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and Modeling and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) have tapped into the benefits of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards to overcome the drawbacks of traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery. The OGC standards-based approach facilitates data sharing and interoperability across network, organizational, and geopolitical boundaries. Tools and services based on OGC standards deliver the data in many user defined formats and allow users to visualize the data prior to download. This paper introduces an approach taken to visualize and deliver ORNL DAAC, MAST-DC, and other relevant geospatial data through OGC standards-based Web Services, including Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Feature Service (WFS). It also introduces a WebGIS system built on top of OGC services that helps users discover, visualize, and access geospatial data.

Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; SanthanaVannan, Suresh K [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

2009-01-01

29

The standard-based open workflow system in GeoBrain (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GeoBrain is an Earth science Web-service system developed and operated by the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems, George Mason University. In GeoBrain, a standard-based open workflow system has been implemented to accommodate the automated processing of geospatial data through a set of complex geo-processing functions for advanced production generation. The GeoBrain models the complex geoprocessing at two levels, the conceptual and concrete. At the conceptual level, the workflows exist in the form of data and service types defined by ontologies. The workflows at conceptual level are called geo-processing models and cataloged in GeoBrain as virtual product types. A conceptual workflow is instantiated into a concrete, executable workflow when a user requests a product that matches a virtual product type. Both conceptual and concrete workflows are encoded in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). A BPEL workflow engine, called BPELPower, has been implemented to execute the workflow for the product generation. A provenance capturing service has been implemented to generate the ISO 19115-compliant complete product provenance metadata before and after the workflow execution. The generation of provenance metadata before the workflow execution allows users to examine the usability of the final product before the lengthy and expensive execution takes place. The three modes of workflow executions defined in the ISO 19119, transparent, translucent, and opaque, are available in GeoBrain. A geoprocessing modeling portal has been developed to allow domain experts to develop geoprocessing models at the type level with the support of both data and service/processing ontologies. The geoprocessing models capture the knowledge of the domain experts and are become the operational offering of the products after a proper peer review of models is conducted. An automated workflow composition has been experimented successfully based on ontologies and artificial intelligence technology. The GeoBrain workflow system has been used in multiple Earth science applications, including the monitoring of global agricultural drought, the assessment of flood damage, the derivation of national crop condition and progress information, and the detection of nuclear proliferation facilities and events.

Di, L.; Yu, G.; Zhao, P.; Deng, M.

2013-12-01

30

Standards Based Report Cards. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the increased focus on standards-based education, more and more states, districts and school are becoming interested in standards-based grading and report cards. Hawaii, for example, is a state that is working hard on its "Standards Implementation Design" (SID), including standards-based report cards. As a component of Maine's Local…

Muir, Mike

2005-01-01

31

Users' Experience with a Recommender System in an Open Source Standard-Based Learning Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a model for recommendations in learning scenarios which has been designed from empirical findings following usability and accessibility criteria. This model supports course designers in describing recommendations and presents additional information to the user to explain why the recommendation has been provided. A prototype of a recommender system based on this model has been integrated in an

Olga C. Santos; Jesus G. Boticario

2008-01-01

32

Writing Standards-Based Rubrics for Technology Education Classrooms: The Use of Rubrics Goes Beyond the Simple Need for Objective Grading in Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is nothing more frustrating for a student than to receive a project assignment with little or no description of how it will be graded. The student completes the project and then the teacher picks a grade by some unseen checklist. For students, parents, school administrators, and a program advisory board, this method of student assessment…

Loveland, Thomas R.

2005-01-01

33

Building Standards based Science Information Systems: A Survey of ISO and other standards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Science Information systems began with individual researchers maintaining personal collec-tions of data and managing them by using ad hoc, specialized approaches. Today information systems are an enterprise consisting of federated systems that manage and distribute both historical and contemporary data from distributed sources. Information systems have many components. Among these are metadata models, metadata registries, controlled vocabularies and ontologies which are used to describe entities and resources. Other components include services to exchange information and data; tools to populate the system and tools to utilize available resources. When constructing information systems today a variety of standards can be useful. The benefit of adopting standards is clear; it can shorten the design cycle, enhance software reuse and enable interoperability. We look at standards from the International Stan-dards Organization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), American National Standards Institute (ANSI) which have influenced the develop-ment of information systems in the Heliophysics and Planetary sciences. No standard can solve the needs of every community. Individual disciplines often must fill the gap between general purpose standards and the unique needs of the discipline. To this end individual science dis-ciplines are developing standards, Examples include the International Virtual Observatory Al-liance (IVOA), Planetary Data System (PDS)/ International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), Dublin-Core Science, and the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) consortium. This broad survey of ISO and other standards provides some guidance for the development information systems. The development of the SPASE data model is reviewed and provides some insights into the value of applying appropriate standards and is used to illustrate how quasi-standards efforts can effectively evolve towards robust standards compliance. New efforts may benefit from the lessons learned.

King, Todd; Walker, Raymond

34

Healthcare standards based sensory data exchange for Home Healthcare Monitoring System.  

PubMed

Interoperability is the among the key functionalities of an intelligent systems. Home Healthcare Monitoring Systems (HHMS) investigates patients activities at home, but lacks critical information exchange with Health Management Information System (HMIS). This information is vital for physicians to take necessary steps for timely and effective healthcare provisioning for patients. Physicians can only monitor and prescribe patients in time, if the data is shared with their HMIS. HMIS can be compliant to different healthcare standards. Therefore, mediation system is required to enable interoperability between HHMS and HMIS such that physicians and patients information can easily be exchanged. We propose Interoperability Mediation System (IMS) that provides interoperability services for exchange of information among HHMS and HMIS. We consider that HMIS are compliant to two heterogeneous EHR standards (HL7 CDA and openEHR). Alzheimer's patient case study is described as a proof of concept. Sensory information gathered at HHMS, is communicated with HMIS compliant to EHR based healthcare standards. Sensors information in XML form is converted by interoperability service to HL7 CDA and openEHR instances and communicated to HMIS afterwards. This allows the physicians registered with HHMS to monitor the patient using their HMIS and provide timely healthcare information. PMID:23366131

Khan, Wajahat Ali; Hussain, Maqbool; Afzal, Muhammad; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Lee, Sungyoung

2012-01-01

35

ACSYNT - A standards-based system for parametric, computer aided conceptual design of aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A group of eight US aerospace companies together with several NASA and NAVY centers, led by NASA Ames Systems Analysis Branch, and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory agreed, through the assistance of Americal Technology Initiative, in 1990 to form the ACSYNT (Aircraft Synthesis) Institute. The Institute is supported by a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement to continue the research and development in computer aided conceptual design of aircraft initiated by NASA Ames Research Center and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory. The result of this collaboration, a feature-based, parametric computer aided aircraft conceptual design code called ACSYNT, is described. The code is based on analysis routines begun at NASA Ames in the early 1970's. ACSYNT's CAD system is based entirely on the ISO standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System and is graphics-device independent. The code includes a highly interactive graphical user interface, automatically generated Hermite and B-Spline surface models, and shaded image displays. Numerous features to enhance aircraft conceptual design are described.

Jayaram, S.; Myklebust, A.; Gelhausen, P.

1992-01-01

36

A standards-based clinical information system for HIV/AIDS.  

PubMed

Objective: To create a clinical data repository to interface the Veteran's Administration (VA) Decentralized Hospital Computer Program (DHCP) and a departmental clinical information system for the management of HIV patients. This system supports record-keeping, decision-making, reporting, and analysis. The database development was designed to overcome two impediments to successful implementations of clinical databases: (i) lack of a standard reference data model, and; (ii) lack of a universal standard for medical concept representation. Background: Health Level Seven (HL7) is a standard protocol that specifies the implementation of interfaces between two computer applications (sender and receiver) from different vendors or sources of electronic data exchange in the health care environment. This eliminates or substantially reduces the custom interface programming and program maintenance that would otherwise be required. HL7 defines the data to be exchanged, the timing of the interchange, and the communication of errors to the application. The formats are generic in nature and must be configured to meet the needs of the two applications involved. The standard conceptually operates at the seventh level of the ISO model for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). The OSI simply defines the data elements that are exchanged as abstract messages, and does not prescribe the exact bit stream of the messages that flow over the network. Lower level network software developed according to the OSI model may be used to encode and decode the actual bit stream. The OSI protocols are not universally implemented and, therefore, a set of encoding rules for defining the exact representation of a message must be specified. The VA has created an HL7 module to assist DHCP applications in exchanging health care information with other applications using the HL7 protocol. The DHCP HL7 module consists of a set of utility routines and files that provide a generic interface to the HL7 protocol for all DHCP applications. Setting: The VA's DHCP core modules are in standard use at 169 hospitals, and the role of the VA system in health care delivery has been discussed elsewhere. This development was performed at the Miami VA Medical Center Special Immunology Unit, where a database was created for an HIV patient registry in 1987. Over 2,300 patient have been entered into a database that supports a problem-oriented summary of the patient's clinical record. The interface to the VA DHCP was designed and implemented to capture information from the patient treatment file, pharmacy, laboratory, radiology, and other modules. Results: We obtained a suite of programs for implementing the HL7 encoding rules from Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York, written in ANSI C. This toolkit isolates our application programs from the details of the HL7 encoding rules, and allows them to deal with abstract messages and the programming level. While HL7 has become a standard for healthcare message exchange, SQL (Structured Query Language) is the standard for database definition, data manipulation, and query. The target database (Stitt F.W. The Problem-Oriented Medical Synopsis: a patient-centered clinical information system. Proc 17 SCAMC. 1993:88-93) provides clinical workstation functionality. Medical concepts are encoded using a preferred terminology derived from over 15 sources that include the Unified Medical Language System and SNOMed International ( Stitt F.W. The Problem-Oriented Medical Synopsis: coding, indexing, and classification sub-model. Proc 18 SCAMC, 1994: in press). The databases were modeled using the Information Engineering CASE tools, and were written using relational database utilities, including embedded SQL in C (ESQL/C). We linked ESQL/C programs to the HL7 toolkit to allow data to be inserted, deleted, or updated, under transaction control. A graphical format will be used to display the entity-rel PMID:8591210

Stitt, F W

1995-01-01

37

Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

38

Student Achievement, Personal Achievement Goal Orientations, and Perceptions of Classroom Goal Structures in a Standards-Based Reporting System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze student achievement growth and motivational goal orientations in a standards-based reporting environment in a rural SC school district. More specifically, this study sought to determine if student achievement growth is related to the number of years students received standards-based reports in middle…

Ballard, Amy Copeland

2010-01-01

39

Graduate Student Attitudes toward Grading Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined graduate student attitudes towards letter and pass/fail grading systems in the Law School and the School of Education in a selective university in the United States. Fifty-four students completed a questionnaire on goal orientations (ability comparison vs. mastery), amount of effort and stress in each of the two grading

Michaelides, Michalis; Kirshner, Ben

2005-01-01

40

A Grading System for Composition Papers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One minor but irritating problem that most composition teachers face--especially those who handle masses of papers at the high school level--involves coming up with a method of grading that is demonstrably objective but not so rigid that it allows no room for judgment. The author proposes a hybrid grading system: combining numbers and letters. The…

Mahon, Robert L.

2005-01-01

41

A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…

Contino, Julie

2013-01-01

42

Advancing hydrometeorological prediction capabilities through standards-based cyberinfrastructure development: The community WRF-Hydro modeling system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The need for improved assessments and predictions of many key environmental variables is driving a multitude of model development efforts in the geosciences. The proliferation of weather and climate impacts research is driving a host of new environmental prediction model development efforts as society seeks to understand how climate does and will impact key societal activities and resources and, in turn, how human activities influence climate and the environment. This surge in model development has highlighted the role of model coupling as a fundamental activity itself and, at times, a significant bottleneck in weather and climate impacts research. This talk explores some of the recent activities and progress that has been made in assessing the attributes of various approaches to the coupling of physics-based process models for hydrometeorology. One example modeling system that is emerging from these efforts is the community 'WRF-Hydro' modeling system which is based on the modeling architecture of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF). An overview of the structural components of WRF-Hydro will be presented as will results from several recent applications which include the prediction of flash flooding events in the Rocky Mountain Front Range region of the U.S. and along the Ligurian coastline in the northern Mediterranean. Efficient integration of the coupled modeling system with distributed infrastructure for collecting and sharing hydrometeorological observations is one of core themes of the work. Specifically, we aim to demonstrate how data management infrastructures used in the US and Europe, in particular data sharing technologies developed within the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System and UNIDATA, can interoperate based on international standards for data discovery and exchange, such as standards developed by the Open Geospatial Consortium and adopted by GEOSS. The data system we envision will help manage WRF-Hydro prediction model data flows, enabling discovery and flexible configuration of model inputs, and managing provenance for selected model outputs. The talk will end with a discussion on the opportunities for fostering open, standards-based approaches for code development, model interoperability and data and metadata structures as well as the need for multi-scale and multi-physics model structures.

gochis, David; Parodi, Antonio; Hooper, Rick; Jha, Shantenu; Zaslavsky, Ilya

2013-04-01

43

Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new system for grading age-related maculopathy is described. A number of characteristics of age-related maculopathy (drusen size, type, area, and confluence; retinal pigment epithelial degeneration, increased retinal pigment, subretinal and sub-retinal ...

R. Klein M. D. Davis Y. L. Magli P. Segal B. E. K. Klein

1991-01-01

44

Grade Severity Rating System (GSRS) (for Microcomputers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Grade Severity Rating System (GSRS) is a computerized procedure using downgrade geometrics to determine the appropriate maximum safe descent speeds for large trucks on steep downgrades. The purpose of the GSRS is to reduce the probability of large tru...

B. L. Bowman J. A. Coleman

1990-01-01

45

Application of importance measures to nuclear reactor systems and the development of systems performance standards based on probabilistic risk assessments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRA) of nuclear reactors now represent a substantial data base that describes relative plant accident potentials, plant failure modes, and plant system failure probabilities. The PRA analyses can be used to make design related decisions. In general, however, nuclear plant design relies on traditional engineering approaches along with quality control and regulatory review. A method is proposed

Whitley

1984-01-01

46

The Ethical Limitations of Online Grading Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If we take as a given that faculty are their own moral agents, and not mere agents of the educational institutions at which they work, online grading systems, which are increasingly popular and mandatory, compromise their ability to act ethically. This is because such systems reduce the nuances of a complex and challenging reality to the…

Fulda, Joseph S.

2006-01-01

47

A Computer Assisted System for Grading Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer assisted system called PEERRATE was used in a theater history course at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey in Newark, in fall 1980, in order to give students an opportunity to anonymously grade one another's written work and to compare their own ratings with those of fellow students and the instructor. The PEERRATE system is a…

Borchardt, Donald A.

48

Utility Grade Compressed Air Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial companies are continually faced with increasing competition, rising costs, and tighter margins. As manufacturers identify ways to reduce costs and improve their bottom line, one significant opportunity that is often overlooked is the compressed air system. Compressed air systems are typically the largest users of electricity in a manufacturing facility and need to be managed accordingly. Companies converting to

Jerry C. Eaton; LaMonte L. Wilder; Richard D. Feustel

2008-01-01

49

A machine vision system forautomatically grading hardwood lumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grading defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vison system and based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress that

Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; P ARAMAN; R BRISBIN

1992-01-01

50

A Study of the Effect of the Implementation of the Plus/Minus Grading System on Graduate Student Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed grades for over 8,000 master's students to determine whether or not there were differences in grading patterns between the A, B, C, D, and F grading system and the new plus/minus grading system. Also studied faculty attitudes on the new grading system. Findings included that grade point averages declined slightly, especially in some…

Malone, Bobby G.; Nelson, Jacquelyn S.; Nelson, C. Van

2002-01-01

51

Grade Severity Rating System (GSRS). Users Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The grade severity rating system (GSRS) reduces the probability of large truck runaways on severe downgrades. It is based on a mathematical model that uses gross truck weight and physical characteristic of the downgrade to predict the temperature of the t...

B. L. Bowman

1989-01-01

52

Individually Prescribed Instruction and the Letter Grade System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Equates academic grading and ranking in that the grading system establishes achievement standards. Explores the incompatibility of Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) and the letter grade system. Outlines the pressures applied to rank IPI students, explores time grading, considers IPI and motivation, and explains the important contribution…

Leuba, Richard J.

1975-01-01

53

Job Grading System for Trades and Labor Occupations. Part II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three new standards (telephone mechanic, electroplater, and animal caretaker) for grading jobs under the Federal Wage System are cited. There is an alphabetical listing by job for published job grading standards, an occupational code-structure index for published grading standards, and a list of 61 jobs by published job grading standard with…

Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

54

A national survey of grading systems used in medicine clerkships.  

PubMed

To better understand the variety in U.S. medicine clerkship grading terminology, the number of grading levels, and the distribution of grades within each level, the authors surveyed medicine clerkship directors in the United States and Puerto Rico in 1986 and 1987. Completed questionnaires were returned from 101 of the 124 medical schools (81%). Descriptor grades were the most commonly used form of grading of medicine clerks, used in 68 of the 101 responding schools; letter grades were used by another 28 of the schools; and four schools used a numerical grading system. Although descriptor grades were most commonly used for grading medicine clerks, there was lack of consistency in their use between schools. The authors discuss the data related to letter grades and descriptor grades across this representative sample of U.S. medical schools. PMID:2261039

Magarian, G J; Mazur, D J

1990-10-01

55

Comparative evaluation of six cytological grading systems in breast carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: Cytological grading is a useful tool for selection of therapy and prognosis in breast carcinoma. Despite having many cytological grading systems, there is still no agreement among pathologists to accept one of them as a gold standard. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate six such three-tier cytological grading systems to determine which system corresponds best to histological grading done by Nottingham modification of Scarff Bloom Richardson (SBR)'s method. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind study, preoperative cytological grades obtained by six systems on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) smears were compared by testing concordance, association and correlation with histological grade derived postoperatively by the SBR's method in 57 patients of breast carcinoma. Bivariate correlation studies and multiple linear regressions were done to assess the significance of the different cytological parameters to predict final cytological grades. Results: Robinson's system demonstrated the best correlation (? = 0.799; P = 0.000 and ? = 0.765; P = 0.000), maximum percent agreement (77.19%) and a substantial kappa value of agreement (? = 0.62) with the SBR's grading system. All the six cytological grading systems correlated with histological grading strongly and positively. In multiple regression analysis, all of the cytological parameters of Robinson's system except cell size and nucleoli had significance in predicting the final cytological grade. Conclusions: Robinson's grading system is simple, more objective and reproducible, and demonstrated the best concordance with histological grading. So, Robinson's system should be used routinely for breast carcinoma aspirates.

Saha, Kaushik; Raychaudhuri, Gargi; Chattopadhyay, Bitan Kuamr; Das, Indranil

2013-01-01

56

A machine vision system for automatically grading hardwood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any automatic system for grading hardwood lumber can conceptually be divided into two components. One of these is a machine vision system for locating and identifying grad- ing defects. The other is an automatic grading program that accepts as input the output of the machine vision system and, based on these data, determines the grade of a board. The progress

Richard W. Conners; Tai-Hoon Cho; Chong T. Ng; Thomas H. Drayer; Philip A. Araman; Robert L. Brisbin

1992-01-01

57

A Machine Learning Multi-Agent architecture to provide adaptation in a standard-based Learning Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Intelligence techniques can be used in Learning Management Systems (LMSs) to provide adapted responses to the learners' needs. In this paper we describe aLFanet (IST-2001-33288) , an intelligent LMS (iLMS) based on standards that provides personalized eLearning from the combination of different types of adaptatation. This system is designed using educational and technological standards that facilitates the integration of

O. C. SANTOS; J. G. BOTICARIO; C. BARRERA

58

Research Paper: Perceptions of Standards-based Electronic Prescribing Systems as Implemented in Outpatient Primary Care: A Physician Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo compare the experiences of e-prescribing users and nonusers regarding prescription safety and workload and to assess the use of information from two e-prescribing standards (for medication history and formulary and benefit information), as they are implemented.DesignCross-sectional survey of physicians who either had installed or were awaiting installation of one of two commercial e-prescribing systems.MeasurementsPerceptions about medication history and formulary

C. Jason Wang; Mihir H. Patel; Anthony J. Schueth; Melissa Bradley; Shinyi Wu; Jesse C. Crosson; Peter A. Glassman; Douglas S. Bell

2009-01-01

59

Histological grading of IgA nephropathy predicting renal outcome: revisiting H. S. Lee's glomerular grading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The glomerular grading system is useful to compare biopsy specimens and to predict the natural course of disease in IgA nephropathy (IgAN), although no grading system can be perfect. Methods. H. S. Lee's grading system for IgAN was refined as follows: grade I, normal or focal mesangial cell proliferation; grade II, diffuse mesangial cell proliferation, or <25% of glomeruli

Hyun Soon Lee; Myung Suk Lee; Sa Min Lee; Sang Yun Lee; Eun Sun Lee; Eun Young Lee; So Yeon Park; Jin Suk Han; Sungkwon Kim; Jung Sang Lee

60

Grades That Show What Students Know  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to cure the ills of current grading and reporting systems, many schools and districts across the United States have attempted to implement a standards-based system. The authors recommend four best practices in this area: (1) Get rid of the omnibus grade, which tells teachers little about the content measured or the difficulty level of…

Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy

2011-01-01

61

A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the standards. This study reports an analysis of the alignment between the National Science Education Standards (NSES), New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Core Curriculum (Core Curriculum) and New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Regents Examination (Regents Exam)—the sources teachers use for creating Earth Science curricula in New York State. The NSES were found to have a 49 % overlap with the Core Curriculum and a 27 % overlap with the Regents Exam. The Core Curriculum and Regents Exam, represented by matrices consisting of performance indicators and cognitive demands, were compared using the Porter Alignment Index. The alignment was 0.35, categorized as slightly aligned, due to the different emphases on cognitive levels. The Core focused on cognitive skills of Understand and Apply while the Regents concentrated more on Apply followed by Understand and Remember. It is suggested that the NSES be revised and the Core updated to include quantifiable emphasis on the major understandings such as percentage of time.

Contino, Julie

2013-02-01

62

The Reproducibility of a Binary Tumor Grading System for Uterine Endometrial Endometrioid Carcinoma, Compared with FIGO System and Nuclear Grading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: A binary grading system has been proposed to assess the amount of solid growth, the pattern of invasion, and the presence of necrosis, and thereby divide endometrial endometrioid carcinomas into low- and high-grade tumors. We analyzed this system for predicting the prognosis, with respect to inter- and intraobserver reproducibility and treatment modalities. Methods: A total of 200 endometrial carcinomas,

Satoru Sagae; Tsuyoshi Saito; Masaaki Satoh; Tatsuru Ikeda; Sachiko Kimura; Mitsuru Mori; Noriyuki Sato; Ryuichi Kudo

2004-01-01

63

On Fermion Grading Symmetry for Quasi-Local Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss fermion grading symmetry for quasi-local systems with graded commutation relations. We introduce a criterion of\\u000a spontaneously symmetry breaking (SSB) for general quasi-local systems. It is formulated based on the idea that each pair of\\u000a distinct phases (appeared in spontaneous symmetry breaking) should be disjoint not only for the total system but also for\\u000a every complementary outside system of

Hajime Moriya

2006-01-01

64

The prospective application of a grading system for arteriovenous malformations.  

PubMed

The decision-making process whereby treatment is offered to a patient with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) must be supported by an understanding of the risks related to the natural history of the AVM and the risks related to the treatment of that particular AVM. The ability to estimate the treatment risk for an individual patient is hampered by the marked variability in the complexity of AVMs. In 1986, an AVM grading system was proposed to predict surgical morbidity and mortality. This system is based on the AVM size, the neurological eloquence of adjacent brain, and the pattern of venous drainage. Grade I malformations are small, superficial, and located in noneloquent cortex; Grade V lesions are large, deep, and situated in neurologically critical areas; and Grade VI lesions are considered inoperable AVMs. A retrospective application of this grading scheme demonstrated its correlation with the incidence of postoperative neurological complications. A prospective application of the AVM grading system has been performed in 120 consecutive patients who had a complete microsurgical excision of their AVM, with or without AVM embolization. The AVM grading system accurately correlated with both new-temporary (P < 0.0001) and new-permanent (P = 0.008) neurological deficits. The permanent major neurological morbidity rates for Grades I through III were 0%, increasing to 21.9% in patients with Grade IV and 16.7% in patients with Grade V AVMs (P < 0.0001). One patient with a Grade III AVM died from an esophageal hemorrhage 15 months after her AVM was treated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8121564

Hamilton, M G; Spetzler, R F

1994-01-01

65

Searching for the Norm in a System of Absolutes: A Case Study of Standards-Based Accountability Reform in Pre-Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: The emergence of standards-based accountability reforms in early childhood education has created new challenges for the field. This article presents findings from a case study that explored how stakeholders in a large urban pre-kindergarten program struggled to implement an assessment tool that aligned the normative academic…

Brown, Christopher

2011-01-01

66

Polycomponent Functionally Graded Materials for Thermal Barrier Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) offer benefits for thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems for aircraft and power generation gas turbines. Currently, deficiencies in bond coat performance directly impact and reduce the performance and life of TBC syste...

M. R. Jackson A. M. Ritter M. F. Gigliotti J. C. Zhao

1998-01-01

67

Grading NASA's Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Committee on Assessing the Solar System Exploration Program has reviewed NASA's progress to date in implementing the recommendations made in the National Research Council's (NRC's) solar system exploration decadal survey covering the period 2003-2013, New Frontiers in the Solar System, and in its Mars Architecture report, Assessment of NASA s Mars Architecture 2007-2016. The committee assessed NASA's progress with respect to each individual recommendation in these two reports, assigning an academic-style grade, explaining the rationale for the grade and trend, and offering recommendations for improvement. The committee generally sought to develop recommendations in cases where it determined that the grade, the trend, or both were worrisome and that the achievement of a decadal survey recommendation would require some kind of corrective action on NASA's part. This usually meant that the committee sought to offer a recommendation when the grade was a "C" or lower. However, the committee did offer recommendations in connection with some higher grades when it believed that minor corrective action was possible and desirable. More importantly, the committee did not offer recommendations for some of the activities given lower grades, particularly in the enabling technologies area (Chapter 6), because the committee determined that only the restoration of funding and the development of a strategic technology development program would solve these problems.

2008-01-01

68

Comparison of 3-Tier Cytological Grading Systems for Breast Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background. Fine-needle aspiration cytology plays a major role in the primary diagnosis of breast carcinoma. Cytological grading of the smears can provide valuable prognostic information and aid in planning the management options. Aim. To evaluate various 3-tier cytological grading systems and to determine the best possible system which is reliable and objective for use in routine practice. Materials & Methods. 72 fine-needle aspiration smears of breast carcinomas were graded by two pathologists and compared with the histologic grading by Nottingham modification of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson method. Concordance and correlation studies were done. Kappa measurement of interobserver agreement was also done. Results. Robinson's method showed a better correlation (77.7%) and substantial Kappa value of agreement (? = 0.61) with Bloom Richardson's histological grading method in comparison to the other methods, closely followed by Fisher's method. Fisher's method showed better interobserver agreement (84.7%, ? = 0.616) compared to the other systems. Conclusions. Robinson's method of cytological grading in fine-needle aspiration smears of breast carcinoma is simpler, multifactorial, and feasible, hence being preferable for routine use according to our study.

Einstien, Dinisha; Omprakash, B. O. Parijatham; Ganapathy, Hemalatha; Rahman, Sadaf

2014-01-01

69

Grading Systems, Features of Assessment and Students' Approaches to Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Bologna process aims at harmonising the higher education systems in the Europe. One of the most important tools proposed for such a purpose is the European Credit Transfer System. A significant element of this system is a common seven-step grading scale. It has previously been shown that assessment characteristics impact on students'…

Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Fejes, Andreas; Abrandt-Dahlgren, Madeleine; Trowald, Nils

2009-01-01

70

Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System is designed to detect the presence and severity of drusen and other lesions related to age-related maculopathy. The system is applied to color stereoscopic fundus photographs of the disc (Diabetic Retinopathy Stu...

R. Klein B. E. K. Klein A. J. Whitehead M. Swift D. Riederer S. M. Meuer C. Hoyer

1996-01-01

71

Positive and Negative Incentives in the Classroom: An Analysis of Grading Systems and Student Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined how particular grading systems motivate students. Since competency-based grading and point systems are most prevalent (Hendrickson and Gable, 1999), the current study is modeled around these systems. The grading systems used for this study were divided into two categories and defined as those students who earned their grades

Docan, Tony N.

2006-01-01

72

Exam Preparation and Grades: A System for Addressing Questions, Challenges and Problems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The system presented solves questions, challenges, and problems with preparing exams and grading. It includes detailed instructions, rationales, web pages, examples, and EXCEL spreadsheet templates. Use these components to keep grades, show grade distributions, calculate cumulative grades, make grade predictions based on assumptions of student performance, and inform students

PhD Augustine G DiGiovanna (Salisbury University Biological Sciences)

2004-06-15

73

UP-GRADED RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the RHIC injection systems anticipated the possibility of filling and operating the rings with a 120 bunch pattern, corresponding to 110 bunches after allowing for the abort gap. Beam measurements during the 2002 run confirmed the possibility, although at the expense of severe transverse emittance growth and thus not on an operational basis. An improvement program was

H. FISCHER; W. SEMERTZIDIS; Y. K. WARBURTON

2003-01-01

74

Up-graded RHIC injection kicker system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of the RHIC injection systems anticipated the possibility of filling and operating the rings with a 120 bunch pattern, corresponding to 110 bunches after allowing for the abort gap. Beam measurements during the 2002 run confirmed the possibility, although at the expense of severe transverse emittance growth and thus not on an operational basis. An improvement program was

Hartmut Hahn; W. Fischer; Y. K. Semertzidis; D. S. Warburton

2003-01-01

75

Field Test of the Grade Severity Rating System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the study was to test the field effectiveness of the Grade Severity Rating System (GSRS), via application of weight-specific signs to control truck speeds on downgrades. Before-after sign effects were evaluated in terms of speed differenc...

F. R. Hanscom

1985-01-01

76

Delamination cracking in functionally graded coating\\/metal substrate systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micromechanics analysis is carried out for delamination cracking in functionally graded coating\\/substrate systems. The FGM coating is taken to be a ceramic\\/metal composite with its thermomechanical properties changing with position in the coating along the thickness direction. Based on a linear fracture mechanics analysis, the energy release rate of the delamination crack is determined as a function of the

G. Bao; H. Cai

1997-01-01

77

Cultural Influences on Number Preferences: Christmas and Grading Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People consistently prefer numbers associated with themselves (e.g., birth dates) over other numbers. We argue that such number preferences are also shaped by cultural influences, such as customs regarding the day on which Christmas is celebrated and customs regarding ranking of numerals used in national school's grading system. Across 6 different…

Stieger, Stefan; Krizan, Zlatan

2013-01-01

78

UP-GRADED RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.  

SciTech Connect

The design of the RHIC injection systems anticipated the possibility of filling and operating the rings with a 120 bunch pattern, corresponding to 110 bunches after allowing for the abort gap. Beam measurements during the 2002 run confirmed the possibility, although at the expense of severe transverse emittance growth and thus not on an operational basis. An improvement program was initiated with the goal of reducing the kicker rise time from 110 to {approx}95 ns and of minimizing pulse timing jitter and drift. The major components of the injection system are 4 kicker magnets and Blmlein pulsers using thyratron switches. The kicker terminating resistor and operating voltage was increased to reduce the rise time. Timing has been stabilized by using commercial trigger units and extremely stable dc supplies for the thyratron reservoir. A fiber optical connection between control room and the thyratron trigger unit has been provided, thereby allowing the operator to adjust timing individually for each kicker unit. The changes were successfully implemented for use in the RHIC operation.

HAHN,H.FISCHER,W.SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.WARBURTON,D.S.

2003-05-12

79

Continuous-Flow System Produces Medical-Grade Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A continuous-flow system utilizes microwave heating to sterilize water and to thermally inactivate endotoxins produced in the sterilization process. The system is designed for use in converting potable water to medical-grade water. Systems like this one could be used for efficient, small-scale production of medical- grade water in laboratories, clinics, and hospitals. This system could be adapted to use in selective sterilization of connections in ultra-pure-water-producing equipment and other equipment into which intrusion by microorganisms cannot be tolerated. Lightweight, port - able systems based on the design of this system could be rapidly deployed to remote locations (e.g., military field hospitals) or in response to emergencies in which the normal infrastructure for providing medical-grade water is disrupted. Larger systems based on the design of this system could be useful for industrial production of medical-grade water. The basic microwave-heating principle of this system is the same as that of a microwave oven: An item to be heated, made of a lossy dielectric material (in this case, flowing water) is irradiated with microwaves in a multimode microwave cavity. The heating is rapid and efficient because it results from absorption of microwave power throughout the volume of the lossy dielectric material. In this system, a copper tube having a length of 49.5 cm and a diameter of 2.25 cm serves as both the microwave cavity and the sterilization chamber. Microwave power is fed via a coaxial cable to an antenna mounted inside the tube at mid-length (see figure). Efficient power transfer occurs due to the shift in wavelength associated with the high permittivity of water combined with the strong coupling of 2.45-GHz microwaves with rotational-vibrational transitions of the dipolar water molecule.

Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R.

2009-01-01

80

Thermal residual stresses in a functionally graded material system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional calculation of thermal residual stresses, arising from the fabrication of a Functionally Graded Material (FGM) system, is presented. As a first step, calculations have been limited to the linear elastic case. The FGM system consists of ceramic (Al2O3) and metal (Ni) phases varying with distance in one direction. Several functional forms of gradation of constituents were examined to

K. S. Ravichandran

1995-01-01

81

New clinical grading system for chronic GVHD predicts duration of systemic immunosuppressive treatment and GVHD-specific and overall survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated outcomes according to a new clinical grading system for chronic graft-versus-host disease (chronic GVHD) in 38 patients who developed chronic GVHD after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We categorized the patients into three grade groups, namely, grade I, grade II and grade III, according to the presence of three risk factors: extensive skin involvement, thrombocytopenia (TP) and

S T Kim; C W Jung; J Lee; J M Kwon; S Y Oh; B-B Park; H R Lee; H J Kim; K Kim; W S Kim; J S Ahn; W K Kang

2007-01-01

82

Standards-Based Curriculum, Differentiated Instruction, and End of Course Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Differentiated instruction, standards-based curriculum, and end of course assessments (ECAs) are not mandated in most high schools across the United States. As such, classroom grades do not accurately reflect district report cards. In particular, grades at the study site, a suburban high school, do not show the specific standards and benchmarks…

Hartnell, Benjamin Jeffry

2011-01-01

83

Developing a Statewide, Standards-Based Student Report Card: A Review of the Kentucky Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a major initiative in the Commonwealth of Kentucky to develop a statewide, standards-based, student report card for reporting the learning progress of individual students at all grade levels (K-12). Led by a team of researchers with expertise in grading and reporting, 36 educators from three diverse school districts created…

Guskey, Thomas R.; Swan, Gerry M.; Jung, Lee Ann

2010-01-01

84

Review of existing grading systems for cervical or lumbar disc and facet joint degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this literature review was to present and to evaluate all grading systems for cervical and lumbar disc and facet joint degeneration, which are accessible from the MEDLINE database. A MEDLINE search was conducted to select all articles presenting own grading systems for cervical or lumbar disc or facet joint degeneration. To give an overview, these grading systems

Annette Kettler; Hans-Joachim Wilke

2006-01-01

85

Grade Stability in a Criterion-Referenced Grading System: The Swedish Example  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates empirically the mechanisms behind the increasing grade point averages in Swedish upper secondary schools. Four hypotheses are presented as plausible explanations; improved student achievements, student selection effects, strategic behaviour in course choices, and lowering of grading standards. The analysis is based on…

Wikstrom, Christina

2005-01-01

86

Authoring a Collaborative Task Extending the IMS-LD to be Performed in a Standard-based Adaptive Learning Management System called aLFanet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authoring process in adaptive Learning Management Systems should facilitate authors the speciflcation of how services are to be used in the course context and how the run time adaptation has to be delivered. These speciflcations should be used as well to provide useful feedback to authors after the learners real experience in the course. In this paper, we deal

Olga C. Santos; Jesus Boticario; Carmen Barrera

2004-01-01

87

The Case against Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Decades of research shows that grades diminish students' interest in whatever they're learning, discourage students from taking academic risks, and reduce the quality of students' thinking, writes Kohn. Contrary to what many people assume, grades are not necessary to promote achievement. Attempts to "improve" grading--such as standards-based

Kohn, Alfie

2011-01-01

88

Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems  

DOEpatents

A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel. 4 figs.

Kuznetsov, S.B.

1986-04-01

89

Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses  

PubMed Central

The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal width of its response options. No study has systematically examined, through modern psychometric approach, whether physicians are able to properly use the Medical Research Council grades. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate physicians’ ability to discriminate among the Medical Research Council categories in patients with different neuromuscular disorders and with various degrees of weakness through thresholds examination using Rasch analysis as a modern psychometric method; (ii) to examine possible factors influencing physicians’ ability to apply the Medical Research Council categories through differential item function analyses; and (iii) to examine whether the widely used Medical Research Council 12 muscles sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy would meet Rasch model's expectations. A total of 1065 patients were included from nine cohorts with the following diseases: Guillain–Barré syndrome (n?=?480); myotonic dystrophy type-1 (n?=?169); chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n?=?139); limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (n?=?105); multifocal motor neuropathy (n?=?102); Pompe's disease (n?=?62) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined related polyneuropathy (n?=?8). Medical Research Council data of 72 muscles were collected. Rasch analyses were performed on Medical Research Council data for each cohort separately and after pooling data at the muscle level to increase category frequencies, and on the Medical Research Council sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Disordered thresholds were demonstrated in 74–79% of the muscles examined, indicating physicians’ inability to discriminate between most Medical Research Council categories. Factors such as physicians’ experience or illness type did not influence these findings. Thresholds were restored after rescoring the Medical Research Council grades from six to four options (0, paralysis; 1, severe weakness; 2, slight weakness; 3, normal strength). The Medical Research Council sum score acceptably fulfilled Rasch model expectations after rescoring the response options and creating subsets to resolve local dependency and item bias on diagnosis. In conclusion, a modified, Rasch-built four response category Medical Research Council grading system is proposed, resolving clinicians’ inability to differentiate among its original response categories and improving clinical applicability. A modified Medical Research Council sum score at the interval level is presented and is recommended for future studies in Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

Vanhoutte, Els Karla; Faber, Catharina Gerritdina; van Nes, Sonja Ingrid; Jacobs, Bart Casper; van Doorn, Pieter Antoon; van Koningsveld, Rinske; Cornblath, David Reid; van der Kooi, Anneke Jelly; Cats, Elisabeth Aviva; van den Berg, Leonard Hendrik; Notermans, Nicolette Claudia; van der Pol, Willem Lodewijk; Hermans, Mieke Catharina Elisabeth; van der Beek, Nadine Anna Maria Elisabeth; Gorson, Kenneth Craig; Eurelings, Marijke; Engelsman, Jeroen; Boot, Hendrik; Meijer, Ronaldus Jacobus; Lauria, Giuseppe; Tennant, Alan

2012-01-01

90

The Instructional Demands of Standards-Based Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet focuses on the impact of standards based reform in the public school classroom. It explains that the recent standards movement was born of the realization that, despite the fact that public schools open their doors to everyone, what students experience there varies greatly. It also notes that in a system that expects only some…

Jamentz, Kate

91

An Approach to Standard-Based Computer Adaptive Testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes our approach to develop Computer Adaptive Testing functionality for different Learning Management Systems following educational standards and specifications (defined by the IMSConsortium). This functionality can be integrated into standard-based personalized learning routes and is being developed as a Service Oriented Architecture(SOA) to support its generality and applicability.

Javier Morales; Olga C. Santos; Jesús González-boticario

2009-01-01

92

Eight Steps to Meaningful Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A group of teachers at Clifford Smart Middle School in Michigan's Walled Lake Consolidated School District have broken free from traditional grading in order to embrace a more meaningful grading practice. Using standards-based grading practices, they believe their grading now accurately communicates to students and parents the student's mastery…

Deddeh, Heather; Main, Erin; Fulkerson, Sharon Ratzlaff

2010-01-01

93

Effects of Transition from Pass/No Credit to Traditional Letter Grade System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparison of student performance resulting from the transition from a pass/no credit to the traditional letter grade system indicated that the former system was not superior to the latter system. Academic performance was better in the graded system; academic standards were raised, particularly at the masters' level. (Author/GK)

Suddick, David E.; Kelly, Robert E.

1981-01-01

94

Reliability of an occlusal and nonocclusal tooth wear grading system: clinical use versus dental cast assessment.  

PubMed

The reliability of a newly developed tooth wear grading system was assessed both clinically and on dental casts by two observers using 20 participants. The reliability of clinical occlusal/incisal tooth wear grading was fair-to-good to excellent, while that of most of the clinical nonocclusal/nonincisal grades was at least fair-to-good. Dental cast assessment frequently yielded poor reliabilities, especially for nonocclusal/nonincisal surfaces. Hence, occlusal/incisal wear could be graded more reliably than nonocclusal/nonincisal wear, while the clinical assessment of tooth wear was more reliable than the grading of dental casts. PMID:19639077

Wetselaar, Peter; Lobbezoo, Frank; Koutris, Michail; Visscher, Corine M; Naeije, Machiel

2009-01-01

95

Teachers' Perceptions of the Impact of Online Grading Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of the communication aspect of using an online grading program. This study explored teachers' perceptions of the implications of allowing the grading process to become transparent to parents. The purpose of this study was to assist teachers in searching for ways to create a positive parent-teacher relationship. A…

Mize, Brenda

2011-01-01

96

Problems with Standards-based Mathematics Tests  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Alan Tucker, an Applied Math professor at Stony Brook University took it upon himself to analyze the reliability of the scoring of the Math A test, New York's standards-based exam. Tucker was part of the New York Board of Regents special panel which investigated the high failure rates on the June 2003 exam. He reports here on his findings regarding "flaws in annual math tests mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act." In particular, he is concerned about the likelihood that students scores on standards-based test can be compared over time at the level of precision needed to make decisions that come with high-stakes consequences. A short report and a full report are available from this website, explaining his model and statistical analysis.

97

Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of consciousness. However, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in such patients may be quite different from that of healthy individuals, particularly when assessed during the rapidly changing hemodynamic conditions associated with neurocardiogenic syncope. To be able to interpret the pathophysiological significance of these observations, a clear understanding of the normal responses of the cerebral circulation to orthostatic stress must be obtained, particularly in the context of the known changes in systemic and regional distributions of blood flow and vascular resistance during orthostasis. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in the cerebral circulation during graded reductions in central blood volume in the absence of systemic hypotension in healthy humans. We hypothesized that cerebral vasoconstriction would occur and CBF would decrease due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. We further hypothesized, however, that the magnitude of this change would be small compared with changes in systemic or skeletal muscle vascular resistance in healthy subjects with intact autoregulation and would be unlikely to cause syncope without concomitant hypotension. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test this hypothesis, we studied 13 healthy men (age, 27 +/- 7 years) during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP). We measured systemic flow (Qc is cardiac output; C2H2 rebreathing), regional forearm flow (FBF; venous occlusion plethysmography), and blood pressure (BP; Finapres) and calculated systemic (SVR) and forearm (FVR) vascular resistances. Changes in brain blood flow were estimated from changes in the blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) using transcranial Doppler. Pulsatility (systolic minus diastolic/mean velocity) normalized for systemic arterial pressure pulsatility was used as an index of distal cerebral vascular resistance. End-tidal PACO2 was closely monitored during LBNP. From rest to maximal LBNP before the onset of symptoms or systemic hypotension, Qc and FBF decreased by 29.9% and 34.4%, respectively. VMCA decreased less, by 15.5% consistent with a smaller decrease in CBF. Similarly, SVR and FVR increased by 62.8% and 69.8%, respectively, whereas pulsatility increased by 17.2%, suggestive of a mild degree of small-vessel cerebral vasoconstriction. Seven of 13 subjects had presyncope during LBNP, all associated with a sudden drop in BP (29 +/- 9%). By comparison, hyperventilation alone caused greater changes in VMCA (42 +/- 2%) and pulsatility but never caused presyncope. In a separate group of 3 subjects, superimposition of hyperventilation during highlevel LBNP caused a further decrease in VMCA (31 +/- 7%) but no change in BP or level of consciousness. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in healthy humans during graded reductions in central blood volume caused by LBNP. However, the magnitude of this response is small compared with changes in SVR or FVR during LBNP or other stimuli known to induce cerebral vasoconstriction (hypocapnia). We speculate that this degree of cerebral vasoconstriction is not by itself sufficient to cause syncope during orthostatic stress. However, it may exacerbate the decrease in CBF associated with hypotension if hemodynamic instability develops.

Levine, B. D.; Giller, C. A.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.

1994-01-01

98

A modified honours grading system and the selection of postgraduate trainees.  

PubMed

The selection of medical graduates for postgraduate training has often been considered to be unreliable and arbitrary because of the quality of information made available by medical schools to program directors. Many faculties of medicine have changed from reporting graduate performance in percentage grades to using an honours/pass/fail grading system to ensure that clearly established criteria for competence have been met and to encourage excellence and minimize competition. Unfortunately, the honours/pass/fail grading system has not been able to give a clear statement of relative class standing to assist in postgraduate selection. This paper describes a modified honours grading system, which takes into account a student's grade, the relative weighting of a course and the number of honours grades awarded per course. The proposed system was found to rank students in a way similar to that of the traditional percentage grading system, with no significant loss in internal consistency. The modified honours grading system permits faculties that use honours/pass/fail grades to report student performance and class standing, thereby assisting program directors in the selection of medical students for postgraduate training. PMID:2018963

Turnbull, J M

1991-05-01

99

Optical system components for navigation grade fiber optic gyroscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes belong to the class of inertial sensors. Due to their high accuracy they are used for absolute position and rotation measurement in manned/unmanned vehicles, e.g. submarines, ground vehicles, aircraft or satellites. The important system components are the light source, the electro optical phase modulator, the optical fiber coil and the photodetector. This paper is focused on approaches to realize a stable light source and fiber coil. Superluminescent diode and erbium doped fiber laser were studied to realize an accurate and stable light source. Therefor the influence of the polarization grade of the source and the effects due to back reflections to the source were studied. During operation thermal working conditions severely affect accuracy and stability of the optical fiber coil, which is the sensor element. Thermal gradients that are applied to the fiber coil have large negative effects on the achievable system accuracy of the optic gyroscope. Therefore a way of calculating and compensating the rotation rate error of a fiber coil due to thermal change is introduced. A simplified 3 dimensional FEM of a quadrupole wound fiber coil is used to determine the build-up of thermal fields in the polarization maintaining fiber due to outside heating sources. The rotation rate error due to these sources is then calculated and compared to measurement data. A simple regression model is used to compensate the rotation rate error with temperature measurement at the outside of the fiber coil. To realize a compact and robust optical package for some of the relevant optical system components an approach based on ion exchanged waveguides in thin glass was developed. This waveguides are used to realize 1x2 and 1x4 splitter with fiber coupling interface or direct photodiode coupling.

Heimann, Marcus; Liesegang, Maximilian; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

2013-10-01

100

The Impact of Framing Effect on Student Preferences for University Grading Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kahneman and Tversky's (1979, 2000; Tversky & Kahneman, 1981) work in decision-making was applied to student preferences for grading practices. Undergraduate psychology students (n = 240) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 framing conditions related to how a university course might be graded: a 100 point system, a percentage system, and an open…

Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.

2009-01-01

101

Lesson Plans for the Busy Librarian: A Standards-Based Approach for the Elementary Library Media Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These proven 20-minute standards-based instructional lessons, organized by grade level, provide the resources needed to effectively teach library and information literacy skills to students in kindergarten through fifth grade. Based on American Association of School Librarians and Association for Educational Communications and Technology…

Keeling, Joyce

102

Four Steps in Grading Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of education is moving rapidly toward a standards-based approach to grading. School leaders have become increasingly aware of the tremendous variation that exists in grading practices, even among teachers of the same courses in the same department in the same school. Consequently, students' grades often have little relation to their…

Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

2012-01-01

103

Contract Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a contract grading system, the instructor defines the performance required for each grade, the student defines the performance level to which he or she will work, and signs a contract in which the instructor is committed to awarding this predetermined grade if the student attains the appropriate performance level. This paper is based on a…

Taylor, Hugh

104

Facilitating conceptual change in ninth grade students' understanding of human circulatory system concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students’ understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students from two classes of a basic school in Jordan. One

Salem A. Alkhawaldeh

2007-01-01

105

Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students…

Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

2007-01-01

106

Connections: Weather, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural Resources for Grade 4 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of Learning for…

Ney, Catherine R.; Cross, Pat

107

Assessment Grading Systems and Regulations in Learning Outcome Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning outcomes and their assessment has given rise to considerable debate as to whether outcomes should be graded or just pass/fail. Assessment models employing learning outcomes have been used for some time in the United Kingdom (UK) in further education programs for example National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) and General National…

Dodridge, Melvyn

108

A simple and accurate grading system for orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the assessment of post-transplant renal function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthoiodohippurate renal scanning has proved to be a reliable, noninvasive method for the evaluation and followup of renal allograft function. However, a standardized system for grading renal function with this test is not available. We propose a simple grading system to distinguish the different functional phases of hippurate scanning in renal transplant recipients. This grading system was studied in 138

S. K. Zaki; P. N. Bretan; R. T. Go; P. K. Rehm; S. B. Streem; A. C. Novick

1990-01-01

109

14. Site D57C, Improved NIKEHercules System, Grading Plan, U.S. Army ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Site D-57-C, Improved NIKE-Hercules System, Grading Plan, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 18 January 1962. - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

110

Auto Radio Override Alert System for Emergency Vehicles and for Railroad-Highway Grade Crossings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project shall develop, test and perform pre-service deployment of a transceiver override system for active automobile radios to warn the drivers in front of approaching emergency vehicles such as fire trucks, police, ambulance and trains nearing grade...

D. Maxwell

2001-01-01

111

Positional accuracy of the Wide Area Augmentation System in consumer-grade GPS units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global Positioning System devices are increasingly being used for data collection in many fields. Consumer-grade GPS units without differential correction have a published horizontal positional accuracy of approximately 10–15m (average positional accuracy). An attractive option for differential correction for these GPS units is the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Most consumer-grade GPS units on the market are WAAS capable. According

Lisa L. Arnold; Paul A. Zandbergen

2011-01-01

112

An Early Warning System: Predicting 10th Grade FCAT Success from 6th Grade FCAT Performance. Research Brief. Volume 0711  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Research Brief presents a method for predicting 10th grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) success from 6th grade FCAT performance. A simple equation provides the most probable single score prediction, and give-or-take error margins define high and low probability zones for expected 10th grade scores. In addition, a double-entry…

Froman, Terry; Brown, Shelly; Lapadula, Maria

2008-01-01

113

An empirical study of the predictive validity of number grades in medical school using 3 decades of longitudinal data: implications for a grading system.  

PubMed

Context It is important to establish the predictive validity of medical school grades. The strength of predictive validity and the ability to identify at-risk students in medical schools depends upon assessment systems such as number grades, pass/fail (P/F) or honours/pass/fail (H/P/F) systems. Objective This study was designed to examine the predictive validity of number grades in medical school, and to determine whether any important information is lost in a shift from number to P/F and H/P/F grading systems. Subjects The participants in this prospective, longitudinal study were 6656 medical students who studied at Jefferson Medical College over 3 decades. They were grouped into 10 deciles based on their number grades in Year 1 of medical school. Methods Participants were compared on academic accomplishments in Years 2 and 3 of medical school, medical school class rank, delayed graduation and attrition, performance on medical licensing examinations and clinical competence ratings in the first postgraduate year. Results Results supported the short- and longterm predictive validity of the number grades. Ratings of clinical competence beyond medical school were predicted by number grades in medical school. We demonstrated that small differences in number grades are statistically meaningful, and that important information for identifying students in need of remedial education is lost when students who narrowly meet faculty's expectations are included with the rest of the class in a broad 'pass' category. Conclusions The findings refute the argument that knowledge of sciences basic to medicine is not critical to subsequent performance in medical school and beyond if an appropriate evaluation system is used. Furthermore, the results of this study raise questions about abandoning number grades in favour of a pass/fail system. Consideration of these findings in policy decisions regarding assessment systems of medical students is recommended. PMID:15025644

Gonnella, Joseph S; Erdmann, James B; Hojat, Mohammadreza

2004-04-01

114

Visual MRI Grading System to Evaluate Atrophy of the Supraspinatus Muscle  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the interobserver reproducibility and diagnostic feasibility of a visual grading system for assessing atrophy of the supraspinatus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and Methods Three independent radiologists retrospectively evaluated the occupying ratio of the supraspinatus muscle in the supraspinatus fossa on 192 shoulder MRI examinations in 188 patients using a 3-point visual grading system (1, ? 60%; 2, 30-59%; 3, < 30%) on oblique sagittal T1-weighted images. The inter-reader agreement and the agreement with the reference standard (3-point grades according to absolute occupying ratio values quantitatively measured by directly contouring the muscles on MRI) were analyzed using weighted kappa. The visual grading was applied by a single reader to a group of 100 consecutive patients who had undergone rotator cuff repair to retrospectively determine the association between the visual grades at preoperative state and postsurgical occurrences of retear. Results The inter-reader weighted kappa value for the visual grading was 0.74 when averaged across three reader pairs (0.70-0.77 for individual reader pairs). The weighted kappa value between the visual grading and the reference standard ranged from 0.75 to 0.83. There was a significant difference in retear rates of the rotator cuff between the 3 visual grades of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI in univariable analysis (p < 0.001), but not in multivariable analysis (p = 0.026). Conclusion The 3-point visual grading system may be a feasible method to assess the severity of supraspinatus muscle atrophy on MRI and assist in the clinical management of patients with rotator cuff tear.

Lim, Hyun Kyong; Yoo, Hye Jin; Choi, Ja-Young; Kim, Sae Hoon; Choi, Jung-Ah; Kang, Heung Sik

2014-01-01

115

Stability analysis of fuzzy control systems subject to uncertain grades of membership.  

PubMed

This paper presents relaxed stability conditions for fuzzy control systems subject to parameter uncertainties. As the parameter uncertainties introduce uncertain grades of membership to the fuzzy control systems, the favorable property offered by sharing the same premises in the fuzzy plant models and fuzzy controllers cannot be employed to enhance the stabilization ability of the fuzzy control systems. To widen the applicability of the fuzzy control approach, fuzzy control systems subject to uncertain grades of membership will be investigated. New relaxed stability conditions will be derived to guarantee the stability of this class of fuzzy control systems. A numerical example will be given to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:16366257

Lam, H K; Leung, F H F

2005-12-01

116

Primary low-grade diffuse small lymphocytic lymphoma of the central nervous system.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old Indian woman presented in neurosurgery outpatient with seizures, headache and vomiting for the past 1 month. MRI of the brain was suggestive of a malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumour. Histological and immunohistochemical examinations of stereotactic biopsy of the tumour were diagnostic of a low-grade diffuse small lymphocytic lymphoma of the CNS. No evidence of any occult systemic lymphoma was observed, confirming its 'primary' origin in the CNS. The diagnosis of a low-grade primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) is difficult as clinical and neuroradiological features are wide and variable. The clinical course is more indolent than a high-grade PCNSL and thus, a less aggressive and localised targeted treatment could be sufficient rather than the high dose, neurotoxic methotrexate-based chemotherapeutic treatment, recommended for high-grade PCNSL. Histological and immunohistological confirmation is therefore mandatory for early, appropriate treatment and prognostic implications. PMID:24729110

Aziz, Mehar; Chaurasia, Jai Kumar; Khan, Roobina; Afroz, Nishat

2014-01-01

117

Grading More Accurately  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grades matter. College grading systems, however, are often ad hoc and prone to mistakes. This essay focuses on one factor that contributes to high-quality grading systems: grading accuracy (or "efficiency"). I proceed in several steps. First, I discuss the elements of "efficient" (i.e., accurate) grading. Next, I present analytical results…

Rom, Mark Carl

2011-01-01

118

The Effects of Written Corrective Feedback on Graded Quizzes for Students in a Personalized System of Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of proctor written feedback on college students' graded quizzes in a Personalized System of Instruction (PSI) was investigated. In Experiment I, the amount of time 67 students reviewed their graded quizzes was determined. Results indicated that 63% of the students did not review their graded quizzes, suggesting students do not use the…

Belanger, Gregg A.; And Others

119

Tumor Grade  

MedlinePLUS

... have abnormal-looking cells and may lack normal tissue structures. Based on these and other differences in microscopic appearance, ... breast cancer ( 1 ). This system grades breast tumors based on the following ... the tumor tissue has normal breast (milk) duct structures Nuclear grade : ...

120

Construction of a new food-grade expression system for Bacillus subtilis based on theta replication plasmids and auxotrophic complementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new food-grade expression system was constructed for Bacillus subtilis based on replicative food-grade expression plasmids and auxotrophic complementation. The food-grade B. subtilis host FG01 was created by knockout of the dal locus from the chromosome of B. subtilis 168. Two food-grade expression plasmids pXFGT03 and pXFGT05 were constructed by combining a novel theta-type Bacillus replicon with the B. subtilis

Yu Xia; Wei Chen; Jianxin Zhao; Fengwei Tian; Hao Zhang; Xiaolin Ding

2007-01-01

121

Institutional Research, Fiscal Year 1979: The Grading System. Research Monographs VIII and IX.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In February and March 1979, students, faculty, and staff at South Oklahoma City Junior College were surveyed to determine their feelings toward the change from a one-mark grading system (M for mastery of the subject) to a three-mark system (MH for mastery with honors, M for mastery, and CR for credit). Of the student sample, 53.8% (N=574)…

South Oklahoma City Junior Coll., OK.

122

Career Education Program, 1980-81, Columbia County School System. Teacher Guide, Grades K-7. [Revised].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains a variety of materials to help teachers for grades K-7 (specifically those in the Columbia County School System, Georgia) infuse career education into their classrooms. Contents include both school system-specific and general information: (1) brief discussion of career education; (2) listing of nine student outcome objectives;…

Central Savannah River Area Cooperative Educational Services Agency, Thomson, GA.

123

The Economic, Legal, and Political Systems in Action, #4006. Ninth Grade, Required Semester, Social Studies Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course is designed to provide ninth grade students with a basic understanding of the U.S. political, legal, and economic systems and includes the purpose of government, the need for law within society, the framework of the U.S. legal system, the processes used by the U.S. government and citizens to accomplish goals, and the roles of…

Townsend, Kenneth; Webb, Patrick

124

Train communication system using graded-index leaky plastic optical fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new train communication system using optical wireless communication. In the proposed system, graded-index (GI) leaky plastic optical fiber (POF) is used as the communication medium. Since this fiber has the structure where scatterers are mixed in the core of normal GI-POF, the light which is entered through the end of this fiber from laser diode (LD) can

Akihiro Shimura; Yasuo Sugawara; Shinkhiro Haruyama; M. Nakagawa; Hiromrzsa Suzuki; Atsushi Kondo; Takmki Ishigure; Yasuhiro Koike

2004-01-01

125

Increased Percentage of Passing Grades on the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System after Implementation of Block Scheduling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined one public school system's change in its bell scheduling format from a seven period day to block scheduling. The data collected was from a three year period of the grade 10 students passing the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System exam. Students in Massachusetts must pass the mathematics and English/language arts…

Forman, Eric D.

2009-01-01

126

Communities Around the World. Their Economic Systems. Teacher's Guide to Grade 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This general guide to a grade 4 social studies course outlines goals, content, and teaching methods on the theme Communities Around the World, with an economic emphasis. Different communities are used as vehicles to teach about contrasting economic systems and the relationship between the economic system and the rest of culture. Four major units…

Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

127

Obstetric Brachial Plexus Palsy: The Mallet Grading System for Shoulder Function--Revisited  

PubMed Central

The Mallet grading system is a commonly used functional scoring system to assess shoulder abduction/external rotation deficits in children with obstetric brachial plexus palsy. One feature of the Mallet score is that each grade is translated into certain degrees of deficiencies in both shoulder abduction and external rotation. The aim of the current study is to investigate the percentage of children in which the Mallet score could not be applied because of a discrepancy between the deficiency of shoulder abduction and shoulder external rotation. The study group included 50 consecutive unoperated older children (over 5 years of age) with Erb's palsy and deficits in shoulder movements. The Mallet score could be applied in 40 cases (80%). In the remaining 10 cases (20%), the Mallet score could not be applied either because shoulder abduction had a better grade than the grade of shoulder external rotation (n = 7) or vice versa (n = 3). It was concluded that documenting the deficits in shoulder abduction and external rotation are best done separately and this can be accomplished by using other grading systems.

Al-Qattan, M. M.; El-Sayed, A. A. F.

2014-01-01

128

An Examination on the Impact of School Grade Configuration on Eighth Grade Student Academic Achievement In Reading, Writing, and Math  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research effort was to examine the impact of grade configuration on eighth grade student achievement in Math, Reading, and Writing. The quantitative research design used publicly available data and studied the 2000 through 2007 Arizona standards-based, eighth grade student test results across six grade configurations for all Arizona eighth grade students. Additional variables included student gender,

Joyce Lutrey

2008-01-01

129

MRC: Overview of the Solar System Grades 6-8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about size and scale of the solar system. Learners will review the structure, content and size of the Solar System. This lesson is designed using the 5E instructional model and includes: teacher training, unit pacing guides, essential questions, a black-line master science notebook, a student presentation booklet, supplemental materials, and vocabulary for both students and teachers. This is lesson 1 as part of the Mars Rover Celebration Unit, a six week long curriculum.

130

PCNA and Ki-67 in central nervous system tumors: correlation with the histological type and grade.  

PubMed

Determination of proteins in the control of proliferation in normal cells helps a better understanding of cellular transformation and proliferation mechanisms. Measurement of proliferative activity is important in determining the tumor grade, recurrence span and malignancy. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 are two of the nuclear markers used to demonstrate the proliferative phase of the cell cycle. In the present study, 63 central nervous system (CNS) tumors of various histologic types, diagnosed in Cukurova University Medical Faculty. Department of Pathology and graded according to WHO grading system were examined for PCNA and Ki-67 monoclonal antibodies using immunohistochemistry. Results were analyzed with statistical methods. Distribution of PCNA and Ki-67 LI (labeling index) values were determined for different tumor types. The highest PCNA and Ki-67 LI values were detected in medulloblastoma, malignant meningioma, primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) and glioblastoma (GBM) groups, while pilocytic astrocytoma, meningioma, craniopharyngioma and oligodendroglioma showed the lowest values. In such tumors, the correlation between the increasing grade and PCNA and Ki-67 LI values were statistically significant. A correlation between the clinical outcome and Ki-67 and PCNA LI values was also detected. Conclusively, both markers can be used to evaluate the tumor grade and to asses the possibility of recurrence and malignancy in CNS tumors. PMID:12125971

Kayaselçuk, Fazilet; Zorludemir, Suzan; Gümürdühü, Derya; Zeren, Handan; Erman, Tahsin

2002-04-01

131

New grading system for upper urinary tract dilation using magnetic resonance urography in patients with Neurogenic Bladder  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with neurogenic bladder (NB), elevated intravesical pressures can be transmitted to the upper urinary tract, causing hydronephrosis (HN) and ureteral dilation (UD), which are referred to as upper urinary tract dilation (UUTD). Ureteral obstruction at the bladder wall is another cause for UUTD, but is less of a concern. UUTD can lead to chronic renal failure. Therefore, evaluation and protection of UUT function is extremely important in the management for NB. Currently, the most common method by which to detect HN and UD is ultrasonography (US). The Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) established an US HN grading system in 1993, but this system was found to have some defects. The purpose of this study is to describe a new grading system for UUTD, including both HN and UD, based on magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and to correlate the new grading system with the SFU grading system for HN. Methods A retrospective review of 70 patients with unilateral or bilateral UUTD was completed. Ninety-five sides in patients with UUTD were graded by the MRU-UUTD and SFU-HN grading systems. The results from the two grading systems were compared for each UUTD. Results The MRU-UUTD grading system revealed the following percentages for each grade: grade 0, 0; 1, 10.5%; 2, 19%; 3, 42.1%; and 4, 28.4%. The SFU-HN grading system revealed the following percentages for each grade: 0, 0; 1, 10.5%; 2, 19%; 3, 36.8%; and 4, 33.7%. There was no significant systematic difference between the two grading systems (p?>?0.05), but a significant difference between grades 3 and 4 (p?grading system correlates well with SFU-HN grade, provides an objective and comprehensive evaluation for UUTD, and can be used for longitudinal monitoring of UUTD. This new grading system allows for better informed clinical decision-making, identifying changes in UUTD.

2014-01-01

132

Grading. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What do grades mean? Is there a commonly understood and acceptable definition for what a grade stands? The current grading system is approximately 100 years old. In the 1700s, students were given feedback but not grades. In 1780, Yale University began using a 4.0 system that is similar to the current system. In the 1830s, Harvard University…

Walker, Karen

2006-01-01

133

Ready to Assemble: Grading State Higher Education Accountability Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States need strong higher education systems, now more than ever. In the tumultuous, highly competitive 21st century economy, citizens and workers need knowledge, skills, and credentials in order to prosper. Yet many colleges and universities are falling short. To give all students the best possible postsecondary education, states must create…

Aldeman, Chad; Carey, Kevin

2009-01-01

134

A system for grading articular cartilage lesions at arthroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are several different classification sys tems for the description of articular cartilage damage, each has certain limitations and deficiencies which can lead to confusion. We are proposing a new system which describes articular cartilage abnormalities in sim ple terms. It is based on four separate and distinct variables: the description of the articular surface, the extent (depth) of

Frank R. Noyes; Craig L. Stabler

1989-01-01

135

The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

Ozgur, Sami

2013-01-01

136

User's Guide to ReGS: A Realistic Grading System (Version 2.24).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Realistic Grading System (ReGS) is an interactive computer based training tool designed to teach hardwood lumber graders in accordance with National Hardwood Lumber Association rules. The ReGS program can consider 10 types of defects, display either b...

P. Klinkhachorn C. J. Gatchell J. Moody

1994-01-01

137

Blaise - A Tablet-Based Paperless Submission and Grading System for Writing Courses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes Blaise, a software\\/hardware system designed to support writing programs. Students write papers using the Blaise editor, a simple text editor and submit them electronically to a backend database. Instructors download student papers from the database onto a tablet PC and then use pen-like markup to grade the papers. These papers are then returned electronically to the students.

Rahul Simha; Sean Hanlon; Michael Gaiman; Jared Kiraly; Eisuke Arai

138

Application of functionally graded material for solid insulator in gaseous insulation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functionally graded materials (FGM) have spatial distribution of a material property in order to achieve efficient stress control. An application of the FGM to a solid insulator (spacer) for a gaseous insulation system, like gas insulated switchgear, is expected to improve electric field (E-field) distribution around the spacer. In this paper, we describe the applicability of the FGM spacer to

Katsumi Kato; Muneaki Kurimoto; Hideki Shumiya; Hiroshi Adachi; Shuichi Sakuma; Hitoshi Okubo

2006-01-01

139

Series graded gapped arrester provides reliable overvoltage protection in distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares the operating characteristics and energy handling capabilities of series graded gapped (SGG) and gapless metal oxide varistor (MOV) distribution class surge arresters. Application considerations are analyzed for both SGG and gapless MOV arresters using field results, laboratory tests and computer simulations. A large number of SGG arresters are installed on distribution systems throughout the USA. Field experience

G. L. Goedde; L. J. Kojovic; M. B. Marz; J. J. Woodworth

2001-01-01

140

The Impact of a Structured Integrated Learning System on First-Grade Students' Reading Gains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of the Waterford Early Reading Program on reading achievement gains across the first-grade year. The results of this longitudinal analysis demonstrated meaningfully greater gains on reading achievement for those with access to the Integrated learning system (ILS) (n[superscript 2] =.10). Furthermore, the positive…

Cassady, Jerrell C.; Smith, Lawrence L.

2005-01-01

141

Characterizations of Mg-W System Graded-Density Impactors for Complex Loading Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We designed an Mg-W functionally graded-density materials system with two different sequences of density–thickness distributions\\u000a and fabricated disk-like pellets with the graded-density materials by elaborate stacking of different metal powder layers,\\u000a followed by a one-step hot-pressure sintering process. The microstructures of the sintered pellets were characterized using\\u000a a scanning electronic microscope and a scanning acoustic microscope. The pellets were used

Guoqiang Luo; Jinsong Bai; Hua Tan; Qiang Shen; Jianbo Hu; Qingsong Wang; Chengda Dai; Qiang Wu; Lianmeng Zhang

2010-01-01

142

From the notch to a glioma grading system: the neurological contributions of James Watson Kernohan.  

PubMed

During his lifetime and a career spanning 42 years, James Watson Kernohan made numerous contributions to neuropathology, neurology, and neurosurgery. One of these, the phenomenon of ipsilateral, false localizing signs caused by compression of the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorial edge, has widely become known as "Kernohan's notch" and continues to bear his name. The other is a grading system for gliomas from a neurosurgical viewpoint that continues to be relevant for grading of glial tumors 60 years after its introduction. In this paper, the authors analyze these two major contributions in detail within the context of Kernohan's career and explore how they contributed to the development of neurosurgical procedures. PMID:24684337

Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Maurer, Adrian J; Archer, Jacob B; Hanel, Ricardo A; Sughrue, Michael E; Theodore, Nicholas; Preul, Mark C

2014-04-01

143

MRC: Overview of the Solar System Grades 3-5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the size and scale of planets in the solar system. Learners will kinesthetically model the order of the planets outward from the sun. Then they will use a string and beads to create a model to represent the relative distances between the planets. Finally they will explore another model (using a beach ball for the sun) to discuss relative size of the planets to the sun. The lesson uses the 5E instructional model and includes teacher training, pacing guides, essential questions, a black-line master science notebook, a student presentation booklet, supplemental materials, and vocabulary for both students and teachers. This is lesson 1 as part of the Mars Rover Celebration Unit, a six week long curriculum.

144

Photoneutron logging system for direct uranium ore-grade determination  

SciTech Connect

A prototype photoneutron probe for direct uranium assay in exploratory boreholes has been built and field tested. An approx. 10-Ci /sup 124/Sb gamma-ray source together with a beryllium converter is used to produce neutrons that diffuse into the surrounding formation and cause fissions in any /sup 235/U present. The fission neutrons that return to the probe are energy analyzed and counted by a high-pressure helium detector, thus indicating the concentration of uranium. The response of the probe was measured in concrete models at the US Department of Energy (Grand Junction, Colorado) calibration facility and found to be approx. 35 counts/s for an 1% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ concentration in an 11.4-cm-diam water-filled borehole (4.5 in.). The response is linear up to a concentration of at least 0.25% by weight U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Effects resulting from changes in formation density, porosity, and neutron absorber content were also quantified, as well as the tool response as a function of borehole diameter and fluid. A logging vehicle was outfitted, and the photoneutron-based logging system was field tested at an exploration site near Canon City, Colorado. Logging data obtained in several open holes at this site are presented and compared to core chemical analyses and results obtained in the same holes using other logging methods. In about 1 month of field testing, the photoneutron-based uranium exploration system has proved to be simple to use and very reliable. 22 figures, 12 tables.

Baker, M.P.; Marks, T.

1982-06-01

145

Construction of a food-grade cell surface display system for Lactobacillus casei.  

PubMed

In this study, a food-grade cell surface display host/vector system for Lactobacillus casei was constructed. The food-grade host L. casei Q-5 was a lactose-deficient derivative of L. casei ATCC 334 obtained by plasmid elimination. The food-grade cell surface display vector was constructed based on safe DNA elements from lactic acid bacteria containing the following: pSH71 replicon from Lactococcus lactis, lactose metabolism genes from L. casei ATCC 334 as complementation markers, and surface layer protein gene from Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 for cell surface display. The feasibility of the new host/vector system was verified by the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) on L. casei. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and immunofluorescence analysis using anti-GFP antibody confirmed that GFP was anchored on the surface of the recombinant cells. The stability of recombinant L. casei cells in artificial gastrointestinal conditions was verified, which is beneficial for oral vaccination applications. These results indicate that the food-grade host/vector system can be an excellent antigen delivery vehicle in oral vaccine construction. PMID:24598012

Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Kong, Jian; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

2014-01-01

146

Site-specific tumor grading system in colorectal cancer: multicenter pathologic review of the value of quantifying poorly differentiated clusters.  

PubMed

The study aimed to determine the value of a novel site-specific grading system based on quantifying poorly differentiated clusters (PDC; Grade(PDC)) in colorectal cancer (CRC). A multicenter pathologic review involving 12 institutions was performed on 3243 CRC cases (stage I, 583; II, 1331; III, 1329). Cancer clusters of ?5 cancer cells and lacking a gland-like structure (PDCs) were counted under a ×20 objective lens in a field containing the maximum clusters. Tumors with <5, 5 to 9, and ?10 PDCs were classified as grades G1, G2, and G3, respectively. According to Grade(PDC), 1594, 1005, and 644 tumors were classified as G1, G2, and G3 and had 5-year recurrence-free survival rates of 91.6%, 75.4%, and 59.6%, respectively (P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that Grade exerted an influence on prognostic outcome independently of TNM staging; approximately 20% and 46% of stage I and II patients, respectively, were selected by Grade(PDC) as a population whose survival estimate was comparable to or even worse than that of stage III patients. Grade(PDC) surpassed TNM staging in the ability to stratify patients by recurrence-free survival (Akaike information criterion, 2915.6 vs. 2994.0) and had a higher prognostic value than American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) grading (Grade(AJCC)) at all stages. Regarding judgment reproducibility of grading tumors, weighted ? among the 12 institutions was 0.40 for Grade(AJCC) and 0.52 for Grade(PDC). Grade(PDC) has a robust prognostic power and promises to be of sufficient clinical value to merit implementation as a site-specific grading system in CRC. PMID:24418853

Ueno, Hideki; Hase, Kazuo; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Masafumi; Miyake, Ohki; Masaki, Tadahiko; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Kameoka, Shingo; Sato, Yu; Matsuda, Keiji; Nakadoi, Koichi; Shinto, Eiji; Nakamura, Takahiro; Sugihara, Kenichi

2014-02-01

147

Characteristics of Grading Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the grading process most often used is a mathematical process, it seems desirable to examine grading systems from the mathematical point of view. In the paper the familiar five-letter grading system is molded mathematically. Variance of the grade po...

D. E. Polzien

1972-01-01

148

Monitoring subsurface microbial and nutrient transport to assess treatment capability of at- grade septic system designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By design, septic systems release pathogenic microbes, nutrients and other chemical contaminants into the subsurface and have the potential to adversely impact groundwater quality. Newer at-grade septic system designs discharge wastewater effluent on the soil surface, however, relatively little research has been conducted on transport processes and treatment efficacy for these systems. The objective of this study was to investigate physical, biological, and chemical processes beneath two at-grade wastewater treatment systems. Secondary treated effluent from the Fish Creek wastewater treatment plant in Calgary is being applied to soil through the two at-grade systems in volumes equivalent to a three-bedroom household. A dye tracer was also introduced with the effluent to aid in the evaluation of subsurface flow patterns and the identification of soil sampling locations. An extensive vadose zone monitoring system, consisting of suction lysimeters, tensiometers, time domain reflectometry probes, thermistors, and soil vapour probes, was installed to track the effluent through the soil profile. Fecal coliform, total coliform, and E. Coli, as well as other physical and chemical parameters, are being monitored in-situ. Soil samples for microbial and chemical analysis have also been obtained by excavating portions of the infiltration area beneath the two systems. Chemical and dye tracers showed relatively rapid migration of effluent to depths of up to 1.5 m below surface. Preliminary pathogen results indicate an approximately four log reduction in E. Coli concentrations at 10 cm depth and six log reduction at 60 cm depth. Continued monitoring of these pilot systems will provide valuable data on subsurface pathogen migration and the suitability of at-grade systems for treating wastewater and reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

Cey, E.; Motz, E.; Chu, A.; Ryan, C.

2009-05-01

149

Effect of adopting a new histological grading system of acute rejection after heart transplantation  

PubMed Central

Background—Treatment policy of acute rejection after heart transplantation has been changed after adopting the ISHLT endomyocardial biopsy grading system in 1991.?Objective—To determine the effect of this policy change on clinical outcome after transplantation.?Methods—The outcome of 147 patients who had a transplant before (early group, median follow up 96 months) and 114 patients who had a transplant after (late group, median follow up 41 months) the introduction of the ISHLT biopsy grading system was studied retrospectively. Initially "moderate rejection" according to Billingham's conventional criteria was treated. From January 1991 grade 3A and higher was considered to require intensification of immunosuppression.?Results—There were some differences between the two groups: recipients (50 v 44 years) as well as donors (28 v 24 years) were older in the "late group" and more patients of this group received early anti-T cell prophylaxis (92% v 56%). Despite more extensive use of early prophylaxis more rejection episodes were diagnosed (2.4 v 1.4) and considerably more courses of rejection treatment were instituted in the late compared with the early group (3.2 v 1.5). There were no deaths because of rejection in the late group, however, more infections occurred within the first year (mean 1.8 v 1.4) and more non-skin malignancies within the first 41 months were diagnosed (8 of 57 v 6 of 147, 95% CIs of difference includes 0). The incidence of graft vascular disease in the late group has been comparable to the early group until now. ?Conclusion—The interpretation of the ISHLT grading system resulted in lowering of the threshold for the diagnosis of rejection thereby increasing the number of rejections and subsequently the immunosuppressive load and its complications.?? Keywords: transplantation;  biopsy grading system;  rejection

Balk, A.; Zondervan, P.; van der Meer, P.; van Gelder, T.; Mochtar, B.; Simoons, M.; Weimar, W.

1997-01-01

150

Grading recommendations in clinical practice guidelines: randomised experimental evaluation of four different systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the effect of presenting a recommendation in a clinical practice guideline using different grading systems to determine to what extent the system used changes the clinician's eventual response to a particular clinical question.DesignRandomised experimental study.SettingClinician offices and academic settings.ParticipantsPaediatricians and paediatric residents in private and public practice in Mexico.InterventionCase notes of a child with diarrhoea and a question

Carlos A Cuello García; Karla P Pacheco Alvarado; Giordano Pérez Gaxiola

2011-01-01

151

Self-consistent elastoplastic stress solutions for functionally graded material systems subjected to thermal transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a self-consistent constitutive framework is proposed to describe the behaviour of a generic three-layered system containing a functionally graded material (FGM) layer subjected to thermal loading. Analytical and semi-analytical solutions are obtained to describe the thermo-elastic and thermo-elastoplastic behaviour of a three-layered system consisting of a metallic and a ceramic layer joined together by an FGM layer

S. Pitakthapanaphong; E. P. Busso

2002-01-01

152

O the Contribution to LWR Risk Arising from Non Safety-Grade Control Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the study is to estimate the effects of non-safety-grade control systems in light water reactors (LWRs) on the overall likelihood of accidents leading to severe core damage or core melt, as determined from operating experience. The study also examines a few selected potential events i.e. control system failure induced events that have not occurred, but might

Joseph Alter

1983-01-01

153

Standard-Based Teaching: Overcoming the Side Effects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies several problems associated with standards-based teaching and provides solutions for overcoming them. Problems include curricular limitations, ineffective remediation, alternative choices, questionable tests, unfair labeling, educator morale, negative perceptions, reallocation of resources, and incompatible expectations. (PKP)

Gilman, David Alan; Gilman, Ruth Ann

2003-01-01

154

O the Contribution to LWR Risk Arising from Non Safety-Grade Control Systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overall objective of the study is to estimate the effects of non-safety-grade control systems in light water reactors (LWRs) on the overall likelihood of accidents leading to severe core damage or core melt, as determined from operating experience. The study also examines a few selected potential events i.e. control system failure induced events that have not occurred, but might occur in the future, in order to gain some insight into their potential contribution to risk. One hundred ninety operational events which involve failure of non-safety-grade control systems and which are considered to be precursors to potential severe core damage have been identified at PWR plants in the U.S. during 1969-1981; eighty such events have been identified for BWR plants. These events are treated as initiating or concurrent events to be fit into appropriate event trees, which are then quantified using component failure rates and system unavailabilities taken from available Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) studies to estimate the frequency of severe core damage arising from non-safety-grade control system failures. Considerable uncertainty is introduced into the results by the choice of system and operator failure rates. No allowance is made in these estimates for plant changes made because of operational experience.

Alter, Joseph

155

Evaluation of a new histologic staging and grading system for primary biliary cirrhosis in comparison with classical systems.  

PubMed

Recently, our research team proposed a new histologic staging and grading system for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) that takes into account necroinflammatory activity and histologic heterogeneity. The present study aimed to confirm the usefulness of the new evaluation system. A total of 152 liver biopsy specimens and clinical data (including outcomes in patients with PBC before treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid) were analyzed with respect to the new system. Staging was evaluated on the basis of 3 histologic components (fibrosis, bile duct loss, and deposition of orcein-positive granules), and grading was assessed on the basis of chronic cholangitis activity and hepatitis activity. Concurrently, the classical systems, that is, the Scheuer and Ludwig staging systems, were also assessed and compared with our new system. PBC cases showed different distributions in each stage of the 3 systems. The new staging and grading system reflected liver dysfunctions before specific treatment. This was on a par with the results obtained using the classical systems. Development of cirrhosis-related conditions correlated well with the new staging system compared with the 2 classical staging systems, and in particular, the amount of deposition of orcein-positive granules could reflect development of cirrhosis-related conditions (scores 0-1 versus scores 2-3 groups, P < .0001). In conclusion, the new PBC staging system was demonstrated to reflect clinicolaboratory features, and its progression was associated with the development of cirrhosis-related conditions. PMID:23313306

Kakuda, Yuko; Harada, Kenichi; Sawada-Kitamura, Seiko; Ikeda, Hiroko; Sato, Yasunori; Sasaki, Motoko; Okafuji, Hirofumi; Mizukoshi, Eishiro; Terasaki, Shuichi; Ohta, Hajime; Kasashima, Satomi; Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Kaizaki, Yasuharu; Kaneko, Shuichi; Nakanuma, Yasuni

2013-06-01

156

A simple and accurate grading system for orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the assessment of post-transplant renal function  

SciTech Connect

Orthoiodohippurate renal scanning has proved to be a reliable, noninvasive method for the evaluation and followup of renal allograft function. However, a standardized system for grading renal function with this test is not available. We propose a simple grading system to distinguish the different functional phases of hippurate scanning in renal transplant recipients. This grading system was studied in 138 patients who were evaluated 1 week after renal transplantation. There was a significant correlation between the isotope renographic functional grade and clinical correlates of allograft function such as the serum creatinine level (p = 0.0001), blood urea nitrogen level (p = 0.0001), urine output (p = 0.005) and need for hemodialysis (p = 0.007). We recommend this grading system as a simple and accurate method to interpret orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the evaluation and followup of renal allograft recipients.

Zaki, S.K.; Bretan, P.N.; Go, R.T.; Rehm, P.K.; Streem, S.B.; Novick, A.C. (Cleveland Clinic Foundation, OH (USA))

1990-06-01

157

Guidelines for guideline developers: a systematic review of grading systems for medical tests  

PubMed Central

Background A variety of systems have been developed to grade evidence and develop recommendations based on the available evidence. However, development of guidelines for medical tests is especially challenging given the typical indirectness of the evidence; direct evidence of the effects of testing on patient important outcomes is usually absent. We compared grading systems for medical tests on how they use evidence in guideline development. Methods We used a systematic strategy to look for grading systems specific to medical tests in PubMed, professional guideline websites, via personal correspondence, and handsearching back references of key articles. Using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) instrument as a starting point, we defined two sets of characteristics to describe these systems: methodological and process ones. Methodological characteristics are features relating to how evidence is gathered, appraised, and used in recommendations. Process characteristics are those relating to the guideline development process. Data were extracted in duplicate and differences resolved through discussion. Results Twelve grading systems could be included. All varied in the degree to which methodological and process characteristics were addressed. Having a clinical scenario, identifying the care pathway and/or developing an analytical framework, having explicit criteria for appraising and linking indirect evidence, and having explicit methodologies for translating evidence into recommendations were least frequently addressed. Five systems at most addressed these, to varying degrees of explicitness and completeness. Process wise, features most frequently addressed included involvement of relevant professional groups (8/12), external peer review of completed guidelines (9/12), and recommendations on methods for dissemination (8/12). Characteristics least often addressed were whether the system was piloted (3/12) and funder information (3/12). Conclusions Five systems for grading evidence about medical tests in guideline development addressed to differing degrees of explicitness the need for and appraisal of different bodies of evidence, the linking of such evidence, and its translation into recommendations. At present, no one system addressed the full complexity of gathering, assessing and linking different bodies of evidence.

2013-01-01

158

Transforming Classroom Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents viable alternatives to classroom grading, explaining how to design grading systems that are both precise and efficient. It provides educators with a thorough grounding in grading research and theory. After clarifying the basic purposes of grades, the book discusses what should be included in them, how to use a rubric-based…

Marzano, Robert J.

159

The biological basis of a comprehensive grading system for the adverse effects of cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

As described in the previous article in this issue by Trotti et al, there have been major changes in the philosophy and scope of the new National Cancer Institute comprehensive grading system for treatment-related toxicities, Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 (CTCAE v3.0). The most prominent changes are the merging of early and late effects criteria into a

Jacqueline Williams; Yuhchyau Chen; Philip Rubin; Jacob Finkelstein; Paul Okunieff

2003-01-01

160

An international classification and grading system for age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A common detection and classification system is needed for epidemiologic studies of age-related maculopathy (ARM). Such a grading scheme for ARM is described in this paper. ARM is defined as a degenerative disorder in persons ?50 years of age characterized on grading of color fundus transparencies by the presence of the following abnormalities in the macular area: soft drusen ?63?m,

A. C. Bird; N. M. Bressler; S. B. Bressler; I. H. Chisholm; G. Coscas; M. D. Davis; P. T. V. M. de Jong; C. C. W. Klaver; B. E. K. Klein; R. Klein; P. Mitchell; J. P. Sarks; S. H. Sarks; G. Soubrane; H. R. Taylor; J. R. Vingerling

1995-01-01

161

Making the Grade in a Portfolio-Based System: Student Performance and the Student Perspective  

PubMed Central

Assessment is such an integral part of the educational system that we rarely reflect on its value and impact. Portfolios have gained in popularity, but much attention has emphasized the end-user and portfolio assessment. Here we focus on the portfolio creator (the student) and examine whether their educational needs are met with such an assessment method. This study aims to investigate how assessment practices influence classroom performance and the learning experience of the student in a graduate education setting. Studied were 33 medical students at the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, a program utilizing a portfolio-based system. The students may elect to simultaneously enroll in a Masters program; however, these programs employ traditional letter grades. Thus creating a unique opportunity to assess 25 portfolio only (P) students and 8 portfolio and grade (PG) students concurrently taking a course that counts for both programs. Classroom performance was measured via a comprehensive evaluation where the PG students scored modestly better (median total scores, 72% P vs. 76% PG). Additionally, a survey was conducted to gain insight into student’s perspective on how assessment method impacts the learning experience. The students in the PG group (those receiving a grade) reported increased stress but greater affirmation and self-assurance regarding their knowledge and skill mastery. Incorporation of such affirmation remains a challenge for portfolio-based systems and an area for investigation and improvement.

Nowacki, Amy S.

2013-01-01

162

Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

Jaafar, Hussain F.; Nandi, Asoke K.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

2011-11-01

163

When Theory Hits Reality: Standards-Based Reform in Urban Districts. Final Narrative Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1996, the Pew Charitable Trusts gave 4-year grants to seven urban school districts to help implement standards-based systemic reform. Several times each year, researchers conducted interviews to track progress in their reform efforts. This report synthesizes findings across all 4 years of the Pew Network. Overall, Network sites worked hard to…

David, Jane L.; Shields, Patrick M.

164

Consultation to Support Inclusive Accountability and Standards-Based Reform: Facilitating Access, Equity, and Empowerment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current federal legislation (i.e., No Child Left Behind (NCLB)) requires states to set rigorous academic standards, ensure classroom instruction addresses these standards, and measure and report students' progress via large-scale assessments. NCLB assumes that inclusive accountability systems and standards-based reform will result in improved…

Roach, Andrew T.; Elliott, Stephen N.

2009-01-01

165

Standards-Based Evaluation and Teacher Career Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of a conceptual model specifying hypothesized linkages among perceptions of characteristics of standards-based evaluation, work environment mediators, and career satisfaction and other outcomes. Four comprehensive high schools located in two neighboring counties in southern California provided the data for this study. The schools’ districts had recently developed and implemented evaluation systems

Sharon Conley; Donna E. Muncey; Sukkyung You

2005-01-01

166

Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

2008-01-01

167

How Have State Level Standards-Based Tests Related to Norm-Referenced Tests in Alaska?.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This overview of the Alaska system for test development, scoring, and reporting explored differences and similarities between norm-referenced and standards-based tests. The current Alaska testing program is based on legislation passed in 1997 and 1998, and is designed to meet the requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Legislation. In…

Fenton, Ray

168

The Impact of Standards-Based Reform in Duval County, Florida: 1999-2002  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major challenge that school districts face is to improve the learning of all students, not just in individual schools, but across the entire system of schools. Duval County, Florida has embarked on a remarkable journey to implement standards-based reform in schools throughout the district with the intent to systematically improve teaching and…

Supovitz, Jonathan A.; Taylor, Brooke Snyder

2003-01-01

169

Road grade quantification based on global positioning system data obtained from real-world vehicle fuel use and emissions measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-world vehicle fuel use and emission rates depend on engine load, which is quantified in terms of Vehicle Specific Power (VSP). VSP depends on vehicle speed, acceleration, and road grade. There is not a standard method for measuring road grade from a moving vehicle. A method for quantifying grade is evaluated based on statistical analysis of multiple runs using low cost consumer grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers with in-built Barometric Altimeter (GPS/BA). The average grade precision is ±0.71, ±0.46, and ±0.31 percentage points, for sample sizes of 9, 18, and 36 GPS/BA runs, respectively, among 2213 individual 0.08 km road segments. In addition, 4 sets of repeated measurements were performed on the same routes using a high cost, high accuracy Differential GPS (DGPS). Both sets of GPS-based grade estimates compared well with those derived from LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data. GPS/BA and DGPS grade estimates were similar, except for high magnitude grades of 8–10 percent for which DGPS estimates are more accurate. DGPS is more sensitive to loss of signal; thus, a hybrid approach for substituting GPS/BA data for missing DGPS data at specific locations along a route is demonstrated. The local and overall effects of road grade on fuel use and emission rates are investigated for an example light duty gasoline vehicle.

Yazdani Boroujeni, Behdad; Frey, H. Christopher

2014-03-01

170

CTCAE v3.0: development of a comprehensive grading system for the adverse effects of cancer treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple systems have been developed for grading the adverse effects (AEs) of cancer treatment. The National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) system has substantially evolved since its inception in 1983. The most recent version, CTCAE v3.0 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) represents the first comprehensive, multimodality grading system for reporting the acute and late effects of

Andy Trotti; A. Dimitrios Colevas; Ann Setser; Valerie Rusch; David Jaques; Volker Budach; Corey Langer; Barbara Murphy; Richard Cumberlin; C. Norman Coleman; Philip Rubin

2003-01-01

171

Systematic Review of Anastomotic Leakage Rate According to an International Grading System Following Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background A generally acceptable definition and a severity grading system for anastomotic leakages (ALs) following rectal resection were not available until 2010, when the International Study Group of Rectal Cancer (ISGRC) proposed a definition and a grading system for AL. Methods A search for published data was performed using the MEDLINE database (2000 to December 5, 2012) to perform a systematic review of the studies that described AL, grade AL according to the grading system, pool data, and determine the average rate of AL for each grade after anterior resection (AR) for rectal cancer. Results A total of 930 abstracts were retrieved; 40 articles on AR, 25 articles on low AR (LAR), and 5 articles on ultralow AR (ULAR) were included in the review and analysis. The pooled overall AL rate of AR was 8.58% (2,085/24,288); the rate of the asymptomatic leakage (Grade A) was 2.57%, that of AL that required active intervention without relaparotomy (Grade B) was 2.37%, and that of AL that required relaparotomy (Grade C) was 5.40%. The pooled rate of AL that required relaparotomy was higher in AR (5.40%) than in LAR (4.70%) and in ULAR (1.81%), which could be attributed to the higher rate of protective defunctioning stoma in LAR (40.72%) and ULAR (63.44%) compared with that in AR (30.11%). Conclusions The new grading system is simple that the ALs of each grade can be easily extracted from past publications, therefore likely to be accepted and applied in future studies.

Ye, Guang-Yao; Yu, Min-Hao; Gao, Yun-He; Li, Zhao-Shen; Yu, En-Da; Zhong, Ming

2013-01-01

172

Grading the severity of soft tissue changes associated with metal-on-metal hip replacements: reliability of an MR grading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Metal-on-metal (MoM) soft tissue reactions or aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL) are being recognised\\u000a using metal artefact reduction (MAR) MR with increasing frequency following the advent of second generation metal-on-metal\\u000a bearings, but there is no standardised technique for reporting of MR appearances in this disease. The aim of this study was\\u000a to measure the reliability of a grading system designed

Helen Anderson; Andoni Paul Toms; John G. Cahir; Richard W. Goodwin; James Wimhurst; John F. Nolan

2011-01-01

173

Automated grading system for evaluation of ocular redness associated with dry eye  

PubMed Central

Background We have observed that dry eye redness is characterized by a prominence of fine horizontal conjunctival vessels in the exposed ocular surface of the interpalpebral fissure, and have incorporated this feature into the grading of redness in clinical studies of dry eye. Aim To develop an automated method of grading dry eye-associated ocular redness in order to expand on the clinical grading system currently used. Methods Ninety nine images from 26 dry eye subjects were evaluated by five graders using a 0–4 (in 0.5 increments) dry eye redness (Ora Calibra™ Dry Eye Redness Scale [OCDER]) scale. For the automated method, the Opencv computer vision library was used to develop software for calculating redness and horizontal conjunctival vessels (noted as “horizontality”). From original photograph, the region of interest (ROI) was selected manually using the open source ImageJ software. Total average redness intensity (Com-Red) was calculated as a single channel 8-bit image as R – 0.83G – 0.17B, where R, G and B were the respective intensities of the red, green and blue channels. The location of vessels was detected by normalizing the blue channel and selecting pixels with an intensity of less than 97% of the mean. The horizontal component (Com-Hor) was calculated by the first order Sobel derivative in the vertical direction and the score was calculated as the average blue channel image intensity of this vertical derivative. Pearson correlation coefficients, accuracy and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) were calculated after regression and standardized regression of the dataset. Results The agreement (both Pearson’s and CCC) among investigators using the OCDER scale was 0.67, while the agreement of investigator to computer was 0.76. A multiple regression using both redness and horizontality improved the agreement CCC from 0.66 and 0.69 to 0.76, demonstrating the contribution of vessel geometry to the overall grade. Computer analysis of a given image has 100% repeatability and zero variability from session to session. Conclusion This objective means of grading ocular redness in a unified fashion has potential significance as a new clinical endpoint. In comparisons between computer and investigator, computer grading proved to be more reliable than another investigator using the OCDER scale. The best fitting model based on the present sample, and usable for future studies, was C4=?12.24+2.12C2HOR+0.88C2RED:C4 is the predicted investigator grade, and C2HOR and C2RED are logarithmic transformations of the computer calculated parameters COM-Hor and COM-Red. Considering the superior repeatability, computer automated grading might be preferable to investigator grading in multicentered dry eye studies in which the subtle differences in redness incurred by treatment have been historically difficult to define.

Rodriguez, John D; Johnston, Patrick R; Ousler, George W; Smith, Lisa M; Abelson, Mark B

2013-01-01

174

Effect of the Iranian hospital grading system on patients' and general practitioners' behaviour: an examination of awareness, belief and choice.  

PubMed

There is considerable international interest in the use of performance measurement and their public release in order to improve the quality of care. However, few studies have assessed stakeholders' awareness and use of performance data. Iranian hospitals have been graded annually since 1998 and hospital hotel charges vary by grade, but this system has never been evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 104 outpatients at eight Teheran hospitals and 103 general practitioners (GPs) to assess the awareness of and attitudes towards hospital grading system. Only 5.8% of patients (95% CI: 1.3-10.3%) and 11.7% of GPs (95% CI: 5.5-17.9%) were aware of grading results. Patients' awareness was positively associated with their education level (P = 0.016). No patient used the grading results for choosing a hospital and only one GP (1%, 95% CI: 0-2%) reported using hospital grade to influence referral decisions. Patients were more influenced by hospitals' public reputation and that of their specialists. GPs believed that the grading system did not reflect the quality of care in hospitals. When developing performance measurement systems, public release of data should be accompanied by evaluation of its impact on awareness and health-care choices. PMID:20702891

Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor

2010-08-01

175

Relating Prognosis in Chromophobe Renal Cell Carcinoma to the Chromophobe Tumor Grading System  

PubMed Central

Purpose The chromophobe subtype of renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) has generally been associated with a better prognosis than the clear cell type; however, debate continues as to absolute prognosis as well as the significance of certain prognostic variables. We investigated the significance of pathologic stage and a recently proposed chromophobe tumor grading (CTG) scheme in predicting chRCC outcomes. Materials and Methods All available chRCCs were identified from our surgical pathology archives from 1987-2010. Original slides were reviewed to verify diagnoses and stage, and each case was graded following a novel chromophobe tumor grade system criteria. Disease status was obtained from a clinical outcome database, and cancer specific deaths and recurrences were recorded. Results Eighty-one cases of chRCC were identified, and 73 had adequate follow-up information available. There were only 3 instances of cancer related recurrence or mortality, which included 1 disease specific mortality and 2 disease recurrences. Pathologic stage and CTG 3 were found to be significantly associated with the recurrences or death from chRCC, but there was no association with CTG 1 and CTG 2. Conclusions chRCC is associated with a very low rate of cancer specific events (4.1%) even at a tertiary referral center. In our study, pathologic stage and CTG 3, but not CTG 1 or 2, were significantly associated with the development of these events.

Weinzierl, Elizabeth P; Thong, Alan E; McKenney, Jesse K; Jeon, Seung Hyun

2014-01-01

176

Ocular Risk Factors for Exudative AMD: A Novel Semiautomated Grading System  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To evaluate the contribution of the ocular risk factors in the conversion of the fellow eye of patients with unilateral exudative AMD, using a novel semiautomated grading system. Materials and Methods. Single-center, retrospective study including 89 consecutive patients with unilateral exudative AMD and ?3 years of followup. Baseline color fundus photographs were graded using an innovative grading software, RetmarkerAMD (Critical Health SA). Results. The follow-up period was 60.9 ± 31.3 months. The occurrence of CNV was confirmed in 42 eyes (47.2%). The cumulative incidence of CNV was 23.6% at 2 years, 33.7% at 3 years, 39.3% at 5 years, and 47.2% at 10 years, with a mean annual incidence of 12.0% (95%?CI = 0.088–0.162). The absolute number of drusen in the central 1000 and 3000??m (P < 0.05) and the absolute number of drusen ?125 µm in the central 3000 and 6000 µm (P < 0.05) proved to be significant risk factors for CNV. Conclusion. The use of quantitative variables in the determination of the OR of developing CNV allowed the establishment of significant risk factors for neovascularization. The long follow-up period and the innovative methodology reinforce the value of our results. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00801541.

Marques, Joao Pedro; Costa, Miguel; Melo, Pedro; Oliveira, Carlos Manta; Pires, Isabel; Cachulo, Maria Luz; Figueira, Joao; Silva, Rufino

2013-01-01

177

An application of a new evidence grading system to research on the chronic care model.  

PubMed

Methodological quality undergirds all evidence-based medicine because without strong evidence supporting or refuting the efficacy of an intervention, the movement toward basing medical decisions and practice on scientific evidence is not sustainable. Recently, the consensus that had existed regarding the hierarchy of evidence produced by a study design was challenged on the basis that existing guidelines failed to properly define key terms, weight the merits of certain non-randomized controlled trials, and employ a comprehensive list of study design limitations to render evaluative conclusions, to name a few of the challenges. The present study introduces a new grading system that overcomes, or at the very least greatly diminishes, these challenges. This new method is applied to the literature on the Chronic Care Model and the results are then compared to several of the most popular grading guidelines currently in use. These results revealed substantial differences between the guidelines in accordance with previous research that challenged existing methods. Furthermore, the present study lends support to the proposed grading guideline although further research into its validity and reliability is needed. PMID:22473325

Gugiu, P Cristian; Westine, Carl D; Coryn, Chris L S; Hobson, Kristin A

2013-03-01

178

Ki-67 immunoperoxidase stain as marker for the histological grading of nervous system tumours.  

PubMed

The monoclonal antibody Ki-67 recognizes a nuclear antigen which is expressed during the G1, S, G2 and M phases of the cell cycle. Immunostaining of frozen biopsy material thus presents a convenient and rapid method for the estimation of the growth fraction in human neoplasia. This report summarizes the results obtained in 178 neurosurgical biopsies. The highest incidence of Ki-67 positive nuclei was observed in 8 metastatic carcinomas (mean: 20%) and in 53 cases of glioblastoma multiforme (10%). Glioblastomas showed considerable variation, the fraction of stained nuclei ranging from 1 to 28%. For astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas we found a close correlation between the Ki-67 index and the histological grade in agreement with known biological behaviour. In anaplastic gliomas (WHO grade III) the upper limit was 11%, in grade II gliomas, 6%. Juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas and pituitary adenomas showed mean staining indices of approximately 1%. In 13 meningiomas the mean Ki-67 index was 1% but rose to 5% in recurrent and anaplastic meningiomas. Assessment of the growth fraction in human brain tumours by immunostaining with Ki-67 could become an important tool in the prediction of the biological behaviour of nervous system neoplasms and the planning of adjuvant therapy. PMID:2463741

Shibata, T; Burger, P C; Kleihues, P

1988-01-01

179

An Investigation of the Factors which Affect the Career Selection Process of Air Force Systems Command Company Grade Officers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The general purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the individual perceptions and attitudes which affect the career selection decision of Air Force Systems Command company grade officers. This research included a literature review of recent wor...

R. J. Mosbach T. J. Scanlan

1979-01-01

180

Special Education: Does It Fit with Standards-Based Reform?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue focuses on how special education fits into standards-based reform and contains the following featured articles: (1) A New Vision for Special Education Accountability (Martha L. Thurlow and Jane L. Krentz) charts the change in special education accountability as it moves from the old focus on Individualized Education Program teams; (2)…

Kysilko, David, Ed.

2001-01-01

181

Preparing High School Biology Teachers for Standards-Based Curricula.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a preparation program in which 16 high school biology teachers in widely diverse settings across the country have successfully implemented a new standards-based biology curriculum, "Biology: A Community Context" (BACC), written by W.H. Leonard and J.E. Penick. During the summer of 1997, these 16 teachers were given an…

Leonard, William H.; Penick, John E.

182

Implementing and Sustaining Standards-Based Curricular Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a model for implementing and sustaining standards-based curricular reform and seven recommendations for principals that are grounded in the results of a comprehensive, longitudinal study. The study examined the characteristics of five schools through data from principals, teachers, students, and external observers over a 6-year…

Lawrenz, Frances; Huffman, Douglas; Lavoie, Bethann

2005-01-01

183

Standards Gaps: Unintended Consequences of Local Standards-Based Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to the establishment of standards by states and professional organizations, many local school districts have adopted a standards-based curriculum. The expressed purpose of standards is to improve student academic performance by providing teachers with a common sequence of targets at which to aim instruction. In this study, we examine…

Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Ogawa, Rodney T.; Scribner, Samantha Paredes

2004-01-01

184

Activity Notebook: Standards-Based, for Teachers by Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of standards-based activities includes ideas for use in social studies, mathematics, language arts, and art classrooms. A tear-out student reproducible offers a bookmark that allows students to note unfamiliar or unusual words and phrases as they read and to jot down their thoughts and observations. (SM)

Clarke, Jacqueline

2000-01-01

185

Standards-Based Reform: Can We Do Better?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proponents of standards-based reform claim that student achievement testing increases accountability and allows for greater instructional consistency. Performance across schools, boards, provinces, and even countries internationally can be compared and contrasted with the aim of identifying exemplary teaching practices. Teachers can also use…

Volante, Louis

2007-01-01

186

Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories (e-book)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Essay titles reveal the range of programs--and creativity--this book encompasses. Among the titles are "Technology and Cooperative Learning: The IIT Model for Teaching Authentic Chemistry Curriculum," "Modeling: Changes in Traditional Physics Instruction," "Guided by the Standards: Inquiry and Assessment in Two Rural and Urban Schools," and even "Sing and Dance Your Way to Science Success." The book ends with a summary chapter by editor Robert Yager on successes and continuing challenges in meeting the Standards' visions for improving high school science. As Yager notes, "The exemplary programs described in this monograph give inspiration while also providing evidence that the new directions are feasible and worth the energy and effort needed for others to implement changes.

2009-05-18

187

Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Essay titles reveal the range of programs--and creativity--this book encompasses. Among the titles are "Technology and Cooperative Learning: The IIT Model for Teaching Authentic Chemistry Curriculum," "Modeling: Changes in Traditional Physics Instruction," "Guided by the Standards: Inquiry and Assessment in Two Rural and Urban Schools," and even "Sing and Dance Your Way to Science Success." The book ends with a summary chapter by editor Robert Yager on successes and continuing challenges in meeting the Standards' visions for improving high school science. As Yager notes, "The exemplary programs described in this monograph give inspiration while also providing evidence that the new directions are feasible and worth the energy and effort needed for others to implement changes.

2005-01-01

188

Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude…

Yager, Robert E., Ed

2005-01-01

189

Grade-A Perfect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the wealth of information available, there is no consensus on best practices for grading. In this article, the author identifies four key philosophical questions that should guide the development of a teacher's grading system and provides tips that can help principals guide teachers in developing a grading system. (Contains 1 figure.)

Brown, Joseph

2004-01-01

190

Science Sampler: Using grading systems to promote analytical thinking skills, responsibility, and reflection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As educators, we know that math must be integrated into our subject to best communicate the essence of scientific investigation. Unfortunately, this is easier said than done when students learn subjects in isolated classrooms on a daily basis. As young scientists, students must learn to recognize trends in scientific data. In order to develop these skills, students must first practice precise techniques for recording data, and the best way to develop in students an eye for mathematic systems is to study one that they can most relate to--their own grades.

Chesbro, Robert

2008-09-01

191

Optical Frequency Standards Based on Neutral Atoms and Molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current status and prospects of optical frequency standards based on neutral atomic and molecular absorbers are reviewed. Special attention is given to an optical frequency standard based on cold Ca atoms which are interrogated with a pulsed excitation scheme leading to resolved line structures with a quality factor Q > 10^12. The optical frequency was measured by comparison with PTB's primary clock to be ?Ca = 455 986 240 494.13 kHz with a total relative uncertainty of 2.5 x10^-13. After a recent recommendation of the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM), this frequency standard now represents one of the most accurate realizations of the length unit.

Riehle, Fritz; Helmcke, Juergen

192

An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy.  

PubMed

Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu(2+) anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60 °C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat. PMID:24845707

Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

2014-01-01

193

Frequency and time standards based on stored ions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The method of ion storage provides a basis for excellent time and frequency standards. This is due to the ability to confine ions for long periods of time without the usual perturbations associated with confinement (e.g., wall shifts). In addition, Doppler effects can be greatly suppressed. The use of stored ions for microwave frequency standards and the future possibilities for an optical frequency standard based on stored ions are addressed.

Bollinger, J. J.; Wineland, D. J.; Itano, W. M.; Bergquist, J. C.; Prestage, J. D.

1984-01-01

194

Transportation Systems. Grades 9-10. Course #8126 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is intended for use in teaching a course in transportation systems. The course, which has been designed for students in grades 9 and 10, is intended to provide a basic understanding of transportation systems and the role of energy systems in transportation. The first two sections discuss the guide's development within the framework of…

North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

195

The Weaknesses and Shortcomings of the Junior High School in Israel: Some Insights into Grade Configurations of Educational Systems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study aimed to explore the weaknesses of the junior high school system in Israel, a country whose first junior high schools (Grades 7-9) were established in the early 1970s and whose educational system differs from the systems of Europe and North America in terms of structure, ideology, and control. Based on semistructured interviews…

Oplatka, Izhar; Tubin, Dorit

2009-01-01

196

Evaluation of C Programming Exercises by the Automatic Reports Grading Support System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, the degree of similarity between reports is calculated by the one pair comparison method and the TF·IDF method, the z-scores are calculated by all words and some keywords in a report. The training data for the neural network is made by these values, and the automatic grading support system, which evaluates reports in 5 steps, has been developed. The reports of the C programming exercises submitted by e-mail could predict the score within an error of 10% by using this system, compared to manual operation. Furthermore, the office hours of 3 TAs could be reduced to 0, and contributed to improving the quality of writing reports for the students.

Watanabe, Hiroyuki

197

Student performance and grading changes in a systems-based curriculum  

PubMed Central

Introduction Changing from a conventional discipline-based, basic science medical school curriculum to an integrated systems-based curriculum, which was graded on overall performance not by discipline, was associated with a highly significant improvement in an externally administered comprehensive exam at the end of the 2-year basic science program. The reason for the improvement was unclear, but we hypothesized that it was partly due to a change in student study strategy. Anecdotal evidence suggested that students had changed their study habits to spend less time on previously harder-to-pass courses and more time on courses with previously lower failure rates. If this were so, performance in previously harder disciplines might have deteriorated, while performance in previously easier disciplines could have improved. Methods We examined relative performance in the four discipline-based courses of Systemic Pathology, Microbiology, Pharmacology, and Introductory Clinical Medicine (ICM) in the fourth (and last) semester of the curriculum. We compared failure rates in these four courses for the three cohorts before the change with the three cohorts after. Results Pharmacology and Microbiology which had failure rates over twice as high as Systemic Pathology and ICM in the conventional program before the curriculum change showed a deterioration in performance after the change with an approximately threefold rise in internal failure rate. In contrast, Systemic Pathology showed a dramatic improvement with a more than threefold drop in the failure rate, while the ICM clinical skills course, which was largely assessed by a practical exam in all 6 cohorts, showed no change. Conclusion The improvement in student performance in an external assessment may be due, at least partly, to a change in the school's internal grading policy which led to a more appropriate balancing of student study strategies. Future studies on the effect of curriculum change should include an assessment of the impact on student study strategies.

Cooles, Philip E.; Harrigan-Vital, Miscilda; Laville, Agnes

2014-01-01

198

Examining the Validity and Fairness of a State Standards-Based Assessment of English-Language Arts for Deaf or Hard of Hearing Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the appropriateness of a large-scale state standards-based English-Language Arts (ELA) assessment for students who are deaf or hard of hearing by comparing the internal test structures for these students to students without disabilities. The Grade 4 and 8 ELA assessments were analyzed via a series of parcel-level exploratory…

Steinberg, Jonathan; Cline, Frederick; Ling, Guangming; Cook, Linda; Tognatta, Namrata

2009-01-01

199

Graded photonic quasicrystals.  

PubMed

We introduce graded photonic quasicrystals and investigate properties of such structures on the example of a Luneburg lens based on a dodecagonal photonic quasicrystal. It is shown that the graded photonic quasicrystal lens has better focusing properties as compared with the graded photonic crystal lens in a frequency range suitable for experimental realization. The proposed graded photonic quasicrystals can be used in optical systems where compact and powerful focusing elements are required. PMID:22739847

Dyachenko, Pavel N; Pavelyev, Vladimir S; Soifer, Victor A

2012-06-15

200

Recanalisation of middle cerebral artery occlusion after intra-arterial thrombolysis: different recanalisation grading systems and clinical functional outcome  

PubMed Central

Background: Different grading systems of arterial recanalisation have never been compared in large series of stroke patients treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT). Methods: Clinical and angiographic findings and outcome were analysed in 147 patients with M1 or M2 segment occlusion of the middle cerebral artery treated with IAT. Associations of the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) grading system and the Mori grading system with clinical outcome were compared. Results: The median NIHSS score on admission was 15 and the mean time from symptom onset to IAT was 242 minutes. After three months the outcome was favourable (defined as modified Rankin scale score (mRS) ?2) in 85 patients (58%) and poor (mRS 3 to 5) in 44 (30%); 18 patients (12%) were dead. Recanalisation was categorised as TIMI grade 0 in 17 patients (12%), TIMI 1 in 16 (11%), TIMI 2 in 83 (56%), and TIMI 3 in 31(21%). Seventeen patients (12%) showed Mori grade 0 reperfusion, 16 (11%) Mori 1, 37 (25%) Mori 2, 46 (31%) Mori 3, and 31 (21%) Mori 4. In both TIMI and Mori grading systems, reopening the artery was an independent predictor of a favourable clinical outcome (p<0.0001). When recanalisation was partial, outcome was better in patients with reperfusion >50% (Mori 3) than in those with reperfusion <50% (Mori 2) (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Both TIMI and Mori grading systems are useful for predicting outcome after stroke and IAT. When recanalisation is partial the Mori classification is more refined in giving prognostic information.

Arnold, M; Nedeltchev, K; Remonda, L; Fischer, U; Brekenfeld, C; Keserue, B; Schroth, G; Mattle, H

2005-01-01

201

Revised definition of neuropathic pain and its grading system: an open case series illustrating its use in clinical practice.  

PubMed

The definition of neuropathic pain has recently been revised by an expert committee of the Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group of the International Association for the Study of Pain (NeuPSIG) as "pain arising as direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system," and a grading system of "definite," "probable," and "possible" neuropathic pain has been introduced. This open case series of 5 outpatients (3 men, 2 women; mean age 48 +/- 12 years) demonstrates how the grading system can be applied, in combination with appropriate confirmatory testing, to diagnosis neuropathic conditions in clinical practice. The proposed grading system includes a dynamic algorithm that enhances the physician's ability to determine with a greater level of certainty whether a pain condition is neuropathic. Its clinical use should be further validated in prospective studies. PMID:19801050

Geber, Christian; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Schwab, Rainer; Müller, Harald; Stoeter, Peter; Dieterich, Marianne; Sommer, Clemens; Birklein, Frank; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

2009-10-01

202

Grading-System-Dependent Volume Effects for Late Radiation-Induced Rectal Toxicity After Curative Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the association between the dose distributions in the rectum and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC), Late Effects of Normal Tissue SOMA, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 graded rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer treated with RT. Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 124 patients who received three-dimensional conformal RT for prostate cancer to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. All patients completed questionnaires regarding rectum complaints before RT and during long-term follow-up. Late rectum Grade 2 or worse toxicity, according to RTOG/EORTC, LENT SOMA, and CTCAE v3.0 criteria, was analyzed in relation to rectal dose and volume parameters. Results: Dose-volume thresholds (V40 {>=}65%, V50 {>=}55%, V65 {>=}45%, V70 {>=}20%, and a rectum volume {<=}140 cm{sup 3}), significantly discriminated patients with late Grade 0-1 and Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity, particularly using the LENT SOMA and CTCAE v3.0 systems. The rectum volume receiving {>=}70 Gy (V70) was most predictive for late Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity with each of the grading systems. The associations were strongest, however, with use of the LENT SOMA system. Conclusions: Volume effects for late radiation-induced rectal toxicity are present, but their clinical significance depends on the grading system used. This should be taken into account in the interpretation of studies reporting on radiation-induced rectal toxicity.

Laan, Hans Paul van der [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen/University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.p.van.der.laan@rt.umcg.nl; Bergh, Alphons van den; Schilstra, Cornelis; Vlasman, Renske; Meertens, Harm; Langendijk, Johannes A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Center Groningen/University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands)

2008-03-15

203

Career Education Program, 1980-1981, Columbia County School System. Teacher Guide, Grades 8-12. [Revised].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains a variety of materials to help teachers for grades 8-12 (specifically those in the Columbia County School System, Georgia) infuse career education into their classrooms. Contents include both school system-specific and general information: (1) brief discussion of career education; (2) listing of nine student outcome objectives;…

Central Savannah River Area Cooperative Educational Services Agency, Thomson, GA.

204

Technical and Economic Feasibility Study of At-Grade Concrete Slab Track for Urban Rail Transit Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents work conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of using concrete slab track systems for at-grade transit track. The functions of a rail transit track system are to guide railway vehicles and provide a safe and accept...

A. N. Hanna

1981-01-01

205

Fast-Setting Phenolic and Tannin-Based Honeymoon Adhesive Systems for Exterior Grade Glued Laminated Timber.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A fast setting two component adhesive system was used to manufacture exterior grade finger jointed timber on an industrial scale. Ten different adhesive systems were tested at 25 C and found to build up sufficient strength to permit machining of the timbe...

F. A. Cameron A. Pizzi D. Mosterd

1981-01-01

206

Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood.  

PubMed

Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one's status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9-16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child's role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health. PMID:24821813

Copeland, William E; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E Jane

2014-05-27

207

Childhood bullying involvement predicts low-grade systemic inflammation into adulthood  

PubMed Central

Bullying is a common childhood experience that involves repeated mistreatment to improve or maintain one’s status. Victims display long-term social, psychological, and health consequences, whereas bullies display minimal ill effects. The aim of this study is to test how this adverse social experience is biologically embedded to affect short- or long-term levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade systemic inflammation. The prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study (n = 1,420), with up to nine waves of data per subject, was used, covering childhood/adolescence (ages 9–16) and young adulthood (ages 19 and 21). Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and relevant covariates at all childhood/adolescent observations. Blood spots were collected at each observation and assayed for CRP levels. During childhood and adolescence, the number of waves at which the child was bullied predicted increasing levels of CRP. Although CRP levels rose for all participants from childhood into adulthood, being bullied predicted greater increases in CRP levels, whereas bullying others predicted lower increases in CRP compared with those uninvolved in bullying. This pattern was robust, controlling for body mass index, substance use, physical and mental health status, and exposures to other childhood psychosocial adversities. A child’s role in bullying may serve as either a risk or a protective factor for adult low-grade inflammation, independent of other factors. Inflammation is a physiological response that mediates the effects of both social adversity and dominance on decreases in health.

Copeland, William E.; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Shanahan, Lilly; Worthman, Carol; Costello, E. Jane

2014-01-01

208

Crack mechanics of functionally graded coating/substrate systems. Final report, 1 February 1995--31 January 1998  

SciTech Connect

This 3-year research program focuses on micromechanics and fracture mechanics analyses of cracking in functionally graded coating/substrate systems used in turbine engines and wear-related applications. Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are new advanced composites whose composition varies from place to place according to performance requirements. Recent developments of FGMs have demonstrated that functionally graded materials have the potential to enjoy a wide range of thermal and structural applications including thermal barrier coatings, wear, oxidation and corrosion resistant coatings and metal/ceramic joining. The objectives of the study include: establishing a fundamental understanding of the relationship between coating composition and performance, quantifying the influence of coating gradation, evaluating the effect of metal plasticity and crack bridging, and predicting the fracture driving forces and fracture resistance curves. Emphases in this study is placed on delamination fracture and multiple cracking in FGM coatings. The fundamental understanding gained from this study may enable one to select coatings at the component design stage. The systematic model predictions and design charts for the thermomechanical behavior of the coating/substrate systems may provide guidance to the gradation design of functionally graded coatings. This study thus can have a significant impact on the developments of functionally graded materials in turbine engine and wear related applications.

Bao, G.

1998-01-01

209

Repeatability and reproducibility of the Obel grading system for equine laminitis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate both the repeatability (intraobserver agreement) and reproducibility (interobserver agreement) of Obel grading, the most widely accepted method for describing the severity of equine laminitis. The study comprised two parts. In study A, to test intraobserver agreement, 25 ponies were graded twice by a single blinded experienced equine veterinary surgeon, on the first occasion via clinical examination and on the second occasion via a video recording of the initial clinical examination. In study B, to test interobserver agreement, video recordings of 13 ponies were graded independently by 58 blinded experienced equine veterinary surgeons. A weighted kappa (kappa(w)) statistic was used to determine the measure of agreement between gradings. Intraobserver agreement of Obel grading was shown to be moderate (kappa(w)=0.54), and interobserver agreement was found to be substantial (kappa(w)=0.65). In addition, intraobserver agreement improved from moderate to substantial (kappa(w) increased from 0.54 to 0.70) when the Obel grades were grouped and horses were categorised as either sound, or as having mild (grade 1 or 2) or severe (grade 3 or 4) lameness. PMID:20622203

Menzies-Gow, N J; Stevens, K B; Sepulveda, M F; Jarvis, N; Marr, C M

2010-07-10

210

A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Cuadros de Familia"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). In the summer of 1996, the Center offered the Culture and Children's…

Parvis-Condon, Katia; Kleinman, Donna; Brown, Joseph; Roa, Angela

1998-01-01

211

A reproducible and simple grading system for classical chondrosarcomas. Analysis of 35 chondrosarcomas and 16 enchondromas with emphasis on recurrence rate and radiological and clinical data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, six histological grading systems for classical chondrosarcoma have been published. Due to the inhomogeneity and complexity of these classifications, the comparison of clinical data, survival rates and local failures has to be considered critically. In 1996, the author published a grading system that was simple to use and easily reproduced. This system was based on a few

Heike Welkerling; Susanne Kratz; Volker Ewerbeck; Günter Delling

2003-01-01

212

Efficient Production of d-Tagatose Using a Food-Grade Surface Display System.  

PubMed

d-Tagatose, a functional sweetener, is commonly transformed from d-galactose by l-arabinose isomerase (l-AI). In this study, a novel type of biocatalyst, l-AI from Lactobacillus fermentum CGMCC2921 displayed on the spore surface of Bacillus subtilis 168, was developed for producing d-tagatose. The anchored l-AI, exhibiting the relatively high bioactivity, suggested that the surface display system using CotX as the anchoring protein was successfully constructed. The stability of the anchored l-AI was significantly improved. Specifically, the consolidation of thermal stability representing 87% of relative activity was retained even at 80 °C for 30 min, which remarkably favored the production of d-tagatose. Under the optimal conditions, the robust spores can convert 75% d-galactose (100 g/L) into d-tagatose after 24 h, and the conversion rate remained at 56% at the third cycle. Therefore, this biocatalysis system, which could express the target enzyme on the food-grade vector, was an alternative method for the value-added production of d-tagatose. PMID:24979201

Liu, Yi; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Wu, Lingtian; Xu, Zheng; Liu, Jing; Feng, Xiaohai

2014-07-16

213

The Effects of an Integrated Learning System (ILS) Using Incremental Time Allotments on Ninth Grade Algebra Achievement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses integrated learning systems (ILSs) and describes a study that considered the degree of linear relationship between time spent on the ILS and outcome achievement on ninth-grade algebra students. The effects of previous math and verbal achievement and sex differences are explored, and measurement instruments are described. (Contains 14…

West, Robert Charles; Marcotte, Donald R.

1994-01-01

214

Implementation of an Automated Grading System with an Adaptive Learning Component to Affect Student Feedback and Response Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research focuses on the development and implementation of an adaptive learning and grading system with a goal to increase the effectiveness and quality of feedback to students. By utilizing various concepts from established learning theories, the goal of this research is to improve the quantity, quality, and speed of feedback as it pertains…

Matthews, Kevin; Janicki, Thomas; He, Ling; Patterson, Laurie

2012-01-01

215

Evaluating the Effects of a Systemic Intervention on First-Grade Teachers' Explicit Reading Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the efficacy of a multitiered systemic reading intervention for increasing the intensity and quality of explicit literacy instruction that teachers provide in first-grade classrooms. Schools ("j" = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or comparison condition. In both conditions, teachers ("i" = 42)…

Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Smolkowski, Keith; Smith, Jean Louise M.; Baker, Scott K.

2013-01-01

216

Grading Students in Inclusive Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers guidelines for determining equitable, accountable, and effective grading practices and policies for all students that balance the need for a common set of standards and the individual needs of the students. Purposes of grading, grading systems, and effective instructional practices that support grading processes are discussed.…

Salend, Spencer J.; Duhaney, Laurel M. Garrick

2002-01-01

217

Histological grading in a large series of advanced stage ovarian carcinomas by three widely used grading systems: consistent lack of prognostic significance. A translational research subprotocol of a prospective randomized phase III study (AGO-OVAR 3 protocol)  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is no doubt that histologic grading is applicable in early stage ovarian carcinoma, it is still in controversial\\u000a discussion concerning advanced stage ovarian carcinoma. It was the aim of this study to assess the three most widely used\\u000a grading systems for ovarian carcinoma in terms of prognostic significance, concordance rates, and reproducibility in a large\\u000a number of advanced

Stefan Kommoss; Dietmar Schmidt; Friedrich Kommoss; Juergen Hedderich; Philipp Harter; Jacobus Pfisterer; Andreas du Bois

2009-01-01

218

Investigating the potential value of individual parameters of histological grading systems in a sheep model of cartilage damage: the Modified Mankin method  

PubMed Central

A total histological grade does not necessarily distinguish between different manifestations of cartilage damage or degeneration. An accurate and reliable histological assessment method is required to separate normal and pathological tissue within a joint during treatment of degenerative joint conditions and to sub-classify the latter in meaningful ways. The Modified Mankin method may be adaptable for this purpose. We investigated how much detail may be lost by assigning one composite score/grade to represent different degenerative components of the osteoarthritic condition. We used four ovine injury models (sham surgery, anterior cruciate ligament/medial collateral ligament instability, simulated anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and meniscal removal) to induce different degrees and potentially ‘types’ (mechanisms) of osteoarthritis. Articular cartilage was systematically harvested, prepared for histological examination and graded in a blinded fashion using a Modified Mankin grading method. Results showed that the possible permutations of cartilage damage were significant and far more varied than the current intended use that histological grading systems allow. Of 1352 cartilage specimens graded, 234 different manifestations of potential histological damage were observed across 23 potential individual grades of the Modified Mankin grading method. The results presented here show that current composite histological grading may contain additional information that could potentially discern different stages or mechanisms of cartilage damage and degeneration in a sheep model. This approach may be applicable to other grading systems.

Moody, Hayley R; Heard, Bryan J; Frank, Cyril B; Shrive, Nigel G; Oloyede, Adekunle O

2012-01-01

219

Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance  

PubMed Central

Objective Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Materials and methods Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. Results We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. Discussions This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Conclusions Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites.

Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

2014-01-01

220

Keep It Cheap, Keep It Local, and Keep It Coming: Standards-Based Accountability Reform in Wisconsin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a multiple perspectives model that incorporates the normative, symbolic, and political perspectives, the author analyzes the emergence of standards-based accountability reform in the state of Wisconsin. His analysis offers insight into the effectiveness of various political actors' attempts to alter the state's education systems. Through…

Brown, Christopher P.

2008-01-01

221

Instituting a Standards-Based K--12 Science Curriculum Supplement Program at the National Institutes of Health: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on student achievement indicates the U.S. K-12 education system is not adequately preparing American students to compete in the 21st century global economy in the areas of science and mathematics. Congress has asked the scientific entities of the federal government to help increase K-12 science learning by creating standards-based

Witherly, Jeffre

2010-01-01

222

A nuclear grading system is a strong predictor of survival in epitheloid diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma  

PubMed Central

Epithelioid mesothelioma is the most prevalent subtype of diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma in which only staging is prognostic for survival. In this study of epithelioid diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma, we investigate the prognostic utility of nuclear features. The slides of 232 epithelioid diffuse malignant pleural mesothelioma patients (14 stage I, 54 stage II, 130 stage III, and 34 stage IV) from a single institution were reviewed for the following seven nuclear features: nuclear atypia, nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio, chromatin pattern, intranuclear inclusions, prominence of nucleoli, mitotic count, and atypical mitoses. MIB-1 immunohistochemistry was performed using tissue microarray, and MIB-1 labeling index was recorded as the percentage of positive tumor cells. Median overall survival of all patients was 16 months and correlated with nuclear atypia (P<0.001), chromatin pattern (P=0.031), prominence of nucleoli (P<0.001), mitotic count (P<0.001), and atypical mitoses (P<0.001) by univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed nuclear atypia (P=0.012) and mitotic count (P<0.001) as independent prognostic factors, and these two factors were utilized to create a three-tier nuclear grade score. The resulting nuclear grade stratified patients into three distinct prognostic groups: grade I (n=107, median overall survival = 28 months), grade II (n=91, 14 months), and grade III (n=34, 5 months). Not only was nuclear grade an independent predictor of overall survival (P<0.001), but it was also a stronger discriminator of survival than all currently available factors. Furthermore, nuclear grade was associated with time to recurrence (P=0.004) in patients who underwent complete surgical resection (n=159). MIB-1 labeling index correlated with mitotic count (P<0.001) and nuclear atypia (P=0.037) and stratified overall survival (P<0.001) and time to recurrence (P=0.048), confirming the prognostic value of the nuclear grade. Nuclear grading in epithelioid mesothelioma provides a simple, practical, and cost-effective prognostic tool that better stratifies clinical outcome and time to recurrence than currently available clinicopathologic factors.

Kadota, Kyuichi; Suzuki, Kei; Colovos, Christos; Sima, Camelia S; Rusch, Valerie W; Travis, William D; Adusumilli, Prasad S

2014-01-01

223

Quasi-isentropic compression using functionally graded materials in gas gun and explosive driven systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of hydrodynamic simulations of dynamic compression experiments performed by impact loading of materials are reported. The simulations pertain to a new approach for generating quasi-isentropic compression using functionally graded materials (FGM). First of all, we focus on quasi-isentropic compression waves generated by a constant velocity impactor (similar to that from a gas gun). Quasi-isentropic compression is characterized from the temporal profiles of pressure at target surface and fluid velocity at target-window interface generated from different functional forms of density variation along the FGM flyer. It is shown that quadratic FGM is the best option for increasing rise time of pressure pulse. Secondly, FGM induced quasi-isentropic compressions are studied by accelerating the impactor with high explosive (HE) driven shocks in both the cases when impactor is in contact with the target (contact geometry) and separated from target by air gap (flyer geometry). The study reveals that nearly isentropic pressure profiles can be realized with quadratic FGM impactor in flyer geometry. Contact geometry produces a distinct initial pressure jump which is undesirable for isentropic compression. Finally, quasi-isentropic compressions are observed for spherically symmetric FGM flyers driven by HE. Here also it is seen that quadratic FGM impactor serves better in improving the peak impact velocity at shell target. Thus, based on the study, we conclude that quadratic FGM is the right choice for generating quasi-isentropic compression. The parameters of the FGM impactors, optimized using a genetic algorithm code, are also presented for both planar and spherical systems.

Ray, Aditi; Menon, S. V. G.

2009-03-01

224

Correlation of age-related cataract density graded by the Scheimpflug Imaging System with visual function and phacoemulsification energy.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between lens density in age-related cataract and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the impact of cataract grade assessed via 3D lens densitometry by Pentacam Nucleus Grading System (PNS) on Phacodynamics (phaco-time and phaco-energy). To achieve the aim 55 patients with age-related cataract were evaluated. Lens density was assessed using the PNS. BCVA was tested with Snellen chart. Surgery was performed with no adjustment of parameters and phaco-energy-time was monitored. The correlations between the lens density, BCVA and phaco-energy/time were analyzed. There was a negative linear correlation between lens density and BCVA and positive correlation between density and total dissipated phaco-energy. The cataract PNS grade negatively correlated with the visual function. The positive correlation was found between the lens density and phacoemulsification time and energy. The Scheimpflug optical densitometry offers objective grading and can be used both for prediction and for monitoring of the condition. PNS enables to predict phacodynamics and the most suitable phaco settings to minimize the disturbance of the eye during surgery. PMID:23837218

Belíkova, Jitka; Synek, Svatopluk

2013-04-01

225

The high-grade Tseel Terrane in SW Mongolia: An Early Paleozoic arc system or a Precambrian sliver?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high-grade metamorphic Tseel Terrane in southwestern Mongolia is dominated by a strongly deformed sequence of migmatitic gneisses which has previously been interpreted as an early Precambrian continental sliver. However, the protolith age and timing of high-grade metamorphism remain poorly constrained. To resolve this problem, high-grade gneisses selected from the western Tseel Terrane were dated in the present study. Zircons with oscillatory zoning from three paragneisses predominantly yielded early Paleozoic ages between 450 and 550 Ma, with prominent peaks at 471 and 506 Ma. U-Pb dating of zircons from a granitic gneiss revealed that the protolith was emplaced at 420 Ma. Zircons from a leucocratic granite vein gave a concordant age of 385 ± 3 Ma, close to ages of metamorphic zircons in the gneissic rocks, which is interpreted to record a high-temperature thermal event in the region. These results indicate that the Tseel Terrane principally consists of early Paleozoic rocks which underwent a high-grade metamorphic event in the Middle Devonian. In addition, SHRIMP dating of dominant magmatic zircons from an associated schist yielded a concordant U-Pb age of 495 ± 5 Ma, similar to those of the major zircon group in the high-grade paragneiss. A felsic tuffaceous sample yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 511 ± 4 Ma, documenting early Paleozoic volcanism which probably contributed to the deposition of the sediments in the region. Geochemically, high-grade paragneisses and low-grade schists show close similarities, and their common features suggest that their protoliths may represent significant erosion products of Cambrian arc magmatic rocks with minor old crustal components that were deposited in an active margin setting. The granitic gneiss with subduction-related chemical characteristics further favors an arc setting for the Tseel Terrane. Accordingly, our data combined with previous work suggest that the Tseel Terrane represents the constituent part of an early Paleozoic arc system situated on the southern margin of North Mongolian Domain. This arc system extended from western Mongolia to the Chinese Altai because various geological features of these two regions have close similarities.

Jiang, Yingde; Sun, Min; Kröner, Alfred; Tumurkhuu, Dondov; Long, Xiaoping; Zhao, Guochun; Yuan, Chao; Xiao, Wenjiao

2012-06-01

226

Grading to Communicate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High school teacher and instructional coach Tony Winger laments how traditional classroom grading practices lead to grades becoming a distraction from learning--a commodity students feel they work the system to attain--rather than a clear message to students and parents. Teachers' passion for their subjects is too often met with students'…

Winger, Tony

2005-01-01

227

Grading Exceptional Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers often grapple with the challenge of giving report card grades to students with learning disabilities and English language learners. The authors offer a five-step model that "offers a fair, accurate, and legal way to adapt the grading process for exceptional learners." The model begins with a high-quality reporting system for all students…

Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

2010-01-01

228

Standard-based integration profiles for clinical research and patient safety.  

PubMed

EHRs can now be adapted to integrate seamlessly with existing research platforms. However, key challenges need to be overcome in order to provide a platform that functions across many EHR systems. The IHE Quality, Research and Public Health (QRPH) domain addresses the information exchange standards necessary to share information relevant to quality improvement in patient care and clinical research. In collaboration with CDISC's Healthcare Link initiative, IHE QRPH has developed a set of integration profiles that specifically address EHR-enabled research. The panel participants from three European projects will present how subsets of existing IHE QRPH profiles can be pulled together (and extended when necessary) to form a super profile which will standardize and automate the clinical trial process flow. The EHR4CR project is providing adaptable, reusable and scalable tools and services for reusing data from hospital EHRs for Clinical Research. TRANSFoRm is developing an informatics infrastructure to support the learning healthcare system in European Primary Care. SALUS project is providing scalable, standard based interoperability framework for sustainable proactive post market safety studies. Overall, the panel will discuss the key steps towards realizing a joint EHR4CR/TRANSFoRm/SALUS European projectathon demonstrating EHR-enabled clinical research across Europe using standard-based integration and content profiles. PMID:24303234

Daniel, Christel; Erturkmen, Gokce Banu Laleci; Sinaci, Ali Anil; Delaney, Brendan C; Curcin, Vasa; Bain, Landen

2013-01-01

229

A computer vision system for automated grading of rough hardwood lumber using a knowledge-based approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer vision system that locates and identifies grading defects in rough hardwood lumber in a species-independent manner is described in detail. It consists of a low-level module that performs segmentation and extracts region properties, and a high-level module that identifies the type of defect present in each of the regions passed from the low-level module and extracts the appropriate

Tai-Hoon Cho; R. W. Conners; Philip A. Araman

1990-01-01

230

Preferable correlation to blastocyst development and pregnancy rates with a new embryo grading system specific for day 3 embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To investigate the cleavage stage embryo quality by the correlation between the morphological features and blastocyst development\\u000a rate to develop a new embryo grading system.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods: A retrospective analysis, including 216 cycles of cleavage stage embryo transfer and 251 cycles of blastocyst transfer.\\u000a The correlation with blastocyst development of the embryo cleavage stage, fragmentation and uniformity of blastomeres was

Masao Nomura; Akira Iwase; Kenji Furui; Takeshi Kitagawa; Yuka Matsui; Manami Yoshikawa; Fumitaka Kikkawa

2007-01-01

231

Early elementary curricular alignment and teacher perspectives on standards-based reform.  

PubMed

The author investigated the alignment of reading instruction to Wisconsin Model Academic Standards for Reading, grades 1-4 (Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 1998a). Teachers in 18 hearing-only, 10 mixed (hearing and deaf students), and 8 deaf-only classrooms were study participants. Teacher groups demonstrated equal alignment to the standards. The study also measured teachers' views on standards. Teachers in hearing-only and deaf-only classrooms scored higher on a scale measuring receptivity toward standards than teachers in mixed classrooms. Teachers in hearing-only classrooms considered the standards good guidelines though perhaps too prescriptive. Teachers in deaf-only and mixed classrooms viewed standards as tools to ensure equity for students but also focused on challenges like the emphasis on phonetics and their need to include sign in deaf students' instruction. Limitations include the challenge of generalizing standards-based analysis, the small number of participants, and use of self-report measures of classroom instruction. PMID:15727062

Cawthon, Stephanie W

232

Valoración pronóstica del carcinoma ductal infiltrante mamario en PAAF. Estudio comparativo de tres sistemas de graduación citológica Prognostic evaluation of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Comparative study of three cytological grading systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY We have evaluated three different systems of cytologic grading based in morphological parameters in order to define the Cytological Grade (CG) making a correlation with the Histological Grade (HG), Histological Cytological Grade (HCG) and the Histological Mitotic Index (HMI) in 366 FNA biopsies from surgical specimens of the breast without fixation diagnosed as invasive ductal carcinoma. The sensitivity and

Francisco Javier Torres Gómez; Luis Felipe Calle Cruz; Francisco Javier Torres Oliver

233

Exploring the Relationship between Text-Leveling Systems and Reading Accuracy and Fluency in Second-Grade Students Who Are Average and Poor Decoders. Learning Disabilities Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between different text-leveling systems and reading accuracy and fluency in second-grade students with and without decoding difficulties. Two-hundred-forty-eight second-grade students, 44 identified as low achieving (LA) and 204 identified as average achieving (AA) in decoding skill,…

Compton, Donald L.; Appleton, Amanda C.; Hosp, Michelle K.

2004-01-01

234

77 FR 35163 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...two exceptions. At a farm grade crossing, a...associated fatalities, injuries, and damages. Thus...hazard of death or injury to an individual or...adding the term ``farm grade crossing'' to explain that farm grade crossings...

2012-06-12

235

Application of the Navy Average Grade Model to the Naval Underwater Systems Center.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Forecasts for manpower requirements by NUSC for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 were made using a linear regression model of the goal programming variety. An application of one of the Charnes, Cooper, Niehaus career management models for manpower planning was then made to evaluate the consequences of the policy reducing average GS grade to 9.35 while…

Mannis, Laurence S.

236

Goal: A Grading System That Demands Excellence on the Playing Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the vast array of educational practices that are present in today's society, grading is one practice that has established a historical foundation and one that will continue to be an important aspect to the profession of education. This small scale study determined that both undergraduate and graduate learners, in one college instructor's…

Cady, Jennifer R.

2011-01-01

237

Energy Systems - Present, Future: Extra Terrestrials, Grades 7, 8, 9,/Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 12 lessons presented in this guide are structured so that they may be integrated into science lessons in 7th-, 8th-, or 9th-grades. Suggestions are made for extension of study. Lessons are approached through classroom role-playing of outer space visitors who seek to understand energy conversion principles used on Earth. Major emphasis is…

National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

238

Reproducibility and Prognostic Value of WHO1973 and WHO2004 Grading Systems in TaT1 Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder  

PubMed Central

Background European treatment guidelines of TaT1 urinary bladder urothelial carcinomas depend highly on stage and WHO1973-grade but grading reproducibility is wanting. The newer WHO2004 grading system is still debated and both systems are currently used. Aims To compare reproducibility and prognostic value (of stage progression) of the WHO1973 and WHO2004. Methods One hundred and ninety-three primary urothelial carcinomas were reviewed. Follow-up data were retrieved from the patient records. Kappa statistics and Harrell's C-index were used. Results Median follow-up was 75 months (range 1–127). 17 patients (9%) progressed, 82% of these within and 18% after 60 months. The distribution of WHO73-grades 1, 2 and 3 was 23%, 51% and 26%, interobserver agreement for each individual grade was 66% (kappa?=?0.68), while for grades 1&2 versus 3 89% (kappa?=?0.68). Intraobserver reproducibility was 68–63% for WHO73 and 88–89% for WHO73 as 1&2 vs.3. Progression free survival rates at 5 years were 95% (grade 1), 98% (grade 2) and 82% (grade 3) and 96% and 82% for grades 1&2 versus 3 (Hazard Ratio, HR, 5.4, p?=?0.003). Using WHO2004, 62% were low grade and 38% high grade, inter-observer agreement 87% (kappa?=?0.70), intraobserver reproducibility 93%, and progression free 5-year survival rates 97% and 85% (HR 6.6, p?=?0.004). Positive and negative predictive values for stage progression within 5 years for the WHO73 (1&2 vs. 3) were 18% and 96%, and 15% and 97% for the WHO04. Using Harrell's C-index, none of the grading systems was prognostically superior. Conclusion None of the grading systems is prognostically stronger than the others. Most importantly, inter-observer reproducibility and sensitivities for stage progression of both systems are low and need improvement for optimal treatment.

Mangrud, Ok Malfrid; Waalen, Rune; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Dalen, Ingvild; Tasdemir, Ilker; Janssen, Emiel A. M.; Baak, Jan P. A.

2014-01-01

239

Evaluation of the WHO 2010 Grading and AJCC/UICC Staging Systems in Prognostic Behavior of Intestinal Neuroendocrine Tumors  

PubMed Central

Background The increasing incidence and heterogeneous behavior of intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (iNETs) pose a clinicopathological challenge. Our goal was to decribe the prognostic value of the new WHO 2010 grading and the AJCC/UICC TNM staging systems for iNETs. Moreover, outcomes of patients treated with somatostatin analogs were assessed. Methods We collected epidemiological and clinicopathological data from 93 patients with histologically proven iNETs including progression and survival outcomes. The WHO 2010 grading and the AJCC/UICC TNM staging systems were applied for all cases. RECIST criteria were used to define progression. Kaplan-Meier analyses for progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were performed. Results Mean follow-up was 58.6 months (4–213 months). WHO 2010 grading yielded PFS and disease-specific OS of 125.0 and 165.8 months for grade 1 (G1), 100.0 and 144.2 months for G2 and 15.0 and 15.8 months for G3 tumors (p?=?0.004 and p?=?0.001). Using AJCC staging, patients with stage I and II tumors had no progression and no deaths. Stage III and IV patients demonstrated PFS of 138.4 and 84.7 months (p?=?0.003) and disease-specific OS of 210.0 and 112.8 months (p?=?0.017). AJCC staging also provided informative PFS (91.2 vs. 50.0 months, p?=?0.004) and OS (112.3 vs. 80.0 months, p?=?0.005) measures with somatostatin analog use in stage IV patients. Conclusion Our findings underscore the complementarity of WHO 2010 and AJCC classifications in providing better estimates of iNETS disease outcomes and extend the evidence for somatostatin analog benefit in patients with metastatic disease.

Araujo, Paula B.; Cheng, Sonia; Mete, Ozgur; Serra, Stefano; Morin, Emilie; Asa, Sylvia L.; Ezzat, Shereen

2013-01-01

240

Effect of graded interlayer on the mode I edge delamination by residual stresses in multilayer coating-based systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mode I edge delamination could be initiated due to the presence of the interfacial peeling stresses near the edges of the multilayered systems due to the material mismatches between the adjacent layers. However, the exact peeling stress distributions could not be obtained by using the existing analytical and numerical models. It was proposed recently that the peeling moment resulting from the localized peeling stresses could be used to characterize mode I edge delamination. In this paper, the effect of the graded interlayer on the mode I edge delamination by thermal residual stresses in multilayer coating-based systems was investigated. Following the previous analysis approaches, the exact closed-form solutions for the peeling moments at individual interfaces and the curvatures for bilayer system, typical thermal barrier coating (TBC) system and TBC-based system with a graded interlayer inserted between the metallic layer and the ceramic layer were, respectively, derived. Case studies showed that the edge delamination by thermal stress could be impeded by properly selecting the coating materials and individual layer thicknesses. These studies may provide some important insights for developing fail-safe designing methodologies for multilayered systems.

Zhang, X. C.; Xu, B. S.; Wang, H. D.; Wu, Y. X.

2008-01-01

241

New grading system of cerebral gliomas using positron emission tomography with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose.  

PubMed

Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18 (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been reported to be a powerful diagnostic and prognostic tool in patients with primary brain tumors. This study was undertaken to compare the prognostic value of: (1) visual grading of [18]FDG uptake in the tumor, (2) the absolute glucose metabolic rate of the tumor (TMRglc), (3) the ratio of glucose metabolism between the tumor and whole brain (T/WB) and (4) between the tumor and contralateral cerebellum (T/CBL). Each of these four parameters was correlated with the survival time in 20 patients with malignant cerebral gliomas. Excellent correlation was obtained with visual grading and reasonably good correlation was obtained with T/WB or T/CBL, but TMRglc alone was only a fair prognostic indicator. Thus, visual grading provides a qualitative analysis and T/WB provides a semi-quantitative analysis neither of which requires arterial blood sampling for quantification of absolute metabolic rates for glucose. PMID:2022975

Kim, C K; Alavi, J B; Alavi, A; Reivich, M

1991-02-01

242

The impact on dental students of changes to the National Board Dental Examination grading system.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess how the change to pass/fail grading of the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Part I has impacted dental students' study habits and their perspectives on pursuit of postdoctoral specialty education. This cross-sectional survey-based study included over 75 percent of U.S. dental schools and a total of 1,843 responses. This sample was 18.5 percent of all potentially eligible U.S. dental students. Participating schools distributed the electronic survey to their last class to take the NBDE Part I for a numerical score and the first class to take the NBDE Part I pass/fail. Respondents who took the exam for a numerical score and were interested in a specialty reported studying the most (average 167 hours) compared to respondents who took the exam pass/fail (average 114 hours). Respondents who took the exam pass/fail and reported feeling that this change decreased their chances of getting into a specialty program outnumbered those who thought the change increased their chances (3:1). This study observed a correlation between the recent grading changes to the NBDE Part I and decreased reported study time. Eighty percent of the respondents preferred a standardized, objective measure to help differentiate them when applying to specialty programs, and the majority reported feeling that the change in grading practices negatively affected their chances of pursuing a specialty. PMID:24882766

Fagin, Adam P; Howell, T Howard; Da Silva, John; Park, Sang E

2014-06-01

243

A COMPUTER VISION SYSTEM FOR AUTOMATED GRADING OF ROUGH HARDWOOD LUMBER USING A KNOWLEDGE-BASE D APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sawmill cuts logs into lumber and sells this lumber to secondary remanufactures. The price a sawmiller can charge for a volume of lumber depends on its grade, For a number of species the price of a given volume of material can double in going from one grade to the next higher grade. Thus, accurately establishing the grade of a

Richard W. Conners; Philip A. Araman

1990-01-01

244

A New Framework for Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grading is one of the least liked, least understood and least considered aspects of teaching. After years of work, we have developed a grading system that is quite different from traditional and reformed approaches to grading and which meaningfully incorporates and integrates the collection of evidence, the evaluation of evidence, and the…

Green, Kris H.; Emerson, Allen

2007-01-01

245

Alternative Methods to Practicum Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The grading system for technical practicums in theatre at California State University, San Bernandino uses an evaluation form completed by each student's practicum supervisor. The evaluation form gives concrete evidence that there are viable criteria for grading practicums, and also helps if a student wishes to challenge his or her grade. Usually…

Lewicki, Kathleen

246

High-resolution CT scoring system-based grading scale predicts the clinical outcomes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Background The 2011 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) guidelines are based on the diagnosis of IPF using only high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). However, few studies have thus far reviewed the usefulness of the HRCT scoring system based on the grading scale provided in the guidelines. We retrospectively studied 98 patients with respect to assess the prognostic value of changes in HRCT findings using a new HRCT scoring system based on the grading scale published in the guidelines. Methods Consecutive patients with IPF who were diagnosed using HRCT alone between January 2008 and January 2012 were evaluated. HRCT examinations and pulmonary function tests were performed at six-month intervals for the first year after diagnosis. The HRCT findings were evaluated using the new HRCT scoring system (HRCT fibrosis score) over time. The findings and survival rates were analyzed using a Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results The HRCT fibrosis scores at six and 12 months after diagnosis were significantly increased compared to those observed at the initial diagnosis (p?system based on the grading scale is useful for predicting the clinical outcomes of IPF and identifying patients with an adverse prognosis when used in combination with spirometry.

2014-01-01

247

Utilization of the graded universal testing system to increase the efficiency for assessing aerobic and anaerobic capacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The in-flight exercise test performed by cosmonauts as part of the Russian Exercise Countermeasure Program is limited to 5 minutes due to communication restrictions. During a recent graded exercise test on a U.S. Shuttle flight, the test was terminated early due to an upcoming loss of signal (LOS) with the ground. This exercise test was a traditional test where the subject's exercise capacity dictates the length of the test. For example, one crew member may take 15 minutes to complete the test, while another may take 18 minutes. The traditional exercise test limits the flight schedulers to large blocks of space flight time in order to provide medical and research personnel information on the fitness capacity (maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max) of crew members during flight. A graded exercise test that would take a finite amount of time and a set preparation and recovery time would ease this problem by allowing flight schedulers to plan exercise tests in advance of LOS. The Graded Universal Testing System (GUTS) was designed to meet this goal. Fitness testing of astronauts before and after flight provides pertinent data on many variables. The Detailed Supplemental Objective (DSO608) protocol (6) is one of the graded exercise tests (GXT) currently used in astronaut testing before and after flight. Test times for this protocol have lasted from 11 to 18 minutes. Anaerobic capacity is an important variable that is currently not being evaluated before and after flight. Recent reports (1,2,5) from the literature have suggested that the oxygen deficit at supramaximal exercise is a measure of anaerobic capacity. We postulated that the oxygen deficit at maximal exercise would be an indication of anaerobic capacity. If this postulate can be accepted, then the efficiency of acquiring data from a graded exercise test would increase at least twofold. To examine this hypothesis anaerobic capacity was measured using a modified treadmill test (3,4) designed to exhaust the anaerobic systems in approximately 45 to 75 seconds. Lactate concentration in the blood was analyzed after all tests, since lactate is the end-product of anaerobic energy production. Therefore, the peak lactate response is an additional indication of anaerobic capacity. A preliminary comparison of the GUTS and the DSO608 suggests that the GUTS protocol would increase the efficiency of VO2max testing of astronauts before and after flight. Results for anaerobic capacity have not been tabulated.

Rodgers, Sandra L.

1992-01-01

248

Reduction of propagation loss by introducing hybrid plasmonic model in graded-grating based "trapped rainbow" system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hybrid plasmonic waveguide is capable of supporting deep sub-wavelength confinement and long-range propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). In this article, we propose to employ a silica layer between a silver film and silicon layer to improve the propagation characteristic of slow SPPs in the "trapped rainbow" system based on graded grating structure. Finite difference time domain simulation demonstrates that the improved structure is able to localize light of different frequencies at different positions and offers the advantage of supporting slow SPPs with a much lower propagation loss. The proposed structure might find great applications in optical processing and optical communication.

Zhang, Tian; Chen, Lin; Li, Xun

2013-08-01

249

The Iceland Deep Drilling Project: (III) Evidence for amphibolite grade contact metamorphism in an active geothermal system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the scientific goals of the Iceland Deep Drilling Project is to reach the depths of transition from greenschist to amphibolite grade metamorphism in an active geothermal system. The deepest borehole to date in the Reykjanes system is RN-17, which was drilled to a depth of 3082 m. This well had been considered as a candidate for deepening by the IDDP until it collapsed during a flow test in November 2005. Temperatures in the lower portion of the borehole were never recorded due to an obstruction at 2100 m depth, but are estimated to be approximately 340°C. Epidote, albite, and actinolite are ubiquitous within pillow basalt, hyaloclastite, and in veins, implying that greenschist grade conditions have been attained throughout much of the well below approximately 1200 m. Intrusive lithologies constitute approximately 50% of the observed cuttings between 2600 and 2700 m. These intrusive rocks have produced small, but recognizable contact metamorphic effects characterized by granoblastic hornfels consisting of amphibolite grade assemblages of quartz + anorthite + diopside + magnetite + titanite. These have, in turn, been locally cut by actinolite veins, presumably reflective of the present-day, thermal state of the hydrothermal system at these depths. Based on their siliceous bulk composition, we believe the hornfels represent the thermally- recrystallized products of earlier-formed, hydrothermal veins consisting of quartz, epidote, and actinolite. The metamorphic plagioclase is distinctly more anorthitic (An90 to An98) than igneous plagioclase in adjacent mafic intrusives (An33 to An80) and also exhibits consistently lower Mg content and higher iron (up to 2.07 wt.% as Fe2O3). Stoichiometry implies that much of the iron in hydrothermal anorthite is Fe3+, which may imply recrystallization from precursor epidote under relatively oxidizing conditions. Diopside compositions (average Wo0.48En0.27Fs0.25) are consistently less calcic than hydrothermal clinopyroxenes found in quartz+epidote+actinolite veins, and are also distinct from igneous clinopyroxene. Their compositions imply that hornfelsic recrystallization may have occurred at temperatures as high as 600-650°C at depths of approximately 2.5 km. If the intrusive activity occurred during the last glaciation, hydrostatic pressures attending amphibolite metamorphism may have been as high as 300 bars. To our knowledge, this is the first time that texturally-equilibrated, amphibolite grade assemblages have been reported from an active geothermal system.

Marks, N.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R. A.; Franzson, H.

2008-12-01

250

Every Single Student: A PEER Resource Manual on Standards-Based Education and Students with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual covers thirteen different topics relevant to the education of students with disabilities in the era of educational reform and standards-based education. Sections include: (1) "Raising Standards of Learning: and Students with and Standards-Based Education Students with Disabilities" (Janet R. Vohs, Julia K. Landau, and Carolyn Romano);…

Landau, Julia K., Ed.; Romano, Carolyn A., Ed.; Vohs, Janet R., Ed.

251

Communities of Practice and the Mediation of Teachers' Responses to Standards-based Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluated the usefulness of a sociocultural approach for analyzing teachers' responses to professional learning demands of standards-based reform policies through a case study of the practice of six teachers. Findings show that communities of teaching practice are sites for teacher learning and mediators of teacher responses to standards-based

Gallucci, Chrysan

2003-01-01

252

Teachers' Response to Standards-Based Reform: Probing Reform Assumptions in Washington State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because teachers' efforts are central to the success of standards-based reform, it behooves the policy community to look carefully at the beliefs about instruction that are rooted in this reform theory. Building on teacher-centric research on standards-based reform and ideas about teaching practice from research on multicultural education, this…

Loeb, Hilary; Knapp, Michael S.; Elfers, Ana M.

2008-01-01

253

[National medical grading].  

PubMed

A new, common system for grading medical graduates from the 6 Chilean Schools of Medicine has been agreed by consensus: the National Medical Grading. This was an evident need since up to now each school applied a different criterion to qualify its graduates; the resulting disparity in the scores with which graduates applied for the National calls in postgraduate training programs, general practice positions and the like, elicited uneasiness both among graduates and academic staff. In the new system, the final grade is calculated giving equal relative importance to the marks in licensure (60%), internships (30%) and final clinical examinations (10%). The National Medical Grading has been applied for the first time by the Ministry of Health in the 1989 call, and by the University of Chile and Catholic University's Medical Schools (call for postgraduate training programs). It is hoped that within 2 or 3 years a National Medical Examination will be designed and applied. PMID:2152236

Radrigàn, M E; Arteaga, E

1990-08-01

254

Two RFID Standard-based Security Protocols for Healthcare Environments.  

PubMed

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in access control, transportation, real-time inventory and asset management, automated payment systems, etc. Nevertheless, the use of this technology is almost unexplored in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, asset traceability and drug administration systems, to mention just a few. RFID technology can offer more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before its adoption. This is even more dramatical in healthcare applications where very sensitive information is at stake and patient safety is paramount. In Wu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 37:19, 43) recently proposed a new RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments. In this paper we show that this protocol puts location privacy of tag holders at risk, which is a matter of gravest concern and ruins the security of this proposal. To facilitate theimplementation of secure RFID-based solutions in the medical sector, we suggest two new applications (authentication and secure messaging) and propose solutions that, in contrast to previous proposals in this field, are fully based on ISO Standards and NIST Security Recommendations. PMID:23949845

Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Bagheri, Nasour; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

2013-10-01

255

Conceptualizing Teaching to the Test under Standards-Based Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teacher and school accountability systems based on high-stakes tests are ubiquitous throughout the United States and appear to be growing as a catalyst for reform. As a result, educators have increased the proportion of instructional time devoted to test preparation. Although guidelines for what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate test…

Welsh, Megan E.; Eastwood, Melissa; D'Agostino, Jerome V.

2014-01-01

256

Strategic Plan for Standards-Based Reform. Report of Progress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes the expectations, mission, guiding principles, standards, assessments, and time line for standards implementation for the state of Hawai'i. Implementation was scheduled for completion by August 2000. A technical reference matrix tracks the development of the assessment and accountability system. The completion of specific…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of the Superintendent.

257

Standard-based formal validation of Programmable Logic Controller programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increasing complexity of control systems in industries, the use of standards become essential to ensure a better project quality. The focus of this work is to show the application, the importance and the benefits of the use of standards for an widely used equipment in industry called Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). Standards relating to specification, ISA 5.2 diagrams,

Kezia de Vasconcelos Oliveira; Angelo Perkusich; A. Lima; Kyller Gorgonio; Leandro Dias da Silva

2010-01-01

258

Enhanced Access to Earth Science Data through Standards-based Web Services and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) at NASA Ames Research Center's Ecological Forecasting Lab generates a suite of gridded data products in near real-time that are designed to enhance management decisions related to floods, droughts, forest fires, human health, as well as crop, range, and forest production. Derived from the synthesis of satellite imagery, ground observations, and specialized ecosystem models, our data products hold great potential for supporting research and practical applications across a wide range of disciplines. In order to provide enhanced access to our data and to promote multidisciplinary collaboration we implement standards-based web services. We serve TOPS data conforming to the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP) which allows subsetting and distribution of large HDF or NetCDF datasets, complete with standards-based metadata. Additionally, we implement a standard Web Map Service (WMS) for visualization of geospatial data. To further extend the use of our data to a wider audience we build upon these web services to develop browser-based visualization and analysis tools. We use Asynchronous Javascript and XML (AJAX) techniques to build interactive web applications leveraging our web services. For example, our WMS provides the map image tiles used in our mapping client. Users can click on the map to query TOPS datasets and regional summaries via OPeNDAP, producing time-series charts allowing temporal analysis of environmental trends and associated phenomena. We present the TOPS Data Gateway and its components, highlighting how the use of open protocols and standards provides improved data access for our clients and research partners, encouraging data interoperability and multidisciplinary collaboration.

Hiatt, S. H.; Hashimoto, H.; Melton, F. S.; Michaelis, A.; Milesi, C.; Nemani, R. R.; Votava, P.; Wang, W.

2009-12-01

259

Improving the Quality of Maternal and Neonatal Care: the Role of Standard Based Participatory Assessments  

PubMed Central

Background Gaps in quality of care are seriously affecting maternal and neonatal health globally but reports of successful quality improvement cycles implemented at large scale are scanty. We report the results of a nation-wide program to improve quality of maternal and neonatal hospital care in a lower-middle income country focusing on the role played by standard-based participatory assessments. Methods Improvements in the quality of maternal and neonatal care following an action-oriented participatory assessment of 19 areas covering the whole continuum from admission to discharge were measured after an average period of 10 months in four busy referral maternity hospitals in Uzbekistan. Information was collected by a multidisciplinary national team with international supervision through visit to hospital services, examination of medical records, direct observation of cases and interviews with staff and mothers. Scores (range 0 to 3) attributed to over 400 items and combined in average scores for each area were compared with the baseline assessment. Results Between the first and the second assessment, all four hospitals improved their overall score by an average 0.7 points out of 3 (range 0.4 to 1), i.e. by 22%. The improvements occurred in all main areas of care and were greater in the care of normal labor and delivery (+0.9), monitoring, infection control and mother and baby friendly care (+0.8) the role of the participatory action-oriented approach in determining the observed changes was estimated crucial in 6 out of 19 areas and contributory in other 8. Ongoing implementation of referral system and new classification of neonatal deaths impede the improved process of care to be reflected in current statistics. Conclusions Important improvements in the quality of hospital care provided to mothers and newborn babies can be achieved through a standard-based action-oriented and participatory assessment and reassessment process.

Tamburlini, Giorgio; Yadgarova, Klara; Kamilov, Asamidin; Bacci, Alberta

2013-01-01

260

An ensemble-based system for microaneurysm detection and diabetic retinopathy grading.  

PubMed

Reliable microaneurysm detection in digital fundus images is still an open issue in medical image processing. We propose an ensemble-based framework to improve microaneurysm detection. Unlike the well-known approach of considering the output of multiple classifiers, we propose a combination of internal components of microaneurysm detectors, namely preprocessing methods and candidate extractors. We have evaluated our approach for microaneurysm detection in an online competition, where this algorithm is currently ranked as first, and also on two other databases. Since microaneurysm detection is decisive in diabetic retinopathy (DR) grading, we also tested the proposed method for this task on the publicly available Messidor database, where a promising AUC 0.90 ± 0.01 is achieved in a "DR/non-DR"-type classification based on the presence or absence of the microaneurysms. PMID:22481810

Antal, Bálint; Hajdu, András

2012-06-01

261

Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Any practical WSN deployment must contend with a number of difficulties in its radio frequency (RF) environment. Multi-path reflections can distort signals, limit data rates, and cause signal fades that prevent nodes from having clear access to channels, especially in a closed environment such as a spacecraft. Other RF signal sources, such as wireless internet, voice, and data systems may contend with the sensor nodes for bandwidth. Finally, RF noise from electrical systems and periodic scattering from moving objects such as crew members will all combine to give an incredibly unpredictable, time-varying communication environment.

Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.

2009-01-01

262

Science for Iowa Schools, Grades 4-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide includes four units for use in each of grades 4 through 6. The fourth grade units are entitled Measurement Systems, Classification Systems, Bio-Control Systems, and Hydrologic Systems; the fifth grade units are Chemical Systems, Force Systems, Bio-Systems, and Astro-Systems; and the sixth grade units are Equilibrium Systems,…

Nice, Karl; And Others

263

Evidence that low-grade systemic inflammation can induce islet dysfunction as measured by impaired calcium handling.  

PubMed

In obesity and the early stages of type 2 diabetes (T2D), proinflammatory cytokines are mildly elevated in the systemic circulation. This low-grade systemic inflammation exposes pancreatic islets to these circulating cytokines at much lower levels than seen within the islet during insulitis. These low-dose effects have not been well described. We examined mouse islets treated overnight with a low-dose cytokine combination commonly associated with inflammation (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IFN-gamma). We then examined islet function primarily using intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)), a key component of insulin secretion and cytokine signaling. Cytokine-treated islets demonstrated several features that suggested dysfunction including excess [Ca(2+)](i) in low physiological glucose (3mM), reduced responses to glucose stimulation, and disrupted [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations. Interestingly, islets taken from young db/db mice showed similar disruptions in [Ca(2+)](i) dynamics as cytokine-treated islets. Additional studies of control islets showed that the cytokine-induced elevation in basal [Ca(2+)](i) was due to both greater calcium influx through L-type-calcium-channels and reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium storage. Many of these cytokine-induced disruptions could be reproduced by SERCA blockade. Our data suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation produces circulating cytokine levels that are sufficient to induce beta-cell dysfunction and may play a contributing role in beta-cell failure in early T2D. PMID:20800281

Dula, Stacey B; Jecmenica, Mladen; Wu, Runpei; Jahanshahi, Pooya; Verrilli, Gretchen M; Carter, Jeffrey D; Brayman, Kenneth L; Nunemaker, Craig S

2010-01-01

264

Ang II Upregulation of the T-Lymphocyte Renin–Angiotensin System Is Amplified by Low-Grade Inflammation in Human Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLow-grade inflammation facilitates the development of essential hypertension and target organ damage (TOD). Recently, human T-lymphocytes were shown to be endowed with a functional active renin–angiotensin system (RAS). We investigated whether in hypertensive patients a selective angiotensin (Ang) II–driven upregulation of T-cell RAS occurs and whether it is differently modulated in presence of low-grade inflammation.MethodsT-lymphocytes were obtained from 21 hypertensives

Mirella Coppo; Manuela Bandinelli; Andrea Berni; Sara Galastri; Rosanna Abbate; Loredana Poggesi; Fabio Marra; Gian Franco Gensini; Maria Boddi

2011-01-01

265

Standards-Based Education and Its Implications for Mathematics Faculty  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mathematical Association of America offers a collection of articles on standardizing secondary education. This specific article, written by Robby Robson and Paul Latiolais of Oregon State and Portland State Universities, discusses creating a system of comparable standards for higher education. As the authors point out, there are annual standards met for primary education, from standardized tests like the ACT and SAT to year-end examinations. However, once students reach the university level, such methods of comparison disappear among college-level mathematics. Robson and Latiolais propose a series of changes that could be made across the level of nationally accredited universities to ensure an established set of standards for college degrees, credits, and skill sets. While not all of their suggestions could be adopted immediately, Robson and Latiolais make great strides in beginning a national dialogue on holding our universities accountable for the education they provide.

Latiolais, P. (Paul); Robson, Robert O., 1954-

2008-07-25

266

Motion Imagery and Robotics Application (MIRA): Standards-Based Robotics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This technology development originated from the need to assess the debris threat resulting from soil material erosion induced by landing spacecraft rocket plume impingement on extraterrestrial planetary surfaces. The impact of soil debris was observed to be highly detrimental during NASA s Apollo lunar missions and will pose a threat for any future landings on the Moon, Mars, and other exploration targets. The innovation developed under this program provides a simulation tool that combines modeling of the diverse disciplines of rocket plume impingement gas dynamics, granular soil material liberation, and soil debris particle kinetics into one unified simulation system. The Unified Flow Solver (UFS) developed by CFDRC enabled the efficient, seamless simulation of mixed continuum and rarefied rocket plume flow utilizing a novel direct numerical simulation technique of the Boltzmann gas dynamics equation. The characteristics of the soil granular material response and modeling of the erosion and liberation processes were enabled through novel first principle-based granular mechanics models developed by the University of Florida specifically for the highly irregularly shaped and cohesive lunar regolith material. These tools were integrated into a unique simulation system that accounts for all relevant physics aspects: (1) Modeling of spacecraft rocket plume impingement flow under lunar vacuum environment resulting in a mixed continuum and rarefied flow; (2) Modeling of lunar soil characteristics to capture soil-specific effects of particle size and shape composition, soil layer cohesion and granular flow physics; and (3) Accurate tracking of soil-borne debris particles beginning with aerodynamically driven motion inside the plume to purely ballistic motion in lunar far field conditions.

Martinez, Lindolfo; Rich, Thomas; Lucord, Steven; Diegelman, Thomas; Mireles, James; Gonzalez, Pete

2012-01-01

267

Analysis and design of hybrid double-absorption cooling systems for low grade thermal energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hybrid double-absorption system using LiCl-HâO solution as a working fluid is proposed in this paper. This system can operate at low source temperature (55-80\\/degree\\/C), requires lower blower power than a desiccant system, and has a higher system C.O.P. A modification of this system, a double absorption-evaporation system that provides even higher C.O.P. is also proposed. 16 refs.

C. S. P. Peng; J. R. Howell

1981-01-01

268

Science Grades K-4 Benchmarks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explains the Arkansas science benchmarks for grades K-4 which were developed to provide guidance to science teachers. The content standards for three strands--physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems--were identified based on grade levels. (YDS)

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

269

Grading of Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcoma in Children and Adolescents: A Comparison of Parameters Used for the FNCLCC and POG systems  

PubMed Central

Two systems for grading soft tissue sarcoma are widely used currently: the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Fédération Nationale des Centers de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) systems. Both were developed using cohorts of predominantly adult patients. The Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) system, based on the NCI system, was adapted for grading pediatric non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS). The applicability and prognostic utility of the FNCLCC system in pediatric NRSTS has not been assessed or compared to the POG system. Tumors from 130 patients with malignant NRSTS enrolled on three completed multi-institutional clinical trials were assessed. Of 130 tumors, 102 (78%) were localized and 28 (22%) metastatic. Of the localized tumors, 55/102 (54%) were >5cm. The estimated 5-year EFS for the entire group was 47%. As expected, stage and tumor size were predictive of EFS (p<0.001). Both systems were predictive of 5-year event-free survival (EFS) (POG p=0.0095 and FNCLCC p=0.0075). Patients whose tumors received discrepant grades (POG-G3 vs. FNCLCC-G2/G1) (n=44) had an intermediate outcome between those with concordant (G3 (n=44) or G1/G2 (n=42)) grades on both systems (p=0.0018). By multivariate analysis, the mitotic index was predictive of EFS using a cutoff of 10 mitotic figures per 10 high power fields (p<0.001). In conclusion, both the FNCLCC and POG systems provide an adequate prognostic measure of outcome for pediatric NRSTS; albeit, a sizeable subset of cases with apparently intermediate prognosis was graded differently by the two systems. The mitotic index appears to be a key parameter in grading pediatric NRSTS.

Khoury, Joseph D.; Coffin, Cheryl M.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Anderson, James R.; Meyer, William H.; Parham, David M.

2010-01-01

270

A standards-based content analysis of selected biological science websites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled with criteria derived from the Web-based Inquiry (WBI) for Learning Science instrument (Bodzin, 2005) and other pertinent published educational literature, was utilized. The analysis focused on elucidating the appropriateness of the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment tools of selected websites for facilitating the biological science education of Grade 12 students. Frequencies of agreement and disagreement of the content of each selected website with criteria included in the data collection instrument were used for alignment determination of the content of each website with the NSES. Chi-square tests were performed by Microsoft Excel to determine the statistical significance of differences of actual and expected 85% frequencies of alignment of the analyzed website parameters with indicators of alignment to NSES. Chi-square tests indicated that at a 0.05 level of significance there was an overall difference between the actual and expected 85% frequencies of alignment of biology content, instructional strategies and assessment methods with website indicators of alignment with the NSES (p < 0.05). Chi-square tests also indicated that there was a significant difference between the actual and expected frequencies of alignment of analyzed categories (biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods) of the sampled websites with website indicators of alignment with the NSES ( p < 0.05). Major findings of this study indicated that 3 out of 4 of the analyzed content attributes, 12 out of 13 of the instructional strategies, and all the assessment methods of the researched biological science websites were less than 85% aligned with the NSES. Only 11 out of 80 (13.75%) of the analyzed websites had collective biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods attributes that were 85% or more aligned with the NSES. Appropriately sequenced content that fostered acquisition of fundamental biology knowledge was the only content attribute with significantly more than 85% alignment with the NSES. Provision of illustrative examples to enhance understanding of facts and/or ideas in the context of a conceptual framework was the only instructional strategies attribute that was significantly more than 85% aligned with the NSES. Alignment of website attributes with the NSES has the potential to enhance the educational value of science websites. It is hoped that the findings of this study will motivate science website designers to comply with the NSES. Hope also exists that educators will be motivated to engage in standards-based reform measures for promoting scientific literacy among students.

Stewart, Joy E.

271

Acute inhalation toxicity of diesel fuels, MIL-F-46162Referee Grade I(Arctic) and MIL-F-46162 Referee Grade II(regular), used in Vehicle Engine Exhaust Smoke Systems (VEESS). Technical report, February-May 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic studies were conducted with rats and guinea pigs to determine acute effects from single exposures to M60A1 tank-generated MIL-F-46162-Referee (Arctic) and (Regular) Grade diesel-fuel smoke and\\/or exhaust clouds under static airflow conditions. Emissions were disseminated with the Vehicle Engine Exhaust Smoke System (VEESS) and exposure periods ranged from 15-180 min in the case of the smoke\\/exhaust emissions and 60-180

J. F. Callahan; C. L. Crouse; G. E. Affleck; R. L. Farrand; R. W. Dorsey

1983-01-01

272

Low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, epithelial cell abnormality-adjusted workload, and the ThinPrep imaging system.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown a negative correlation between screening sensitivity using the ThinPrep Imaging System (TIS) and epithelial cell abnormality (ECA) adjusted workload (ECA rate × actual slides screened/day) at the thresholds of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). We sought to determine if a similar correlation could be shown at the threshold of low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). Using data in seven manuscripts from the literature that contain sufficient information, the change in screening sensitivity using the TIS compared with manual screening was negatively correlated with ECA adjusted workload (y = -3.75x + 54, R(2) = 0.104). Using the sensitivity of manual screening of 79% for manual screening at a threshold of LSIL from the original TIS trial, 100% sensitivity could be achieved at an ECA adjusted workload of approximately seven slides/day, the same workload that achieves 100% sensitivity at a threshold of ASCUS and slightly higher than the threshold for HSIL. We conclude that the ECA adjusted workload is a valuable method to assess workload for the TIS at the threshold of LSIL. Laboratories using the TIS should restrict workload to seven ECA adjusted slides/day (maximum actual slides/day = 700/ECA percentage). PMID:22807385

Renshaw, Andrew A; Elsheikh, Tarik M

2012-08-01

273

Acute inhalation toxicity of diesel fuels, MIL-F-46162-Referee Grade I(Arctic) and MIL-F-46162 Referee Grade II(regular), used in Vehicle Engine Exhaust Smoke Systems (VEESS). Technical report, February-May 1980  

SciTech Connect

Toxic studies were conducted with rats and guinea pigs to determine acute effects from single exposures to M60A1 tank-generated MIL-F-46162-Referee (Arctic) and (Regular) Grade diesel-fuel smoke and/or exhaust clouds under static airflow conditions. Emissions were disseminated with the Vehicle Engine Exhaust Smoke System (VEESS) and exposure periods ranged from 15-180 min in the case of the smoke/exhaust emissions and 60-180 min with the exhausts. At attempted airborne concentrations of 10-12 mg (10,000-12,000 mg/cu m) of the Arctic and Regular Grade diesel fuel smoke/exhaust mixtures and 0.07 mg/1 (70 mg/cu m) of the exhausts; toxic signs (excluding death) were seen after 15- and 60-min exposures to the Arctic-grade diesel fuel smoke/exhaust emissions and death was observed at the 180-min exposures. The exhaust emissions from the same fuel caused toxic signs including death after 60- to 180-min exposures. Regular-grade diesel-fuel smoke/exhaust caused toxic signs and death in animals after 60- to 180-min exposures, while the exhaust clouds from the same fuel caused toxic signs at 60 min and toxic signs including death at 180 min. Significant respiratory changes are evidenced by pulmonary function tests were observed after 15-min exposures to the smoke/exhaust emissions from either type of Referee Grade diesel fuel and similar effects were seen after 60-min exposures to the exhausts.

Callahan, J.F.; Crouse, C.L.; Affleck, G.E.; Farrand, R.L.; Dorsey, R.W.

1983-06-01

274

Grading Adaptations for Students with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues surround grading for all students, especially those with disabilities, who are at increased risk for grades that are low, inaccurate, and lacking in meaning. Teachers often recognize grading issues and will exercise judgment in making informal adaptations to the regular grading system. When chosen collaboratively and implemented…

Silva, Melissa; Munk, Dennis D.; Bursuck, William D.

2005-01-01

275

Grading Congestion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students construct a model roadway with congestion and apply their knowledge of level of service (LOS) to assign a grade to the road conditions. The roadway is simply a track outlined with cones or ropes with a few students walking around it to mimic congestion. The remaining students employ both techniques of density and flow to classify the LOS of the track.

STARS GK-12 Program,

276

78 FR 35585 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Signage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910 and 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2013-0005] RIN 1218-AC77 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice...

2013-06-13

277

77 FR 42988 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Direct...

2012-07-23

278

77 FR 43018 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice...

2012-07-23

279

77 FR 68684 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1915, 1917, 1918, and 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Final rule;...

2012-11-16

280

78 FR 35559 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Signage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910 and 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2013-0005] RIN 1218-AC77 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Direct...

2013-06-13

281

78 FR 66642 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Signage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910 and 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2013-0005] RIN 1218-AC77 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Final...

2013-11-06

282

77 FR 68717 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OSH-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal...SUMMARY: With this notice, OSHA is withdrawing the proposed rule that...

2012-11-16

283

Urban African-American middle school science students: Does standards-based teaching make a difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current reform movement in science education promotes standards-based teaching, including the use of inquiry, problem solving, and open-ended questioning, to improve student achievement. This study examines the influence of standards-based teaching practices on the achievement of urban, African-American, middle school science students. Science classes of teachers who had participated in the professional development (n = 8) of Ohio's statewide

Jane Butler Kahle; Judith Meece; Kathryn Scantlebury

2000-01-01

284

Effectiveness of an ESAA Funded Information Feedback System on the Reading and Arithmetic Achievement of Black and White Fifth Grade Pupils.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Multi-Ethnic Information Feedback System (MIFS) on the reading and arithmetic achievement of fifth grade pupils. Consisting of an objective referenced test-item and a computer feedback system MIFS enabled teachers to continually measure student performance and evaluate the…

Tokar, Edward; Ford, Valeria

285

Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standby Power System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

PFP's Standby Power System consists of the diesel generators, the generator control system, Rm 308 UPS, switchgear batteries, and the electrical equipment used to distribute this power. Due to the nature of the equipment and its use throughout general industry, the majority of the system falls within the CGI definition HNF-PRO-268, ''Control of Purchased Items and Services'' and HNF-PRO-1819, ''PHMC Engineering Requirements'' require that the critical characteristics of CGI-procured equipment be established in an engineering document prior to placing the order. HNF-5043 established these critical characteristics for the Standby Power System. This modification adds several items to the document.

DEHKORDI, N.H.

2000-04-12

286

An Integrated Learning System: Impact on At-Risk Students' Ninth Grade TAKS Mathematics Achievement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an integrated learning system on students who were considered at-risk of academic failure on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment. Voyager Math (VMath), an integrated learning system had been implemented to address the needs of students at-risk of…

Harris, Tina D.

2011-01-01

287

Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standby Power System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

PEP's Standby Power System consists of the diesel generators, the generator control system, Rm 308 UPS, switchgear batteries, and the electrical equipment used to distribute this power. Due to the nature of the equipment and its use throughout general industry, the majority of the system falls within the CGI definition HNF-PRO-268. ''Control of Purchased Items and Services'' and HNF-PRO-1819, ''PHMC Engineering Requirements'' require that the critical characteristics of CGI-procured equipment be established in an engineering document prior to placing the order. HNF-5043 establishes these critical characteristics for the Standby Power System. Equipment will be added to the list as required to support future CGI procurements.

BUSCH, M.S.

1999-09-16

288

Evaluation of the School Street Four-Quadrant Gate/In-Cab Signaling Grade Crossing System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under sponsorship from the U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Research and Development, the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center performed an evaluation of the four-quadrant gate/obstruction detect...

A. A. Carroll A. D. Hellman D. M. Chappell

2007-01-01

289

Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Education 101: Exploration Begins Here [Grades 9-12  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

Hill, Trudy

2012-01-01

290

A case study of primary teachers' personal theories and understandings of standards-based science education reform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was: (1) to contribute to current understandings of teachers' perspectives of standards-based science education reform, and (2) to describe and document the relationships between the personal theories about science teaching and learning held by three "unique" experienced primary teachers and the teachers' understandings of a state-level standards-based vision of school science. These teachers were unique because they had been members of a two year-long district-level standards-based science curriculum reform initiative. This study was framed by the conception of personal theories as a representation of teacher beliefs. This qualitative case study extended from the summer of 1996 through the spring of 1998. Methods of data collection were: interviewing and informal conversations, participant observation, video and audio taping, generation of field notes, and examination of documents and artifacts. Data analysis involved constant comparison of data, generation of categories, description of properties of and relationships between categories, and theorizing about the data. The results of this qualitative case study revealed that, overall, direct involvement in the science curriculum reform effort was a positive and meaningful professional development experience providing opportunities for personal and professional growth. For two of the teachers, the experience signified a turning point in the history of their personal theories about science teaching and learning. Although the reform effort was philosophically grounded in a state-level standards-based vision of school science, implementing the new hands-on science program, adopted as a dimension of the work of the reform effort, was in the forefront of teachers' thoughts. A standards vision played a secondary role as a referrent for thinking about the teaching of science. The findings suggest that teachers' personal theories could act as mediating forces in teachers' endeavors to understand contemporary science education reform. Generally, the teachers felt that a standards vision complimented their personal theories. They agreed with reform ideas like coherent K-12 curriculum development based on a depth over breadth approach, emphasis of science as both a knowledge base and as inquiry, the teacher role as facilitator, and learners' active engagement in learning. The teachers also noted challenges for the future of standards-based science education reform, including: commitment by local and state authorities to systemic reform for a hands-on/minds-on science program, the practical feasibility of some reform ideas, and multiple interpretations of standards language.

Wieseman, Katherine Claire

1998-08-01

291

A Failing Grade for the German End-of-Life Vehicles Take-Back System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The German end-of-life vehicle take-back system is described and analyzed in terms of its impact on the environment and the car companies involved. It is concluded that although this system is often cited as an example of a successful take-back scheme, it is not one that maximizes the value recovered from end-of-life vehicles. As a result,…

Nakajima, Nina; Vanderburg, Willem H.

2005-01-01

292

78 FR 16414 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings AGENCY: Federal...or other unsafe condition at highway-rail and pathway grade crossings. This document...implements Section 205 (Sec. 205) of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008...

2013-03-15

293

76 FR 11992 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings AGENCY: Federal...train through a public or private highway- rail or pathway grade crossing to establish...specifically to help implement Sec. 205 of the Rail Safety Improvement Act of 2008...

2011-03-04

294

A multispectral computer vision system for automatic grading of prostatic neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces the application of multispectral imaging in quantitative pathology. The automated system aims to classify microscopic samples taken by needle biopsy for the purpose of prostate cancer diagnosis. The main contribution here is that instead of analysing conventional grey scale or RGB colour images, sixteen spectral bands have been used in the analysis. Four major classes have to

Mohammed Ali Roula; Jim Diamond; Ahmed Bouridane; P. Miller; Abbes Amira

2002-01-01

295

Integrative Food-Grade Expression System Based on the Lactose Regulon of Lactobacillus casei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lactose operon from Lactobacillus casei is regulated by very tight glucose repression and substrate induction mechanisms, which made it a tempting candidate system for the expression of foreign genes or metabolic engineering. An integrative vector was constructed, allowing stable gene insertion in the chromo- somal lactose operon of L. casei. This vector was based on the nonreplicative plasmid pRV300

M. J. Gosalbes; CARLOS DAVID ESTEBAN; JOSELUIS GALAN; GASPAR PEREZ-MARTINEZ

2000-01-01

296

Mechanisms & Other Systems. Stuff That Works! A Technology Curriculum for the Elementary Grades.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book focuses on devices and systems that transform motion or convert energy. Contents are divided into six chapters: (1) "Appetizers" includes activities that can be done individually to become familiar with the topic of machines and mechanisms; (2) "Concepts" provides a basis for machine and mechanism development; (3) "Activities" features…

Benenson, Gary

297

The Food Intake Recording Software System is Valid Among Fourth-grade Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the validity of the Food Intake Recording Software System (FIRSSt) against observation of school lunch and a 24-hour dietary recall (24hDR); and to test the effects of sequencing, observation and a hair sample as a bogus pipeline on accuracy of dietary report.Design Six-group design systematically varying sequence of self-report (FIRSSt vs 24hDR), observation of school lunch, and

TOM BARANOWSKI; NOEMI ISLAM; JANICE BARANOWSKI; KAREN W. CULLEN; DAWNELL MYRES; TARA MARSH; CARL de MOOR

2002-01-01

298

Synthetic model of a bioactive functionally graded nano-hybrid in silica–polydimethylsiloxane system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic model of a ceramic–polymer composite, in which thin layer of bioactive silicate ceramic is molecular-hybridized onto surface of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bulk, has been examined in the tetraethoxysilane (TEOS)–PDMS sol–gel system. A TEOS precursor solution of silica was subjected to hydrolysis and condensation on TEOS–PDMS precursor solution forming silica–PDMS hybrid bulk through co-polymerization, producing single large transparent crack-free monolithic hybrid

K.-Y. Lee; Y.-H. Lee; H.-M. Kim; M.-Y. Koh; S.-H. Ahn; H.-K. Lee

2005-01-01

299

A Comprehensive Grading Scheme.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a grading system for nursing education, consisting of (1) a within-class component, based on mastery testing and criterion-referenced assessment to develop academic knowledge and clinical skills; and (2) a between-class component, based on norm-referenced assessment to provide a statistically sound class ranking. (SK)

Gentile, J. Ronald; Stevens-Haslinger, Cheryl

1983-01-01

300

Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

2013-12-01

301

Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

2014-06-01

302

Standards-Based Mathematics Training To Improve Teacher's Content Knowledge and Enhance Parental Support for Student Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to provide elementary mathematics teachers strategies that will enhance their knowledge of standards-based mathematics content and pedagogy and to increase parents' and homework help-line employees' knowledge of standards-based mathematics concepts. Teacher participation in standards-based mathematics activities is…

Bailey, Lora B.

303

Reversing Platinum Resistance in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma: Targeting BRCA and the Homologous Recombination System.  

PubMed

Resistance to platinum chemotherapy is one of the main factors driving ovarian cancer mortality, and overcoming platinum resistance is considered one of the greatest challenges in ovarian cancer research. Genetic and functional evidence points to the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair system, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 in particular, as main determinants of response to platinum therapy. BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers are especially sensitive to platinum, associated with better survival, and amenable to poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor treatment. Here, we discuss a therapeutic concept that seeks to disrupt HR capacity via targeting of BRCA1 and BRCA2 functionality in order to reverse platinum resistance in BRCA-proficient high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC). We review the molecular signaling pathways that converge on BRCA1 and BRCA2, their activation status in ovarian cancer, and therapeutic options to modulate BRCA function. Several recent publications demonstrate efficient chemosensitization of BRCA-proficient cancers by combining targeted therapy with standard platinum-based agents. Due to its inherent genomic heterogeneity, molecularly defined subgroups of HGSOC may require different approaches. We seek to provide an overview of available agents and their potential use to reverse platinum resistance by inhibiting the HR system, either directly or indirectly, by targeting oncogenic activators of HR. PMID:24624361

Wiedemeyer, W Ruprecht; Beach, Jessica A; Karlan, Beth Y

2014-01-01

304

Reversing Platinum Resistance in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma: Targeting BRCA and the Homologous Recombination System  

PubMed Central

Resistance to platinum chemotherapy is one of the main factors driving ovarian cancer mortality, and overcoming platinum resistance is considered one of the greatest challenges in ovarian cancer research. Genetic and functional evidence points to the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair system, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 in particular, as main determinants of response to platinum therapy. BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers are especially sensitive to platinum, associated with better survival, and amenable to poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor treatment. Here, we discuss a therapeutic concept that seeks to disrupt HR capacity via targeting of BRCA1 and BRCA2 functionality in order to reverse platinum resistance in BRCA-proficient high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC). We review the molecular signaling pathways that converge on BRCA1 and BRCA2, their activation status in ovarian cancer, and therapeutic options to modulate BRCA function. Several recent publications demonstrate efficient chemosensitization of BRCA-proficient cancers by combining targeted therapy with standard platinum-based agents. Due to its inherent genomic heterogeneity, molecularly defined subgroups of HGSOC may require different approaches. We seek to provide an overview of available agents and their potential use to reverse platinum resistance by inhibiting the HR system, either directly or indirectly, by targeting oncogenic activators of HR.

Wiedemeyer, W. Ruprecht; Beach, Jessica A.; Karlan, Beth Y.

2014-01-01

305

Extensions to "Stability analysis of fuzzy control systems subject to uncertain grades of membership".  

PubMed

In the December 2005 issue of this journal, Lam and Leung proposed stability results for fuzzy control systems where the membership functions in the controller were not the same as those from the process one, but some multiplicative bounds were known. The main practical context where that situation arises is the uncertain knowledge of the memberships of a Takagi-Sugeno model. This correspondence presents further extensions of those results, allowing for a richer description of the membership uncertainty, in terms of affine inequalities. PMID:18348938

Ariño, Carlos; Sala, Antonio

2008-04-01

306

Comparison of the configuration of the human anterior chamber angle, as determined by the Spaeth gonioscopic grading system and ultrasound biomicroscopy.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: The primary purpose of this investigation was to validate anatomically, if possible, the Spaeth gonioscopic grading system. METHODS: The gonioscopic appearance of the anterior chamber angle of 22 patients was described, using a Zeiss 4-mirror gonioscopic lens; the angle was graded according to the Spaeth gonioscopic grading system (SGGS) previously described elsewhere. This system provides a more comprehensive characterization of the angle than other methods, including the site of iris insertion, the angular approach to the recess and the curvature of the peripheral iris. The same patients were then evaluated with biomicroscopic ultrasound examination of the anterior segment; the nature of the anterior chamber angle was described independently by two observers. The two methods of characterizing the anterior chamber angle were then compared. RESULTS: There was a high correlation between the two different methods of characterizing the anterior chamber angle. Ultrasound biomicroscopy had limitations relating to inability to distinguish between iris-cornea apposition and iris-cornea adhesion, and to exact location of the posterior trabecular meshwork. The angularity of the approach to the anterior chamber angle using the SGGS tended to be underestimated by about 5 degrees. Other aspects showed high correlation. CONCLUSION: The SGGS appears to be an accurate method of characterizing the anatomic appearance of the anterior chamber angle in patients. It also provides a more comprehensive description of the angle that other grading systems. Images FIGURE A FIGURE B FIGURE C

Spaeth, G L; Aruajo, S; Azuara, A

1995-01-01

307

Implementation of an integrated learning system in tenth grade remedial English courses and an examination of achievement, attendance, behavior, and attitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to investigate the implementation and results of using an integrated learning system as the primary instructional methodology in tenth grade remedial English courses. The 76 students who were the subjects of the study were assigned to either traditional classrooms without access to computers or to a computer laboratory where instruction was presented using

Bernice A. Schmelz

1994-01-01

308

Scheduling High-Grade Steelmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes a scheduling system for a high-grade steel making plant. Because very specialized steel grades are produced the variety of the chemical analysis of the heats is very high and the lot sizes are small. One of the most constraining factors in the production is the infiltration of chemical elements between consecutive heats in the electric arc furnace.

Jürgen Dorn; Reza Shams

1996-01-01

309

Systemic IFN-alpha treatment of multiple bladder papilloma grade I or II patients: pilot study.  

PubMed

Bladder papillomatosis offers a good target to evaluate IFN-alpha systemic treatment. We carried out a pilot study on eight multiple bladder papilloma patients under the same treatment scheme (1 x 10(6) IU/amp. every 48 h over six months), and they were followed-up for over two years after treatment. Recurrent patients underwent a similar second treatment. IFN-alpha therapy showed the following variations of effects: total disappearance, size decrease or persistence of papillomas, neither size increase nor appearance of new ones, remarkable valuable recurrence frequency rate decrease in all cases, and recurrences with smaller papillomas. This IFN-alpha treatment scheme would be fit to carry out broader controlled studies to show frequencies of the different kinds of responses. The inclusion of a minimum (dose-frequency-period) IFN-alpha treatment period after the first six months' therapy is proposed in order to achieve total disappearance of recurrences. PMID:7130757

Scorticatti, C H; de de la Peña, N C; Bellora, O G; Mariotto, R A; Casabé, A R; Comolli, R

1982-01-01

310

Education of Engineering Ethics for the First Grade Students of Mechanical System Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The class of engineering ethics carried out in the department of mechanical system engineering of Hiroshima University is introduced, and the effects of teaching engineering ethics are analyzed using the responses of students against questions by the instructor, their reports and the results of an examination. The analysis indicates the importance of case studies and good advice by an instructor to improve the skill of students to analyze and deal with problems concerned with engineering ethics. However, it is quite difficult to change ethical awareness of students to think of ethical problems of engineering at all times. The importance of teaching a fundamental knowledge of engineering ethics and the difficulty in evaluating an academic record of the class are also discussed.

Fukushima, Hiroshi

311

Zebrafish as a model system for environmental health studies in the grade 9-12 classroom.  

PubMed

Abstract Developing zebrafish embryos were used as a model system for high school students to conduct scientific investigations that reveal features of normal development and to test how different environmental toxicants impact the developmental process. The primary goal of the module was to engage students from a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds, with particular focus on underserved inner-city high schools, in inquiry-based learning and hands-on experimentation. In addition, the module served as a platform for both teachers and students to design additional inquiry-based experiments. In this module, students spawned adult zebrafish to generate developing embryos, exposed the embryos to various toxicants, then gathered, and analyzed data obtained from control and experimental embryos. The module provided a flexible, experimental framework for students to test the effects of numerous environmental toxicants, such as ethanol, caffeine, and nicotine, on the development of a model vertebrate organism. Students also observed the effects of dose on experimental outcomes. From observations of the effects of the chemical agents on vertebrate embryos, students drew conclusions on how these chemicals could impact human development and health. Results of pre-tests and post-tests completed by participating students indicate statistically significant changes in awareness of the impact of environmental agents on fish and human beings In addition, the program's evaluator concluded that participation in the module resulted in significant changes in the attitude of students and teachers toward science in general and environmental health in particular. PMID:24941301

Tomasiewicz, Henry G; Hesselbach, Renee; Carvan, Michael John; Goldberg, Barbara; Berg, Craig A; Petering, David H

2014-08-01

312

Hyperleptinemia is associated with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obese human beings  

PubMed Central

Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-?, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r = 0.4173), central obesity (r = 0.4678), and body fat percentage (r = 0.3583). Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-? (r = 0.6989), IL-12 (r = 0.3093), and IL-10 (r = ?0.5691). Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r = 0.5227) and insulin (r = 0.2229), as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r = 0.3611) and circulating triglyceride (r = 0.4135). These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings.

Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Solis-Lozano, Lourdes; Suarez-Alvarez, Karina; Gonzalez-Chavez, Antonio; Bejar, Yadira L.; Robles-Diaz, Guillermo; Escobedo, Galileo

2013-01-01

313

Increased risk of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions in systemic lupus erythematosus: A meta-analysis of the literature.  

PubMed

Conflicting data have been published regarding the risk of cervical lesions among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We systematically reviewed the evidence for an association of SLE with cervical precancerous lesions (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, HSIL), and performed a meta-analysis to determine the risk of HSIL in SLE patients. Observational studies identified up to February 2013 from the Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases were selected if they assessed the prevalence of HSIL in female SLE patients versus healthy female controls and included in a meta-analysis with pooled effect estimates obtained using a random-effects model. Of 235 citations retrieved, 7 studies met inclusion criteria. The pooled odds ratio for the risk of HSIL in SLE patients (n=416) versus female controls (n=11,408) was 8.66 (95% CI: 3.75-20.00), without significant heterogeneity across studies. Cumulative meta-analysis according to year of study publication revealed a slight increase in the risk of HSIL in the 2001-2011 period and then a stabilization afterwards. This meta-analysis shows that the risk of HSIL is significantly increased in SLE patients, compared to healthy female controls. This suggests that women with SLE may benefit from HPV vaccines and specific cervical cancer screening. PMID:24657969

Zard, Emilie; Arnaud, Laurent; Mathian, Alexis; Chakhtoura, Zeina; Hie, Miguel; Touraine, Philippe; Heard, Isabelle; Amoura, Zahir

2014-07-01

314

Microstructure characterization of a food-grade U-type microemulsion system by differential scanning calorimetry and electrical conductivity techniques.  

PubMed

The microstructure transitions of a food-grade U-type microemulsion system containing glycerol monolaurate and propionic acid at a 1:1 mass ratio as oil phase and Tween 80 as surfactant were investigated along a water dilution line at a ratio of 80:20 mass% surfactant/oil phase, based on a previously studied phase diagram. From the water thermal behaviours detected by differential scanning calorimetry, three structural regions are identified along the dilution line. In the first region, all water molecules are confined to the water core of the reverse micelles, leading to the formation of w/o microemulsion. As the water content increases, the water gains mobility, transforms into bicontinuous in the second region, and finally the microemulsion become o/w in the third region. The thermal transition points coincide with the structural phase transitions by electrical conductivity measurements, indicating that the structural transitions occur at 35 and 65 mass% of water along the dilution line. PMID:23871058

Zhang, Hui; Taxipalati, Maierhaba; Que, Fei; Feng, Fengqin

2013-12-01

315

Modeling Platinum Sensitive and Resistant High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer: Development and Applications of Experimental Systems  

PubMed Central

High-grade serous ovarian cancer remains the most common sub-type of ovarian cancer and, characterized by high degrees of genomic instability and heterogeneity, is typified by a transition from early response to acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. Conventional models for the study of ovarian cancer have been largely limited to a set of relatively poorly characterized immortalized cell lines and recent studies have called into question the validity of some of these as reliable models. Here, we review new approaches and models systems that take into account advances in our understanding of ovarian cancer biology and advances in the technology available for their generation and study. We discuss primary cell models, 2D, 3D, and organotypic models, and “paired” sample approaches that capture the evolution of chemotherapy failure within single cases. We also overview new methods for non-invasive collection of representative tumor material from blood samples. Adoption of such methods and models will improve the quality and clinical relevance of ovarian cancer research.

Cunnea, Paula; Stronach, Euan A.

2014-01-01

316

The formation of high-grade ignimbrites, I: Experiments on high- and low-concentration transport systems containing sticky particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-grade ignimbrites are thought to be deposited by pyroclastic flows at temperatures exceeding minimum welding temperature or even solidus temperature. Corresponding pyroclastic-flow particles range from plastic to partially liquid and are able to aggregate or coalesce. This contrasts with particles in pyroclastic flows producing unwelded ignimbrite, which are capable of elastic grain interactions. The low aspect ratio and great areal extent of high-grade ignimbrites requires transport in a particulate state either by (a) high-concentration mass flow facilitated by fluidizing gas reducing internal friction, or by (b) expanded turbulent flow of low but downward increasing concentration. This paper presents experiments designed to investigate the effects of plastic to liquid particles on these two contrasting transport mechanisms. Gas fluidization experiments using polyethyleneglycole (PEG) powders heated above minimum sintering (Tms) and melting (Tm) temperatures cover a wide range of fluidization velocities (Umf>Ua>0.6.Ut) but are always in the bubbly fluidization regime similar to fluidized ignimbrite ash, where particle volume concentration outside the bubbles is high ( 10-1). When the powders reach a critical temperature Tm>=T>=Tms, defluidization by catastrophic particle aggregation immediately commences in both stationary and laterally moving fluidized beds as well as in experiments using mixtures of high- and low-Tm (>=30wt.%) PEG powders, when T>=Tms of the lower-Tm powder. This indicates that extended particulate transport at T>=Tms is not possible at such high particle concentrations. In the turbulent flow experiments, liquid sprays of molten PEG or water, vertically injected into a high-Re (>104) horizontal air flow, form a low-concentration (10-5 to 10-4) turbulent suspension current. Proximal formation of partially coalesced aggregates, which settle faster than individual particles, causes the measured downstream decay of sedimentation rate to be steeper than predicted by theory of single solid-particle sedimentation from turbulent suspensions. As particles become finer downstream and coalescence efficiency decreases in response to cooling, more distally formed aggregates become too small and rare to modify sedimentation-rate decay from that of suspension flows containing solid particles. The key difference between the two transport systems is particle concentration, C. Since particle collision rate Rcoll C2, collision rates in fluidized beds are so high that all particles immediately aggregate when coalescence efficiency (1>=Ecoal>=0) is larger than 10-3. Low-concentration suspensions, on the other hand, require much higher values of Ecoal for significant aggregation to occur. Dilute pyroclastic flows will have higher particle volume fractions ( 10-3) than the experimental currents, but then viscous pyroclasts should have lower coalescence efficiencies than PEG droplets. Experimental results thus support an expanded turbulent transport mechanism of pyroclastic flows generating extensive high-grade ignimbrite sheets.

Freundt, Armin

317

25 CFR 36.30 - Standard X-Grading requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Standard X-Grading requirements. 36.30 Section...Evaluation § 36.30 Standard XâGrading requirements. (a) Each school shall implement a uniform grading system which assesses a student's...

2009-04-01

318

25 CFR 36.30 - Standard X-Grading requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Standard X-Grading requirements. 36.30 Section...Evaluation § 36.30 Standard XâGrading requirements. (a) Each school shall implement a uniform grading system which assesses a student's...

2010-04-01

319

Geography for Life and Standards-Based Education in the Commonwealth of Kentucky  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public education in Kentucky schools was fundamentally changed in 1990 with the passage of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). This educational reform--mandated by the Kentucky Supreme Court ruling that funding for Kentucky public school districts was neither adequate nor equitably distributed--established a platform on which standards-based

Howarth, David A.; Mountain, Keith R.

2004-01-01

320

Building on What We Have Learned: A National Dialogue on Standards-Based Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three nonprofit organizations support a dialogue on standards-based educational reform. North Central Regional Education Laboratory, Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning, and the Berkana Institute offer Web sites and a toll-free number to those who want to comment on this type of reform. In surveys, a clear majority of parents feel…

Biemesderfer, Susan

321

Making Meaning in a Standards-Based World: Negotiating Tensions in Global Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a largely standards-driven educational climate, educators are challenged to navigate the tensions between standards-based, scholarly pursuits and the more experiential, student-driven techniques of technology-enabled global education. At a time when these tensions are at their zenith, we need to prioritize global competencies and other…

Klein, Jennifer D.

2013-01-01

322

Standards-in-Practice: How Understanding Teachers Should Guide Standards-Based Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although surveys indicate that teachers recognize the value of standards and high expectations, they also reveal that reforms such as standardized tests influence instructional practices in negative ways. Debate should not focus on whether to have standards but on the way standards-based reform is implemented in practice. (SK)

Caron, Edward J.

2002-01-01

323

Development and Evaluation of a Standards-Based Approach to Instruction in General Chemistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Operation CHEM1251, an on-going project designed to implement a standards-based approach to instruction in the general chemistry curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Results indicate that this is the first time in five years that any day-time first semester general chemistry course section scored significantly…

Wagner, Eugene P.; DiBiase, Warren J.

2001-01-01

324

The Tension between Teacher Accountability and Flexibility: The Paradox of Standards-Based Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anticipated constraints imposed by the accountability process associated with standards-based reform on teachers' practice suggest a tension between teachers' desire for flexibility and the accountability mandates associated with reform initiatives. In particular, we posited that the teachers would negatively perceive the influence of…

Nadelson, Louis S.; Fuller, Michael; Briggs, Pamela; Hammons, David; Bubak, Katie; Sass, Margaret

2012-01-01

325

Standard Setting as a Participatory Process: Implications for Validation of Standards-Based Accountability Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines a framework for considering the validity of standards-based score interpretations and then considers the potential roles of different stakeholder groups and other participants in that process. Suggests study of a new standard-setting method, the "briefing book," which would describe alternative cut scores. (SLD)

Haertel, Edward H.

2002-01-01

326

A standard-based software infrastructure to support energy efficiency using renewable energy sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NEMO&CODED (NEMO) project targets the development of a standard-based software infrastructure, aiming to provide the appropriate support to manage energy- related devices considering an environment where energy is generated, stored, distributed, and consumed in a rational and environmentally correct way. This paper presents and discusses the results achieved so far by the project, with special emphasis on the implementation

Celson Lima; Vasco Gomes; Jose Lima; Joao F. Martins; Jose Barata; Luis Ribeiro; Goncalo Candido

2011-01-01

327

78 FR 65932 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Signage  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...OSH-2013-0005] RIN No. 1218-AC77 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Proposed...SUMMARY: With this notice, OSHA is withdrawing the proposed rule that...

2013-11-04

328

Focused Anecdotal Records Assessment: A Tool for Standards-Based, Authentic Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the tension between standards-based assessment on a macro level and authentic assessment on a micro level. Content standards arguably supply systematic criteria for quantitative measures to report trends and establish policy. Qualitative measures, such as rubrics, student profiles, and observational records, fill in the gaps…

Boyd-Batstone, Paul

2004-01-01

329

The Fall and Rise of Standards-Based Education. Issues in Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the last several years, state boards of education have become increasingly engaged in the development of content and performance standards and the assessments that will accompany them. This guidebook provides information on the move toward standards-based education. Part 1 provides a brief historical overview that places the standards…

Marzano, Robert J.; Kendall, John S.

330

The Substantive and Symbolic Consequences of a District's Standards-Based Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined one school district's efforts to develop and implement a standards-based curriculum using rational and institutional perspectives. Findings show that the district took an expressly rationalistic approach in using standards, but lacking a clear instructional philosophy, the district also took an institutional approach. (SLD)

Ogawa, Rodney T.; Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Martinez-Flores, Marilyn; Scribner, Samantha Paredes

2003-01-01

331

The Social Organization of School Counseling in the Era of Standards-Based Accountability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The reform policies of standards-based accountability, as outlined in NCLB, impede the functioning of school counseling programs and the delivery of services to students. Although recent studies have focused on the transformation of the school counseling profession, a gap exists in the literature with regard to how the experiences of school…

Dorsey, Alexander C.

2011-01-01

332

"Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics achievement.…

Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

2007-01-01

333

Traditional or Standards-Based Mathematics? The Choices of Students and Parents in One District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines students' and parents' choices in one district that recently began offering a new problem-centered high school mathematics program aligned with the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards, in addition to its traditional mathematics sequence. Despite the district's previous implementation of Standards-based

Lubienski, Sarah Theule

2004-01-01

334

Creating Standards-Based Integrated Curriculum: Aligning Curriculum, Content, Assessment, and Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In today's accountability-driven environment, educators strive to develop an integrated, relevant, and measurable curriculum while also presenting engaging subject matter that inspires student learning. In this completely revised edition of the classic text, Susan M. Drake provides a new approach to standards-based curriculum, instruction, and…

Drake, Susan M.

2007-01-01

335

Successful Strategies for Implementation of a High School Standards-Based Integrated Mathematics Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Math achievement for students in the United States is not as high as in other countries. In response, one state implemented a new standards-based, integrated math curriculum that combines traditional high school math courses and emphasizes student centered instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of a standards…

Brown, Linda

2012-01-01

336

Indiana Standards-Based English/Language Arts Curriculum through Focus Units.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a project that the authors created to develop an English/Language Arts standards-based curriculum. Discusses the rationale for the project, the theoretical base, the search for teachers, and the implication of a focus unit. Hopes that the model of creating curriculum described here will be useful for many teachers throughout this world…

Maletta, Diane S.

2002-01-01

337

The age-related increase in low-grade systemic inflammation (Inflammaging) is not driven by cytomegalovirus infection.  

PubMed

Aging is accompanied by the development of low-grade systemic inflammation, termed 'inflammaging', characterized by raised serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Importantly, inflammaging is implicated in the pathogenesis of several of the major age-related diseases including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and dementia and is associated with increased mortality. The incidence of infection with the persistent herpes virus cytomegalovirus (CMV) also increases with age. Cross-sectional studies have proposed CMV infection as a significant driver of inflammaging, but a definitive case for CMV as a causative agent in inflammaging has not yet been made. We studied longitudinally 249 subjects (153 men, 96 women) who participated in the Hertfordshire Ageing Study at baseline (1993/5, mean age 67·5 years) and at 10 year follow-up. At both times, anthropometric measurements were made and subjects provided blood samples for analysis of inflammatory status and CMV seropositivity. In the cohort as a whole, serum CRP (P < 0·02) and pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF? (P < 0·001) and IL-6 (P < 0·001) were increased between baseline and follow-up sampling whereas levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were decreased (P < 0·001). These changes to cytokine status over time occurred equally in the 60% of subjects who were seropositive for CMV at baseline and follow-up, the 8% who were CMV negative at baseline but who became CMV positive by the 10 year follow-up, and also in the 32% who were CMV seronegative throughout. We conclude that CMV infection is not a primary causative factor in the age-related increase in systemic inflammation. PMID:22708923

Bartlett, David B; Firth, Charlotte M; Phillips, Anna C; Moss, Paul; Baylis, Daniel; Syddall, Holly; Sayer, Avan A; Cooper, Cyrus; Lord, Janet M

2012-10-01

338

Dimensions of Norm-Referenced Compulsory School Grades and Their Relative Importance for the Prediction of Upper Secondary School Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Irrespective of the grading system, grades are the most valid instrument for predicting educational success. Previous studies have shown that criterion-referenced compulsory school grades are multidimensional, reflecting subject-specific dimensions and a common grade dimension, both of which contribute to the predictive validity of grades. This…

Thorsen, Cecilia

2014-01-01

339

Plasma spraying of functionally graded yttria stabilized zirconia/NiCoCrAlY coating system using composite powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-alloyed and plasma spheroidized composite powders were used as the feedstock in the plasma spraying of functionally graded yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/NiCoCrAlY coatings. The ball milling parameters of the composite powders and the plasma spraying parameters for preparing functionally graded materials (FMGs) coatings were optimized to obtain the best performance for the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Microstructure, physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of YSZ/NiCoCrAlY FGMs coatings were investigated and compared with those of traditional duplex coatings. Results showed that the advantages of using pre-alloyed composite powders in plasma spraying were to ensure chemical homogeneity and promote uniform density along the graded layers. Microstructure observation showed the gradient distribution of YSZ and NiCoCrAlY phases in the coating, and no clear interface was found between two adjacent different layers. Oxidation occurred during plasma spray and the resultant aluminum oxide combines with YSZ in a wide range of proportions. The bond strength of functionally graded coatings was about twice as high as that of the duplex coatings because of the significant reduction of the residual stresses in the coatings. The thermal cycling resistance of functionally graded coating was much better than that of duplex coating.

Khor, K. A.; Gu, Y. W.; Dong, Z. L.

2000-06-01

340

Prospective evaluation of complications using the modified Clavien grading system, and of success rates of percutaneous nephrolithotomy using Guy's Stone Score: A single-center experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction and Objectives: To prospectively document the perioperative complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) using the modified Clavien grading system. Evaluation of complications and clearance rates according to stone complexity using the validated Guy's Stone Score (GSS) was also done. Materials and Methods: A total of 221 renal units underwent 278 PCNL procedures at a urology resident training center between September 2010 and September 2011 and data were recorded prospectively in our registry. Patients with co-morbidities like diabetes, renal failure, hypertension and cardiopulmonary diseases were excluded. Stone complexity was classified according to the GSS while peri-operative complications were recorded using the modified Clavien grading system. Results: Two hundred and forty-five complications were encountered in 278 PCNL procedures involving 116 renal units (41.72%). Complications of Grades 1, 2, 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b and 5 were seen in 52 (18.7%), 122 (43.8%), 42 (15.1%), 18 (6.4%), 6 (2.1%), 4 (1.4%) and 1 (0.3%) renal units respectively. There were 68, 98, 50 and 5 renal units in GSS I, II, III and IV groups, respectively. All grades of complications were more common in GSS III and IV (P<0.05). For GSS I, II, III and IV 100%, 74%, 56% and 0% of renal units, respectively, were stone-free after one session and 0%, 24%, 44% and 60% respectively needed two sessions to be stone-free. Conclusion: Although the complication rates were higher most were of low grade and self-limiting. Complications were significantly more common with higher GSS and the GSS effectively predicted stone-free rates.

Mandal, Swarnendu; Goel, Apul; Kathpalia, Rohit; Sankhwar, Satyanarayan; Singh, Vishwajeet; Sinha, Rahul J.; Singh, Bhupender P.; Dalela, Divakar

2012-01-01

341

Cost of Scaling and Grading Hardwood Sawlogs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hundreds of articles have been written about log grading. Many of them extol the economic benefits that should accrue from the use of a log-grading system. Some lumbermen have heeded this advice and now use log grades to control the quality or species of ...

T. W. Church

1966-01-01

342

How Grading Reform Changed Our School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the early 2000s, Minnetonka High School decided that it needed to develop a more consistent, transparent system of grading. The school focused its grading reform efforts on one principle: Grades should reflect only what a student knows and is able to do. As the school staff analyzed their policies and practices, they discovered many practices…

Erickson, Jeffrey A.

2011-01-01

343

The backwash effect on SQL skills grading  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of grading approaches for SQL query formulation on students' learning strategies. The way that students are graded in a subject has a significant impact on their learning approach, and it is crucial that graded tasks are carefully designed and implemented to inculcate a deep learning experience. An online examination system is described and evaluated.

Julia Coleman Prior; Raymond Lister

2004-01-01

344

Image analysis and grading of prostate adenocarcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multitude of grading systems proposed for prostate adenocarcinoma illustrate the putative value of tumor grading as a predictor of prognosis. However, it also indicates the uncertainty and subjectivity of visual grading, as is confirmed by the results of several studies. Recent computer techniques enable fast image processing of microscoping images. Hence, a quantitative assessment of cellular and nuclear features

H. G. van der Poel; J. A. Schalken; F. M. J. Debruyne

1991-01-01

345

Modern shallow-water graded sand layers from storm surges, Bering Shelf: a mimic of Bouma sequences and turbidite systems.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A sequence of graded sand layers, interbedded with mud, extends offshore over 100km from the Yukon Delta shoreline across the flat, shallow epicontinental shelf of the northern Bering Sea, Alaska. Proximal graded sand beds on the delta-front platform near the shoreline are coarser, thicker and contain more complete vertical sequences of sedimentary structures than distal beds. The sequence of graded sands appears to be related to the major storm surges that occur every several years. The major storms increase the average 10-m water depth in southern Norton Sound as much as 5m and cause fluctuations in pore pressure from wave cyclic loading that may liquefy the upper 2 to 3m of sediment. -from Author

Nelson, C. H.

1982-01-01

346

Newly Diagnosed High-Grade Gliomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  High-grade or malignant gliomas are aggressive cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) grading system recognizes grade\\u000a III and grade IV primary brain tumors of astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or mixed lineage. Identification of these tumors is\\u000a prompted by symptoms such as insidious headaches, seizures, or focal weakness or numbness, with imaging findings of an enhancing\\u000a mass lesion. Following surgery, radiation therapy

Pierre Giglio; John Lee Villano

2010-01-01

347

A Standards-Based Content Analysis of Selected Biological Science Websites  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled…

Stewart, Joy E.

2010-01-01

348

Low cost solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using silane-to-silicon process  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, fabrication, and installation of an experimental process system development unit (EPSDU) were analyzed. Supporting research and development were performed to provide an information data base usable for the EPSDU and for technological design and economical analysis for potential scale-up of the process. Iterative economic analyses were conducted for the estimated product cost for the production of semiconductor grade silicon in a facility capable of producing 1000-MT/Yr.

1980-01-01

349

Increasing On-Task Behavior in Every Student in a Second-Grade Classroom during Transitions: Validating the Color Wheel System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A single-case (B-C-B-C) experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel classroom management system (CWS) on on-task (OT) behavior in an intact, general-education, 2nd-grade classroom during transitions. The CWS included three sets of rules, posted cues to indicate the rules students are expected to be following at that…

Fudge, Daniel L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Jacqueline L.; Cowden, Dan; Clark, Janice; Bliss, Stacy L.

2008-01-01

350

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs

Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

2005-01-01

351

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes progress, experiments, and results for a project to develop a pipeline inline inspection tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). There is a brief introduction that gives background material about EMATs and relevant previous Tuboscope work toward a tool. This work left various choices about the modes and transducers

Jeff Aron; Roger Dalton Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Owen Thomas; Tim Jarman

2003-01-01

352

Grading-System-Dependent Volume Effects for Late Radiation-Induced Rectal Toxicity After Curative Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To assess the association between the dose distributions in the rectum and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG\\/EORTC), Late Effects of Normal Tissue SOMA, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 graded rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer treated with RT. Methods and Materials: Included

Hans Paul van der Laan; Alphons van den Bergh; Cornelis Schilstra; Renske Vlasman; Harm Meertens; Johannes A. Langendijk

2008-01-01

353

A Study of Two Approaches to the Teaching of Spelling in the Seventh Grade of a Bicultural School System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to determine the relative effectiveness of the conventional teacher-directed approach to spelling instruction when compared to a self-directed student-centered approach for 7th-grade students, many of whom spoke Spanish. Spelling achievement was measured by two forms of the same test, while language I. Q., non-language I. Q.,…

Klemm, James F.

354

Visual Grading System for Vasospasm Based on Perfusion CT Imaging: Comparisons with Conventional Angiography and Quantitative Perfusion CT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to compare simple visual grading of perfusion CT (PCT) maps to a more quantitative, threshold-based interpretation of PCT parameters in the characterization of presence and severity of vasospasm. Methods: Thirty-three patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage were enrolled in a prospective study and underwent a total of 40 paired PCT and digital subtraction angiography

Max Wintermark; William P. Dillon; Wade S. Smith; Benison C. Lau; Saadia Chaudhary; Songling Liu; Melissa Yu; Melissa Fitch; Jeffrey D. Chien; Randall T. Higashida; Nerissa U. Ko

2008-01-01

355

The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading system for renal cell carcinoma and other prognostic parameters.  

PubMed

The International Society of Urological Pathology 2012 Consensus Conference made recommendations regarding classification, prognostic factors, staging, and immunohistochemical and molecular assessment of adult renal tumors. Issues relating to prognostic factors were coordinated by a workgroup who identified tumor morphotype, sarcomatoid/rhabdoid differentiation, tumor necrosis, grading, and microvascular invasion as potential prognostic parameters. There was consensus that the main morphotypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were of prognostic significance, that subtyping of papillary RCC (types 1 and 2) provided additional prognostic information, and that clear cell tubulopapillary RCC was associated with a more favorable outcome. For tumors showing sarcomatoid or rhabdoid differentiation, there was consensus that a minimum proportion of tumor was not required for diagnostic purposes. It was also agreed upon that the underlying subtype of carcinoma should be reported. For sarcomatoid carcinoma, it was further agreed upon that if the underlying carcinoma subtype was absent the tumor should be classified as a grade 4 unclassified carcinoma with a sarcomatoid component. Tumor necrosis was considered to have prognostic significance, with assessment based on macroscopic and microscopic examination of the tumor. It was recommended that for clear cell RCC the amount of necrosis should be quantified. There was consensus that nucleolar prominence defined grades 1 to 3 of clear cell and papillary RCCs, whereas extreme nuclear pleomorphism or sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation defined grade 4 tumors. It was agreed upon that chromophobe RCC should not be graded. There was consensus that microvascular invasion should not be included as a staging criterion for RCC. PMID:24025520

Delahunt, Brett; Cheville, John C; Martignoni, Guido; Humphrey, Peter A; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; McKenney, Jesse; Egevad, Lars; Algaba, Ferran; Moch, Holger; Grignon, David J; Montironi, Rodolfo; Srigley, John R

2013-10-01

356

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES  

SciTech Connect

This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length and depth could be determined for deep enough cracks. Defect shadow and short length effects were apparent but may be taken into account. The SH0 scan was done with the mule prototype circuits and permanent magnet EMATs. These gave good enough results that this hardware and the processing techniques are very encouraging for use in a practical ILI tool.

Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

2005-02-01

357

Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA subscales. Correlations were computed for BAT, BASA, and demographic variables to identify relationships between teacher efficacy, teacher characteristics, and school characteristics. Further research is recommended to refine the instrument and apply its use to a larger sample of science teachers. Its further development also has significance for the enhancement of science teacher education programs.

Kerr, Patricia Reda

358

State of Nebraska Reading Comprehension/Vocabulary Test and the Local American Literature Criterion-Referenced Test for Public School Eleventh Grade Students: A Correlational Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focused on the effectiveness of standards-based testing and was designed to determine the relationship of student scores on the locally constructed, standards-based, criterion-referenced test (CRT) for approximately 280 eleventh grade students at a Midwestern, Class III district, operating a Class A high school, and the scores of those…

Beckmann, Priscilla A.

2010-01-01

359

Development of a decision support system for diagnosis and grading of brain tumours using in vivo magnetic resonance single voxel spectra.  

PubMed

A computer-based decision support system to assist radiologists in diagnosing and grading brain tumours has been developed by the multi-centre INTERPRET project. Spectra from a database of 1H single-voxel spectra of different types of brain tumours, acquired in vivo from 334 patients at four different centres, are clustered according to their pathology, using automated pattern recognition techniques and the results are presented as a two-dimensional scatterplot using an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI). Formal quality control procedures were performed to standardize the performance of the instruments and check each spectrum, and teams of expert neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, neurologists and neuropathologists clinically validated each case. The prototype decision support system (DSS) successfully classified 89% of the cases in an independent test set of 91 cases of the most frequent tumour types (meningiomas, low-grade gliomas and high-grade malignant tumours--glioblastomas and metastases). It also helps to resolve diagnostic difficulty in borderline cases. When the prototype was tested by radiologists and other clinicians it was favourably received. Results of the preliminary clinical analysis of the added value of using the DSS for brain tumour diagnosis with MRS showed a small but significant improvement over MRI used alone. In the comparison of individual pathologies, PNETs were significantly better diagnosed with the DSS than with MRI alone. PMID:16763971

Tate, Anne R; Underwood, Joshua; Acosta, Dionisio M; Julià-Sapé, Margarida; Majós, Carles; Moreno-Torres, Angel; Howe, Franklyn A; van der Graaf, Marinette; Lefournier, Virginie; Murphy, Mary M; Loosemore, Alison; Ladroue, Christophe; Wesseling, Pieter; Luc Bosson, Jean; Cabañas, Miquel E; Simonetti, Arjan W; Gajewicz, Witold; Calvar, Jorge; Capdevila, Antoni; Wilkins, Peter R; Bell, B Anthony; Rémy, Chantal; Heerschap, Arend; Watson, Des; Griffiths, John R; Arús, Carles

2006-06-01

360

Graded zooming  

DOEpatents

A system for increasing the resolution in the far field resolution of video or still frame images, while maintaining full coverage in the near field. The system includes a camera connected to a computer. The computer applies a specific zooming scale factor to each of line of pixels and continuously increases the scale factor of the line of pixels from the bottom to the top to capture the scene in the near field, yet maintain resolution in the scene in the far field.

Coffland, Douglas R. (Livermore, CA)

2006-04-25

361

Method and system using power modulation for maskless vapor deposition of spatially graded thin film and multilayer coatings with atomic-level precision and accuracy  

DOEpatents

A method and system for producing a film (preferably a thin film with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) on a flat or graded substrate (such as concave or convex optics), by sweeping the substrate across a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. In preferred embodiments, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. A user selects a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a predetermined desired thickness profile of the deposited film. The method relies on precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Folta, James Allen (Livermore, CA); Tan, Swie-In (San Jose, CA); Reiss, Ira (New City, NY)

2002-07-30

362

Early Identification System: Followup of Those Students in the Grade 1 Class of 1978-79 Who Did Not Reach Grade 4 in 1981-82. Research Report 83-03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to document the educational status, history, and standardized test performance of London, Ontario, students in the first-grade class of 1978-79 who did not reach the fourth grade by the fall of 1981. Additionally assessed was the predictive validity of Early Identification Ratings (EID) made in 1978-79. The following…

Stennett, R. G.; Earl, L. M.

363

Teachers Say Grades Aren't Enough.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses findings of a survey of 304 elementary school teachers from six eastern Massachusetts school districts. Teachers' values often conflicted with their school districts' formal grading systems. (LMI)

Hubelbank, Jeanne H.; Airasian, Peter W.

1997-01-01

364

The formation of high-grade ignimbrites, I: Experiments on high- and low-concentration transport systems containing sticky particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-grade ignimbrites are thought to be deposited by pyroclastic flows at temperatures exceeding minimum welding temperature\\u000a or even solidus temperature. Corresponding pyroclastic-flow particles range from plastic to partially liquid and are able\\u000a to aggregate or coalesce. This contrasts with particles in pyroclastic flows producing unwelded ignimbrite, which are capable\\u000a of elastic grain interactions. The low aspect ratio and great areal

Armin Freundt

1998-01-01

365

Developing Knowledgeable Teachers: A Framework for Standards-Based Teacher Education Supported by Institutional Collaboration. The STEP Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers describes the process of creating a standards-based teacher education program through strong collaboration among arts and science, education, and P-12 faculty members and administrators. The Standards-based Teacher Education Project (STEP) was designed to help teacher education programs ensure that their graduates know…

Garvin, Patty, Ed.

366

Quality (and/or?) Control: Perils and Promises of Standards-Based School Reform in Urban Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article looks at the perils and promises of standards-based instruction in urban environments. We begin with an outline of the rise of the current standards movement. Then turn to the con position which contends; states, schools and districts do not always implement standards-based ideals effectively, especially in urban settings where…

Seidel, Kent; Meyer, Helen

2006-01-01

367

California teachers' perceptions of standards-based reform in middle school science: A mixed-methods study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 presented one of the most significant and comprehensive literacy reforms in many years (McDonnell, 2005; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). The era of school accountability and standards based reform has brought many challenges and changes to public schools. Increasingly, public officials and educational administrators are asked to use standards based assessments

Allison Gail Wilson Leggett

2007-01-01

368

Second Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for second grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, second grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

369

Fourth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fourth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fourth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

370

Third Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for third grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, third grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

371

Seventh Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for seventh grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, seventh grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

372

Eighth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for eighth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, eighth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

373

Fifth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fifth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fifth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

374

Science Grades 5-8 Benchmarks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document explains the Arkansas science benchmarks for grades 5-8 which were developed to provide guidance to science teachers. The content standards for three strands--physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems--were identified based on grade levels. (YDS)

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

375

Sixth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for sixth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, sixth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

376

Cool Apps: Building Cryospheric Data Applications with Standards-Based Service Oriented Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) holds a large collection of cryospheric data, and is involved in a number of informatics research and development projects aimed at improving the discoverability and accessibility of these data. To develop high- quality software in a timely manner, we have adopted a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach for our core technical infrastructure development. Data services at NSIDC are internally exposed to other tools and applications through standards-based service interfaces. These standards include OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting), various OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards including WMS (Web Map Service) and WFS (Web Feature Service), ESIP (Federation of Earth Sciences Information Partners) OpenSearch, and NSIDC-defined service endpoints which follow a RESTful architecture. By taking a standards-based approach, we are able to use off-the-shelf tools and libraries to consume, translate and broker these data services, and thus develop applications faster. Additionally, by exposing public interfaces to these services we provide valuable data services to technical collaborators; for example, NASA Reverb (http://reverb.echo.nasa.gov) uses NSIDC's WMS services. Our latest generation of web applications consume these data services directly. The most complete example of this is the Operation IceBridge Data Portal (http://nsidc.org/icebridge/ portal) which depends on many of the aforementioned services, retrieving data in several ways. The maps it displays are obtained through the use of WMS and WFS protocols from a MapServer instance hosted at NSIDC. Links to the scientific data collected on Operation IceBridge campaigns are obtained through ESIP OpenSearch requests service providers that encapsulate our metadata databases. These standards-based web services are also developed at NSIDC and are designed to be used independently of the Portal. This poster provides a visual representation of the relationships described above, with additional details and examples, and more generally outlines the benefits and challenges of this SOA approach.

Oldenburg, J.; Truslove, I.; Collins, J. A.; Liu, M.; Lewis, S.; Brodzik, M.

2012-12-01

377

Analyzing standards-based science instructional materials: An opportunity for professional development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This phenomenological study focused on a group of teachers who applied the Analyzing Instructional Materials (AIM) Process and Tools to select standards-based instructional materials for science curriculum reform. The purpose of this study was to identify, based on teachers' beliefs, perceptions, and experiences, the conditions for supporting professional development that involve standards-based reform and the use of instructional materials that were developed with funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF). The design of this qualitative study involved a series of three separate in-depth interviews with six participants. A first person narrative profile of each participant was constructed from the interviews and analyzed. Three themes were represented in the data: a focus on teaming, professional development and the change and reform process. Teachers in this study believed that instructional materials needed to explicitly support concept development and students doing science in order to learn about inquiry. Participants thought NSF-funded instructional materials supported inquiry-based learning and the teacher as a facilitator of learning. Based on this study, one finding about standards-based reform is that selecting instructional materials can be a structured professional development opportunity. A second finding is that teachers' beliefs about standards-based reform and the use of materials can be influenced during the selection of high quality instructional materials. Participants in this study believed that selecting NSF-funded instructional materials was critical to changing the learning and teaching of science in their district. A third finding is that professional development can push teachers to think critically about the materials they use to teach students science. Teachers in this study believed that their experiences associated with learning and using AIM provided them opportunities for reflection and dialogue about how instructional materials could better support concept development and inquiry-based learning and teaching. Three implications for teacher learning and professional development based on this study include: structures and facilitation are needed to guide the change and reform process because of the time needed for adult learning, reform-oriented instructional materials can be used to support adult learning experiences, and the use of outside experts can be critical to supporting reform efforts within a district.

Short, James Bennett

378

Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and noncognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades and undermines their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge…

Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

2013-01-01

379

Faculty/Staff Perceptions of a Standards-Based Exit Portfolio System for Graduate Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New standards for certification were recently developed for speech-language pathology graduate training programs by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. The new standards are outcomes-based rather than process-based. Using a collective case study approach, this article highlights the perceptions of faculty and staff regarding use of a…

McNamara, Tena L.; Bailey, Rita L.

2006-01-01

380

Metadata support in open standard-based learning management systems. A use case in higher education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL) is a long term issue focused on providing a student-centred approach to learning. Realising an inclusive TEL app roach, which considers adaptation issues to support preferences and accessibility needs, is a very demanding task i n many respects. The design process is very time co nsuming and tedious, with a wide range of features related to

Olga C. Santos; Daniel Fernandez-Guerrero; Jorge Granado; Emmanuelle Raffenne

381

Vertical Alignment: Ensuring Opportunity to Learn in a Standards-Based System. Issue Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to requirements in the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), state policymakers have made concerted efforts to align state standards with state accountability assessments. When strongly aligned and articulated, state standards and assessments can provide a clear and coherent set of expectations for students and educators. How do districts…

Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

2009-01-01

382

Discover, visualize, and deliver geospatial data through OGC standards-based WebGIS system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geospatial data are important to understand the Earth - ecosystem dynamics, land cover changes, resource management, and human interactions with the Earth to name a few. One of the biggest difficulties users face is to discover, access, and assemble distributed, large volume, heterogeneous geospatial data to conduct geo-analysis. Traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery lack the capabilities

Yaxing Wei; Suresh-Kumar Santhana-Vannan; Robert B. Cook

2009-01-01

383

Advantages and Disadvantages of Weighted Grading. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What are the advantages and disadvantages of weighted grading? The primary purpose of weighted grading has been to encourage high school students to take more rigorous courses. This effort is then acknowledged by more weight being given to the grade for a specified class. There are numerous systems of weighted grading cited in the literature from…

Walker, Karen

2004-01-01

384

Plus/Minus Grading: A within Instructor Comparison  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three semester, within instructor, interrupted time series analysis of grading practices was conducted in order to observe the effects of the implementation of a plus minus grading system. Over 260 individual instructor's grades were compared before and after implementation of plus minus grading. The results indicate no overall effect of the…

Frank, Michael L.; Feeney, Linda

2006-01-01

385

Standards-based publication and sharing of time series information in the DRIHM project: a EU-US collaboration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To enable a plug-and-play infrastructure, the European DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project aims to develop a comprehensive data publication and sharing system presenting uniform standards-based data discovery and access interfaces for hydrometeorological data collected by DRIHM partners in several European countries. This is a challenging task due to heterogeneity in types of data being collected and organized for modeling, and different semantic and structural conventions adopted by different data publishers. To meet this goal, the DRIHM project, and its DRIHM2US extension, collaborates with the recently funded US SCIHM (Standards-based Cyberinfrastructure for HydroMeteorology) project to develop a data sharing infrastructure for time series information. We report initial results of the application of the data integrating technologies developed by the NSF-funded CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Data, Inc., Hydrologic Information System) project, to information collected within DRIHM. The CUAHSI HIS system has been widely used in the US; it provides access to about a hundred water data collections that can be queried via uniform web services. The DRIHM partners initially implementing the system, include the CIMA Research Foundation (Italy), the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. The collected time series information was ingested into CUAHSI Observations Data Model databases, and water data services were created for each of the partners. At the time of writing, the water data services include SOAP and REST endpoints that provide access to the time series in WaterML 1 and WaterML 2.0 formats. The former encoding, developed by CUAHSI HIS, has been adopted by a number of federal agencies and research groups in the US, while the latter, created by an international group of experts under the aegis of the Hydrology Domain Working Group of the Open Geospatial Consortium and the World Meteorological Organization, has been recently adopted as an international standard for exchanging hydrologic data. The services are registered at the central catalog, which supports discovery of time series based on their spatio-temporal characteristics and on variable semantics. The semantics of the measurements is aligned , in the process of publication and service registration, with a set of centrally managed controlled vocabularies and a parameter vocabulary. Data from multiple collections can be discovered, accessed, visualized and analyzed using CUAHSI HydroDesktop software, or other clients that support water data service interfaces. While HydroDesktop relies on WaterML 1 format, the Delft FEWS system, maintained by a DRIHM partner Deltares, is already capable of ingesting WaterML 2.0 services, which enables interfacing WaterML 2.0-formatted streams with forecast models. Development of a consistent data sharing system is one of the first steps in realizing DRIHM objectives. Next steps include further integration of water data services with simulation models, WRF and WRF-Hydro in particular, and integrating point time series with gridded information to be used as model input. We discuss these additional steps and associated challenges, and demonstrate the complementarity and benefits of US-EU collaboration in the development of global standards-based infrastructure for hydrometeorological data.

Hooper, Richard; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Parodi, Antonio; Gochis, David; Jha, Shantenu; Whitenack, Thomas; Valentine, David; Caumont, Olivier; Dekic, Ljiljana; Ivkovic, Marija; Molini, Luca; Bedrina, Tatiana; Gijsbers, Peter J. A.; de Rooij, Erik; Rebora, Nicola

2013-04-01

386

Prospective evaluation of 2 acute graft-versus-host (GVHD) grading systems: a joint Société Française de Greffe de Moëlle et Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC), Dana Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI), and International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR) prospective study.  

PubMed

The most commonly used grading system for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was introduced 30 years ago by Glucksberg; a revised system was developed by the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR) in 1997. To prospectively compare the 2 classifications and to evaluate the effect of duration and severity of aGVHD on survival, we conducted a multicenter study of 607 patients receiving T-cell-replete allografts, scored weekly for aGVHD in 18 transplantation centers. Sixty-nine percent of donors were HLA-identical siblings and 28% were unrelated donors. The conditioning regimen included total body irradiation in 442 (73%) patients. The 2 classifications performed similarly in explaining variability in survival by aGVHD grade, although the Glucksberg classification predicted early survival better. There was less physician bias or error in assigning grades with the IBMTR scoring system. With either system, only the maximum observed grade had prognostic significance for survival; neither time of onset nor progression from an initially lower grade of aGVHD was associated with survival once maximum grade was considered. Regardless of scoring system, aGVHD severity accounted for only a small percentage of observed variation in survival. Validity of these results in populations receiving peripheral blood transplants or nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens remains to be tested. PMID:15878974

Cahn, Jean-Yves; Klein, John P; Lee, Stephanie J; Milpied, Noël; Blaise, Didier; Antin, Joseph H; Leblond, Véronique; Ifrah, Norbert; Jouet, Jean-Pierre; Loberiza, Fausto; Ringden, Olle; Barrett, A John; Horowitz, Mary M; Socié, Gérard

2005-08-15

387

Our Schools Grappled with Grade-Point Politics and Lost.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined are reforms taking place in the grading system of High School District 214 in the northwest suburbs of Chicago. School administrator effectiveness is the key to a successful and appropriate grading system. (SI)

Ashenfelter, John W.

1990-01-01

388

Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

2012-01-01

389

Design, Implementation, Use, and Preliminary Evaluation of SEBASTIAN, a Standards-Based Web Service for Clinical Decision Support  

PubMed Central

Despite their demonstrated ability to improve care quality, clinical decision support systems are not widely used. In part, this limited use is due to the difficulty of sharing medical knowledge in a machine-executable format. To address this problem, we developed a decision support Web service known as SEBASTIAN. In SEBASTIAN, individual knowledge modules define the data requirements for assessing a patient, the conclusions that can be drawn using that data, and instructions on how to generate those conclusions. Using standards-based XML messages transmitted over HTTP, client decision support applications provide patient data to SEBASTIAN and receive patient-specific assessments and recommendations. SEBASTIAN has been used to implement four distinct decision support systems; an architectural overview is provided for one of these systems. Preliminary assessments indicate that SEBASTIAN fulfills all original design objectives, including the re-use of executable medical knowledge across diverse applications and care settings, the straightforward authoring of knowledge modules, and use of the framework to implement decision support applications with significant clinical utility.

Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lobach, David F.

2005-01-01

390

Students' Knowledge about Chemical Reactions--Development and Analysis of Standard-Based Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2004 national educational standards for chemistry were implemented in Germany. While the standards describe different competencies to be reached after grade 10, no compulsory contents are defined. The contents are defined by the different German states individually. This means that there are no defined common topics taught in all states that…

Walpuski, Maik; Ropohl, Mathias; Sumfleth, Elke

2011-01-01

391

A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "El Canto de las Palomas"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). In the summer of 1996, the Center offered the Culture and Children's…

Montgomery, Cherice; Sederberg, Brenda; Tyrol, Marcia Riis; Stevenson, Sonia

1998-01-01

392

A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "La Mujer Que Brillaba Aun Mas Que el Sol"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

Bullitt, Leslie Kay; Gonzalez, Augusta C.; Luna, Boni

1998-01-01

393

Self-Study of a Teacher's Journey toward Standards-Based Mathematics Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors describe a journey of self-study during which one author shifted from traditional, teacher-driven approaches to a more problem-based inquiry approach to teaching mathematics. He videotaped a series of lessons taught to sixth-grade students over a semester and analyzed his teaching during discussions with his mentor at the university.…

Thomas, John Austin; Monroe, Eula Ewing

2006-01-01

394

Making the Grade.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the importance of choosing wood flooring for athletic facilities and why the grade of wood specified can significantly impact sports-facility aesthetics. The three types of wood grades are explained along with thoughts on why choosing the priciest grade may not be satisfactory. (GR)

Dahlgren, Sally

2000-01-01

395

General Graded Response Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes the graded response model. The graded response model represents a family of mathematical models that deal with ordered polytomous categories, such as: (1) letter grading; (2) an attitude survey with "strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree" choices; (3) partial credit given in accord with an individual's degree…

Samejima, Fumiko

396

Comparison of Grading Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conventional, standard scores, deviation-weighted, weighted root-mean-square, and geometric-mean grading methods are described, noting strengths/weaknesses of each. Methods are compared to aid in selecting the most equitable one. Also shows that grades depend not only on student achievement but also on the way the teacher determines a grade. (JN)

Remillard, Wilfred J.

1983-01-01

397

Bias in Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Bias in grading can be conscious or unconscious. The author describes different types of bias, such as those based on student attractiveness or performance in prior courses, and a variety of methods of reducing bias, including keeping students anonymous during grading and using detailed criteria for subjective grading.

Malouff, John

2008-01-01

398

The Effect of Plus/Minus Grading on the GPA  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, an increasing number of colleges and universities have been turning away from traditional letter grading systems that limit student grades to A, B, C, D, and F based on the presumption that grading systems with more flexibility are advantageous to both teachers and students. However, as with any rating system, before opting for a…

Wilamowsky, Yonah; Dickman, Bernard H.; Epstein, Sheldon

2008-01-01

399

Wad-Ja-Get? The Grading Game in American Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book addresses, in novel form, the question of whether or not the traditional system of grading in American schools is the most educationally useful system of evaluation. Within the dramatic framework of a controversy over grading at Mapleton High School, the authors examine various issues related to the traditional grading system, including…

Kirschenbaum, Howard; And Others

400

Grading in soft tissue tumors: principles and problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

. Histologic grading has been considered the most important prognostic factor for soft tissue sarcomas. Several grading systems have been proposed based on the assessment of morphologic features in heterogeneous groups of sarcomas. Currently, the French Federation of Cancer Centers (FNCLCC) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) grading systems are the most commonly used. These systems are based on a

Andre M. Oliveira; Antonio G. Nascimento

2001-01-01

401

Cool Apps: Building Cryospheric Data Applications With Standards-Based Service Oriented Architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) holds a large collection of cryospheric data, and is involved in a number of informatics research and development projects aimed at improving the discoverability and accessibility of these data. To develop high-quality software in a timely manner, we have adopted a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach for our core technical infrastructure development. Data services at NSIDC are internally exposed to other tools and applications through standards-based service interfaces. These standards include OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting), various OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards including WMS (Web Map Service) and WFS (Web Feature Service), ESIP (Federation of Earth Sciences Information Partners) OpenSearch, and NSIDC-specific RESTful services. By taking a standards-based approach, we are able to use off-the-shelf tools and libraries to consume, translate and broker these data services, and thus develop applications faster. Additionally, by exposing public interfaces to these services we provide valuable data services to technical collaborators; for example, NASA Reverb (http://reverb.echo.nasa.gov) uses NSIDC's WMS services. Our latest generation of web applications consume these data services directly. The most complete example of this is the Operation IceBridge Data Portal (http://nsidc.org/icebridge/portal) which depends on many of the aforementioned services, and clearly exhibits many of the advantages of building applications atop a service-oriented architecture. This presentation outlines the architectural approach and components and open standards and protocols adopted at NSIDC, demonstrates the interactions and uses of public and internal service interfaces currently powering applications including the IceBridge Data Portal, and outlines the benefits and challenges of this approach.

Collins, J. A.; Truslove, I.; Billingsley, B. W.; Oldenburg, J.; Brodzik, M.; Lewis, S.; Liu, M.

2012-12-01

402

The hardware and software interface of a programmable logic controller to an industrial grade process control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated system that is useful for teaching about the methods of industrial process control, applications of programmable logic controllers, computer aided simulation of process control systems to test designs and advanced animated graphics for data acquisition and control is discussed. The system hardware, including the process control system, programmable logic controller, and microcomputer components, is outlined. The system software,

Akram Hossain; Muhammed H. Rashid

1990-01-01

403

Risk of Shunt Dependent Hydrocephalus after Treatment of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms : Surgical Clipping versus Endovascular Coiling According to Fisher Grading System  

PubMed Central

Objective The amount of hemorrhage observed on a brain computed tomography scan, or a patient's Fisher grade (FG), is a powerful risk factor for development of shunt dependent hydrocephlaus (SDHC). However, the influence of treatment modality (clipping versus coiling) on the rate of SDHC development has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we compared the risk of SDHC in both treatment groups according to the amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Methods We retrospectively reviewed 839 patients with aneurysmal SAH for a 5-year-period. Incidence of chronic SDHC was analyzed using each treatment modality according to the FG system. In addition, other well known risk factors for SDHC were also evaluated. Results According to our data, Hunt-Hess grade, FG, acute hydrocephalus, and intraventricular hemorrhage were significant risk factors for development of chronic SDHC. Coiling group showed lower incidence of SDHC in FG 2 patients, and clipping groups revealed a significantly lower rate in FG 4 patients. Conclusion Based on our data, treatment modality might have an influence on the incidence of SDHC. In FG 4 patients, the clipping group showed lower incidence of SDHC, and the coiling group showed lower incidence in FG 2 patients. We suggest that these findings could be a considerable factor when deciding on a treatment modality for aneurysmal SAH patients, particularly when the ruptured aneurysm can be occluded by either clipping or coiling.

Nam, Kyung-Hun; Kang, Dong-Hun; Park, Jaechan; Kim, Yong-Sun

2010-01-01

404

Intelligent functionally graded material: Bamboo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the shape and ingenious construction of biological hard tissues are the result of a continuous process of optimization, their basic characteristics such as microstructures, functions, and modelling systems fascinate the designers of engineering structures. Through the study of functionally graded materials, we hope to develop new superior material\\/structure concepts by using or modifying the construction of living organisms. The

Hideaki Takahashi

1995-01-01

405

Self-Study of a Teacher's Journey toward Standards-Based Mathematics Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a journey of self-study during which one author shifted from traditional, teacher-driven approaches to a more problem-based inquiry approach to teaching mathematics. He videotaped a series of lessons taught to sixth-grade students over a semester and analyzed his teaching during discussions with his mentor at the university. The shared analysis helped him learn to involve his students

John Austin Thomas; Eula Ewing Monroe

2006-01-01

406

Passive atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping in {sup 87}Rb using injection-locked lasers  

SciTech Connect

We present a microwave frequency standard based on coherent population trapping (CPT) in the {sup 87}Rb D{sub 1} line. The CPT spectrum is obtained using two Raman lasers with a 6.8 GHz frequency offset by injection locking of a master laser to a slave laser. We have constructed an atomic clock employing a 5 cm long Rb vapor cell confined with 6.67 kPa neon buffer gas at 70 degree sign C. Using this system, we improve the CPT contrast through the elimination of undesired off-resonant fields created by the direct modulation method. We measured the frequency shift of the CPT signal as a function of the temperature of the Rb cell and estimated it to be approximately 1.3x10{sup -9}/K. The frequency of a 10 MHz crystal oscillator has been stabilized to the CPT spectrum between the two ground states in {sup 87}Rb. The relative frequency stability is approximately 2.3x10{sup -12} for an average time of 68 s.

Moon, Han Seb; Park, Sang Eon; Park, Young-Ho; Lee, Lim; Kim, Jung Bog [Department of Physics, National University, 30 Jangjun-Dong, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics Education, Korea National University of Education, Chung-buk, 363-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2006-11-15

407

Molecular Characterization of a Theta Replication Plasmid and Its Use for Development of a Two-Component Food-Grade Cloning System for Lactococcus lactis  

PubMed Central

pCD4, a small, highly stable theta-replicating lactococcal plasmid, was used to develop a food-grade cloning system. Sequence analysis revealed five open reading frames and two putative cis-acting regions. None appears to code for undesirable phenotypes with regard to food applications. Functional analysis of the replication module showed that only the cis-acting ori region and the repB gene coding for the replication initiator protein were needed for the stable replication and maintenance of pCD4 derivatives in Lactococcus lactis. A two-component food-grade cloning system was derived from the pCD4 replicon. The vector pVEC1, which carries the functional pCD4 replicon, is entirely made up of L. lactis DNA and has no selection marker. The companion pCOM1 is a repB-deficient pCD4 derivative that carries an erythromycin resistance gene as a dominant selection marker. The pCOM1 construct can only replicate in L. lactis if trans complemented by the RepB initiator provided by pVEC1. Since only the cotransformants that carry both pVEC1 and pCOM1 can survive on plates containing erythromycin, pCOM1 can be used transiently to select cells that have acquired pVEC1. Due to the intrinsic incompatibility between these plasmids, pCOM1 can be readily cured from the cells grown on an antibiotic-free medium after the selection step. The system was used to introduce a phage resistance mechanism into the laboratory strain MG1363 of L. lactis and two industrial strains. The introduction of the antiphage barrier did not alter the wild-type plasmid profile of the industrial strains. The phenotype was stable after 100 generations and conferred an effective resistance phenotype against phages of the 936 and c2 species.

Emond, Eric; Lavallee, Richard; Drolet, Genevieve; Moineau, Sylvain; LaPointe, Gisele

2001-01-01

408

Lifestyle and nutritional imbalances associated with Western diseases: causes and consequences of chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in an evolutionary context.  

PubMed

In this review, we focus on lifestyle changes, especially dietary habits, that are at the basis of chronic systemic low grade inflammation, insulin resistance and Western diseases. Our sensitivity to develop insulin resistance traces back to our rapid brain growth in the past 2.5 million years. An inflammatory reaction jeopardizes the high glucose needs of our brain, causing various adaptations, including insulin resistance, functional reallocation of energy-rich nutrients and changing serum lipoprotein composition. The latter aims at redistribution of lipids, modulation of the immune reaction, and active inhibition of reverse cholesterol transport for damage repair. With the advent of the agricultural and industrial revolutions, we have introduced numerous false inflammatory triggers in our lifestyle, driving us to a state of chronic systemic low grade inflammation that eventually leads to typically Western diseases via an evolutionary conserved interaction between our immune system and metabolism. The underlying triggers are an abnormal dietary composition and microbial flora, insufficient physical activity and sleep, chronic stress and environmental pollution. The disturbance of our inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance is illustrated by dietary fatty acids and antioxidants. The current decrease in years without chronic disease is rather due to "nurture" than "nature," since less than 5% of the typically Western diseases are primary attributable to genetic factors. Resolution of the conflict between environment and our ancient genome might be the only effective manner for "healthy aging," and to achieve this we might have to return to the lifestyle of the Paleolithic era as translated to the 21st century culture. PMID:23657158

Ruiz-Núñez, Begoña; Pruimboom, Leo; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J

2013-07-01

409

The Sixth Grade: Caught in the Middle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comparative investigation of the place of the sixth grade in public education used a shadow study technique to address three questions: (1) What is a sixth grader's day in school like? (2) In what ways do programs provided for sixth graders differ, depending on where the grade is located in the school system? (3) How does what is known of the…

Lounsbury, John H.

410

Ian Reid on Grades: An Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With reference to his own experiences as an Educational Psychology professor at the University of Hawaii College of Education, Ian Reid discusses student and faculty feelings about traditional letter grades and about credit/no credit grading, and the impact of these two systems on the instructional process. (SJL)

Reid, Ian E.; Dunn-Rankin, Peter

1978-01-01

411

Conceptual Systems and Educational Environment: Relationships Between Teacher Conceptual Systems, Student Conceptual Systems, and Classroom Environment as Perceived by Fifth and Sixth Grade Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was done to determine the significant relationships among teacher conceptual systems, student conceptual systems, and student perceptions of the classroom educational environment in selected elementary schools. Tested was the general hypothesis that students would be more involved with teachers they perceived as being less authoritarian…

Phillips, Mark; Sinclair, Robert

412

An Analysis of the Education Systems in Mexico and the United States from Pre-Kinder to 12 Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides an overview of the public school system in Mexico from early childhood to high school, and compares it with the American education system. It also identifies educational terminology and concepts unique to the Mexican system that can become possible sources of conflict and confusion for American educators. (Contains 7…

Rosado, Luis A.; Hellawell, Marisa; Zamora, Ezequiel Benedicto

2011-01-01

413

Evaluating Student Response to WeBWorK, a Web-Based Homework Delivery and Grading System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As the use of web-based homework delivery and checking systems expands, we have greater need to evaluate how students engage with these systems and how changes in the systems influence student behavior. Reported here is the assessment of WeBWorK, an open-source web-based homework program used largely in postsecondary math and science courses, with…

Roth, Vicki; Ivanchenko, Volodymyr; Record, Nicholas

2008-01-01

414

The Application of Ti/Al2O3 Composite in W-Mo-Al System Wave Impedance Graded Flier-plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ti/Al2O3 composite of different components were prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering technique, mechanical and acoustical properties of Ti/Al2O3 composite were analyzed, weldability of Ti/Al2O3 composite with Mo and Al was also studied. The results indicate that 38.5vol%Ti/Al2O3 composite has good mechanical performance with relative density >99.20%, bending strength 897MPa, fracture toughness 17.38 MPa·m1/2 and micro-hardness 17.13GPa. The wave impedance of the composite was between which of Mo and Al, and the 38.5vol% Ti/Al2O3 welded well with Mo and Ti. These demonstrate that 38.5vol%Ti/Al2O3 composite could serve as one of interlayer materials in W-Mo-Al system graded flier-plate.

Wang, Z.; Feng, S.; Shi, G. P.; Shen, Q.; Zhang, L. M.

2013-03-01

415

Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system  

DOEpatents

Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5 .mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photolvoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of growing layer.

Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1980-01-01

416

Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ca.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system  

DOEpatents

Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5.mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photovoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of the growing layer.

Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

1981-01-01

417

Standards-based sensor interoperability and networking SensorWeb: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The War fighter lacks a unified Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) environment to conduct mission planning, command and control (C2), tasking, collection, exploitation, processing, and data discovery of disparate sensor data across the ISR Enterprise. Legacy sensors and applications are not standardized or integrated for assured, universal access. Existing tasking and collection capabilities are not unified across the enterprise, inhibiting robust C2 of ISR including near-real time, cross-cueing operations. To address these critical needs, the National Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) Office (NMO), and partnering Combatant Commands and Intelligence Agencies are developing SensorWeb, an architecture that harmonizes heterogeneous sensor data to a common standard for users to discover, access, observe, subscribe to and task sensors. The SensorWeb initiative long term goal is to establish an open commercial standards-based, service-oriented framework to facilitate plug and play sensors. The current development effort will produce non-proprietary deliverables, intended as a Government off the Shelf (GOTS) solution to address the U.S. and Coalition nations' inability to quickly and reliably detect, identify, map, track, and fully understand security threats and operational activities.

Bolling, Sam

2012-05-01

418

The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Information Display in an Electronic Portfolio System on Information Processing and Retention in a Fifth-Grade Science Class Covering the Earth's Atmosphere  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An electronic portfolio system, designed to serve as a resource-based learning space, was tested in a fifth-grade science class. The control-group students accessed a traditional folder-based information display in the system and the experimental-group students accessed a concept map-based information display to review a science portfolio. The…

Kim, Paul; Olaciregui, Claudia

2008-01-01

419

Evaluating student response to WeBWorK, a web-based homework delivery and grading system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the use of web-based homework delivery and checking systems expands, we have greater need to evaluate how students engage with these systems and how changes in the systems influence student behavior. Reported here is the assessment of WeBWorK, an open-source web-based homework program used largely in postsecondary math and science courses, with recent extension to high school courses. WeBWorK

Vicki Roth; Volodymyr Ivanchenko; Nicholas Record

2008-01-01

420

Graded Brauer Tree Algebras  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we construct non-negative gradings on a basic Brauer tree algebra $A_{\\\\Gamma}$ corresponding to an arbitrary Brauer tree $\\\\Gamma$ of type $(m,e)$. We do this by transferring gradings via derived equivalence from a basic Brauer tree algebra $A_S$, whose tree is a star with the exceptional vertex in the middle, to $A_{\\\\Gamma}$. The grading on $A_S$ comes from

Dusko Bogdanic

2008-01-01

421

Correlation between Teacher Turnover Rates in the State of Alaska and Standardized Test Scores in the Area of Mathematics on the Standards Based Assessments/High School Qualifying Exam  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study utilized bivariate correlations, partial correlations, multivariate analysis including Hotelling-T, and observed power to investigate the possible correlations and connections of teacher turnover in Alaska's public school system to performance on the standards-based assessment of the Alaska High School Qualifying Exam (HSQE). The study…

Roehl, Roy F., II

2010-01-01

422

Algebraic Reasoning in the Middle Grades: A View of Student Strategies in Pictorial and Algebraic System of Equations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers use action research in order to improve their teaching and student learning. This action research will analyze students' algebraic reasoning in finding values of variables in systems of equations pictorially and algebraically. This research will look at students solving linear systems of equations without knowing the algebraic algorithms.…

Falcon, Raymond

2009-01-01

423

Achieving Standards in Urban Systemic Reform: An Example of a Sixth Grade Project-Based Science Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A challenge for urban systemic reform initiatives in science education has been to achieve local, state, and national standards for teaching and learning. We have collaborated with teachers in the Detroit Public School System to design project-based curriculum materials that contextualize the learning of science in meaningful real-world problems,…

Rivet, Ann E.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

2004-01-01

424

Computer-Based Integrated Learning Systems in the Elementary and Middle Grades: A Critical Review and Synthesis of Evaluation Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews evaluation reports on the use of integrated learning systems (ILSs) in elementary and middle schools throughout the United States in light of the following questions: Do these systems work? Do students make more progress using an ILS than learning in "traditional" ways? Could the cost of software and equipment be better spent on…

Becker, Henry Jay

425

7 CFR 56.54 - Charges for continuous grading performed on a nonresident basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or periods during which the grading service was rendered. Bills...reassigned by AMS to perform grading service for other than...Benefits under the Social Security System, retirement benefits, group...and travel costs for relief grading service, accident...

2009-01-01

426

7 CFR 56.54 - Charges for continuous grading performed on a nonresident basis.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or periods during which the grading service was rendered. Bills...reassigned by AMS to perform grading service for other than...Benefits under the Social Security System, retirement benefits, group...and travel costs for relief grading service, accident...

2010-01-01

427

Outside Influences on Systems Engineering: A Company Grade Officer's Observations in the Aftermath of a Difficult Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the world of acquisitions management, the systems engineering discipline is often thought of as a separable, independent activity that follows a certain flow chart and, if executed correctly, produces a useable item that meets the technical requirement...

J. M. Nicholson

2011-01-01

428

Hybrid pressure retarded osmosis-membrane distillation system for power generation from low-grade heat: thermodynamic analysis and energy efficiency.  

PubMed

We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 °C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance optimization. PMID:24724732

Lin, Shihong; Yip, Ngai Yin; Cath, Tzahi Y; Osuji, Chinedum O; Elimelech, Menachem

2014-05-01

429

Packing Up for the Moon: Human Exploration Project Engineering Design Challenge. Design, Build and Evaluate. A Standards-Based Middle School Unit Guide. Engineering By Design: Advancing Technological Literacy--A Standards-Based Program Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Human Exploration Project (HEP) units have several common characteristics. All units: (1) Are based upon the Technological Literacy standards (ITEA, 2000/2002); (2) Coordinate with Science (AAAS, 1993) and Mathematics standards (NCTM, 2000); (3) Utilize a standards-based development approach (ITEA, 2005); (4) Stand alone and coordinate with…

NASA Educator Resource Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, 2007

2007-01-01

430

Graded Readers and Vocabulary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the potential for vocabulary learning using a corpus of 42 grade readers from one series of graded readers (seven at each of six levels in the series). It was found that in order to have 95% coverage of the running words at a level in the series, it was necessary to already know the vocabulary of the current level in the scheme.…

Nation, Paul; Ming-Tzu, Karen Wang

1999-01-01

431

Third Grade Reading Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

Rose, Stephanie

2012-01-01

432

Making Grading Work.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two teachers have developed a procedure for grading student compositions that seems fairer to both them and their students. The students are given a choice of which papers they wish to submit for grading, and when they do submit work, the papers are identified by a number only (chosen by the student and indexed in a class card file). Each teacher…

Lotto, Edward; Smith, Bruce

433

Egg-Grading Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual is an aid in teaching both beginning and experienced egg graders the correct interpretation and application of the U.S. standards, grades, and weight classes for eggs. It can serve as a guide in short courses or grading schools when supplement...

2000-01-01

434

Are Math Grades Cyclical?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cyclical nature of mathematics grades was studied for a cohort of elementary school students from a large metropolitan school district in Texas over six years (average cohort size of 8495). The study used an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. Results indicate that grades do exhibit a significant cyclical pattern. (SLD)

Adams, Gerald J.; Dial, Micah

1998-01-01

435

Longitudinally Graded Optical Fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Described herein, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, are optical fibers possessing significant compositional gradations along their length due to longitudinal control of the core glass composition. More specifically, MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers were fabricated that exhibited a gradient of up to about 0.55 weight percent GeO2 per meter. These gradients are about 1900 times greater than previously reported for fibers possessing longitudinal changes in composition. The refractive index difference is shown to change by about 0.001, representing a numerical aperture change of about 10%, over a fiber length of less than 20 m. The lowest attenuation measured from the present longitudinally-graded fiber (LGF) was 82 dB/km at a wavelength of 1550 nm, though this is shown to result from extrinsic process-induced factors and could be reduced with further optimization. The stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) spectrum from the LGF exhibited a 4.4 dB increase in the spectral width, and thus reduction in Brillouin gain, relative to a standard commercial single mode fiber, over a fiber length of only 17 m. Fibers with longitudinally uniform (i.e., not gradient) refractive index profiles but differing chemical compositions among various core layers were also fabricated to determine acoustic effects of the core slug method. The refractive index of the resulting preform varies by about +/- 0.00013 from the average. Upon core drilling, it was found that the core slugs had been drilled off-center from the parent preform, resulting in semi-circular core cross sections that were unable to guide light. As a result, optical analysis could not be conducted. Chemical composition data was obtained, however, and is described herein. A third fiber produced was actively doped with ytterbium (Yb3 ) and fabricated similarly to the previous fibers. The preforms were doped via the solution doping method with a solution of 0.015 M Yb 3 derived from ytterbium chloride hexahydrate and 0.30 M Al 3 derived from aluminum chloride hexahydrate. The doped preform was engineered to have two core layers of differing chemical composition, resulting in both a gradient refractive index profile as well as a gradient acoustic profile. While exhibiting higher loss than the original LGF, the Yb 3-doped fiber showed slightly better SBS suppression with preliminary calculations showing at least 6 dB reduction in Brillouin gain. Lastly, reported here is a straight-forward and flexible method to fabricate silica optical fibers of circular cladding cross-section and rectilinear cores whose aspect ratio and refractive index profile changes with position along the fiber in a deterministic way. Specifically, a modification to the process developed to produce longitudinally-graded optical fibers, was employed. Herein reported are MCVD-derived germanosilicate fibers with rectangular cores where the aspect ratio changes by nearly 200 % and the average refractive index changed by about 5 %. Fiber losses were measured to be about 50 dB/km. Such rectangular core fibers are useful for a variety of telecommunication and biomedical applications and the dimensional and optical chirp provides a deterministic way to control further the modal properties of the fiber. Possible applications of longitudinally graded optical fibers and future improvements are also discussed. The methods employed are very straight-forward and technically simple, providing for a wide variety of longitudinal refractive index and acoustic velocity profiles, as well as core shapes, that could be especially valuable for SBS suppression in high energy laser systems. Next generation analogs, with longitudinally-graded compositional profiles that are very reasonable to fabricate, are shown computationally to be more effective at suppressing SBS than present alternatives, such as externally-applied temperature or strain gradients.

Evert, Alexander George

436

Microstructure and Property of Self-format Graded Diffusion Barrier in Cu(Zr)/ZrN Film System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, Cu(Zr)/ZrN alloy film system on Si(100) substrates were sputtered using magnetron co-sputtering technology. The Cu films sputtered with magnetron sputtering were used as control experiments. Microstructure and properties of the films system were investigated by four-Point Probe (FPP) sheet-resistance measurement, XRD, HRTEM respectively. After annealed at 500°C, Cu(Zr)/ZrN/Si system films self-formed a layer about 5 nm between the alloy layer and ZrN interface, which was an self-format amorphous Zr-rich barrier layer. Therefore, a gradient Zr/ZrN double-diffusion barrier layer can effectively block the interaction between Cu and Si substrate.

Song, Zhongxiao; Li, Yanhuai; He, Guohua; Yao, Ling; Wang, Jiaan; Guo, Shengwu; Xu, Kewei

437

Graded Alternating-Time Temporal Logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graded modalities enrich the universal and existential quantifiers with the capability to express the concept of at least k or all but k, for a non-negative integer k. Recently, temporal logics such as ?-calculus and Computational Tree Logic, Ctl, augmented with graded modalities have received attention from the scientific community, both from a theoretical side and from an applicative perspective. Both ?-calculus and Ctl naturally apply as specification languages for closed systems: in this paper, we add graded modalities to the Alternating-time Temporal Logic (Atl) introduced by Alur et al., to study how these modalities may affect specification languages for open systems.

Faella, Marco; Napoli, Margherita; Parente, Mimmo

438

Early Identification System: Six-Year Followup of the Grade 1 Class of 1978-79. Research Report 85-03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study represents a further attempt to establish the long-term predictive validity of teachers' grade 1 early identification (EID) ratings by relating them to students' educational status and performance on standardized tests of ability and achievement in grade 7. (EID ratings consist of a simple scale that ranks a student's preparedness for…

Stennett, R. G.

439

Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple…

Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

2010-01-01

440

Fast-Setting Phenolic and Tannin-Based 'Honeymoon' Adhesive Systems for Exterior Grade Finger-Joints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study describes the development of alternative tannin-based fast-setting adhesives not containing m-aminophenol as well as of phenolic/phenolic, tannin/tannin and tannin/phenolic adhesive systems which can be used for the same purpose.

A. Pizzi D. D. T. Rossouw W. Knueffel M. Singmin

1980-01-01

441

The influence of body mass index and low-grade systemic inflammation on thyroid hormone abnormalities in patients with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Previous reports highlight the role of systemic inflammation in the genesis of non-thyroidal illness syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Our objective was to assess whether body mass index and the low-grade systemic inflammation would be associated with changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes. This was a cross-sectional study of 104 subjects; 52 patients with type 2 diabetes and 52 in a control group, paired by age, gender and body mass index. We measured total (T) and free (F) thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), reverse T3 (rT3), the ratios FT3/rT3, FT3/FT4 and FT4/rT3, clinical parameters (age, gender, diabetes duration and complications, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, HbA1c), and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Patients with DM presented lower levels of TT4 (p=0.006), TT3 (p<0.001) and FT3 (p<0.001) and higher of FT4 (p<0.001), waist circumference (p=0.047) and C-reactive protein (p<0.001). Body mass index was inversely correlated with FT4 (p=0.036) and TT3 (p=0.008). C-reactive protein was positively correlated with rT3 (p=0.001) and inversely with FT4/rT3 (p<0.001) and FT3/rT3 (p=0.014). Body mass index was an independent predictor for FT4 (B=-0.011, p=0.029) and TT3 levels (B=-1.118, p=0.003). Inflammation predicted the FT4/rT3 ratio (B=-0.190, p<0.001). C-reactive protein (B=0.235, p<0.001) and body mass index (B=-0.008, p=0.047) were independent predictors for rT3. In conclusion, type 2 diabetes was associated with a low T3 state. Body mass index and the low-grade systemic inflammation are related to the non-thyroidal illness syndrome in these patients, possibly by altering the activity of peripheral deiodinases. PMID:23558976

Moura Neto, Arnaldo; Parisi, Maria Candida Ribeiro; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Alegre, Sarah Monte; Pavin, Elizabeth Joao; Zantut-Wittmann, Denise Engelbrecht

2013-01-01

442

Paperless Grades and Faculty Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides overview of process of switching from paper-based grade reporting to computer-based grading. Authors found that paperless grading decreased number of errors, made student access more immediate, and reduced costs incurred by purchasing and storing grade-scanning sheets. Authors also argue that direct entry grading encourages faculty to…

Hardy, James C.; Jones, Dennis; Turner, Sandy

2003-01-01

443

Five Obstacles to Grading Reform  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

Guskey, Thomas R.

2011-01-01

444

The National Aeolian Detritus Project, A Student-controlled, Standards-based Research Opportunity for Middle and Hight School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schools across the United States are adopting Standards-based philosophies and practices at a quickening pace. Two of the biggest challenges in this transition are the integration of concepts and the development of meaningful evaluation of student progress. The National Aeolian Detritus Project is a collaboration among Jamestown School, the University of Rhode Island, Hampshire College, the Rhode Island Space Grant

J. I. Sammons; D. D. Murray; J. B. Reid

2001-01-01

445

PWB warpage analysis and verification using an AP210 standards-based engineering framework and shadow moire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermally induced warpage of printed wiring boards (PWB) and printed wiring assemblies (PWAs) is an increasingly important issue in managing the manufacturing yield and reliability of electronic devices. In this paper, we introduce complementary simulation and experimental verification procedures capable of investigating warpage at the local feature level as well as the global PWB level. Simulation within a standards-based engineering

D. Zwemer; M. Bajaj; R. Peak; T. Thurman; K. Brady; S. McCarron; A. Spradling; M. Dickerson; L. Klein; G. Liutkus; J. Messina

2004-01-01

446

Indicators of Grade Inflation. AIR 1995 Annual Forum Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first-year performance of freshmen between 1987 and 1992 was investigated for evidence of grade inflation. Grade inflation is defined as "when a grade is viewed as being less rigorous than it ought to be". Performance data were analyzed for fall semester admissions of full-time, first-time freshmen at the University of Missouri System for the…

Mullen, Robert

447

The Arguments and Data in Favor of Minimum Grading  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The arguments and for and against minimum grading systems have grown increasingly more intense and acrimonious in the past decade. However, there has been an absence of empirical data, theory and clear comparative analyses of conflicting points of view. Critics of minimum grading contend that the practice will produce grade inflation and social…

Carifio, James; Carey, Theodore

2013-01-01

448

Grading Homework to Emphasize Problem-Solving Process Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process-based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.

Harper, Kathleen A.

2012-01-01

449

Optical properties of graded colloidal nanocrystallines with tunable structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a class of graded colloidal crystalline materials which consist of polydisperse metallodielectric nanoshells stacked in layers. We take the Lekner–Lishchuk summation method to treat the graded systems which are not tractable by conventional approach such as Ewald–Kornfeld methods. It is demonstrated that this kind of graded materials exhibit a series of sharp peaks, which merge in a broadened

J. J. Xiao; Joseph T. A. Kwok; K. W. Yu

2007-01-01

450

Optical properties of graded colloidal nanocrystallines with tunable structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a class of graded colloidal crystalline materials which consist of polydisperse metallodielectric nanoshells stacked in layers. We take the Lekner Lishchuk summation method to treat the graded systems which are not tractable by conventional approach such as Ewald Kornfeld methods. It is demonstrated that this kind of graded materials exhibit a series of sharp peaks, which merge in

J. J. Xiao; Joseph T. A. Kwok; K. W. Yu

2007-01-01

451

Job Grading Standard for Wood Worker, WG-4604.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A job grading standard for Wood Worker WG-4604 is given for grading jobs under the Federal Wage System. The standard covers physical requirements, tools, job task, skills, and knowledge at three grade levels, and the limits placed on the requirements at each level. In general the wood worker makes and repairs such supply shipping, and storage…

Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

452

Plus/Minus Grading: If Given a Choice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

After implementation of plus/minus grading, in a series of classes, students were given a choice as to which grading system they individually wanted. Students overwhelmingly chose the straight letter option by a two-to-one ratio. The difference in actual grades earned was minimal, but the preference was clear.

Dixon, Chip

2004-01-01

453

An assessment of standards-based reform in Florida's middle school science programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The era of school accountability and standards based reform (SBR) has brought many challenges and changes to Florida's public schools. It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' attitudes and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement SBR. The study was designed to assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions of changes related to SBR and the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in middle school science programs in Florida. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated the Sunshine State Standards (SSS) for science and began focusing on preparing students for the science FCAT. The survey was distributed to 265 randomly selected middle school science teachers throughout the State of Florida. Seventy-six and ninety-two percent of teachers reported increased levels of stress as a result of SBR and the science FCAT, respectively. Eighty-six percent of teachers reported loss of autonomy and control over what goes on in their classrooms, and fifty-four percent of teachers reported loss of freedom and creativity regarding curriculum and lessons. Eighty-three percent of teachers believe that increased time spent on test preparation has come at the expense of other important curricular items. By contrast, only nineteen percent of teachers believe that the science FCAT has brought about improvement in curriculum, instruction and student learning in science. Yet, twenty-five percent of teachers believe that reform efforts will improve their school. An important finding is that teachers' attitudes toward reform efforts are strongly influenced by their attitudes toward the administration at their school. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the science FCAT measured in this study. Although the majority of teachers reported negative attitudes toward the reform process, a small minority that report working under supportive administrators believe that reform efforts are working well or will soon show positive effects. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

Stuart Hammer, Kathryn Elizabeth

454

Incidence and risk factors of central nervous system recurrence in aggressive lymphoma--a survey of 1693 patients treated in protocols of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Central nervous system (CNS) relapse is a devastating and usually fatal complication of aggressive lymphoma. The extent of the disease, the proliferation rate and the sites of extranodal involvement have been discussed as risk factors. We analyzed the patients treated on protocols of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL) between 1990 and 2000, evaluated the rate and

V. Boehme; S. Zeynalova; M. Kloess; M. Loeffler; U. Kaiser; M. Pfreundschuh; N. Schmitz

2006-01-01

455

Impact of Toxicity Grade and Scoring System on the Relationship Between Mean Lung Dose and Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in a Large Cohort of Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To compute the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with RP scored using three grading systems and analyzed at four threshold levels of toxicity in a large cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: On the basis of medical records and radiographic images, RP was scored retrospectively in 442 patients with NSCLC who had {>=}6 months of follow-up after the end of RT. The severity of RP was scored for each patient using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0 (CTC2.0); the NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0 (CTCAE3.0); and the grading system of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). For each grading system and for each of four levels of toxicity (Grade {>=}1, {>=}2, {>=}3, {>=}4), the Lyman, logistic, and log-logistic normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were fitted to the data as functions of MLD. The parameter estimates from the model fits are listed in table form, and the RP risk estimates are presented graphically for the Lyman and log-logistic NTCP models. Results: The results presented here illustrate the impact of scoring system and level of toxicity on the relationship between MLD and RP risk. Conclusions: These results facilitate quantitative comparisons between our data and studies of RP risk reported by others, and several examples of such comparisons are provided.

Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.or [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jin Hekun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hunan Tumor Hospital and Institution, Hunan (China); Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Xiangya Medical School, Changsha (China); Wei Xiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2010-07-01

456

Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

2010-01-01

457

Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel  

PubMed Central

In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C16:0 content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel.

Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Moksin, Mohd Maarof; Nang, Harrison Lau Lik; Norozi, Monir; Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat; Zakaria, Azmi

2011-01-01

458

Grades and Grading Practices: Obstacles to Improving Education and to Helping At-Risk Student. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This second edition contains updated and refreshed material on the problems caused by the current grading system and contains new information on assessment, standards, and social promotion. The chapters are: (1) Overview; (2) History of Grades; (3) Myths about Grades; (4) Normal Variation in Academic Ability; (5) The Lock-Step Curriculum; (6) The…

Hargis, Charles H.

459

Bruxism defined and graded: an international consensus.  

PubMed

To date, there is no consensus about the definition and diagnostic grading of bruxism. A written consensus discussion was held among an international group of bruxism experts as to formulate a definition of bruxism and to suggest a grading system for its operationalisation. The expert group defined bruxism as a repetitive jaw-muscle activity characterised by clenching or grinding of the teeth and/or by bracing or thrusting of the mandible. Bruxism has two distinct circadian manifestations: it can occur during sleep (indicated as sleep bruxism) or during wakefulness (indicated as awake bruxism). For the operationalisation of this definition, the expert group proposes a diagnostic grading system of 'possible', 'probable' and 'definite' sleep or awake bruxism. The proposed definition and grading system are suggested for clinical and research purposes in all relevant dental and medical domains. PMID:23121262

Lobbezoo, F; Ahlberg, J; Glaros, A G; Kato, T; Koyano, K; Lavigne, G J; de Leeuw, R; Manfredini, D; Svensson, P; Winocur, E

2013-01-01

460

The Grading Nemesis: An Historical Overview and a Current Look at Pass/Fail Grading.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A brief history of grading practices at American colleges and universities is given, along with results of a survey of the current uses of pass/fail grading. The pass/fail system is widely used for a limited number of elective courses. Its adoption peaked during the mid-1970s. (PP)

Weller, L. David

1983-01-01

461

Partial melting and phase relations in high-grade metapelites: an experimental petrogenetic grid in the KFMASH system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petrogenetic grids are a powerful tool for understanding metamorphic terrains and many theoretical grids have been suggested for the process of granulite formation in metapelitic rocks, via fluid-absent biotite melting reactions. However, application of these grids has been difficult due to the lack of suitable experimental constraints. We present here an experimentally determined and tightly constrained petrogenetic grid for KFMASH system metapelites which extends from 840 1000° C and 5.0 12.5 kbar. Sixty four experiments on three KFMASH, mineral-mix, bulk compositions ( X Mg=0.62, 0.74, 0.86) provide phase composition and assemblage data from which a grid can be derived and constrained. Reversal experiments and consideration of the phase composition data show the experiments to be close to equilibrium. The KFMASH univariant fluid-absent biotite melting reactions occur between 850 and 870° C at 5 kbar and between 900 and 915° C at 10 kbar. These reactions are connected to equilibria beyond the stability of biotite to develop a fixed framework within which the phase assemblage evolution of metapelitic rocks can be interpreted. The effect of minor components on phase equilibria is evaluated using the experimentally determined grid as a simple-system reference. The temperature at which melting occurs in metapelites is strongly controlled by the concentrations of titanium and fluorine in biotite. Pressure-temperature pseudosections presented for each of the experimental compositions show both the univariant and divariant reactions available to a particular bulk composition, clearly illustrating the possible evolution of the phase assemblage. The pseudosections also constrain the stability limits of many distinctive assemblages, which can provide tight pressure-temperature estimates for natural rocks. These pseudosections, in conjunction with previous work, show that the bulk X Mg of a rock will control the amount of melt produced for a given rise in temperature.

Carrington, D. P.; Harley, S. L.

1995-07-01

462

MAGNETIC LIQUID DEFORMABLE MIRRORS FOR ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS: ACTIVE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL ABERRATIONS FROM LOWER-GRADE OPTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

Borra, E. F., E-mail: borra@phy.ulaval.ca [Departement de Physique, de Genie Physique et d'Optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, QC G1V 0A6 (Canada)

2012-08-01

463

Functionally Graded Materials VII.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) exhibit spatial variations, in composition and/or microstructure, which have been imposed for the specific purpose of controlling the resultant variations in the thermal, structural or functional properties. During the...

J. Gong L. Chen L. Zhang W. Pan

2003-01-01

464

Manufacture of clinical-grade CD19-specific T cells stably expressing chimeric antigen receptor using Sleeping Beauty system and artificial antigen presenting cells.  

PubMed

Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is being evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Our current approach to adoptive immunotherapy is based on a second generation CAR (designated CD19RCD28) that signals through a CD28 and CD3-? endodomain. T cells are electroporated with DNA plasmids from the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system to express this CAR. Stable integrants of genetically modified T cells can then be retrieved when co-cultured with designer artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2 and 21. Here, we reveal how the platform technologies of SB-mediated transposition and CAR-dependent propagation on aAPC were adapted for human application. Indeed, we have initiated clinical trials in patients with high-risk B-lineage malignancies undergoing autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We describe the process to manufacture clinical grade CD19-specific T cells derived from healthy donors. Three validation runs were completed in compliance with current good manufacturing practice for Phase I/II trials demonstrating that by 28 days of co-culture on ?-irradiated aAPC ?10(10) T cells were produced of which >95% expressed CAR. These genetically modified and propagated T cells met all quality control testing and release criteria in support of infusion. PMID:23741305

Singh, Harjeet; Figliola, Matthew J; Dawson, Margaret J; Olivares, Simon; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Ge; Maiti, Sourindra; Manuri, Pallavi; Senyukov, Vladimir; Jena, Bipulendu; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard E; Huls, Helen; Cooper, Laurence J N

2013-01-01

465

Does systemic low-grade inflammation associate with fat accumulation and distribution? A 7-year follow-up study with peripubertal girls.  

PubMed

Context: Knowledge about the interrelationship between adiposity and systemic low-grade inflammation during pubertal growth is important in detecting early signs of obesity-related metabolic disorders. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the developmental trajectories of fat mass (FM) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels and factors that could explain the relationship between FM and hsCRP in girls from prepuberty to early adulthood. Design: This was a 7.5-year longitudinal study. Setting: The study was conducted at the University of Jyväskylä Sports and Health Science laboratory. Participants: Three hundred ninety-six healthy Finnish girls aged 11.2 ± 0.8 years participated in the study. Methods: Body composition was assessed by a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum concentrations of hsCRP, adipokines, and sex hormones by ELISA. Results: Both FM and hsCRP increased with age and had similar trajectories but different inter- and intravariance patterns. A joint analysis of fat distribution and hsCRP indicated that the linkage probabilities across different trajectory subgroups between regional FM and the corresponding hsCRP levels varied from 16% to 53%. In a longitudinal regression model, the common predictor for both FM and hsCRP was T (? = .065, P < 0.01, and ? = -.213, P < 0.05, respectively) before menarche. Other factors predicting FM before menarche were SHBG (? = -.196, P < 0.01) and leptin (? = .381, P < .01); and after menarche hsCRP (? = .048, P < 0.01), T (? = .089, P < .01), leptin (? = .340, P < .01), and adiponectin (? = -.086, P < .05). Of the factors asses