Science.gov

Sample records for standards-based grading system

  1. Seven Reasons for Standards-Based Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scriffiny, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past three years, Patricia L. Scriffiny has transformed the grading system in her high school mathematics classroom by replacing the traditional points-based system with a standards-based system. Instead of assigning points for assignments, she lists student progress toward meeting clearly defined course objectives. In this article,…

  2. The relationship between standards-based reporting systems and third-grade mathematics and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prejean-Harris, Rose M.

    Over the last decade, accountability has been the driving force for many changes in education in the United States. One major educational reform effort is the standards-based movement with a focus of combining a number of processes that involve aligning curriculum, instruction, assessment and feedback to specific standards that are measureable and indicative of student achievement. The purpose of this study is to determine if the type of report card is a possible predictor of third grade student achievement on standardized tests in mathematics and science for the 2012 Criterion-Referenced Competency Test (CRCT). The results of this study concluded that the difference in test scores in mathematics and science for students in the traditional report card group was not statistically significant when compared to the scores of students in the standards-based report card group when controlling for poverty level, school locale, and school district. However, students in the traditional report card group scored an average of 1.01 point higher in mathematics and 2.27 points higher in science than students in the standards-based report card group.

  3. Standards-Based Grading in Introductory University Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Ian D.

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based grading (SBG) is an approach to assessment and reporting in which scores are attached to the specific learning objectives of a course, rather than to assignments or tests. Each score represents a student's mastery of that learning objective, and may change over time in response to evidence that her level of understanding has…

  4. Standards-Based Grading and Reporting Will Improve Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Marco A.; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Grading and reporting are foundational elements in nearly every educational system. Grading represents teachers' evaluations, formative or summative, of students' performance. Reporting is how the results of those evaluations are communicated to students, parents, or others. Because of their fundamental nature, educators must ensure that grading…

  5. Standards-Based Grading and Reporting Will Improve Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Marco A.; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Grading and reporting are foundational elements in nearly every educational system. Grading represents teachers' evaluations, formative or summative, of students' performance. Reporting is how the results of those evaluations are communicated to students, parents, or others. Because of their fundamental nature, educators must ensure that grading…

  6. Easy as 1, 2, 3: Exploring the Implementation of Standards-Based Grading in Wake County Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paeplow, Colleen Graham

    2011-01-01

    Wake County Public School System's (WCPSS) 102 elementary schools have implemented standards-based grading. This grading practice is aligned with North Carolina's Student Accountability Standards and the WCPSS Promotion/Intervention policy. Standards-based report cards were designed to reflect student mastery of state standards and provide an…

  7. Standards-Based Grading: New Report Cards Aim to Make Mastery Clear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    A growing band of teachers, schools, and entire districts have put their faith in standards-based grading, an innovative, albeit complex and sometimes controversial, method that aims to make grades more meaningful. A standards-based report card contains an overall grade for each course but also indicates how well a student has mastered each of the…

  8. Standards-Based Grading: New Report Cards Aim to Make Mastery Clear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    A growing band of teachers, schools, and entire districts have put their faith in standards-based grading, an innovative, albeit complex and sometimes controversial, method that aims to make grades more meaningful. A standards-based report card contains an overall grade for each course but also indicates how well a student has mastered each of the…

  9. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades 5-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades 5-8 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates the titles of the…

  10. A Preliminary Investigation into the Effect of Standards-Based Grading on the Academic Performance of African-American Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradbury-Bailey, Mary

    With the implementation of No Child Left Behind came a wave of educational reform intended for those working with student populations whose academic performance seemed to indicate an alienation from the educational process. Central to these reforms was the implementation of standards-based instruction and their accompanying standardized assessments; however, in one area reform seemed nonexistent---the teacher's gradebook. (Erickson, 2010, Marzano, 2006; Scriffiny, 2008). Given the link between the grading process and achievement motivation, Ames (1992) suggested the use of practices that promote mastery goal orientation. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of standards-based grading system as a factor contributing to mastery goal orientation on the academic performance of urban African American students. To determine the degree of impact, this study first compared the course content averages and End-of-Course-Test (EOCT) scores for science classes using a traditional grading system to those using a standards-based grading system by employing an Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). While there was an increase in all grading areas, two showed a significant difference---the Physical Science course content average (p = 0.024) and ix the Biology EOCT scores (p = 0.0876). These gains suggest that standards-based grading can have a positive impact on the academic performance of African American students. Secondly, this study examined the correlation between the course content averages and the EOCT scores for both the traditional and standards-based grading system; for both Physical Science and Biology, there was a stronger correlation between these two scores for the standards-based grading system.

  11. Using Standards-Based Grading to Address Students' Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaack, Susan; Kreuz, Allie; Zawlocki, Erin

    2012-01-01

    This action research project report uses standard-based grading to address the problem of traditional grades not adequately assessing student content mastery and students' lack of awareness regarding their strengths and weaknesses. Research was conducted by one elementary and two middle school teachers with 158 students between the dates of…

  12. "Standards"-Based Mathematics Curricula and Middle-Grades Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Harwell, Michael R.; Davis, Jon D.; Maeda, Yukiko; Cutler, Arnie; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.; Norman, Ke Wu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined achievement patterns of middle school students enrolled in Standards-based curricula, in particular those curricula that were funded from a solicitation of proposals through the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the early 1990s (NSF RFP 91-100). Approximately 1400 middle-grades students who had used either the Connected…

  13. Teaching with the End in Mind: The Role of Standards-Based Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shippy, Nicole; Washer, Barton A.; Perrin, Billie

    2013-01-01

    Grading according to standards, competencies, or concepts is nothing new.With the current grading system gaining more scrutiny, parts of the basic framework of how we grade students are being questioned. Stephens (2010) and Marzano and Heflebower (2011) reinforced the notion that homework, behavior, attendance, notebooks, and group work should not…

  14. Implementation Issues of a Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation System: Perceptions of Campus Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine the key implementation issues of a standards-based teacher evaluation system as perceived by campus administrators. The 80 campus administrators that participated in this study were from six public school districts located in southeastern Texas that serve students in grades Kindergarten…

  15. Grades that Mean Something: Kentucky Develops Standards-Based Report Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Swan, Gerry M.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all states have standards for student learning and they have assessment programs to measure students' proficiency on those standards. But schools within each state nonetheless are left to develop their own standards-based student report cards as the primary means of communicating information about students' performance. To address the…

  16. Grading and Reporting in a Standards-Based Environment: Implications for Students with Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2009-01-01

    Teachers at all levels of education today struggle in their efforts to assign fair, accurate, and meaningful grades to students with disabilities, especially those placed in general education classrooms. Lacking specific policies or recommendations, most teachers apply informal, individual grading adaptations for such students. Although these…

  17. Teaching the Middle School Grade-Level Outcomes with Standards-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Marybell; Rettig, Brad

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the grade-level outcomes to be assessed on middle school (grades 6-8) physical education. Specifically, the article describes how to teach basic tactics and strategies while applying fundamental movement patterns to the various game and movement categories (invasion, net/wall, target, fielding/striking, dance/rhythms, &…

  18. Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

    2006-01-01

    In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

  19. Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6: Standards-Based Inquiry Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taris, James Robert; Taris, Louis James

    2006-01-01

    In "Hands-On Science Mysteries for Grades 3-6," the authors connect science to real-world situations by investigating actual mysteries and phenomena, such as the strange heads on Easter Island, the ghost ship "Mary Celeste," and the "Dancing Stones" of Death Valley. The labs are designed to encourage the development of science inquiry, in which…

  20. Fourth-Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-Based Lunar Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Fourth-grade students' knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change.…

  1. Fourth-Grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-Based Lunar Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Atwood, Ronald K.; Christopher, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Fourth-grade students' knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post-test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change.…

  2. Curriculum-Based Measurement and Standards-Based Mathematics: Monitoring the Arithmetic Word Problem-Solving Performance of Third-Grade Students at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a curriculum-based measure of word problem solving (CBM-WPS) as an indicator of performance and progress in a sample of 136 third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MDs) instructed in a standards-based mathematics curriculum. Students completed the CBM-WPS…

  3. Curriculum-Based Measurement and Standards-Based Mathematics: Monitoring the Arithmetic Word Problem-Solving Performance of Third-Grade Students at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a curriculum-based measure of word problem solving (CBM-WPS) as an indicator of performance and progress in a sample of 136 third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MDs) instructed in a standards-based mathematics curriculum. Students completed the CBM-WPS…

  4. The View of Principals on Standards Based Evaluation Systems and Their Role as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoll, James Allen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the implementation of standards based evaluation systems, specifically Georgia's Teacher Keys Effectiveness System, affects the principals' role of instructional leader. Using a modified Delphi study, principals from a large urban/suburban school system, gave feedback on three questions: how has their role changed; are they…

  5. Convergent Validity Evidence regarding the Validity of the Chilean Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Taut, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes convergent validity evidence regarding the mandatory, standards-based Chilean national teacher evaluation system (NTES). The study examined whether NTES identifies--and thereby rewards or punishes--the "right" teachers as high- or low-performing. We collected in-depth teaching performance data on a sample of 58 teachers who…

  6. Design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent self-management system (PICS).

    PubMed

    von Bargen, Tobias; Gietzelt, Matthias; Britten, Matthias; Song, Bianying; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Kohlmann, Martin; Marschollek, Michael; Haux, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change and a diminishing care workforce there is a growing need for personalized decision support. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent care systems (PICS). PICS makes consistent use of internationally accepted standards such as the Health Level 7 (HL7) Arden syntax for the representation of the decision logic, HL7 Clinical Document Architecture for information representation and is based on a open-source service-oriented architecture framework and a business process management system. Its functionality is exemplified for the application scenario of a patient suffering from congestive heart failure. Several vital signs sensors provide data for the decision support system, and a number of flexible communication channels are available for interaction with patient or caregiver. PICS is a standards-based, open and flexible system enabling personalized decision support. Further development will include the implementation of components on small computers and sensor nodes. PMID:23542984

  7. Discover, Visualize, and Deliver Geospatial Data through OGC Standards-based WebGIS System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yaxing; SanthanaVannan, Suresh K; Cook, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial data are important to understand the Earth - ecosystem dynamics, land cover changes, resource management, and human interactions with the Earth to name a few. One of the biggest difficulties users face is to discover, access, and assemble distributed, large volume, heterogeneous geospatial data to conduct geo-analysis. Traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery lack the capabilities of resource sharing and automation across systems or organizational boundaries. They require users to download the data ldquoas-isrdquo in their original file format, projection, and extent. Also, discovering data served by traditional methods requires prior knowledge of data location, and processing requires specialized expertise. These drawbacks of traditional methods create additional burden to users, introduce too much overhead to research, and also reduce the potential usage of the data. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), researchers working on NASA-sponsored projects: Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and Modeling and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) have tapped into the benefits of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards to overcome the drawbacks of traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery. The OGC standards-based approach facilitates data sharing and interoperability across network, organizational, and geopolitical boundaries. Tools and services based on OGC standards deliver the data in many user defined formats and allow users to visualize the data prior to download. This paper introduces an approach taken to visualize and deliver ORNL DAAC, MAST-DC, and other relevant geospatial data through OGC standards-based Web Services, including Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Feature Service (WFS). It also introduces a WebGIS system built on top of OGC services that helps users discover, visualize, and access geospatial data.

  8. An Operational System of Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawain, T. H.; Lindsey, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the trial of an operational grading system at the Naval Postgraduate School. Indicates that the new plan is characterized by giving the marginal student a grace period of one quarter before the final judgment of his performance. (CC)

  9. The standard-based open workflow system in GeoBrain (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Yu, G.; Zhao, P.; Deng, M.

    2013-12-01

    GeoBrain is an Earth science Web-service system developed and operated by the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems, George Mason University. In GeoBrain, a standard-based open workflow system has been implemented to accommodate the automated processing of geospatial data through a set of complex geo-processing functions for advanced production generation. The GeoBrain models the complex geoprocessing at two levels, the conceptual and concrete. At the conceptual level, the workflows exist in the form of data and service types defined by ontologies. The workflows at conceptual level are called geo-processing models and cataloged in GeoBrain as virtual product types. A conceptual workflow is instantiated into a concrete, executable workflow when a user requests a product that matches a virtual product type. Both conceptual and concrete workflows are encoded in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). A BPEL workflow engine, called BPELPower, has been implemented to execute the workflow for the product generation. A provenance capturing service has been implemented to generate the ISO 19115-compliant complete product provenance metadata before and after the workflow execution. The generation of provenance metadata before the workflow execution allows users to examine the usability of the final product before the lengthy and expensive execution takes place. The three modes of workflow executions defined in the ISO 19119, transparent, translucent, and opaque, are available in GeoBrain. A geoprocessing modeling portal has been developed to allow domain experts to develop geoprocessing models at the type level with the support of both data and service/processing ontologies. The geoprocessing models capture the knowledge of the domain experts and are become the operational offering of the products after a proper peer review of models is conducted. An automated workflow composition has been experimented successfully based on ontologies and artificial intelligence technology. The GeoBrain workflow system has been used in multiple Earth science applications, including the monitoring of global agricultural drought, the assessment of flood damage, the derivation of national crop condition and progress information, and the detection of nuclear proliferation facilities and events.

  10. Financing the New Adequacy: Towards New Models of State Education Finance Systems That Support Standards Based Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses need for reinventing state education finance systems to provide adequacy and equity aligned to standards-based reform. Provides initial specifications for "The New Finance." Examines in depth approaches for determining a base spending level considered adequate for the average child to reach high educational standards. (Contains 87…

  11. The Development and Implementation of a National, Standards-Based, Multi-Method Teacher Performance Assessment System in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Sun, Yulan

    2014-01-01

    Assessing teaching performance is a contentious issue in current educational policy in many countries. In Chile, a national, standards-based, multi-method, mandatory teacher evaluation system has been in place since 2003 to assess the performance of about 70, 000 public school teachers from pre-school to high school and adult education. The…

  12. The Impact of Standards-Based Reforms on the Art of Teaching: A Narrative Case Study of the Perceptions of Highly Effective Teachers in Grades 7-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    In the 12 years subsequent to the passing of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the ensuing standards-based reforms (SBRs) have created multiple effects that have permeated every aspect of the educational process, and teachers have reported specific constraints being placed upon them as a result. Grounded in Eisner's (2002b) theory of aesthetic teaching…

  13. The Impact of Standards-Based Reforms on the Art of Teaching: A Narrative Case Study of the Perceptions of Highly Effective Teachers in Grades 7-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Susan W.

    2013-01-01

    In the 12 years subsequent to the passing of No Child Left Behind (NCLB), the ensuing standards-based reforms (SBRs) have created multiple effects that have permeated every aspect of the educational process, and teachers have reported specific constraints being placed upon them as a result. Grounded in Eisner's (2002b) theory of aesthetic teaching…

  14. Reporting School Quality in Standards-Based Accountability Systems. CRESST Policy Brief 3, Spring 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Robert L.

    This brief discusses ways to measure and report school quality. At present, the differences in state accountability systems make comparisons of schools and school systems very difficult. The most common approach to reporting school status is in the context of current status, an approach in which the school mean or median score for students in the…

  15. Building Standards based Science Information Systems: A Survey of ISO and other standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Todd; Walker, Raymond

    Science Information systems began with individual researchers maintaining personal collec-tions of data and managing them by using ad hoc, specialized approaches. Today information systems are an enterprise consisting of federated systems that manage and distribute both historical and contemporary data from distributed sources. Information systems have many components. Among these are metadata models, metadata registries, controlled vocabularies and ontologies which are used to describe entities and resources. Other components include services to exchange information and data; tools to populate the system and tools to utilize available resources. When constructing information systems today a variety of standards can be useful. The benefit of adopting standards is clear; it can shorten the design cycle, enhance software reuse and enable interoperability. We look at standards from the International Stan-dards Organization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), American National Standards Institute (ANSI) which have influenced the develop-ment of information systems in the Heliophysics and Planetary sciences. No standard can solve the needs of every community. Individual disciplines often must fill the gap between general purpose standards and the unique needs of the discipline. To this end individual science dis-ciplines are developing standards, Examples include the International Virtual Observatory Al-liance (IVOA), Planetary Data System (PDS)/ International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), Dublin-Core Science, and the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) consortium. This broad survey of ISO and other standards provides some guidance for the development information systems. The development of the SPASE data model is reviewed and provides some insights into the value of applying appropriate standards and is used to illustrate how quasi-standards efforts can effectively evolve towards robust standards compliance. New efforts may benefit from the lessons learned.

  16. Open Source and Open Standard based decision support system: the example of lake Verbano floods management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Antonovic, Milan; Pozzoni, Maurizio; Graf, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The Locarno area (Switzerland, Canton Ticino) is exposed to lacual floods with a return period of about 7-8 years. The risk is of particular concern because the area is located in a floodplain that registered in the last decades a great increase in settlement and values of the real estates. Moreover small differences in lake altitude may produce a significant increase in flooded area due to the very low average slope of the terrain. While fatalities are not generally registered, several important economic costs are associated, e.g.: damages to real estates, interruption of activities, evacuation and relocation and environmental damages. While important events were registered in 1978, 1993, 2000, 2002 and 2014 the local stakeholder invested time and money in the set-up of an up-to-date decision support system that allows for the reduction of risks. Thanks to impressive technological advances the visionary concept of the Digital Earth (Gore 1992, 1998) is being realizing: geospatial coverages and monitoring systems data are increasingly available on the Web, and more importantly, in a standard format. As a result, today is possible to develop innovative decision support systems (Molinari et al. 2013) which mesh-up several information sources and offers special features for risk scenarios evaluation. In agreement with the exposed view, the authors have recently developed a new Web system whose design is based on the Service Oriented Architecture pattern. Open source software (e.g.: Geoserver, PostGIS, OpenLayers) has been used throughout the whole system and geospatial Open Standards (e.g.: SOS, WMS, WFS) are the pillars it rely on. SITGAP 2.0, implemented in collaboration with the Civil protection of Locarno e Vallemaggia, combines a number of data sources such as the Federal Register of Buildings and Dwellings, the Cantonal Register of residents, the Cadastral Surveying, the Cantonal Hydro-meteorological monitoring observations, the Meteoswiss weather forecasts, and others. As a result of this orchestration of data, SITGAP 2.0 serves features that allows, for example, to be informed on active alarms, to visualize lake level forecasts and associated flooding areas, to evaluate and map exposed elements and people, to plan and manage evacuation by searching for people living in particular areas or buildings, by registering evacuation actions and by searching for evacuated people. System architecture and functionalities, and consideration on the integration and accessibility of the beneath information together with the lesson learnt during the usage of the system during the last floods of November 2014, provides interesting discussion points for the identification of current and future needs.

  17. Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

    This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

  18. ACSYNT - A standards-based system for parametric, computer aided conceptual design of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaram, S.; Myklebust, A.; Gelhausen, P.

    1992-01-01

    A group of eight US aerospace companies together with several NASA and NAVY centers, led by NASA Ames Systems Analysis Branch, and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory agreed, through the assistance of Americal Technology Initiative, in 1990 to form the ACSYNT (Aircraft Synthesis) Institute. The Institute is supported by a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement to continue the research and development in computer aided conceptual design of aircraft initiated by NASA Ames Research Center and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory. The result of this collaboration, a feature-based, parametric computer aided aircraft conceptual design code called ACSYNT, is described. The code is based on analysis routines begun at NASA Ames in the early 1970's. ACSYNT's CAD system is based entirely on the ISO standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System and is graphics-device independent. The code includes a highly interactive graphical user interface, automatically generated Hermite and B-Spline surface models, and shaded image displays. Numerous features to enhance aircraft conceptual design are described.

  19. Description of a novel system for grading of endometrial carcinoma and comparison with existing grading systems.

    PubMed

    Alkushi, Abdulmohsen; Abdul-Rahman, Zainab H; Lim, Peter; Schulzer, Michael; Coldman, Andrew; Kalloger, Steven E; Miller, Dianne; Gilks, C Blake

    2005-03-01

    The most widely used system for grading of endometrial carcinoma is the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) grading system. This grading system requires evaluation of histologic features that are difficult to assess reproducibly. Two hundred and two cases of endometrial carcinoma, treated by hysterectomy, were retrieved from the archives of Vancouver General Hospital (1983-1998). For each tumor, the architectural pattern, nuclear grade, and mitotic index were assessed. The tumor architectural pattern, nuclear grade, and mitotic index were significant predictors of patient outcome (P < 0.0001 for each, by univariate analysis). There were no prognostic differences between patients having predominantly solid versus papillary tumors, or tumors with mild versus moderate nuclear atypia. The tumors were then classified into high and low grade based on assessment of these three features. The presence of at least two criteria of these three: 1) predominantly papillary or solid growth pattern, 2) mitotic index > or =6/10 high power fields, or 3) severe nuclear atypia, resulted in a tumor being considered high grade. Low-grade tumors satisfied at most one of those criteria. The proposed grading system was found to be an independent predictor of patient outcome when patient survival was adjusted for FIGO stage, patient age, and tumor cell type. It also had more prognostic power than other grading systems tested when it was applied to all tumors, regardless of their cell type; however, the FIGO grading system was superior for prognostication when only carcinomas of endometrioid type were considered. With the FIGO grading system, no significant difference in survival was observed between patients with grade 1 and grade 2 tumors. Combining FIGO grades 1 and 2 results in a binary system (grades 1 and 2 vs. grade 3) that was the most prognostically significant grading system tested, with the additional advantages of being highly reproducible and familiar to practicing pathologists. PMID:15725797

  20. A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contino, Julie

    2013-01-01

    In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the…

  1. Attitudes Toward Grading Systems Used in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Robert M.

    1969-01-01

    Analysis of student and administrative attitudes toward grading systems reveals preference for pass/fail grading to letter-grading or numerical system. These results and inadequacies of letter grade system lead author to question why approximately 50 percent of 85 medical schools sampled persist in using it. (Author/LP)

  2. Job Grading System for Trades and Labor Occupations. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    Three new standards (telephone mechanic, electroplater, and animal caretaker) for grading jobs under the Federal Wage System are cited. There is an alphabetical listing by job for published job grading standards, an occupational code-structure index for published grading standards, and a list of 61 jobs by published job grading standard with…

  3. On-grade insulated panel floor system

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornson, D.; Briscoe, J.; Brown, G.Z.; Fremouw, S.; Kline, J.; Northcutt, D.

    1999-07-01

    The on-grade insulated panel floor system combines floor and foundation to reduce cost, increase energy and structural performance, and provide easy dismantling and recycling upon demolition. The system uses one-sided structural insulated panels (SIPs with one layer of OSB attached to foam insulation), a compacted gravel bed, and engineered lumber for the perimeter beam. Tests show that an on-grade panel floor system of 20 ft by 36 ft (6.1 by 11.0 m) is $895 less expensive and has a 55% better insulating value than an insulated concrete slab, exceeds deflection and flatness criteria for wood and concrete slab floors and supports structural loads in excess of those in residential construction. The flexible nature of the foam and wood may also improve the standing comfort of the floor compared to a concrete slab floor. In addition, the panel and engineered wood components increase the recyclability of the floor. The system is easily adaptable to use over an existing concrete floor.

  4. Conversion of High School Grade Averages Reported in Different Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breland, Hunter M.

    Using data from a national random sample of 16,685 high school seniors collected in 1972, 10 different grade average reporting systems were analyzed by means of a nonlinear least squares procedure. A grade conversion table was created by relating reported grade averages in all of the systems to common percentile ranks in class. It was suggested…

  5. Perceptions of Standards-based Electronic Prescribing Systems as Implemented in Outpatient Primary Care: A Physician Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C. Jason; Patel, Mihir H.; Schueth, Anthony J.; Bradley, Melissa; Wu, Shinyi; Crosson, Jesse C.; Glassman, Peter A.; Bell, Douglas S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the experiences of e-prescribing users and nonusers regarding prescription safety and workload and to assess the use of information from two e-prescribing standards (for medication history and formulary and benefit information), as they are implemented. Design Cross-sectional survey of physicians who either had installed or were awaiting installation of one of two commercial e-prescribing systems. Measurements Perceptions about medication history and formulary and benefit information among all respondents, and among e-prescribing users, experiences with system usability, job performance impact, and amount of e-prescribing. Results Of 395 eligible physicians, 228 (58%) completed the survey. E-prescribers (n = 139) were more likely than non-e-prescribers (n = 89) to perceive that they could identify clinically important drug–drug interactions (83 versus 67%, p = 0.004) but not that they could identify prescriptions from other providers (65 versus 60%, p = 0.49). They also perceived no significant difference in calls about drug coverage problems (76 versus 71% reported getting 10 or fewer such calls per week; p = 0.43). Most e-prescribers reported high satisfaction with their systems, but 17% had stopped using the system and another 46% said they sometimes reverted to handwriting for prescriptions that they could write electronically. The volume of e-prescribing was correlated with perceptions that it enhanced job performance, whereas quitting was associated with perceptions of poor usability. Conclusions E-prescribing users reported patient safety benefits but they did not perceive the enhanced benefits expected from using standardized medication history or formulary and benefit information. Additional work is needed for these standards to have the desired effects. PMID:19390106

  6. Maximal physical work performance with European standard based fire-protective clothing system and equipment in relation to individual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Louhevaara, V; Ilmarinen, R; Griefahn, B; Künemund, C; Mäkinen, H

    1995-01-01

    Every fire fighter needs to wear fire-protective clothing and a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) several times a year while carrying out various fire-fighting and rescue operations in hazardous work environments. The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of a multilayer turnout suit designed to fulfil European standard EN 469 used over standardized (Nordic) clothing and with SCBA (total mass 25.9 kg) on maximal physical work performance, and to evaluate the relationship between individual characteristics and power output with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. The subjects were 12 healthy firemen aged 26-46 years. The range of their body mass, body fat and maximal oxygen consumption was 69-101 kg, 10-20% and 2.70-5.86 l.min-1, respectively. The maximal tests without (control) and with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA were carried out on a treadmill in a thermoneutral environment. When compared to the control test, the decrease in the maximal power output in terms of maximal working time and walking speed averaged 25% (P < 0.001) varying from 18% to 34% with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. At maximum, no significant differences were found in pulmonary ventilation, absolute oxygen consumption, the respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, the rate-pressure product, mechanical efficiency, and the rating of perceived exertion between the tests with and without the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. The reduction of the power output was related to the extra mass of the fire protective clothing and SCBA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7588692

  7. Concepts for a standard based cross-organisational information security management system in the context of a nationwide EHR.

    PubMed

    Mense, Alexander; Hoheiser-Pförtner, Franz; Schmid, Martin; Wahl, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Working with health related data necessitates appropriate levels of security and privacy. Information security, meaning ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability, is more organizational, than technical in nature. It includes many organizational and management measures, is based on well-defined security roles, processes, and documents, and needs permanent adaption of security policies, continuously monitoring, and measures assessment. This big challenge for any organization leads to implementation of an information security management system (ISMS). In the context of establishing a regional or national electronic health record for integrated care (ICEHR), the situation is worse. Changing the medical information exchange from on-demand peer-to-peer connections to health information networks requires all organizations participating in the EHR system to have consistent security levels and to follow the same security guidelines and rules. Also, the implementation must be monitored and audited, establishing cross-organizational information security management systems (ISMS) based on international standards. This paper evaluates requirements and defines basic concepts for an ISO 27000 series-based cross-organizational ISMS in the healthcare domain and especially for the implementation of the nationwide electronic health record in Austria (ELGA). PMID:23920615

  8. Experimental performance study of wireless ad hoc system utilizing 802.11a standard base on different routing protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xiao F.; Wang, You-Zheng; Mei, Shunliang; Wang, Jing

    2002-08-01

    The wireless ad hoc network technology provides a flexible infrastructure for next generation mobile telecommunication. In this paper, the performances of the networks based on IEEE802.11a standard, including packets successful delivery rate, average end-to-end delay and system throughput, have been studied with different routing protocols (AODV, WRP, and FISHEYE) using GloMoSim to evaluate the effects of various factors, such as node mobility, node density, and node radio transmission range. The simulation results show that adaptive routing protocol will be more suitable for the variation ad hoc network and the results are helpful for the optimum design and deployment of an actual network.

  9. Grading Inquiry Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busching, Beverly

    1998-01-01

    College-level student inquiry projects are not easy to evaluate within the parameters of the academic grading system. One form of rubric-guided assessment has specific advantages in addressing both performance and product by allowing weighting of criteria, flexibility of criteria and standards based on the project, defining the major aspects of…

  10. A Case Study of the Alignment between Curriculum and Assessment in the New York State Earth Science Standards-Based System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contino, Julie

    2013-02-01

    In a standards-based system, it is important for all components of the system to align in order to achieve the intended goals. No Child Left Behind law mandates that assessments be fully aligned with state standards, be valid, reliable and fair, be reported to all stakeholders, and provide evidence that all students in the state are meeting the standards. This study reports an analysis of the alignment between the National Science Education Standards (NSES), New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Core Curriculum (Core Curriculum) and New York State Physical Setting/Earth Science Regents Examination (Regents Exam)—the sources teachers use for creating Earth Science curricula in New York State. The NSES were found to have a 49 % overlap with the Core Curriculum and a 27 % overlap with the Regents Exam. The Core Curriculum and Regents Exam, represented by matrices consisting of performance indicators and cognitive demands, were compared using the Porter Alignment Index. The alignment was 0.35, categorized as slightly aligned, due to the different emphases on cognitive levels. The Core focused on cognitive skills of Understand and Apply while the Regents concentrated more on Apply followed by Understand and Remember. It is suggested that the NSES be revised and the Core updated to include quantifiable emphasis on the major understandings such as percentage of time.

  11. Grades That Show What Students Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to cure the ills of current grading and reporting systems, many schools and districts across the United States have attempted to implement a standards-based system. The authors recommend four best practices in this area: (1) Get rid of the omnibus grade, which tells teachers little about the content measured or the difficulty level of…

  12. Changes in prostate cancer grading: Including a new patient-centric grading system.

    PubMed

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-04-01

    The first structured approach to grade prostate cancer based on the underlying histological architecture was developed by Donald Gleason who in 1966 proposed a morphologic classification of prostate cancer and in 1974 demonstrated its clinical significance based on prostate cancer-specific death. Contemporarily referred to as the Gleason grading system, it has gained worldwide recognition allowing a more individualized approach to patients with prostate cancer. In 2005, the International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) made the first revisions to the grading system. Subsequently, based on the new discoveries in pathologic and clinical aspects of prostate cancer, as well as the changing nature of the prostate cancer in part due to a robust screening, there was a need for experts to re-visit the approach to grade prostate cancer. In November 2014, the ISUP experts and clinical leaders in prostate cancer from 17 countries conducted a consensus conference in Chicago, IL, USA. The consensus conference defined various grade patterns and proposed the adoption of a new grading system of prostate cancer. Herein, we describe the background and rationale for the changes and provide guidelines to their clinical implementation. Prostate 76:427-433, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26709152

  13. Social Studies, Grade 3. Teaching Systems II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    The overall social studies recommended program is described in SO 000 675; the nature of this guide, and the emphasis and organization of the units are described in SO 000 679. The three units in this part of the third grade course are: Tropical Rainforest, Mountain Communities, and Grassland Communities involving the typical climatic conditions,…

  14. Alignment of Two Grading Systems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohner, Margaret; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    For the past number of years, a Canadian university has been offering its business degree program in universities located in Tianjin and Shanghai, China. This paper examines the alignment of the two grading systems and its implications on the grade distribution of graduates from the programs. An attempt is made to find an exchange rate of the two…

  15. British athletics muscle injury classification: a new grading system.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Noel; James, Steven L J; Lee, Justin C; Chakraverty, Robin

    2014-09-01

    The commonly used muscle injury grading systems based on three grades of injury, representing minor, moderate and complete injuries to the muscle, are lacking in diagnostic accuracy and provide limited prognostic information to the clinician. In recent years, there have been a number of proposals for alternative grading systems. While there is recent evidence regarding the prognostic features of muscle injuries, this evidence has not often been incorporated into the grading proposals. The British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification proposes a new system, based on the available evidence, which should provide a sound diagnostic base for therapeutic decision-making and prognostication. Injuries are graded 0-4 based on MRI features, with Grades 1-4 including an additional suffix 'a', 'b' or 'c' if the injury is 'myofascial', 'musculo-tendinous' or 'intratendinous'. Retrospective and prospective studies in elite track and field athletes are underway to validate the classification for use in hamstring muscle injury management. It is intended that this grading system can provide a suitable diagnostic framework for enhanced clinical decision-making in the management of muscle injuries and assist with future research to inform the development of improved prevention and management strategies. PMID:25031367

  16. ON-LINE PREDICTION OF YIELD GRADE, LONGISSIMUS MUSCLE AREA, PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, ADJUSTED PRELIMINARY YIELD GRADE, AND MARBLING SCORE USING THE MARC BEEF CARCASS IMAGE ANALYSIS SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the MARC Beef Carcass Image Analysis System to predict calculated yield grade, longissimus area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score under commercial beef processing conditions. In two commerci...

  17. Shape analysis for an automatic oyster grading system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dah-Jye; Xu, Xiaoqian; Lane, Robert M.; Zhan, Pengcheng

    2004-12-01

    An overview of the oyster industry in the U. S. with emphasis in Virginia shows oyster grading occurs at harvest, wholesale and processing markets. Currently whole oysters, also called shellstock, are graded manually by screening and sorting based on diameter or weight. The majority of oysters harvested for the processing industry are divided into three to four main grades: small, medium, large, and selects. We have developed a shape analysis method for an automatic oyster grading system. The system first detects and removes poor quality oysters such as banana shape, broken shell, and irregular shapes. Good quality oysters move further into grades of small, medium and large. The contours of the oysters are extracted for shape analysis. Banana shape and broken shell have a specific shape flaw (or difference) compared to the ones with good quality. Global shape properties such as compactness, roughness, and elongation are suitable and useful to measure the shape flaw. Image projection area or length of the major axis measured as global properties for sizing. Incorporating a machine vision system for grading, sorting and counting oysters supports reduced operating costs. The savings produced from reducing labor, increasing accuracy in size, grade and count and providing real time accurate data for accounting and billing would contribute to the profit of the oysters industry.

  18. A new grading system for assessing orbicularis muscle function.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Rahman R; Berry-Brincat A; Thaller VT

    2003-07-01

    PURPOSE: To establish an objective parameter (orbicularis function) to measure the efficacy of botulinum toxin treatment in weakening the orbicularis of blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm sufferers.METHODS: The following scale has been used by one of the authors (VTT) in his botulinum clinic for several years: Grade 0: Incomplete eyelid closure.Grade 1: Lids just closing, minimal resistance to overcome.Grade 2: Closing well, some resistance, easily overcome.Grade 3: Strong closure, can be overcome with difficulty.Grade 4: Very strong closure, cannot be overcome or overcome with extreme difficulty. In order to establish the interobserver agreement, one consultant ophthalmologist, three ophthalmologists in training, and one nurse practitioner evaluated the same 65 patients, undergoing treatment with botulinum toxin for essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm. Observers assessed orbicularis function by asking each patient to close both eyes forcefully, while the observer tried to open them manually. The measure of agreement across the observers was estimated by kappa statistics.RESULTS: Overall interobserver agreement (kappa=0.54) was satisfactory. We used Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test to determine agreement between the observers. The P-values for both right and left eyes were well above 0.05, indicating good consistency between the observers when using this grading system.CONCLUSIONS: A simple, new, five-point, clinical grading system for orbicularis muscle function is presented. Medical staff with different levels of experience can use it reliably.

  19. Grading NASA's Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Committee on Assessing the Solar System Exploration Program has reviewed NASA's progress to date in implementing the recommendations made in the National Research Council's (NRC's) solar system exploration decadal survey covering the period 2003-2013, New Frontiers in the Solar System, and in its Mars Architecture report, Assessment of NASA s Mars Architecture 2007-2016. The committee assessed NASA's progress with respect to each individual recommendation in these two reports, assigning an academic-style grade, explaining the rationale for the grade and trend, and offering recommendations for improvement. The committee generally sought to develop recommendations in cases where it determined that the grade, the trend, or both were worrisome and that the achievement of a decadal survey recommendation would require some kind of corrective action on NASA's part. This usually meant that the committee sought to offer a recommendation when the grade was a "C" or lower. However, the committee did offer recommendations in connection with some higher grades when it believed that minor corrective action was possible and desirable. More importantly, the committee did not offer recommendations for some of the activities given lower grades, particularly in the enabling technologies area (Chapter 6), because the committee determined that only the restoration of funding and the development of a strategic technology development program would solve these problems.

  20. A new grading system based on magnetic resonance imaging in a mouse model of subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Egashira, Yusuke; Shishido, Hajime; Hua, Ya; Keep, Richard F.; Xi, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose A grading system for experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that does not require animal euthanasia is currently unavailable. We proposed a new grading system based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and evaluated the feasibility of this method in a mouse model of SAH. Methods SAH was induced by endovascular perforation in adult male C57BL/6 mice. Mice underwent MRI 24 hours after SAH, and were categorized into the following five grades based on T2*-weighted imaging: Grade 0, no visible SAH or intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH); Grade 1, minimal/localized SAH without IVH; Grade 2, minimal/localized SAH with IVH; Grade 3, thick/diffuse SAH without IVH; Grade 4, thick/diffuse SAH with IVH. Neurological deficits were then assessed and the mice euthanized for conventional SAH grading. Results Among a total of 47 mice, 4% were scored as grade 0, 30% as grade 1, 11% as grade 2, 30% as grade 3, and 36% as grade 4. This MRI grading had excellent interobserver reliability (weighted κ value = 0.94), and there were strong correlations between the MRI grading and the conventional grading (r = 0.85; P < 0.001), or between MRI grade and neurological scores (r = −0.46; P < 0.01). Conclusions The new MRI grading correlated well with conventional grading, and enabled in-vivo evaluation of SAH severity. This grading system may offer advantages in future studies of experimental SAH. PMID:25550373

  1. A Study of the Letter Grade System and Its Effect on the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Fredrick

    This study explores and identifies patterns of teacher, student, parent, and administrator responses to letter grade evaluation systems. The study examined four main points: rationales for letter grades, interpretations of grading procedures and process, the consequences of letter grades, and alternatives to letter grades. The study involved an…

  2. Curriculum Development for Enhancing Grade Nine Students' Systems Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernthaisong, Preeyanan; Sitti, Somsong; Sonsupap, Kanyarat

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the development of a curriculum for enhancing grade 9 students' cognitive skills using a curriculum based on Systems Thinking Process. There were 3 phases: 1) studying of the problem; 2) development of tentative curriculum; and 3) implementation of the curriculum in a pilot study. The samples were 32…

  3. Groups graded by root systems and property (T)

    PubMed Central

    Ershov, Mikhail; Jaikin-Zapirain, Andrei; Kassabov, Martin; Zhang, Zezhou

    2014-01-01

    We establish property (T) for a large class of groups graded by root systems, including elementary Chevalley groups and Steinberg groups of rank at least 2 over finitely generated commutative rings with 1. We also construct a group with property (T) which surjects onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank at least two. PMID:25425669

  4. Curriculum Development for Enhancing Grade Nine Students' Systems Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernthaisong, Preeyanan; Sitti, Somsong; Sonsupap, Kanyarat

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to study the development of a curriculum for enhancing grade 9 students' cognitive skills using a curriculum based on Systems Thinking Process. There were 3 phases: 1) studying of the problem; 2) development of tentative curriculum; and 3) implementation of the curriculum in a pilot study. The samples were 32…

  5. Continuous-Flow System Produces Medical-Grade Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-flow system utilizes microwave heating to sterilize water and to thermally inactivate endotoxins produced in the sterilization process. The system is designed for use in converting potable water to medical-grade water. Systems like this one could be used for efficient, small-scale production of medical- grade water in laboratories, clinics, and hospitals. This system could be adapted to use in selective sterilization of connections in ultra-pure-water-producing equipment and other equipment into which intrusion by microorganisms cannot be tolerated. Lightweight, port - able systems based on the design of this system could be rapidly deployed to remote locations (e.g., military field hospitals) or in response to emergencies in which the normal infrastructure for providing medical-grade water is disrupted. Larger systems based on the design of this system could be useful for industrial production of medical-grade water. The basic microwave-heating principle of this system is the same as that of a microwave oven: An item to be heated, made of a lossy dielectric material (in this case, flowing water) is irradiated with microwaves in a multimode microwave cavity. The heating is rapid and efficient because it results from absorption of microwave power throughout the volume of the lossy dielectric material. In this system, a copper tube having a length of 49.5 cm and a diameter of 2.25 cm serves as both the microwave cavity and the sterilization chamber. Microwave power is fed via a coaxial cable to an antenna mounted inside the tube at mid-length (see figure). Efficient power transfer occurs due to the shift in wavelength associated with the high permittivity of water combined with the strong coupling of 2.45-GHz microwaves with rotational-vibrational transitions of the dipolar water molecule.

  6. A novel grading system for clear cell renal cell carcinoma incorporating tumor necrosis.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; McKenney, Jesse K; Lohse, Christine M; Leibovich, Bradley C; Thompson, Robert Houston; Boorjian, Stephen A; Cheville, John C

    2013-03-01

    Grading of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has prognostic significance, and there is recent consensus by the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) that for clear cell and papillary RCC, grading should primarily be based on nucleolar prominence. Microscopic tumor necrosis also predicts outcome independent of tumor grading. This study was undertaken to assess whether the incorporation of microscopic tumor necrosis into the ISUP grading system provides survival information superior to ISUP grading alone. Data on 3017 patients treated surgically for clear cell RCC, 556 for papillary RCC, and 180 for chromophobe RCC were retrieved from the Mayo Clinic Registry. Median follow-up periods were 8.9, 9.7, and 8.5 years, respectively. Four proposed grades were defined: grade 1: ISUP grade 1+ISUP grade 2 without necrosis; grade 2: ISUP grade 2 with necrosis+ISUP grade 3 without necrosis; grade 3: ISUP grade 3 with necrosis+ISUP grade 4 without necrosis; grade 4: ISUP grade 4 with necrosis or sarcomatoid/rhabdoid tumors. There was a significant difference in survival between each of the grades for clear cell RCC, and the concordance index was superior to that of ISUP grading. The proposed grading system also outperformed the ISUP grading system when cases were stratified according to the TNM stage. Similar results were not obtained for papillary RCC or chromophobe RCC. We conclude that grading for clear cell RCC should be based on nucleolar prominence and necrosis, that ISUP grading should be used for papillary RCC, and that chromophobe RCC should not be graded. PMID:23348209

  7. The 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference on Gleason Grading of Prostatic Carcinoma: Definition of Grading Patterns and Proposal for a New Grading System.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Jonathan I; Egevad, Lars; Amin, Mahul B; Delahunt, Brett; Srigley, John R; Humphrey, Peter A

    2016-02-01

    In November, 2014, 65 prostate cancer pathology experts, along with 17 clinicians including urologists, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists from 19 different countries gathered in a consensus conference to update the grading of prostate cancer, last revised in 2005. The major conclusions were: (1) Cribriform glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (2) Glomeruloid glands should be assigned a Gleason pattern 4, regardless of morphology; (3) Grading of mucinous carcinoma of the prostate should be based on its underlying growth pattern rather than grading them all as pattern 4; and (4) Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate without invasive carcinoma should not be assigned a Gleason grade and a comment as to its invariable association with aggressive prostate cancer should be made. Regarding morphologies of Gleason patterns, there was clear consensus on: (1) Gleason pattern 4 includes cribriform, fused, and poorly formed glands; (2) The term hypernephromatoid cancer should not be used; (3) For a diagnosis of Gleason pattern 4, it needs to be seen at 10x lens magnification; (4) Occasional/seemingly poorly formed or fused glands between well-formed glands is insufficient for a diagnosis of pattern 4; (5) In cases with borderline morphology between Gleason pattern 3 and pattern 4 and crush artifacts, the lower grade should be favored; (6) Branched glands are allowed in Gleason pattern 3; (7) Small solid cylinders represent Gleason pattern 5; (8) Solid medium to large nests with rosette-like spaces should be considered to represent Gleason pattern 5; and (9) Presence of unequivocal comedonecrosis, even if focal is indicative of Gleason pattern 5. It was recognized by both pathologists and clinicians that despite the above changes, there were deficiencies with the Gleason system. The Gleason grading system ranges from 2 to 10, yet 6 is the lowest score currently assigned. When patients are told that they have a Gleason score 6 out of 10, it implies that their prognosis is intermediate and contributes to their fear of having a more aggressive cancer. Also, in the literature and for therapeutic purposes, various scores have been incorrectly grouped together with the assumption that they have a similar prognosis. For example, many classification systems consider Gleason score 7 as a single score without distinguishing 3+4 versus 4+3, despite studies showing significantly worse prognosis for the latter. The basis for a new grading system was proposed in 2013 by one of the authors (J.I.E.) based on data from Johns Hopkins Hospital resulting in 5 prognostically distinct Grade Groups. This new system was validated in a multi-institutional study of over 20,000 radical prostatectomy specimens, over 16,000 needle biopsy specimens, and over 5,000 biopsies followed by radiation therapy. There was broad (90%) consensus for the adoption of this new prostate cancer Grading system in the 2014 consensus conference based on: (1) the new classification provided more accurate stratification of tumors than the current system; (2) the classification simplified the number of grading categories from Gleason scores 2 to 10, with even more permutations based on different pattern combinations, to Grade Groups 1 to 5; (3) the lowest grade is 1 not 6 as in Gleason, with the potential to reduce overtreatment of indolent cancer; and (4) the current modified Gleason grading, which forms the basis for the new grade groups, bears little resemblance to the original Gleason system. The new grades would, for the foreseeable future, be used in conjunction with the Gleason system [ie. Gleason score 3+3=6 (Grade Group 1)]. The new grading system and the terminology Grade Groups 1-5 have also been accepted by the World Health Organization for the 2016 edition of Pathology and Genetics: Tumours of the Urinary System and Male Genital Organs. PMID:26492179

  8. Functionally graded alumina-based thin film systems

    DOEpatents

    Moore, John J.; Zhong, Dalong

    2006-08-29

    The present invention provides coating systems that minimize thermal and residual stresses to create a fatigue- and soldering-resistant coating for aluminum die casting dies. The coating systems include at least three layers. The outer layer is an alumina- or boro-carbide-based outer layer that has superior non-wettability characteristics with molten aluminum coupled with oxidation and wear resistance. A functionally-graded intermediate layer or "interlayer" enhances the erosive wear, toughness, and corrosion resistance of the die. A thin adhesion layer of reactive metal is used between the die substrate and the interlayer to increase adhesion of the coating system to the die surface.

  9. Positive and Negative Incentives in the Classroom: An Analysis of Grading Systems and Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docan, Tony N.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined how particular grading systems motivate students. Since competency-based grading and point systems are most prevalent (Hendrickson and Gable, 1999), the current study is modeled around these systems. The grading systems used for this study were divided into two categories and defined as those students who earned their grades…

  10. A grading system for reproductive and child health indicators in southern India.

    PubMed

    Sabu, K M; Nair, N S K; Bairy, A Ramachandra; Roopalekha, J

    2011-03-01

    This study was carried out to develop a system for grading local government sectors (LGS) in regard to reproductive and child health (RCH). RCH indicators for Udupi District in southern India over a one year period were graded. All 146 LGS in 3 municipalities were ranked using the grading system into one of 5 grades. The grading system is based on 14 RCH indicators. There was a wide disparity in RCH among LGS, even though the overall key RCH indicators were good. Using this new grading system for each of the 146 LGS in Udupi District, Udupi, Karkala and Kundapura administrative divisions were all within the first three grades. This new system of grading care in the LGS based on RCH indicators, can be used as an easy reference tool to assess and compare the performance of each LGS. A similar system could be adapted by other countries using RCH indicators. PMID:21710866

  11. A Standards-Based Science Fair

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In standards-based science fairs, children learn more about what they are interested in. They deepen understandings of how science works and improve inquiry skills--including the ability to communicate and share research results. Parents learn more about science inquiry and their child's science abilities. The standards-based science fair builds…

  12. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOEpatents

    Kuznetsov, Stephen B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel.

  13. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOEpatents

    Kuznetsov, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel. 4 figs.

  14. Meeting Expectations? An Empirical Investigation of a Standards-Based Assessment of Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rupp, Andre A.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the relationship between performance on a standards-based assessment of reading comprehension in fourth grade and performance on a diagnostic battery of component skills of reading for a cohort of children who were followed from kindergarten through fourth grade. The findings demonstrate that the…

  15. A New Perspective in Evaluating Clinical Effectiveness: The UWO Clinical Grading System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carla J.; Shewan, Cynthia M.

    1988-01-01

    The University of Western Ontario's Clinical Grading System was developed to improve assessment of speech-language pathology students' performance in clinical practicum. The system permits flexibility in weighting the contribution of particular skills to the final grade, allows for grading over an entire practicum, and provides profiles of…

  16. Enabling Better Interoperability for HealthCare: Lessons in Developing a Standards Based Application Programing Interface for Electronic Medical Record Systems.

    PubMed

    Kasthurirathne, Suranga N; Mamlin, Burke; Kumara, Harsha; Grieve, Grahame; Biondich, Paul

    2015-11-01

    We sought to enable better interoperability and easy adoption of healthcare applications by developing a standardized domain independent Application Programming Interface (API) for an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system. We leveraged the modular architecture of the Open Medical Record System (OpenMRS) to build a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources (FHIR) based add-on module that could consume FHIR resources and requests made on OpenMRS. The OpenMRS FHIR module supports a subset of FHIR resources that could be used to interact with clinical data persisted in OpenMRS. We demonstrate the ease of connecting healthcare applications using the FHIR API by integrating a third party Substitutable Medical Apps & Reusable Technology (SMART) application with OpenMRS via FHIR. The OpenMRS FHIR module is an optional component of the OpenMRS platform. The FHIR API significantly reduces the effort required to implement OpenMRS by preventing developers from having to learn or work with a domain specific OpenMRS API. We propose an integration pathway where the domain specific legacy OpenMRS API is gradually retired in favor of the new FHIR API, which would be integrated into the core OpenMRS platform. Our efforts indicate that a domain independent API is a reality for any EMR system. These efforts demonstrate the adoption of an emerging FHIR standard that is seen as a replacement for both Health Level 7 (HL7) Version 2 and Version 3. We propose a gradual integration approach where our FHIR API becomes the preferred method for communicating with the OpenMRS platform. PMID:26446013

  17. Breast carcinoma malignancy grading by Bloom-Richardson system vs proliferation index: reproducibility of grade and advantages of proliferation index.

    PubMed

    Meyer, John S; Alvarez, Consuelo; Milikowski, Clara; Olson, Neal; Russo, Irma; Russo, Jose; Glass, Andrew; Zehnbauer, Barbara A; Lister, Karen; Parwaresch, Reza

    2005-08-01

    Questions of reproducibility and efficacy of histologic malignancy grading relative to alternative proliferation index measurements for outcome prediction remain unanswered. Microsections of specimens from the Cooperative Breast Cancer Tissue Resource (CBCTR) were evaluated by seven pathologists for reproducibility of grade and classification. Nuclear figure classification was assessed using photographs. Grade was assigned by the Bloom-Richardson method, Nottingham modification. Proliferation index was evaluated prospectively by deoxyribose nucleic acid precursor uptake with thymidine (autoradiographic) or bromodeoxyuridine (immunohistochemical) labeling index using fresh tissue from 631 node-negative breast cancer patients accessioned at St Luke's Hospital. A modified Nottingham-Bloom-Richardson grade was derived from histopathologic data. Median post-treatment observation was 6.4 years. Agreement on classification of nuclear figures (N=43) was less than good by kappa statistic (kappa=0.38). Grade was moderately reproducible in four trials (N=10,10,19, 10) with CBCTR specimens (kappa=0.50-0.59). Of components of Bloom-Richardson grade, agreement was least for nuclear pleomorphism (kappa=0.37-0.50), best for tubularity (kappa=0.57-0.83), and intermediate for mitotic count (kappa=0.45-0.64). Bloom-Richardson grade was a univariate predictor of prognosis in node-negative St Luke's patients, and was improved when mitotic count was replaced by labeling index (low, mid, or high). When labeling index was added to a multivariate model containing tumor size and vessel invasion, grade was no longer a significant predictor of tumor-specific relapse-free or overall survival. Mitotic index predicted best when intervals were lowered to 0-2, 3-10, and >10 mitotic figures per ten 0.18 mm(2) high-power fields. We conclude that Nottingham-Bloom-Richardson grades remain only modestly reproducible. Prognostically useful components of grade are mitotic index and tubularity. The Nottingham-Bloom-Richardson system can be improved by lowering cutoffs for mitotic index and by counting 20-30 rather than 10 high-power fields. Measurement of proliferation index by immunohistochemically detectable markers will probably give superior prognostic results in comparison to grade. PMID:15920556

  18. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Comparing grades under different pay... REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay systems. (a) General. An agency must compare the comparison rates (as defined in § 536.103) of the...

  19. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comparing grades under different pay... REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay systems. (a) General. An agency must compare the comparison rates (as defined in § 536.103) of the...

  20. Effects of Transition from Pass/No Credit to Traditional Letter Grade System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suddick, David E.; Kelly, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of student performance resulting from the transition from a pass/no credit to the traditional letter grade system indicated that the former system was not superior to the latter system. Academic performance was better in the graded system; academic standards were raised, particularly at the masters' level. (Author/GK)

  1. Eight Steps to Meaningful Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deddeh, Heather; Main, Erin; Fulkerson, Sharon Ratzlaff

    2010-01-01

    A group of teachers at Clifford Smart Middle School in Michigan's Walled Lake Consolidated School District have broken free from traditional grading in order to embrace a more meaningful grading practice. Using standards-based grading practices, they believe their grading now accurately communicates to students and parents the student's mastery…

  2. Teachers' Perceptions of the Impact of Online Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mize, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the communication aspect of using an online grading program. This study explored teachers' perceptions of the implications of allowing the grading process to become transparent to parents. The purpose of this study was to assist teachers in searching for ways to create a positive parent-teacher relationship. A…

  3. Cerebral versus systemic hemodynamics during graded orthostatic stress in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, B. D.; Giller, C. A.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic syncope is usually attributed to cerebral hypoperfusion secondary to systemic hemodynamic collapse. Recent research in patients with neurocardiogenic syncope has suggested that cerebral vasoconstriction may occur during orthostatic hypotension, compromising cerebral autoregulation and possibly contributing to the loss of consciousness. However, the regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in such patients may be quite different from that of healthy individuals, particularly when assessed during the rapidly changing hemodynamic conditions associated with neurocardiogenic syncope. To be able to interpret the pathophysiological significance of these observations, a clear understanding of the normal responses of the cerebral circulation to orthostatic stress must be obtained, particularly in the context of the known changes in systemic and regional distributions of blood flow and vascular resistance during orthostasis. Therefore, the specific aim of this study was to examine the changes that occur in the cerebral circulation during graded reductions in central blood volume in the absence of systemic hypotension in healthy humans. We hypothesized that cerebral vasoconstriction would occur and CBF would decrease due to activation of the sympathetic nervous system. We further hypothesized, however, that the magnitude of this change would be small compared with changes in systemic or skeletal muscle vascular resistance in healthy subjects with intact autoregulation and would be unlikely to cause syncope without concomitant hypotension. METHODS AND RESULTS: To test this hypothesis, we studied 13 healthy men (age, 27 +/- 7 years) during progressive lower body negative pressure (LBNP). We measured systemic flow (Qc is cardiac output; C2H2 rebreathing), regional forearm flow (FBF; venous occlusion plethysmography), and blood pressure (BP; Finapres) and calculated systemic (SVR) and forearm (FVR) vascular resistances. Changes in brain blood flow were estimated from changes in the blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) using transcranial Doppler. Pulsatility (systolic minus diastolic/mean velocity) normalized for systemic arterial pressure pulsatility was used as an index of distal cerebral vascular resistance. End-tidal PACO2 was closely monitored during LBNP. From rest to maximal LBNP before the onset of symptoms or systemic hypotension, Qc and FBF decreased by 29.9% and 34.4%, respectively. VMCA decreased less, by 15.5% consistent with a smaller decrease in CBF. Similarly, SVR and FVR increased by 62.8% and 69.8%, respectively, whereas pulsatility increased by 17.2%, suggestive of a mild degree of small-vessel cerebral vasoconstriction. Seven of 13 subjects had presyncope during LBNP, all associated with a sudden drop in BP (29 +/- 9%). By comparison, hyperventilation alone caused greater changes in VMCA (42 +/- 2%) and pulsatility but never caused presyncope. In a separate group of 3 subjects, superimposition of hyperventilation during highlevel LBNP caused a further decrease in VMCA (31 +/- 7%) but no change in BP or level of consciousness. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that cerebral vasoconstriction occurs in healthy humans during graded reductions in central blood volume caused by LBNP. However, the magnitude of this response is small compared with changes in SVR or FVR during LBNP or other stimuli known to induce cerebral vasoconstriction (hypocapnia). We speculate that this degree of cerebral vasoconstriction is not by itself sufficient to cause syncope during orthostatic stress. However, it may exacerbate the decrease in CBF associated with hypotension if hemodynamic instability develops.

  4. Standards-Based Reform: What Is Missing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duttweiler, Patricia Cloud; McEvoy, Undine

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that standards-based reform is doomed to fail unless states use their newly established, more rigorous standards to develop interventions that provide teachers with the skills and knowledge required to teach to the higher standards and students with additional opportunities to achieve the higher standards. (Author/SLD)

  5. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  6. Reliable Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based Grading System for Cervical Intervertebral Disc Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Antonia F.; Kang, James D.; Lee, Joon Y.

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Observational. Purpose To develop a simple and comprehensive grading system for cervical discs that precisely, consistently and meaningfully presents radiologic and morphologic data. Overview of Literature The Thompson grading system is commonly used to classify the severity of degenerative lumbar discs on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Inherent differences in the morphological and physiological characteristics of cervical discs have hindered development of precise classification systems. Other grading systems have been developed for degenerating cervical discs, but their versatility and feasibility in the clinical setting is suboptimal. Methods MRIs of 46 human cervical discs were de-identified and displayed in PowerPoint format. Each slide depicted a single disc with a normal (grade 0) disc displayed in the top right corner for reference. The presentation was given to 25 physicians comprising attending spine surgeons, spine fellows, orthopaedic residents, and two attending musculoskeletal radiologists. The grading system included Grade 0 (normal height compared to C2–3, mid cleft still visible), grade 1 (dark disc, normal height), grade 2 (collapsed disc, few osteophytes), and grade 3 (collapsed disc, many osteophytes). The ease of use of the system was gauged in the participants and the interobserver reliability was calculated. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient for interobserver reliability was 0.87, and 0.94 for intraobserver reliability, indicating excellent reliability. Ninety-five percent and 85 percent of the clinicians judged the grading system to be clinically feasible and useful in daily practice, respectively. Conclusions The grading system is easy to use, has excellent reliability, and can be used for precise and consistent clinician communication.

  7. School-Based Communities of Practice as Mechanisms for Standards-Based Mathematics Curriculum Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Thomas E.; Jong, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    The authors drew upon Remillard and Bryans' categorization of curriculum use in observating two middle-grade teachers' integration of Standards-based curriculum materials produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Each teacher participated in a two-year professional development program focused on increasing content knowledge and…

  8. Connections: Weather, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Catherine R.; Cross, Pat

    Natural Resources for Grade 4 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of Learning for…

  9. Connections: Water, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Catherine R.

    Natural Resources for Grade 3 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of Learning for…

  10. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students…

  11. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students…

  12. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  13. Interobserver variation in the reporting of cervical colposcopic biopsy specimens: comparison of grading systems.

    PubMed Central

    McCluggage, W G; Bharucha, H; Caughley, L M; Date, A; Hamilton, P W; Thornton, C M; Walsh, M Y

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To assess interobserver variation in reporting cervical colposcopic biopsy specimens and to determine whether a modified Bethesda grading system results in better interobserver agreement than the traditional cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grading system. METHODS: One hundred and twenty five consecutive cervical colposcopic biopsy specimens were assessed independently by six histopathologists. Specimens were classified using the traditional CIN grading system as normal, koilocytosis, CIN I, CIN II, or CIN III. The specimens were also classified using a modified Bethesda grading system as either normal, low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) or high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Participants were also asked to categorise biopsy specimens by the CIN system with the addition of the recently proposed category "basal abnormalities of uncertain significance (BAUS)". The degree of agreement between participants was assessed by kappa statistics. RESULTS: Using the CIN system, interobserver agreement was generally poor: unweighted and weighted kappa values between individual pairs of observers ranging from 0.05 to 0.34 (average 0.20) and from 0.20 to 0.54 (average 0.36), respectively. With the modified Bethesda system, interobserver agreement was better but still poor: unweighted and weighted kappa values ranging from 0.15 to 0.58 (average 0.30) and from 0.21 to 0.61 (average 0.36), respectively. There was little or no agreement between observers in the diagnosis of BAUS. CONCLUSIONS: Interobserver agreement in the reporting of cervical colposcopic biopsy specimens using the CIN grading system is poor. Agreement, while still poor, is better when a modified Bethesda grading system is used. There is little or no consensus in the diagnosis of BAUS. PMID:8943751

  14. 14. Site D57C, Improved NIKEHercules System, Grading Plan, U.S. Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Site D-57-C, Improved NIKE-Hercules System, Grading Plan, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 18 January 1962. - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  15. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Crictor"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coblin, Mary Payne; Huss, Dorothy; Kirk, Bonnie; Lonneman, Melissa; Melville, Claire

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  16. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Crictor"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coblin, Mary Payne; Huss, Dorothy; Kirk, Bonnie; Lonneman, Melissa; Melville, Claire

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  17. Grading systems in the cytological diagnosis of breast cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Cherry; Pujani, Mukta; Sharma, Kiran Lata; Srivastava, A N; Singh, U S

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, diagnosis of breast carcinoma is still made on fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). For the resource-poor settings, FNAC is cheaper, less invasive and can sample different areas of the lesion compared with core needle biopsy. The role of breast FNA is usually limited to just categorize the lesion as benign or malignant. Prognostic information from cytomorphology, conveyed to the clinician depends upon the cytopathologist's way of formatting the report. PubMed-based literature search collated the information from articles describing the architectural and cytological features studied on breast aspiration smears. This review focuses on cytomorphological features and the different grading systems with their strengths, short-comings, and practical applicability. Eight worldwide articles proposing new methods of grading the cytological smears from breast cancers were published between 1980 and 2006. All the grading methods were developed for the most common type of breast cancer, that is, infiltrating duct carcinoma (not otherwise specified) type, and most of the workers used Papanicolaou-stained smears for the purpose of grading. Moreover, if interpreted carefully FNAC smears can convey information on most of the histological features. Hence, in developing countries, the focus should be on extracting the maximum information from cytological smears, so that a more precise "surgical pathology" type diagnosis can be given, instead of merely reporting as benign or malignant. Among all the discussed grading systems, we suggest grading system by Howell would be most appropriate and closest to the accepted histologic grading system as it applies Scarff-Bloom-Richardson histological grading system with modifications on FNA smears. We recommend it to be followed by all cytopathologists, in order to bring uniformity in the reporting of breast FNAs for grading the malignant lesions. PMID:25579516

  18. Multi-phase functionally graded materials for thermal barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.R.; Ritter, A.M.; Gigliotti, M.F.; Kaya, A.C.; Gallo, J.P.

    1996-12-31

    Jet engine and gas turbine hot section components can be protected from the 1,350--1,650 C combustion gases by thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Metallic candidates for functionally graded material (FGM) coatings have been evaluated for potential use in bonding zirconia to a single crystal superalloy. Properties for four materials were studied for the low-expansion layer adjacent to the ceramic. Ingots were produced for these materials, and oxidation, expansion and modulus were determined. A finite element model was used to study effects of varying the FGM layers. Elastic modulus dominated stress generation, and a 20--25% reduction in thermal stress generated within the zirconia layer may be possible.

  19. An Early Warning System: Predicting 10th Grade FCAT Success from 6th Grade FCAT Performance. Research Brief. Volume 0711

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Brown, Shelly; Lapadula, Maria

    2008-01-01

    This Research Brief presents a method for predicting 10th grade Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) success from 6th grade FCAT performance. A simple equation provides the most probable single score prediction, and give-or-take error margins define high and low probability zones for expected 10th grade scores. In addition, a double-entry…

  20. Construction and application of a food-grade expression system for Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenwei; Kong, Jian; Kong, Wentao

    2013-06-01

    A food-grade host/vector expression system for Lactococcus lactis was constructed using alanine racemase gene (alr) as the complementation marker. We obtained an alanine racemase auxotrophic mutant L. lactis NZ9000?alr by double-crossover recombination using temperature-sensitive integration plasmid pG(+)host9 and a food-grade vector pALR with entirely lactococcal DNA elements, including lactococcal replicon, nisin-inducible promoter PnisA and the alr gene from Lactobacillus casei BL23 as a complementation marker. By using the new food-grade host/vector system, the green fluorescent protein and capsid protein of porcine circovirus type II were successfully overexpressed under the nisin induction. These results indicate that this food-grade host/vector expression system has application potential as an excellent antigen delivery vehicle, and is also suitable for the use in the manufacture of ingredients for the food industry. PMID:22674186

  1. Is It a System?: Building a Global Perspective in the Elementary and Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, Ann V.

    1988-01-01

    Uses the stereo and the human body systems as models to help intermediate grade (3-6) students understand the world as a global system. Provides a teaching script for "Is It a System?" a lesson plan for teaching systems models. Provides objectives, instructional materials, and procedures. (NL)

  2. Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

    This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

  3. Clinical and radiographic features of contagious ovine digital dermatitis and a novel lesion grading system.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Blundell, R; Grove-White, D H; Duncan, J S

    2015-05-23

    Contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) is an infectious foot disease of sheep causing severe lameness. Diagnosis is currently made using broad anecdotal descriptions. The aim of this study was to systematically and formally describe the clinical presentation of the disease in terms of (1) a lesion grading system; (2) associated radiographic changes and (3) severity of associated lameness. A five-point lesion grading system was developed and applied to 908 sheep affected by CODD from six farms. Sheep with lesions typical of each grade were euthanased and their feet radiographed. Radiographic abnormalities including soft tissue and bony changes were evident in feet with lesions graded 2-5. In order to quantify the welfare impact of CODD, all the 908 sheep were locomotion scored. Five hundred and eighty-five (64.5% (95% CI 61.4% to 67.6%)) were lame. The locomotion score for affected sheep increased with worsening pathological changes. Once healing had begun the locomotion score decreased. In conclusion the five-point grading system may be used to clinically describe stages of CODD lesions. The radiographic changes revealed examples of deeper pathological changes and there was a strong association between the lesion grading system and locomotion score in affected sheep. PMID:25861825

  4. Simplified 2-tier histologic grading system accurately predicts outcomes in goblet cell carcinoid of the appendix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lawrence H; McConnell, Yarrow J; Tsang, Erica; Zerhouni, Siham; Speers, Caroline; Kennecke, Hagen; Schaeffer, David F

    2015-12-01

    Goblet cell carcinoid (GCC) is a rare appendiceal malignancy with both neuroendocrine and glandular features. Clinical outcomes of patients with GCC vary widely and a histology-based 3-tiered prognostic scheme has been previously suggested; however, this scheme is subjective and challenging to apply in day-to-day practice. We sought to construct a simplified and prognostic grading system based on objective histologic features with specific criteria. A continuous population-based cohort of GCC with clinical outcome data and archival tissue available for review was extracted from regional databases. For the 78 patients with confirmed appendiceal GCC, specific histologic features, including cytologic atypia, peritumoral stromal desmoplasia, and solid growth pattern, were recorded, and a scoring system was devised, which separates patients with GCC into low-grade (n = 55; 71%) or high-grade (n = 23; 29%) histology. Correspondingly, clinical follow-up data show good prognosis in those with low-grade histology with median and 10-year overall survival of 51.0 months and 80.5%, respectively, whereas those with high-grade histology have a poor prognosis with median and 10-year overall survival of 16.5 months (P = .006) and 0% (P < .001), respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling demonstrates that this 2-tier histologic system remains predictive of overall survival when controlled for TNM clinicopathological stage. These data show that a simple and objective histologic scoring system separates GCC into low- and high-grade histology with divergent clinical outcomes. PMID:26433702

  5. Developing Seventh Grade Students’ Systems Thinking Skills in the Context of the Human Circulatory System

    PubMed Central

    Raved, Lena; Yarden, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Developing systems thinking skills in school can provide useful tools to deal with a vast amount of medical and health information that may help learners in decision making in their future lives as citizen. Thus, there is a need to develop effective tools that will allow learners to analyze biological systems and organize their knowledge. Here, we examine junior high school students’ systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. A model was formulated for developing teaching and learning materials and for characterizing students’ systems thinking skills. Specifically, we asked whether seventh grade students, who studied about the human circulatory system, acquired systems thinking skills, and what are the characteristics of those skills? Concept maps were used to characterize students’ systems thinking components and examine possible changes in the students’ knowledge structure. These maps were composed by the students before and following the learning process. The study findings indicate a significant improvement in the students’ ability to recognize the system components and the processes that occur within the system, as well as the relationships between different levels of organization of the system, following the learning process. Thus, following learning students were able to organize the systems’ components and its processes within a framework of relationships, namely the students’ systems thinking skills were improved in the course of learning using the teaching and learning materials. PMID:25520948

  6. Developing seventh grade students' systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Raved, Lena; Yarden, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Developing systems thinking skills in school can provide useful tools to deal with a vast amount of medical and health information that may help learners in decision making in their future lives as citizen. Thus, there is a need to develop effective tools that will allow learners to analyze biological systems and organize their knowledge. Here, we examine junior high school students' systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. A model was formulated for developing teaching and learning materials and for characterizing students' systems thinking skills. Specifically, we asked whether seventh grade students, who studied about the human circulatory system, acquired systems thinking skills, and what are the characteristics of those skills? Concept maps were used to characterize students' systems thinking components and examine possible changes in the students' knowledge structure. These maps were composed by the students before and following the learning process. The study findings indicate a significant improvement in the students' ability to recognize the system components and the processes that occur within the system, as well as the relationships between different levels of organization of the system, following the learning process. Thus, following learning students were able to organize the systems' components and its processes within a framework of relationships, namely the students' systems thinking skills were improved in the course of learning using the teaching and learning materials. PMID:25520948

  7. A Modular, Standards-based Digital Object Repository

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-08-01

    The aDORe repository architecture, designed and implemented for ingesting, storing, and accessing a vast collection of Digital Objects. aDORe was originally created for use at the Research Library of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aDORe architecture is highly modular and standards-based. In the architecture, the MPEG-21 Digital Item Declaration Language is used as the XML-based format to represent Digital Objects that can consist of multiple datastreams as Open Archival Information System Archival Information Packagesmore »(OAIS AIPs).« less

  8. An automated system for grading EEG abnormality in term neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, N J; Korotchikova, I; Temko, A; Lightbody, G; Marnane, W P; Boylan, G B

    2013-04-01

    Automated analysis of the neonatal EEG has the potential to assist clinical decision making for neonates with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. This paper proposes a method of automatically grading the degree of abnormality in an hour long epoch of neonatal EEG. The automated grading system (AGS) was based on a multi-class linear classifier grading of short-term epochs of EEG which were converted into a long-term grading of EEG using a majority vote operation. The features used in the AGS were summary measurements of two sub-signals extracted from a quadratic time-frequency distribution: the amplitude modulation and instantaneous frequency. These sub-signals were based on a model of EEG as a multiplication of a coloured random process with a slowly varying pseudo-periodic waveform and may be related to macroscopic neurophysiological function. The 4 grade AGS had a classification accuracy of 83% compared to human annotation of the EEG (level of agreement, ? = 0.76). Features estimated on the developed sub-signals proved more effective at grading the EEG than measures based solely on the EEG and the incorporation of additional sub-grades based on EEG states into the AGS also improved performance. PMID:23519533

  9. Communication Systems, Unit I: Language Curriculum, Level C [Grade Three]; Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. Oregon Elementary English Project.

    Developed by the Oregon Elementary English Project for grades three and four, this first of two units on communication systems examines some systems which function without the use of human language, i.e., highway signs, trail signs, railroad signals, and facial expressions and gestures. After having identified concepts about communication systems

  10. The Chiari Severity Index: A Preoperative Grading System for Chiari Malformation Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jacob K; Yarbrough, Chester K; Radmanesh, Alireza; Godzik, Jakub; Yu, Megan; Jeffe, Donna B; Smyth, Matthew D; Park, Tae Sung; Piccirillo, Jay F; Limbrick, David D

    2014-01-01

    Background To develop evidence-based treatment guidelines for Chiari Malformation Type 1 (CM-1), preoperative prognostic indices capable of stratifying patients for comparative trials are needed. Objective To develop a preoperative Chiari Severity Index (CSI) integrating the clinical and neuroimaging features most predictive of long-term patient-defined improvement in quality of life (QOL) after CM-1 surgery. Methods We recorded preoperative clinical (e.g. headaches, myelopathic symptoms) and neuroimaging (e.g. syrinx size, tonsillar descent) characteristics. Brief follow-up surveys were administered to assess overall patient-defined improvement in QOL. We used sequential sequestration to develop clinical and neuroimaging grading systems and conjunctive consolidation to integrate these indices to form the CSI. We evaluated statistical significance using the Cochran-Armitage test and discrimination using the c-statistic. Results Our sample included 158 patients. Sequential sequestration identified headache characteristics and myelopathic symptoms as the most impactful clinical parameters, producing a clinical grading system with improvement rates ranging from 81% (grade 1) to 58% (grade 3) (p=0.01). Based on sequential sequestration, the neuroimaging grading system included only the presence (55% improvement) or absence (74% improvement) of a syrinx ? 6 mm (p=0.049). Integrating the clinical and neuroimaging indices, improvement rates for the CSI ranged from 83% (grade 1) to 45% (grade 3) (p=0.002). The combined CSI had moderately better discrimination (c=0.66) than the clinical (c=0.62) or neuroimaging (c=0.58) systems alone. Conclusion Integrating clinical and neuroimaging characteristics, the CSI is a novel tool that predicts patient-defined improvement following CM-1 surgery. The CSI may aid preoperative counseling and stratify patients in comparative effectiveness trials. PMID:25584956

  11. Grading More Accurately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rom, Mark Carl

    2011-01-01

    Grades matter. College grading systems, however, are often ad hoc and prone to mistakes. This essay focuses on one factor that contributes to high-quality grading systems: grading accuracy (or "efficiency"). I proceed in several steps. First, I discuss the elements of "efficient" (i.e., accurate) grading. Next, I present analytical results…

  12. Increased Percentage of Passing Grades on the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System after Implementation of Block Scheduling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Eric D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined one public school system's change in its bell scheduling format from a seven period day to block scheduling. The data collected was from a three year period of the grade 10 students passing the Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System exam. Students in Massachusetts must pass the mathematics and English/language arts…

  13. [GRADE system: classification of quality of evidence and strength of recommendation].

    PubMed

    Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis; Flores-Pastor, Benito; Soria-Aledo, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    The acquisition and classification of scientific evidence, and subsequent formulation of recommendations constitute the basis for the development of clinical practice guidelines. There are several systems for the classification of evidence and strength of recommendations; the most commonly used nowadays is the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system (GRADE). The GRADE system initially classifies the evidence into high or low, coming from experimental or observational studies; subsequently and following a series of considerations, the evidence is classified into high, moderate, low or very low. The strength of recommendations is based not only on the quality of the evidence, but also on a series of factors such as the risk/benefit balance, values and preferences of the patients and professionals, and the use of resources or costs. PMID:24361098

  14. A New MRI Grading System for Cervical Foraminal Stenosis Based on Axial T2-Weighted Images

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin; Chai, Jee Won; Yoo, Hye Jin; Kang, Yusuhn; Seo, Jiwoon; Ahn, Joong Mo; Kang, Heung Sik

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of a new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grading system for cervical neural foraminal stenosis (NFS). Materials and Methods Cervical NFS at bilateral C4/5, C5/6, and C6/7 was classified into the following three grades based on the T2-weighted axial images: Grade 0 = absence of NFS, with the narrowest width of the neural foramen greater than the width of the extraforaminal nerve root (EFNR); Grade 1 = the narrowest width of the neural foramen the same or less than (but more than 50% of) the width of the EFNR; Grade 2 = the width of the neural foramen the same or less than 50% of the width of the EFNR. The MRIs of 96 patients who were over 60 years old (M:F = 50:46; mean age 68.4 years; range 61-86 years) were independently analyzed by seven radiologists. Interobserver and intraobserver agreements were analyzed using the percentage agreement, kappa statistics, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results For the distinction among the three individual grades at all six neural foramina, the ICC ranged from 0.68 to 0.73, indicating fair to good reproducibility. The percentage agreement ranged from 60.2% to 70.6%, and the kappa values (? = 0.50-0.58) indicated fair to moderate agreement. The percentages of intraobserver agreement ranged from 85.4% to 93.8% (? = 0.80-0.92), indicating near perfect agreement. Conclusion The new MRI grading system shows sufficient interobserver and intraobserver agreement to reliably assess cervical NFS. PMID:26576119

  15. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Criticality Alarm System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, W.F.

    1999-09-16

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for PFP's criticality alarm system as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics for any one item. PFP's Criticality Alarm System includes the nine criticality alarm system panels and their associated hardware. This includes all parts up to the first breaker in the electrical distribution system. Specific system boundaries and justifications are contained in HNF-SD-CP-SDD-003, ''Definition and Means of Maintaining the Criticality Detectors and Alarms Portion of the PFP Safety Envelope.'' The procurement requirements associated with the system necessitates procurement of some system equipment as Commercial Grade Items in accordance with HNF-PRO-268, ''Control of Purchased Items and Services.''

  16. Developing a Nuclear Grade of Alloy 617 for Gen IV Nuclear Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Weiju; Swindeman, Robert W; Santella, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    Alloy 617, an attractive material not particularly developed for nuclear use, is now being considered as a leading candidate alloy by several countries for applications in the Gen IV Nuclear Energy Systems. An extensive review of its existing data suggests that it would be beneficial to refine the alloy s specification to a nuclear grade for the intended Gen IV systems. In this paper, rationale for developing a nuclear grade of the alloy is first discussed through an analysis on existing data from various countries. Then initial experiments for refining the alloy specification are described. Preliminary results have suggested the feasibility of the refinement approach, as well as the possibility for achieving a desirable nuclear grade. Based on the results, further research activities are recommended.

  17. Ready to Assemble: Grading State Higher Education Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldeman, Chad; Carey, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    States need strong higher education systems, now more than ever. In the tumultuous, highly competitive 21st century economy, citizens and workers need knowledge, skills, and credentials in order to prosper. Yet many colleges and universities are falling short. To give all students the best possible postsecondary education, states must create…

  18. STRIDE – An Integrated Standards-Based Translational Research Informatics Platform

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Henry J.; Ferris, Todd A.; Hernandez, Penni M.; Weber, Susan C.

    2009-01-01

    STRIDE (Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment) is a research and development project at Stanford University to create a standards-based informatics platform supporting clinical and translational research. STRIDE consists of three integrated components: a clinical data warehouse, based on the HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM), containing clinical information on over 1.3 million pediatric and adult patients cared for at Stanford University Medical Center since 1995; an application development framework for building research data management applications on the STRIDE platform and a biospecimen data management system. STRIDE’s semantic model uses standardized terminologies, such as SNOMED, RxNorm, ICD and CPT, to represent important biomedical concepts and their relationships. The system is in daily use at Stanford and is an important component of Stanford University’s CTSA (Clinical and Translational Science Award) Informatics Program. PMID:20351886

  19. Starting the Conversation about Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    As they attempt to make the transition to standards-based grading, many schools go off track or get swamped by side issues, writes Brookhart. They waste energy having hard discussions about grading practice details that, by themselves, cannot accomplish real reform. Instead, schools should focus discussion on major questions: What meaning do we…

  20. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

  1. Canada's Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting System: A Failing Grade.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Nigel S B

    2015-01-01

    An article in the National Post on suicidal effects associated with varenicline (Champix) highlights deficiencies in the Canadian spontaneous reporting system (SRS) for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The issues of under-reporting, poor quality information, duplication of reports and lack of a population denominator of drug use are discussed. Canada's SRS is deficient. There are immediate and medium-term actions that could be instituted that would improve pharmacovigilance in Canada. However, education about appropriate prescribing, the recognition of ADRs, and the duty to report them is a key long-term strategy to improving the pharmacovigilance system and should be included at every opportunity in the training of healthcare professionals so that life-long habits are developed. In addition to changes at Health Canada, greater emphasis needs to be placed on training in therapeutics, understanding drug safety, and the responsibility of healthcare providers in reporting risks in the curricula of medical and nursing schools. PMID:26590356

  2. The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Sami

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

  3. Design of an Automated Essay Grading (AEG) System in Indian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Siddhartha; Fatima, Sameen S.

    2007-01-01

    Automated essay grading or scoring systems are no more a myth, but they are a reality. As of today, the human written (not hand written) essays are corrected not only by examiners/teachers but also by machines. The TOEFL exam is one of the best examples of this application. The students' essays are evaluated both by human and web based automated…

  4. Enhancing On-Task Behavior in Fourth-Grade Students Using a Modified Color Wheel System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondin, Carolyn; Skinner, Christopher; Parkhurst, John; Wood, Allison; Snyder, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel System (M-CWS) on the on-task behavior of 7 students enrolled in the 4th grade. Standard CWS procedures were modified to include a 4th set of rules designed to set behavioral expectation for cooperative learning activities. Mean data showed that immediately…

  5. An airborne multispectral imaging system based on two consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One came...

  6. From the notch to a glioma grading system: the neurological contributions of James Watson Kernohan.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Maurer, Adrian J; Archer, Jacob B; Hanel, Ricardo A; Sughrue, Michael E; Theodore, Nicholas; Preul, Mark C

    2014-04-01

    During his lifetime and a career spanning 42 years, James Watson Kernohan made numerous contributions to neuropathology, neurology, and neurosurgery. One of these, the phenomenon of ipsilateral, false localizing signs caused by compression of the contralateral cerebral peduncle against the tentorial edge, has widely become known as "Kernohan's notch" and continues to bear his name. The other is a grading system for gliomas from a neurosurgical viewpoint that continues to be relevant for grading of glial tumors 60 years after its introduction. In this paper, the authors analyze these two major contributions in detail within the context of Kernohan's career and explore how they contributed to the development of neurosurgical procedures. PMID:24684337

  7. Photoneutron logging system for direct uranium ore-grade determination

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, M.P.; Marks, T.

    1982-06-01

    A prototype photoneutron probe for direct uranium assay in exploratory boreholes has been built and field tested. An approx. 10-Ci /sup 124/Sb gamma-ray source together with a beryllium converter is used to produce neutrons that diffuse into the surrounding formation and cause fissions in any /sup 235/U present. The fission neutrons that return to the probe are energy analyzed and counted by a high-pressure helium detector, thus indicating the concentration of uranium. The response of the probe was measured in concrete models at the US Department of Energy (Grand Junction, Colorado) calibration facility and found to be approx. 35 counts/s for an 1% U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ concentration in an 11.4-cm-diam water-filled borehole (4.5 in.). The response is linear up to a concentration of at least 0.25% by weight U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Effects resulting from changes in formation density, porosity, and neutron absorber content were also quantified, as well as the tool response as a function of borehole diameter and fluid. A logging vehicle was outfitted, and the photoneutron-based logging system was field tested at an exploration site near Canon City, Colorado. Logging data obtained in several open holes at this site are presented and compared to core chemical analyses and results obtained in the same holes using other logging methods. In about 1 month of field testing, the photoneutron-based uranium exploration system has proved to be simple to use and very reliable. 22 figures, 12 tables.

  8. Urban Middle-Grade Student Mathematics Achievement Growth under Comprehensive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Mac Iver, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing the need to implement standards-based instructional materials with school-wide coherence led some Philadelphia schools to adopt whole-school reform (WSR) models during the late 1990s. The authors report on the relation between mathematics achievement growth for middle-grade students on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessments and…

  9. [Prostate cancer : Part 2: Review of the various tumor grading systems over the years 1966-2015 and future perspectives of the new grading of the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP)].

    PubMed

    Helpap, B; Bubendorf, L; Kristiansen, G

    2016-02-01

    The continued development of methods in needle biopsies and radical prostatectomy for treatment of prostate cancer has given special emphasis to the question of the prognostic relevance of the various systems of grading. The classical purely histological grading system of Gleason has been modified several times in the past decades and cleared the way for a new grading system by the prognostic grading of Epstein. Assessment of the old and also modified combined histological and cytological grading of Mostofi, the World health Organization (WHO) and the urologic-pathological working group of prostate cancer in connection with the Gleason grading (combined Gleason-Helpap grading), has led to considerably improved rates of concordance between biopsy and radical prostatectomy and to improved estimations of prognosis beside its contribution to the development of a more practicable grading system for clinical use. PMID:26792002

  10. The Fuhrman grading system has no prognostic value in patients with nonsarcomatoid chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Steffens, Sandra; Janssen, Martin; Roos, Frederik C; Becker, Frank; Steinestel, Julie; Abbas, Mahmoud; Steinestel, Konrad; Wegener, Gerd; Siemer, Stefan; Thüroff, Joachim W; Hofmann, Rainer; Stöckle, Michael; Schrader, Mark; Hartmann, Arndt; Hasenfus, Andrea; Kuczyk, Markus A; Junker, Kerstin; Schrader, Andres J

    2014-12-01

    The prognostic value of the Fuhrman nuclear grading system has been questioned for chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) because this subtype frequently displays nuclear and nucleolar pleomorphism. The present study reevaluates this grading system in a series of patients with nonsarcomatoid chRCC. We identified 176 patients (3.6%) with nonsarcomatoid chRCC in a total of 4897 patients who underwent surgery for renal cell carcinoma at 5 centers in Germany between 1990 and 2010. The mean follow-up was 51.1 months. The 3 groups (G1 versus G2 versus G3/4) were comparable in terms of age, sex, tumor diameter, and lymph node metastasis. They only differed significantly in tumor stage (P = .01) and the incidence of synchronous visceral metastasis (P = .04). The 5-year cancer-specific survival rates were 84.4% for G1 (n = 32), 84.3% for G2 (n = 108), and 74.1% for G3/4 tumors (n = 33) (P = .58). Accordingly, multivariate analysis including age, sex, tumor stage, and metastatic disease did not identify Fuhrman grading as an independent predictor of cancer-specific survival in patients with chRCC (P = .4). We were able to demonstrate in a large multicenter cohort that the Fuhrman grading system does not qualify as a prognostic tool in patients with chRCC. PMID:25305793

  11. Grading. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2006-01-01

    What do grades mean? Is there a commonly understood and acceptable definition for what a grade stands? The current grading system is approximately 100 years old. In the 1700s, students were given feedback but not grades. In 1780, Yale University began using a 4.0 system that is similar to the current system. In the 1830s, Harvard University…

  12. Monitoring subsurface microbial and nutrient transport to assess treatment capability of at- grade septic system designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cey, E.; Motz, E.; Chu, A.; Ryan, C.

    2009-05-01

    By design, septic systems release pathogenic microbes, nutrients and other chemical contaminants into the subsurface and have the potential to adversely impact groundwater quality. Newer at-grade septic system designs discharge wastewater effluent on the soil surface, however, relatively little research has been conducted on transport processes and treatment efficacy for these systems. The objective of this study was to investigate physical, biological, and chemical processes beneath two at-grade wastewater treatment systems. Secondary treated effluent from the Fish Creek wastewater treatment plant in Calgary is being applied to soil through the two at-grade systems in volumes equivalent to a three-bedroom household. A dye tracer was also introduced with the effluent to aid in the evaluation of subsurface flow patterns and the identification of soil sampling locations. An extensive vadose zone monitoring system, consisting of suction lysimeters, tensiometers, time domain reflectometry probes, thermistors, and soil vapour probes, was installed to track the effluent through the soil profile. Fecal coliform, total coliform, and E. Coli, as well as other physical and chemical parameters, are being monitored in-situ. Soil samples for microbial and chemical analysis have also been obtained by excavating portions of the infiltration area beneath the two systems. Chemical and dye tracers showed relatively rapid migration of effluent to depths of up to 1.5 m below surface. Preliminary pathogen results indicate an approximately four log reduction in E. Coli concentrations at 10 cm depth and six log reduction at 60 cm depth. Continued monitoring of these pilot systems will provide valuable data on subsurface pathogen migration and the suitability of at-grade systems for treating wastewater and reducing the risk of groundwater contamination.

  13. Implementing Standards-Based Multiple Measures for IASA, Title I Accountability Using TerraNova Multiple Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Younghee

    This paper describes the processes that one school district, the Visalia Unified School District (California), went through in establishing a standards-based assessment and accountability system using multiple methods. First the district's standards-based assessment and accountability system and the methods used to establish it are described, and…

  14. Site-specific tumor grading system in colorectal cancer: multicenter pathologic review of the value of quantifying poorly differentiated clusters.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hideki; Hase, Kazuo; Hashiguchi, Yojiro; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Masafumi; Miyake, Ohki; Masaki, Tadahiko; Shimada, Yoshifumi; Kinugasa, Yusuke; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Kishimoto, Mitsuo; Kameoka, Shingo; Sato, Yu; Matsuda, Keiji; Nakadoi, Koichi; Shinto, Eiji; Nakamura, Takahiro; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2014-02-01

    The study aimed to determine the value of a novel site-specific grading system based on quantifying poorly differentiated clusters (PDC; Grade(PDC)) in colorectal cancer (CRC). A multicenter pathologic review involving 12 institutions was performed on 3243 CRC cases (stage I, 583; II, 1331; III, 1329). Cancer clusters of ≥5 cancer cells and lacking a gland-like structure (PDCs) were counted under a ×20 objective lens in a field containing the maximum clusters. Tumors with <5, 5 to 9, and ≥10 PDCs were classified as grades G1, G2, and G3, respectively. According to Grade(PDC), 1594, 1005, and 644 tumors were classified as G1, G2, and G3 and had 5-year recurrence-free survival rates of 91.6%, 75.4%, and 59.6%, respectively (P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that Grade exerted an influence on prognostic outcome independently of TNM staging; approximately 20% and 46% of stage I and II patients, respectively, were selected by Grade(PDC) as a population whose survival estimate was comparable to or even worse than that of stage III patients. Grade(PDC) surpassed TNM staging in the ability to stratify patients by recurrence-free survival (Akaike information criterion, 2915.6 vs. 2994.0) and had a higher prognostic value than American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) grading (Grade(AJCC)) at all stages. Regarding judgment reproducibility of grading tumors, weighted κ among the 12 institutions was 0.40 for Grade(AJCC) and 0.52 for Grade(PDC). Grade(PDC) has a robust prognostic power and promises to be of sufficient clinical value to merit implementation as a site-specific grading system in CRC. PMID:24418853

  15. A Tool for Auditing Standards-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dianda, Marcella; McKeon, Denise; Kapinus, Barbara

    The National Education Association developed this audit tool for interested affiliates to use to assess standards-based education in their states by gathering and analyzing information about its implementation and to array the information they gather against a set of standards that can help ensure that standards-based education fulfills its…

  16. Symposium: Language Assessment in Standards-Based Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menken, Kate; Hudson, Thom; Leung, Constant

    2014-01-01

    This symposium article, to which three authors contribute distinct parts, presents the rationale for standards-based language assessment and examines both the uses and misuses of language assessments in English-speaking countries that are engaged in standards-based education reform. Specifically, they focus on the assessment of emergent bilinguals…

  17. The Iatrogenic Consequences of Standards-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence A.; Stanley, Gregory Kent

    2006-01-01

    Standards-based assessments were prescribed as the cure for the poor accountability of public schools. Billions of dollars have been spent on curricula, tests, and scoring rubrics so that federal and state agencies can rank schools in terms of student achievement. Over the past twenty years, standards-based education has become the defacto, only…

  18. New resistor voltage grading system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory 25URC tandem accelerator; installation and first experience

    SciTech Connect

    Meigs, M.J.; Haynes, D.L.; Jones, C.M.; Juras, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    On June 27,1994, installation work was completed on a new resistor-based voltage grading system for the Holifield facility tandem accelerator. This new system replaces the original point-plane corona-discharge system which had inherent disadvantages. Perhaps the worst disadvantages of corona-discharge systems are poor gap-to-gap voltage homogeneity and very low grading currents. It is believed that the resistor-based system will reduce or eliminate these disadvantages as well as some others.

  19. The Utility of Curriculum-Based Measurement within a Multitiered Framework: Establishing Cut Scores as Predictors of Student Performance on the Alaska Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between student performance on Reading Curriculum-based Measures (R-CBM) and student performance on the Alaska's standards based assessment (SBA) administered to students in Studied School District (SSD) Grade 3 through Grade 5 students in the Studied School District as required by…

  20. The Utility of Curriculum-Based Measurement within a Multitiered Framework: Establishing Cut Scores as Predictors of Student Performance on the Alaska Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between student performance on Reading Curriculum-based Measures (R-CBM) and student performance on the Alaska's standards based assessment (SBA) administered to students in Studied School District (SSD) Grade 3 through Grade 5 students in the Studied School District as required by…

  1. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    A number of large-scale research projects are currently under way exploring the various components of citizen observatories, e.g. CITI-SENSE (http://www.citi-sense.eu), Citclops (http://citclops.eu), COBWEB (http://cobwebproject.eu), OMNISCIENTIS (http://www.omniscientis.eu), and WeSenseIt (http://www.wesenseit.eu). Common to all projects is the motivation to develop a platform enabling effective participation by citizens in environmental projects, while considering important aspects such as security, privacy, long-term storage and availability, accessibility of raw and processed data and its proper integration into catalogues and international exchange and collaboration systems such as GEOSS or INSPIRE. This paper describes the software architecture implemented for setting up crowdsourcing campaigns using standardized components, interfaces, security features, and distribution capabilities. It illustrates the Citizen Observatory Toolkit, a software suite that allows defining crowdsourcing campaigns, to invite registered and unregistered participants to participate in crowdsourcing campaigns, and to analyze, process, and visualize raw and quality enhanced crowd sourcing data and derived products. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is not a single software product. Instead, it is a framework of components that are built using internationally adopted standards wherever possible (e.g. OGC standards from Sensor Web Enablement, GeoPackage, and Web Mapping and Processing Services, as well as security and metadata/cataloguing standards), defines profiles of those standards where necessary (e.g. SWE O&M profile, SensorML profile), and implements design decisions based on the motivation to maximize interoperability and reusability of all components. The toolkit contains tools to set up, manage and maintain crowdsourcing campaigns, allows building on-demand apps optimized for the specific sampling focus, supports offline and online sampling modes using modern cell phones with built-in sensing technologies, automates the upload of the raw data, and handles conflation services to match quality requirements and analysis challenges. The strict implementation of all components using internationally adopted standards ensures maximal interoperability and reusability of all components. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is currently developed as part of the COBWEB research project. COBWEB is partially funded by the European Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n° 308513; part of the topic ENV.2012.6.5-1 "Developing community based environmental monitoring and information systems using innovative and novel earth observation applications.

  2. A simple and accurate grading system for orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the assessment of post-transplant renal function

    SciTech Connect

    Zaki, S.K.; Bretan, P.N.; Go, R.T.; Rehm, P.K.; Streem, S.B.; Novick, A.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Orthoiodohippurate renal scanning has proved to be a reliable, noninvasive method for the evaluation and followup of renal allograft function. However, a standardized system for grading renal function with this test is not available. We propose a simple grading system to distinguish the different functional phases of hippurate scanning in renal transplant recipients. This grading system was studied in 138 patients who were evaluated 1 week after renal transplantation. There was a significant correlation between the isotope renographic functional grade and clinical correlates of allograft function such as the serum creatinine level (p = 0.0001), blood urea nitrogen level (p = 0.0001), urine output (p = 0.005) and need for hemodialysis (p = 0.007). We recommend this grading system as a simple and accurate method to interpret orthoiodohippurate renal scans in the evaluation and followup of renal allograft recipients.

  3. Proposal of Gleason-like grading system of canine prostate carcinoma in veterinary pathology practice.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Chiara; Grieco, Valeria

    2015-12-01

    Gleason grading - the most useful predictor of prognosis for prostate cancer in men - was updated at a 2005 consensus conference by the International Society of Urological Pathology. Since Gleason-like growth patterns have been recognised in dogs, this study aimed to apply the modified Gleason grading to 45 canine prostate carcinomas. A single primary growth pattern was observed in 28 cases, a secondary pattern in 11 cases and a tertiary pattern in 6 cases. Cribriform, solid and small acinar/ductal were the most common primary, secondary and tertiary morphological patterns, respectively. The highest Gleason score (GS10) was obtained in 46.7% of cases. Nine of 14 metastasizing cases were classified as GS10. Gleason pattern 5 was present in 33 of cases. This study suggests that the modified Gleason grading, based on specific histological growth patterns existing in canine prostate carcinomas, may be accepted as a grading system for histopathology in the practice settings in order to complete the clinical assessment for the best management of the patient. PMID:26679789

  4. Portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fan; Yang, Renfu; Nian, Feng; Zhang, Zhenwei; Cui, Yongshun; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Nuanrang; Feng, Keming

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping is designed and demonstrated. To achieve a portable prototype, in the system, a single transverse mode 795nm VCSEL modulated by a 3.4GHz RF source is used as a pump laser which generates coherent light fields. The pump beams pass through a vapor cell containing atom gas and buffer gas. This vapor cell is surrounded by a magnetic shield and placed inside a solenoid which applies a longitudinal magnetic field to lift the Zeeman energy levels' degeneracy and to separate the resonance signal, which has no first-order magnetic field dependence, from the field-dependent resonances. The electrical control system comprises two control loops. The first one locks the laser wavelength to the minimum of the absorption spectrum; the second one locks the modulation frequency and output standard frequency. Furthermore, we designed the micro physical package and realized the locking of a coherent population trapping atomic frequency standard portable prototype successfully. The short-term frequency stability of the whole system is measured to be 6×10-11 for averaging times of 1s, and reaches 5×10-12 at an averaging time of 1000s.

  5. Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaafar, Hussain F.; Nandi, Asoke K.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

  6. Computational analysis of heat rectification in composition-graded systems: From macro-to-nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlomagno, I.; Cimmelli, V. A.; Jou, D.

    2016-01-01

    The heat rectification coefficient of a composition-graded system of the type AxB1-x, with A and B being theoretical materials, and composition x changing along the length of the system, is considered. By starting from a mathematical model for the thermal conductivity of the material ? in terms of temperature T and composition x, the influence of composition spatial distribution, heat flux, length of the system, and minimum of ?(T , x) on the rectification coefficient is explored. In some circumstances, a reversal in the direction of the rectification is observed for increasing heat flux.

  7. Evaluation of symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis using the GRADE system

    PubMed Central

    Bruyère, Olivier; Burlet, Nansa; Delmas, Pierre D; Rizzoli, René; Cooper, Cyrus; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Background Symptomatic slow-acting drugs (SYSADOA) have been largely studied over the last decade. The objective of this study is to prepare a document providing recommendations for the use of SYSADOA in osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The following interventions were taken into consideration: avocado/soybean unsaponifiables, chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, hyaluronic acid, oral calcitonin, risedronate, strontium ranelate. Recommendations were based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. The GRADE system is based on a sequential assessment of the quality of evidence, followed by assessment of the balance between benefits versus downsides and subsequent judgment about the strength of recommendations. Results Chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid have demonstrated pain reduction and physical function improvement with very low toxicity, with moderate to high quality evidence. Even if pre-clinical data and some preliminary in vivo studies have suggested that oral calcitonin and strontium ranelate could be of potential interest in OA, additional well-designed studies are needed. Conclusion In the benefit/risk ratio, the use of chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid could be of potential interest for the symptomatic management of OA. PMID:19087296

  8. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  9. Road grade quantification based on global positioning system data obtained from real-world vehicle fuel use and emissions measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani Boroujeni, Behdad; Frey, H. Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Real-world vehicle fuel use and emission rates depend on engine load, which is quantified in terms of Vehicle Specific Power (VSP). VSP depends on vehicle speed, acceleration, and road grade. There is not a standard method for measuring road grade from a moving vehicle. A method for quantifying grade is evaluated based on statistical analysis of multiple runs using low cost consumer grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers with in-built Barometric Altimeter (GPS/BA). The average grade precision is ±0.71, ±0.46, and ±0.31 percentage points, for sample sizes of 9, 18, and 36 GPS/BA runs, respectively, among 2213 individual 0.08 km road segments. In addition, 4 sets of repeated measurements were performed on the same routes using a high cost, high accuracy Differential GPS (DGPS). Both sets of GPS-based grade estimates compared well with those derived from LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data. GPS/BA and DGPS grade estimates were similar, except for high magnitude grades of 8-10 percent for which DGPS estimates are more accurate. DGPS is more sensitive to loss of signal; thus, a hybrid approach for substituting GPS/BA data for missing DGPS data at specific locations along a route is demonstrated. The local and overall effects of road grade on fuel use and emission rates are investigated for an example light duty gasoline vehicle.

  10. The prognostic significance of the 2014 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading system for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Samaratunga, Hemamali; Delahunt, Brett; Gianduzzo, Troy; Coughlin, Geoff; Duffy, David; LeFevre, Ian; Johannsen, Shulammite; Egevad, Lars; Yaxley, John

    2015-10-01

    The 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) modified Gleason grading system was further amended in 2014 with the establishment of grade groupings (ISUP grading). This study examined the predictive value of ISUP grading, comparing results with recognised prognostic parameters.Of 3700 men undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) reported at Aquesta Pathology between 2008 and 2013, 2079 also had a positive needle biopsy available for review. We examined the association between needle biopsy 2014 ISUP grade and 2005 modified Gleason score, tumour volume, pathological stage of the subsequent RP tumour, as well as biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS). The median age was 62 (range 32-79 years). Median serum prostate specific antigen was 5.9 (range 0.4-69?ng/mL). For needle biopsies, 280 (13.5%), 1031 (49.6%), 366 (17.6%), 77 (3.7%) and 325 (15.6%) were 2014 ISUP grades 1-5, respectively. Needle biopsy 2014 ISUP grade showed a significant association with RP tumour volume (p?grade >2 to be significantly associated with BRFS.This study provides evidence of the prognostic significance of ISUP grading for thin core needle biopsy of prostate. PMID:26325670

  11. Positional accuracy of the Wide Area Augmentation System in consumer-grade GPS units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Lisa L.; Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2011-07-01

    Global Positioning System devices are increasingly being used for data collection in many fields. Consumer-grade GPS units without differential correction have a published horizontal positional accuracy of approximately 10-15 m (average positional accuracy). An attractive option for differential correction for these GPS units is the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Most consumer-grade GPS units on the market are WAAS capable. According to the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA), the WAAS broadcast message provides integrity information about the GPS signal as well as accuracy improvements, which are reported to improve accuracy to 3-5 m. Limited empirical evidence has been published on the accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS compared to autonomous GPS. An empirical study was conducted comparing the horizontal and vertical accuracy of WAAS-corrected GPS and autonomous GPS under ideal conditions using consumer-grade receivers. Data were collected for 30-min time spans over accurately surveyed control points. Metrics of median, 68th and 95th percentile, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and average positional accuracy in the horizontal and vertical dimensions were computed and statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was found between WAAS and autonomous position fixes when using two different consumer-grade units. When using WAAS, a third unit type exhibited a statistically significant improvement in positional accuracy. Analysis of data collected for a 27-h time span indicates that while WAAS is altering the estimated position of a point compared to an autonomous position estimate, WAAS augmentation actually appears to decrease the positional accuracy.

  12. Experimental research upon accommodating the functional parameters of a laser controlled system designed for a grading machinery with the actual operating conditions of the grading machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Teodor Costinel; Blejan, Marian; Sov?ial?, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    The paper refers to some experimental research activities carried out with a view to accommodate the functional parameters of a laser controlled system with the actual horizontal grading conditions (the slopes in x and y directions of the grading plane are null). Experimental research activities were carried on a device which comprises two electrohydraulic servomechanisms: one mechano-hydraulic servomechanism, which the quota laser sensor is mounted on and simulates the land profile; one electro-hydraulic laser controlled servomechanism, identical with the one on the machinery, which traces the first servomechanism and brings the quota laser sensor back into the optimum reference plane (generated by the rotary laser generator) whenever this one is offset of the laser plane. Experiments were meant to determine: the dynamic of the tracing laser controlled system for various land profiles; the stability and response time of this system; the dynamic of the tracing laser controlled system under simulating external noise comparable with the vibrations generated by the grading machinery.

  13. The Failure of a Decision Support System: Inconsistency in Test Grading by Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of boredom/fatigue on Israeli junior high school teachers' evaluation of students' written compositions. Teachers graded 31 papers, placed in sequential order, which had received a grade of 80 percent from three experts. They graded the papers in one sitting. Scores teachers gave to papers they graded earlier were…

  14. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)63−/4− redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas. PMID:25404325

  15. Grading Meningioma

    PubMed Central

    Okuchi, Sachi; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tsutomu; Yamauchi, Moritaka; Kataoka, Masako; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Jun C.; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Miyamoto, Susumu; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose was to compare capability of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and thallium-201 (Tl)-SPECT for grading meningioma. This retrospective study was conducted as a case-control study under approval by the institutional review board. In the hospital information system, 67 patients (22 men and 45 women) who had both FDG-PET and Tl-SPECT preoperative examinations were found with histopathologic diagnosis of meningioma. The maximum FDG uptake values of the tumors were measured, and they were standardized to the whole body (SUVmax) and normalized as gray matter ratio (SUVRmax). Mean and maximum Tl uptake ratios (TURmean and TURmax, respectively) of the tumors were measured and normalized as ratios to those of the contralateral normal brain. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses of the 4 indexes were conducted for differentiation between low- and high-grade meningiomas, and areas under the curves (AUCs) were compared. Correlation coefficients were calculated between these indexes and Ki-67. Fifty-six meningiomas were classified as grade I (low grade), and 11 were grade II or III (high grade). In all 4 indexes, a significant difference was observed between low- and high-grade meningiomas (P?grades comparable to FDG-PET. PMID:25674763

  16. Hypoactivation of reward motivational system in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension grade I-II.

    PubMed

    Aftanas, L I; Brak, I V; Gilinskaya, O M; Korenek, V V; Pavlov, S V; Reva, N V

    2014-08-01

    In patients with newly diagnosed untreated grade I-II hypertension, EEG oscillations were recorded under conditions activation of the two basic motivational systems, defensive motivational system and positive reinforcement system, evoked by recall of personally meaningful emotional events. The 64-channel EEG and cardiovascular reactivity (beat-by-beat technology) were simultaneously recorded. At rest, hypertensive patients had significantly reduced platelet serotonin concentrations in comparison with healthy individuals. The patients experiencing emotional activation were characterized by significantly lower intensity of positive emotions associated with more pronounced suppression of EEG activity in the delta (2-4 Hz) and theta (ranges of frequency 4-6 and 6-8 Hz) oscillators in the parieto-occipital cortex (zones P and PO) in both hemispheres of the brain. The findings attest to insufficient function of the brain serotonin system and hypoactivation of the reward/reinforcement system in patients with primary hypertension. PMID:25110077

  17. Design and fabrication of W-Mo-Ti-TiAl-Al system functionally graded material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Huaping; Zhang, Lianmeng; Chen, Lidong; Hirai, Toshio; Yuan, Runzhang

    2000-09-01

    To obtain a kind of functionally graded material (FGM) with a density gradient, the W-Mo-Ti-TiAl-Al system graded material was designed, and the powder metallurgy method was chosen for its fabrication. The sintering of W, W-Mo, and Mo-Ti alloys at low temperature was studied, and then the approximately wholly dense W-Mo-Ti-TiAl system FGM was achieved by one-step sintering at 1473 K for 1 hour under a pressure of 30 MPa. It was found that through sintering at 1473 K, mainly the mechanical mixtures of W and Mo were formed in W-Mo alloys. In Mo-Ti alloys, the newly designed Fe-Al sintering aids not only have an important effect on the densification of the alloys, but also contribute to the formation of the (Mo, Ti) solid solution. However, the solid-solution reaction that occurred in Mo-Ti alloys was still insufficient. During the sintering of Ti + TiAl, the chemical reaction of Ti + TiAl ? AlTi2 was induced within the sintered body. The W-Mo-Ti-TiAl-Al system FGM was finally fabricated by joining of the TiAl side of the sintered W-Mo-Ti-TiAl system FGM to metal Al with an Al-based brazing filler metal, and its density changed quasi-continuously within the large range from 17.15 to 2.70 g/cm3.

  18. A Standard-Based Model for Adaptive E-Learning Platform for Mauritian Academic Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaksabee, P.; Odit, M. P.; Ramdoyal, A.

    2011-01-01

    The key aim of this paper is to introduce a standard-based model for adaptive e-learning platform for Mauritian academic institutions and to investigate the conditions and tools required to implement this model. The main forces of the system are that it allows collaborative learning, communication among user, and reduce considerable paper work.…

  19. How Have State Level Standards-Based Tests Related to Norm-Referenced Tests in Alaska?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Ray

    This overview of the Alaska system for test development, scoring, and reporting explored differences and similarities between norm-referenced and standards-based tests. The current Alaska testing program is based on legislation passed in 1997 and 1998, and is designed to meet the requirements of the federal No Child Left Behind Legislation. In…

  20. Building the Foundation for Standards-based Instruction for All Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlock, Linda; Fielder, Kay; Walsh, Dawn

    2001-01-01

    This article links standards-based goals and objectives to district standards using three cornerstones: the development of one belief system, a common understanding of the district's standards, and the development of a working relationship with general education. A district-wide model project of accountability for students with disabilities is…

  1. Standards-Based Reform in the United States: History, Research, and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Yuan, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Although becoming widespread, especially in view of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and without a universally-accepted definition, most discussions of standards-based reforms (SBR) include certain commonalities, including: (1) Academic expectations for students; (2) Alignment of key elements of the educational system to promote attainment of these…

  2. California teachers' perceptions of standards-based reform in middle school science: A mixed-methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, Allison Gail Wilson

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 presented one of the most significant and comprehensive literacy reforms in many years (McDonnell, 2005; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). The era of school accountability and standards based reform has brought many challenges and changes to public schools. Increasingly, public officials and educational administrators are asked to use standards based assessments to make high-stakes decisions, such as whether a student will move on to the next grade level or receive a diploma (American Psychological Association, 2005). It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' perceptions and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement standards-based reform. This mixed-methods study was designed to assess teachers' perceptions of changes related to standards-based reform as supported by Fullan's (2001) change theory and transformational leadership theory. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated standards-based reform and began focusing on preparing students for the California Standards Test in Science (CSTS). Using descriptive statistical analysis and in-depth interviews, results show favorable insight towards standards-based reform. The survey was distributed to 30 middle school science teachers from 10 low-performing schools in Los Angeles, California. Results were analyzed using Spearman rank-ordered correlations. Interviews were conducted on middle school teachers represented by each grade level. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the CSTS as measured in this study. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

  3. The clinical relevance of non-classified dysganglionoses and implications for a new grading system.

    PubMed

    Berger, S; Linke, F; Tiling, S v; Kap-herr, S Hofmann-v

    2002-09-01

    In addition to the classified types of dysganglionosis, certain non-classified dysganglionoses (NCD) (types 1-4) were introduced by Meier-Ruge in 1992. Clinical data on these conditions are limited. Among 134 children with intestinal dysganglionoses (ID) treated from 1979 to 1999, 12 were identified to have a NCD. Their clinical course is presented. The existence of mild ID (type 1) is difficult to demonstrate. Current definitions and data on clinical relevance are not convincing. An indication for surgical treatment is not present. Isolated hypogenesis of the submucous plexus (SMP) (type 2, n = 8) is clinically a more severe kind of intestinal neuronal dysplasia type B and often requires early surgical intervention, but not resection. When associated with aganglionosis, its recognition is important for surgical strategy, to avoid complicated clinical courses, which are frequent if total or nearly-total resection is not performed. Hypogenesis of the myenteric plexus (MP) (type 5, n = 1) has received little attention so far. The sporadic appearance of heterotopic nerve cells of the SMP in the mucosa (type 3, n = 1) is physiologic; clusters of such cells, however, are probably of pathologic value, especially in combination with other types of ID in the same patient. Heterotopic nerve cells of the MP (type 4, n = 3) in the circular and longitudinal muscle layers are highly pathologic. This clearly-defined type is of major clinical relevance and requires complete resection. A severe disturbance of the migration process is the underlying cause. To simplify the terminology of IDs, a grading system based on the anatomic structures and clinical findings is proposed: innervation disturbances of the mucosa (grade I) are of limited clinical significance. Isolated malformations of the SMP (grade II) may require an enterostomy, but do not require resection except in certain cases associated with distal aganglionosis. Dysganglionosis of the MP (grade III) usually exhibits more severe symptoms and resection is indicated, especially with associated hypo- or aganglionosis. In aganglionic bowel (grade IV) resection is mandatory. PMID:12415356

  4. Canonical Nlrp3 inflammasome links systemic low grade inflammation to functional decline in aging

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Yun-Hee; Grant, Ryan W.; McCabe, Laura R.; Albarado, Diana C.; Nguyen, Kim Yen; Ravussin, Anthony; Pistell, Paul; Newman, Susan; Carter, Renee; Laque, Amanda; Münzberg, Heike; Rosen, Clifford J.; Ingram, Donald K.; Salbaum, J. Michael; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a wealth of clinical data showing an association between inflammation and degenerative disorders in elderly, the immune sensors that causally link systemic inflammation to aging remain unclear. Here we detail a mechanism that the Nlrp3 inflammasome controls systemic low grade age-related ‘sterile’ inflammation in both periphery and brain independently of the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome. Ablation of Nlrp3 inflammasome protected mice from age-related increases in the innate immune activation, alterations in CNS transcriptome and astrogliosis. Consistent with the hypothesis that systemic low grade inflammation promotes age-related degenerative changes, the deficient Nlrp3 inflammasome mediated caspase-1 activity improved glycemic control and attenuated bone loss and thymic demise. Notably, IL-1 mediated only Nlrp3 inflammasome dependent improvement in cognitive function and motor performance in aged mice. These studies reveal Nlrp3 inflammasome as an upstream target that controls age-related inflammation and offer innovative therapeutic strategy to lower Nlrp3 activity to delay multiple age-related chronic diseases. PMID:24093676

  5. Video image analysis as a potential grading system for Uruguayan beef carcasses.

    PubMed

    Vote, D J; Bowling, M B; Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Montossi, F; Smith, G C

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted in 2 phases to evaluate the effectiveness of 1) the VIAscan Beef Carcass System (BCSys; hot carcass system) and the CVS BeefCam (chilled carcass system), used independently or in combination, to predict Uruguayan beef carcass fabrication yields; and 2) the CVS BeefCam to segregate Uruguayan beef carcasses into groups that differ in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values of their LM steaks. The results from the meat yield phase of the present study indicated that the prediction of saleable meat yield percentages from Uruguayan beef carcasses by use of the BCSys or CVS BeefCam is similar to, or slightly better than, the use of USDA yield grade calculated to the nearest 0.1 and was much more effective than prediction based on Uruguay National Institute of Meat (INAC) grades. A further improvement in fabrication yield prediction could be obtained by use of a dual-component video image analysis (VIA) system. Whichever method of VIA prediction of fabrication yield is used, a single predicted value of fabrication yield for every carcass removes an impediment to the implementation of a value-based pricing system. Additionally, a VIA method of predicting carcass yield has the advantage over the current INAC classification system in that estimates would be produced by an instrument rather than by packing plant personnel, which would appeal to cattle producers. Results from the tenderness phase of the study indicated that the CVS BeefCam output variable for marbling was not (P > 0.05) able to segregate steer and heifer carcasses into groups that differed in WBSF values. In addition, the results of segregating steer and heifer carcasses according to muscle color output variables indicate that muscle maturity and skeletal maturity were useful for segregating carcasses according to differences in WBSF values of their steaks (P > 0.05). Use of VIA to predict beef carcass fabrication yields could improve accuracy and reduce subjectivity in comparison with use of current INAC grades. Use of VIA to sort carcasses according to muscle color would allow for the marketing of more consistent beef products with respect to tenderness. This would help facilitate the initiation of a value-based marketing system for the Uruguayan beef industry. PMID:19395512

  6. An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu(2+) anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60 °C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat. PMID:24845707

  7. An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seok Woo; Yang, Yuan; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ghasemi, Hadi; Kraemer, Daniel; Chen, Gang; Cui, Yi

    2014-05-01

    Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low figure-of-merit and low-temperature differential. An alternative approach is to explore thermodynamic cycles. Thermogalvanic effect, the dependence of electrode potential on temperature, can construct such cycles. In one cycle, an electrochemical cell is charged at a temperature and then discharged at a different temperature with higher cell voltage, thereby converting heat to electricity. Here we report an electrochemical system using a copper hexacyanoferrate cathode and a Cu/Cu2+ anode to convert heat into electricity. The electrode materials have low polarization, high charge capacity, moderate temperature coefficients and low specific heat. These features lead to a high heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency of 5.7% when cycled between 10 and 60?°C, opening a promising way to utilize low-grade heat.

  8. Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yager, Robert E., Ed

    2005-01-01

    In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude…

  9. Teacher and Administrator Responses to Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since the onset of standards-based reform and its continuation in the form of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and now Race to the Top, debates have continued about whether such policies foster desirable change in states, districts, schools and classrooms. Research Question: The study asks: How do state and district administrators,…

  10. Aligning Transition and Standards-Based Education: Issues and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochhar-Bryant, Carol, Ed.; Bassett, Diane S., Ed.

    Eleven papers address issues in the alignment of standards-based education and individualized transition planning and service development for students with disabilities including differences in assumptions and principles, the transition planning model as a framework for achieving this alignment, and educational practices resulting from this…

  11. Evaluation of a Standards-Based Teacher-Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Sarah M.; Sherman, Sharon J.; Conte, Anthony E.

    2004-01-01

    The faculty and administration of a school of education in the mid-Atlantic region formally adopted a standards-based, conceptual framework that reflects the values articulated by the faculty and the outcomes for students as they prepare for and develop in their professions. Faculty and administrators agreed to use the framework as the basis for…

  12. Secondary Student Motivation Orientations and Standards-Based Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Luanna H.; McClure, John; Walkey, Frank; Weir, Kirsty F.; McKenzie, Lynanne

    2009-01-01

    Background: Individual student characteristics such as competence motivation, achievement values, and goal orientations have been related in meaningful ways to task attainment. The standards-based National Certificate of Educational Achievement (NCEA) was developed in New Zealand with the intention of strengthening connections between student…

  13. The Assumptions and Possible Futures of Standards-Based Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Boyce

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based education is the most important and widely implemented education reform idea of the last several decades in the USA, one supported by the full weight of the mainstream bipartisan educational establishment. Motivated by "global economic competitiveness" as the ideological driver and big business as the empirical driver, it…

  14. Standards-Based Teaching in Culturally Diverse Schools. Viewers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clair, Nancy; Adger, Carolyn Temple

    This videotape and viewer's guide kit is designed for use in a teachers' study group that is part of a comprehensive professional development plan. It encourages teachers to critique and inquire about standards and standards-based teaching in their diverse schools and classrooms. The kit was designed based on a 3-year project in which researchers…

  15. Transportation Systems. Grades 9-10. Course #8126 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide is intended for use in teaching a course in transportation systems. The course, which has been designed for students in grades 9 and 10, is intended to provide a basic understanding of transportation systems and the role of energy systems in transportation. The first two sections discuss the guide's development within the framework of…

  16. The Weaknesses and Shortcomings of the Junior High School in Israel: Some Insights into Grade Configurations of Educational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar; Tubin, Dorit

    2009-01-01

    The current study aimed to explore the weaknesses of the junior high school system in Israel, a country whose first junior high schools (Grades 7-9) were established in the early 1970s and whose educational system differs from the systems of Europe and North America in terms of structure, ideology, and control. Based on semistructured interviews…

  17. Food grade microemulsion systems: canola oil/lecithin:n-propanol/water.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Soleiman; Radi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the capability of a natural surfactant, lecithin, and the influence of ionic strength, pH, and temperature on some properties of a food grade microemulsion system were evaluated. For this purpose, the pseudoternary phase diagrams of canola oil/lecithin:n-propanol/water microemulsions in the presence of different salts (NaCl and CaCl2), ionic strengths, pHs, and temperatures were constructed. Our findings showed that the presence of salts slightly increased the W/O areas on the phase diagrams, whereas pH variation was not effective on the microemulsion formation. The expansion of microemulsion areas with temperature indicated the greater triglycerides solubilization capacity of lecithin based microemulsions at higher temperatures. These findings revealed the efficiency of lecithin-based microemulsion system for solubilization of triglycerides which can potentially be used for extraction of edible vegetable oils particularly canola oil. PMID:26471642

  18. An instrumentation-grade differential capacitive MEMS shear stress sensor system for wind tunnel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meloy, Jessica Caitlin

    This dissertation describes the development of a differential capacitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) shear stress sensor, the associated packaging, and the interface electronics required for operation as an instrumentation-grade sensing system. The sensor is a floating element possessing a differential comb drive designed to meet the spatial and temporal requirements for use as a measurement tool for turbulent boundary layers. The capacitive sensing interface circuitry is an analog synchronous modulation/demodulation system that enables the system to make time-resolved measurements of both mean and dynamic wall shear stress events. The packaging of the sensor creates a hydraulically smooth surface for moderate Reynolds numbers with a small footprint to enable array design and non-intrusive installation. The calibration of the sensor is extended to include a new method in estimating the frequency response function of shear stress sensors and a new test bed to quantify the impact of varying humidity and temperature in the ambient environment. The sensor system is demonstrated in three wind tunnel facilities against a variety of comparative measurement techniques and in many flow conditions. The final system exhibits a sensitivity of 6.5 mV/Pa, a bandwidth of 4.7 kHz, and is the first MEMS-based shear stress system to successfully demonstrate both mean and dynamic measurements in multiple wind tunnel facilities.

  19. The Effects of Systemic Reform on Urban, African American Fifth Grade Students' Attitudes Toward Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinburgh, Molly H.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a National Science Foundation-funded Local Systemic Change grant on fifth grade, urban, African American students' attitudes toward science. Seven schools, representative of the district, were randomly selected to participate in the study. The modified Attitude Toward Science Inventory (mATSI), consisting of five attitudinal scales, was used to measure students' attitudes. Project records, school district records, and focus groups provided school-level data. Analyses of the mATSI data indicated a significant main effect for the program and for school but not for gender. A small overall difference in positive attitudes was seen for fifth grade students who experienced the science reform program compared to those who had not. The most important variable influencing attitudes toward science was the school in which the students were assigned. The seven schools varied greatly in the effectiveness of the science program. School characteristics were examined to try to explain the differences.

  20. Investigation of denitrifying microbial communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs.

    PubMed

    Baker, Beth H; Kröger, Robert; Brooks, John P; Smith, Renotta K; Prince Czarnecki, Joby M

    2015-12-15

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. A major objective of utilizing low-grade weirs as a BMP includes fostering environments suitable for the biogeochemical removal of nitrogen via denitrification. This study examined the spatial resolution of microbial communities involved in denitrification in agricultural drainage systems fitted with low-grade weirs. Appropriate sampling scales of microbial communities were investigated using 16S rRNA and denitrification functional genes nosZ, nirS, and nirK via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. Genes 16S rRNA, nosZ, and nirS were all successfully detected in soil samples, while nirK was below the detection limit throughout the study. Utilizing a combination of three sampling regimes (management, reach, catchment) was found to be effective in capturing microbial community patterns, as ANOVA results revealed nosZ gene abundance was significantly greater at the management rather than reach scale (p = 0.045; F = 3.311), although, no significant differences were observed in 16S rRNA or nirS between sampling scales (p > 0.05). A Pearson correlation matrix confirmed that 16S rRNA and nosZ gene abundances were positively correlated with soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and moisture, while nirS abundance was only positively correlated with soil C and soil moisture. This highlights the potential for wetland-like characteristics to be recovered in agricultural drainage systems, as weir proximity is observed to enhance soil moisture and conditions for N remediation. This study provides the basis for additional investigations of these unique environments in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley and a starting point for adaptive management to enhance agricultural drainage systems for microbial communities towards nutrient remediation goals. PMID:26414296

  1. The LEGS Score: A Proposed Grading System to Direct Treatment of Chronic Lower Extremity Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Spence M.; Kalbaugh, Corey A.; Gray, Bruce H.; Mackrell, Peter J.; Langan, Eugene M.; Cull, David L.; Snyder, Bruce A.; Carsten, Christopher G.; Stanbro, Marcus D.; Youkey, Jerry R.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To prospectively compare the Lower Extremity Grading System (LEGS)-derived “recommended treatment” to the actual treatment performed and to analyze LEGS intergrader scoring consistency by comparing blinded scoring results between physician graders. Summary Background Data Due to technical advances and the increased medical complexity of the aging population, the most appropriate treatment for chronic lower extremity ischemia—open surgery versus endovascular—is again in flux. In an attempt to standardize management, the LEGS score, based on the best available outcomes data, was devised by the physicians of an established vascular service. Methods From March to June 2002, all chronically ischemic lower extremities that met standard indications for revascularization were prospectively enrolled and independently graded with the LEGS score by an “endovascular surgeon” and an “open surgeon” for comparative analysis. The results were then blindly evaluated to determine whether the LEGS-derived “recommended treatment” agreed with the actual treatment rendered and to assess for intergrader consistency. Agreement was assessed using kappa statistical analysis. Results Of the 137 presenting limbs (mean patient age 66.4 yo; 43% claudication, 57% limb-threatening ischemia), 107 were treated (65% endovascular, 30% open surgery, 5% amputation), 16 were pending treatment, and 14 were not treated because of patient refusal (n = 13) or death (n = 1). The LEGS score predicted the actual or offered clinical treatment in 90% of cases. The LEGS score comparison between physician graders resulted in identical “recommended treatment” in 116 of 128 cases for a 90.6% agreement. Conclusions A reproducible scoring system to guide the treatment of patients with chronic lower extremity ischemia is possible. While systems like the LEGS score may have potential clinical application, their use as a treatment standardization tool for future prospective outcomes comparisons between open and endovascular surgery will be essential. PMID:12796577

  2. Grading-System-Dependent Volume Effects for Late Radiation-Induced Rectal Toxicity After Curative Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Laan, Hans Paul van der

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the association between the dose distributions in the rectum and late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC), Late Effects of Normal Tissue SOMA, and Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 3.0 graded rectal toxicity among patients with prostate cancer treated with RT. Methods and Materials: Included in the study were 124 patients who received three-dimensional conformal RT for prostate cancer to a total dose of 70 Gy in 2-Gy fractions. All patients completed questionnaires regarding rectum complaints before RT and during long-term follow-up. Late rectum Grade 2 or worse toxicity, according to RTOG/EORTC, LENT SOMA, and CTCAE v3.0 criteria, was analyzed in relation to rectal dose and volume parameters. Results: Dose-volume thresholds (V40 {>=}65%, V50 {>=}55%, V65 {>=}45%, V70 {>=}20%, and a rectum volume {<=}140 cm{sup 3}), significantly discriminated patients with late Grade 0-1 and Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity, particularly using the LENT SOMA and CTCAE v3.0 systems. The rectum volume receiving {>=}70 Gy (V70) was most predictive for late Grade 2 or worse rectal toxicity with each of the grading systems. The associations were strongest, however, with use of the LENT SOMA system. Conclusions: Volume effects for late radiation-induced rectal toxicity are present, but their clinical significance depends on the grading system used. This should be taken into account in the interpretation of studies reporting on radiation-induced rectal toxicity.

  3. Optical Frequency Standards Based on Neutral Atoms and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Fritz; Helmcke, Juergen

    The current status and prospects of optical frequency standards based on neutral atomic and molecular absorbers are reviewed. Special attention is given to an optical frequency standard based on cold Ca atoms which are interrogated with a pulsed excitation scheme leading to resolved line structures with a quality factor Q > 10^12. The optical frequency was measured by comparison with PTB's primary clock to be ?Ca = 455 986 240 494.13 kHz with a total relative uncertainty of 2.5 x10^-13. After a recent recommendation of the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM), this frequency standard now represents one of the most accurate realizations of the length unit.

  4. Time and frequency standards based on charged particle trapping

    SciTech Connect

    Itano, W.M.; Bergquist, J.C.; Bollinger, J.J.; Hemmati, H.; Wineland, D.J.

    1983-04-01

    Microwave or optical frequency standards based on internal resonance transitions of ions confined in electromagnetic traps have the fundamental advantages of long observation times and small perturbations. These advantages are somewhat offset by low signal to noise ratios. Work at NBS has concentrated on microwave hyperfine transitions of atomic ions stored in Penning-type ion traps. The use of narrowband, tunable light sources for state selection and detection and for reducing the average kinetic energy of the ions (laser cooling) is an important feature of this work. Results to date include the fluorescence detection and cooling to about 50 mK of a single Mg/sup +/ ion and the observation of a 0.012 Hz linewidth on a 300 MHz /sup 25/Mg/sup +/ hyperfine transition. A frequency standard based on /sup 201/Hg/sup +/ ions is under development. Related work, mostly based on RF-type ion traps, is underway at several other labs.

  5. The effects of hyperthermia on normal mesenchymal tissues. Application of a histologic grading system

    SciTech Connect

    Meshorer, A.; Prionas, S.D.; Fajardo, L.F.; Meyer, J.L.; Hahn, G.M.; Martinez, A.A.

    1983-06-01

    The alterations produced by radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia of 42 to 48 degrees C for 30 minutes were studied in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and skeletal muscle of swine. Acute lesions (18 to 24 hours) included edema, hemorrhage, necrosis (predominantly of myocytes) and granulocytic exudate in fat or muscle. The most important chronic lesion (28 to 31 days) was fibrosis replacing either tissue. There was a histiolymphocytic exudate with foreign-body giant cells around large lipid vacuoles. Muscle necrosis persisted and there was variable myocyte regeneration. Several specimens showed deep necrosis and abscesses. A grading system was developed to quantitate independently acute and chronic damage in each tissue. Acute lesions were usually less severe and extensive than chronic ones, without obvious dose response. Chronic lesions showed clearly a dose response, which began at 43 degrees C and increased with temperature. The latter appear to be reliable indicators of hyperthermic damage in deep soft tissues.

  6. TNM staging of foregut (neuro)endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system

    PubMed Central

    Klöppel, G.; Alhman, H.; Caplin, M.; Couvelard, A.; de Herder, W. W.; Erikssson, B.; Falchetti, A.; Falconi, M.; Komminoth, P.; Körner, M.; Lopes, J. M.; McNicol, A-M.; Nilsson, O.; Perren, A.; Scarpa, A.; Scoazec, J-Y.; Wiedenmann, B.

    2006-01-01

    The need for standards in the management of patients with endocrine tumors of the digestive system prompted the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) to organize a first Consensus Conference, which was held in Frascati (Rome) and was based on the recently published ENETS guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of digestive neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Here, we report the tumor–node–metastasis proposal for foregut NETs of the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas that was designed, discussed, and consensually approved at this conference. In addition, we report the proposal for a working formulation for the grading of digestive NETs based on mitotic count and Ki-67 index. This proposal, which needs to be validated, is meant to help clinicians in the stratification, treatment, and follow-up of patients. PMID:16967267

  7. Prevalence of systemic co-morbidities in patients with various grades of diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Pradeep; Tibrewal, Sapna; Bhowmik, Dipankar; Tripathi, Manjari; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Vashist, Naginder; Vohra, Rajpal; Garg, Satpal

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Though diabetes affects multiple organs, most studies highlight the occurence of only one complication in isolation. We conducted a hospital-based study to estimate the co-existence of significant systemic co-morbid conditions in patients with varying grades of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: A total of 170 consecutive patients with diabetic retinopathy were prospectively recruited for the study between June 2009 to June 2010 at a tertiary care eye centre in north India. Retinopathy was graded by fundus biomicroscopy and fundus photography and classified into three categories (mild-moderate nonproliferative retinopathy, proliferative retinopathy requiring only laser and proliferative retinopathy requiring surgery). Nephropathy was classified by calculating the six variable estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for all patients. Nerve conduction studies and clinical assessment were used to determine presence of neuropathy. Co-existence of macrovascular disease and peripheral vascular disease was also ascertained. Results: The percentages of patients with overt nephropathy in the three groups were 19.2, 38.0 and 41.2, respectively. Significant linear trends were observed for serum creatinine (P=0.004), albumin (P=0.017) and eGFR (P=0.030). A higher per cent had abnormal nerve conduction on electrophysiology than that diagnosed clinically (65.4 vs. 44.2, 76.0 vs. 40.0 and 64.8 vs. 48.6, respectively). The odds ratio (95% CI) for co-existence of nephropathy, neuropathy, CVA (cerebrovascular accidents) and PVD (peripheral vascular disease) was 2.9, 0.9, 4.8 and 3.5, respectively. Independent of retinopathy severity, patients with clinically significant macular oedema (CSME) had a higher percentage of nephropathy (P < 0.005). Interpretation & conclusions: The co-existence of overt nephropathy, nerve conduction based neuropathy and macrovascular co-morbidity in patients with early grades of diabetic retinopathy was significant. Screening for overt nephropathy by eGFR should be considered in all patients with clinically significant macular oedema. PMID:25222781

  8. Putting Classroom Grading on the Table: A Reform in Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Keni Brayton

    2011-01-01

    In a standards-based instructional program, what does a course grade convey? What should it convey? What is the role of homework in assigning grades? What is the role of common assessments? This case study examined the responses of two groups of high school teachers during a district wide reform of grading practices. The first was a focus group of…

  9. The Impact of a Standards-Based Mathematics Curriculum on Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Case of Investigations in Number, Data, and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budak, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of a Standards-based elementary mathematics curriculum on third grade students' mathematics performance. A total of 707 students participated in this study. Of this total, 368 students were from eight schools located within the same school district in a racially and ethnically diverse large…

  10. Examining the Validity and Fairness of a State Standards-Based Assessment of English-Language Arts for Deaf or Hard of Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Jonathan; Cline, Frederick; Ling, Guangming; Cook, Linda; Tognatta, Namrata

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the appropriateness of a large-scale state standards-based English-Language Arts (ELA) assessment for students who are deaf or hard of hearing by comparing the internal test structures for these students to students without disabilities. The Grade 4 and 8 ELA assessments were analyzed via a series of parcel-level exploratory…

  11. The Impact of a Standards-Based Mathematics Curriculum on Students' Mathematics Achievement: The Case of Investigations in Number, Data, and Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budak, Ayfer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the impact of a Standards-based elementary mathematics curriculum on third grade students' mathematics performance. A total of 707 students participated in this study. Of this total, 368 students were from eight schools located within the same school district in a racially and ethnically diverse large…

  12. Crack mechanics of functionally graded coating/substrate systems. Final report, 1 February 1995--31 January 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, G.

    1998-01-01

    This 3-year research program focuses on micromechanics and fracture mechanics analyses of cracking in functionally graded coating/substrate systems used in turbine engines and wear-related applications. Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are new advanced composites whose composition varies from place to place according to performance requirements. Recent developments of FGMs have demonstrated that functionally graded materials have the potential to enjoy a wide range of thermal and structural applications including thermal barrier coatings, wear, oxidation and corrosion resistant coatings and metal/ceramic joining. The objectives of the study include: establishing a fundamental understanding of the relationship between coating composition and performance, quantifying the influence of coating gradation, evaluating the effect of metal plasticity and crack bridging, and predicting the fracture driving forces and fracture resistance curves. Emphases in this study is placed on delamination fracture and multiple cracking in FGM coatings. The fundamental understanding gained from this study may enable one to select coatings at the component design stage. The systematic model predictions and design charts for the thermomechanical behavior of the coating/substrate systems may provide guidance to the gradation design of functionally graded coatings. This study thus can have a significant impact on the developments of functionally graded materials in turbine engine and wear related applications.

  13. The Uncomplicated Elementary Career Education System for the "Real" Classroom. Grades K-6 Factivities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield. Div. of Adult Vocational and Technical Education.

    Prepared by classroom teachers for the infusion of career education into existing curriculum, these teacher materials are designed to accompany the "Career Capers" for grades 4-6 (CE 023 598). Monthly distribution to the classroom teacher by an administrator is suggested for these supplemental materials. Factivities for grades K-3 emphasize career…

  14. Friction Spinning—New Innovative Tool Systems For The Production of Complex Functionally Graded Workpieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homberg, Werner; Hornjak, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Friction spinning is a new innovative and promising incremental forming technology implying high potential regarding the manufacturing of complex functionally graded workpieces and enhancing existing forming limits of conventional metal spinning processes. The friction spinning process is based on the integration of thermo-mechanical friction subprocesses in this incremental forming process. By choosing the appropriate process parameters, e.g. axial feed rate or relative motion, the contact conditions between tool and workpiece can be influenced in a defined way and, thus, a required temperature profile can be obtained. Friction spinning allows the extension of forming limits compared to conventional metal spinning in order to produce multifunctional components with locally varying properties and the manufacturing of e.g. complex hollow parts made of tubes, profiles, or sheet metals. In this way, it meets the demands regarding efficiency and the manufacturing of functionally graded lightweight components. There is e.g. the possibility of locally increasing the wall thickness in joining zones and, as a consequence, achieving higher quality of the joint at decreased expense. These products are not or only hardly producible by conventional processes so far. In order to benefit from the advantages and potentials of this new innovative process new tooling systems and concepts are indispensable which fulfill the special requirements of this thermo-mechanical process concerning thermal and tribological loads and which allow simultaneous and defined forming and friction operations. An important goal of the corresponding research work at the Chair of Forming and Machining Technology at the University of Paderborn is the development of tool systems that allow the manufacturing of such complex parts by simple uniaxial or sequential biaxial linear tool paths. In the paper, promising tool systems and geometries as well as results of theoretical and experimental research work (e.g. regarding the influence and interaction of process parameters on the workpiece quality) will be discussed. Furthermore, possibilities regarding the manufacturing of geometries (demonstrator workpieces) which are not or only hardly producible with conventional processes will be presented.

  15. Evaluating the Effects of a Systemic Intervention on First-Grade Teachers' Explicit Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Smolkowski, Keith; Smith, Jean Louise M.; Baker, Scott K.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the efficacy of a multitiered systemic reading intervention for increasing the intensity and quality of explicit literacy instruction that teachers provide in first-grade classrooms. Schools ("j" = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or comparison condition. In both conditions, teachers ("i" = 42)…

  16. The O'Neill grading system for evaluation of the tympanic membrane: A practical approach for clinical hyperbaric patients.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Owen J; Weitzner, Erica D

    2015-01-01

    Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) and middle ear barotrauma (MEB) are the two most common complications of clinical hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatment. The current grading system, the Teed's Classification, was first described in 1944 with modifications to this system over the years, but none are specific for the evaluation and treatment of patients undergoing clinical HBO2 therapy. Currently, the standard of care is a baseline otoscopic examination performed prior to starting HBO2 therapy. Repeat otoscopy is required for patients having ETD, pain or other symptoms during the compression and/or decompression phase of the treatment. Results from these examinations are used to determine the proper course of treatment for the ETD or MEB. The Teed's classification was not intended to correlate with the consistency of diagnosis, the clinical approach to relieving symptoms or the treatment of the inflicted trauma. It is not a practical tool for the modern hyperbaric team. We describe a newer grading system, the O'Neill Grading System (OGS), which allows simple, practical and consistent classification of ETD and MEB by all members of the clinical hyperbaric medicine team. Based on the O'Neill Grade assigned, evidence supported suggestions for appropriate actions and medical interventions are offered. PMID:26152108

  17. Implementation of an Automated Grading System with an Adaptive Learning Component to Affect Student Feedback and Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kevin; Janicki, Thomas; He, Ling; Patterson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on the development and implementation of an adaptive learning and grading system with a goal to increase the effectiveness and quality of feedback to students. By utilizing various concepts from established learning theories, the goal of this research is to improve the quantity, quality, and speed of feedback as it pertains…

  18. Research on curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiangyun

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore the curative effect of traditional Chinese medicine treating low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection. Sixty children who suffered low-grade fever caused by respiratory system infection were selected and divided into treatment group and control group randomly, each with 30 cases. Control group was treated with conventional methods including oxygen uptake, nebulization and anti-infection, etc, while treatment group was given boil-free granules of traditional Chinese medicine besides the treatment which control group received. Then clinical curative effect of two groups was compared. Results showed that 28 cases (93.3%) were cured in treatment group; while 21 cases (70.0%) were cured in control group. Compared with control group, the treatment group showed up better treatment efficiency and the difference between groups was of statistical significance (P<0.05). Comparison of results of two groups suggested that, traditional Chinese medicine granules has satisfactory curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection; characterized by short treatment cycle and effective treatment effect, Chinese medicine granules in the combination with oxygen atomization inhalation is proved to be able to efficiently remit symptoms such as coughing, gasp and labored breathing, with outstanding curative effect in the treatment of low-grade fever of children caused by respiratory system infection, thus it is worthy of popularization and application clinically. PMID:26431646

  19. Implementation of an Automated Grading System with an Adaptive Learning Component to Affect Student Feedback and Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Kevin; Janicki, Thomas; He, Ling; Patterson, Laurie

    2012-01-01

    This research focuses on the development and implementation of an adaptive learning and grading system with a goal to increase the effectiveness and quality of feedback to students. By utilizing various concepts from established learning theories, the goal of this research is to improve the quantity, quality, and speed of feedback as it pertains…

  20. The Consistency between Human Raters and an Automated Essay Scoring System in Grading High School Students' English Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Min-hsiu

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the consistency between human raters and an automated essay scoring system in grading high school students' English compositions. A total of 923 essays from 23 classes of 12 senior high schools in Taiwan (Republic of China) were obtained and scored manually and electronically. The results show that the consistency between…

  1. A Study of the Effects of Two Evaluation/Reward Grading Systems on Cognition Performance in College Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Dillon Lee

    Qualitative and quantitative differences in cognitive performance resulting from two different evaluation and reward grading systems were studied among 88 students enrolled in a one-semester "Biological Concepts" course with content from the field of ecology. Students were randomly divided into the experimental and the control groups. One group…

  2. Outcome Measurement in Postgraduate Year One of Graduates from a Medical School with a Pass/Fail Grading System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosti, Kenneth L.; Jacobs, Charlotte D.

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated the clinical preparedness of 144 Stanford University (California) medical school graduates in 11 areas, comparing it with peers from graded medical schools and rating the accuracy of the dean's letter in representing graduates' capabilities. Results indicate that graduates from Stanford's two-interval, pass/fail system…

  3. A Case Study of Systemic Reform to Improve Ninth Grade Advancement toward Graduation in a Multi-High School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Too many freshmen students remain mired in the ninth grade, presenting a growing problem for America's secondary schools as they struggle to improve high school completion rates. In an effort to stem the tide of high school dropouts, a southeast Texas suburban school district with five comprehensive high schools engaged in a systemic reform effort…

  4. Evaluating Early Childhood Educators: Prekindergarten through Third Grade. Supplement to the "Practical Guide to Designing Comprehensive Educator Evaluation Systems"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martella, Jana; Connors-Tadros, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood educators play a critical role in preparing students for success later in their school experience. The instructional techniques, emotional supports, and assessment approaches for early childhood settings are different from classroom settings in later grades. How can states and districts develop evaluation systems that are tuned to…

  5. Monitoring cerebral venous blood oxygenation in neonates with a medical-grade optoacoustic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Richardson, C. J.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Andrey; Wynne, Karon E.; Westermann, Stephan; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2015-03-01

    Premature, very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; <=1500 g) and low-birth-weight (LBW; 1500-2499 g) infants are at increased risk for severe neurological disability. 25-50% of the 63,000 VLBW infants born annually in the USA have major longterm cognitive or neurobehavioral deficits in which cerebral hypoxia plays an important role. At present, no technology is capable of noninvasive, accurate monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in newborns. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive cerebral hypoxia monitoring by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Recently, we developed and built a medical grade, multi-wavelength, near-infrared optoacoustic system suitable for neonatal applications. We designed and built an adjustable patient interface for neonates with VLBW, LBW, and normal weight (NBW) that provides single or continuous measurements of the SSS blood oxygenation in both the reflection and transmission modes. We performed pilot clinical tests of the system in VLBW, LBW, and NBW hemodynamically stable infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The system was capable of detecting SSS signals through the open anterior and posterior fontanelles and through the skull and allowed for monitoring of the SSS blood oxygenation in both modes. To the best of our knowledge this paper reports for the first time detection of optoacoustic signals from human cerebral blood vessels in both the transmission mode and the reflection mode. Analysis of the signals allows for noninvasive measurement of cerebral venous blood oxygenation in newborns in both modes. The transmission mode can be used for accurate measurement of the total hemoglobin concentration as well. The method and system proposed in this study can be used for optoacoustic human brain imaging, tomography, and mapping.

  6. Development and characterization of food-grade tracers for the global grain tracing and recall system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Armstrong, Paul R; Thomasson, J Alex; Sui, Ruixiu; Casada, Mark; Herrman, Timothy J

    2010-10-27

    Tracing grain from the farm to its final processing destination as it moves through multiple grain-handling systems, storage bins, and bulk carriers presents numerous challenges to existing record-keeping systems. This study examines the suitability of coded caplets to trace grain, in particular, to evaluate methodology to test tracers' ability to withstand the rigors of a commercial grain handling and storage systems as defined by physical properties using measurement technology commonly applied to assess grain hardness and end-use properties. Three types of tracers to dispense into bulk grains for tracing the grain back to its field of origin were developed using three food-grade substances [processed sugar, pregelatinized starch, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC)] as a major component in formulations. Due to a different functionality of formulations, the manufacturing process conditions varied for each tracer type, resulting in unique variations in surface roughness, weight, dimensions, and physical and spectroscopic properties before and after coating. The applied two types of coating [pregelatinized starch and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] using an aqueous coating system containing appropriate plasticizers showed uniform coverage and clear coating. Coating appeared to act as a barrier against moisture penetration, to protect against mechanical damage of the surface of the tracers, and to improve the mechanical strength of tracers. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed the type of tracer, coating material, conditioning time, and a theoretical weight gain significantly influenced the morphological and physical properties of tracers. Optimization of these factors needs to be pursued to produce desirable tracers with consistent quality and performance when they flow with bulk grains throughout the grain marketing channels. PMID:20883029

  7. Low-grade, systemic inflammation in adolescents: association with early-life factors, gender, and lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Pirkola, Jatta; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Bloigu, Aini; Canoy, Dexter; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Leinonen, Maija; Miettola, Satu; Paldanius, Mika; Tammelin, Tuija H; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pouta, Anneli

    2010-01-01

    Low-grade, systemic inflammation is related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adults. The proinflammatory state tracks from adolescence to adulthood. Identifying correlates of inflammation in adolescents could provide opportunities to prevent cardiovascular disease in adulthood. However, population-based data on correlates of inflammation in adolescence are limited. Therefore, the authors studied the associations of early-life factors, gender, and lifestyle with inflammation (measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and leukocyte count) at age 16 years (2001-2002) in the prospective, population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 Study (n = 5,240). In females, being born small for gestational age and current use of oral contraceptives were associated with the proinflammatory state. The association of birth size with inflammation was not observed in males. In logistic regression analyses, oral contraceptive use (odds ratio (OR) = 2.83), abdominal obesity (OR = 5.17), and smoking (OR = 2.72) were associated with elevation of both inflammation markers in females; abdominal obesity (OR = 5.72) and smoking (OR = 2.02) were associated in males. Thus, females appear more susceptible to the adverse effects of being born small for gestational age than males. Given the widespread use of oral contraceptives and the potential pathophysiologic consequences of the proinflammatory state, the association of oral contraceptive use with inflammation in adolescence may have public health implications. PMID:19917553

  8. Integrative Food-Grade Expression System Based on the Lactose Regulon of Lactobacillus casei

    PubMed Central

    Gosalbes, María José; Esteban, Carlos David; Galán, José Luis; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar

    2000-01-01

    The lactose operon from Lactobacillus casei is regulated by very tight glucose repression and substrate induction mechanisms, which made it a tempting candidate system for the expression of foreign genes or metabolic engineering. An integrative vector was constructed, allowing stable gene insertion in the chromosomal lactose operon of L. casei. This vector was based on the nonreplicative plasmid pRV300 and contained two DNA fragments corresponding to the 3? end of lacG and the complete lacF gene. Four unique restriction sites were created, as well as a ribosome binding site that would allow the cloning and expression of new genes between these two fragments. Then, integration of the cloned genes into the lactose operon of L. casei could be achieved via homologous recombination in a process that involved two selection steps, which yielded highly stable food-grade mutants. This procedure has been successfully used for the expression of the E. coli gusA gene and the L. lactis ilvBN genes in L. casei. Following the same expression pattern as that for the lactose genes, ?-glucuronidase activity and diacetyl production were repressed by glucose and induced by lactose. This integrative vector represents a useful tool for strain improvement in L. casei that could be applied to engineering fermentation processes or used for expression of genes for clinical and veterinary uses. PMID:11055930

  9. Effect of a functionally graded soft middle layer on Love waves propagating in layered piezoelectric systems.

    PubMed

    Ben Salah, Issam; Ben Amor, Morched; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi

    2015-08-01

    Numerical examples for wave propagation in a three-layer structure have been investigated for both electrically open and shorted cases. The first order differential equations are solved by both methods ODE and Stiffness matrix. The solutions are used to study the effects of thickness and gradient coefficient of soft middle layer on the phase velocity and on the electromechanical coupling factor. We demonstrate that the electromechanical coupling factor is substantially increased when the equivalent thickness is in the order of the wavelength. The effects of gradient coefficients are plotted for the first mode when electrical and mechanical gradient variations are applied separately and altogether. The obtained deviations in comparison with the ungraded homogenous film are plotted with respect to the dimensionless wavenumber. The impact related to the gradient coefficient of the soft middle layer, on the mechanical displacement and the Poynting vector, is carried out. The numericals results are illustrated by a set of appropriate curves related to various profiles. The obtained results set guidelines not only for the design of high-performance surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, but also for the measurement of material properties in a functionally graded piezoelectric layered system using Love waves. PMID:25964239

  10. A food-grade system for inducible gene expression in Lactobacillus plantarum using an alanine racemase-encoding selection marker.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tien-Thanh; Mathiesen, Geir; Fredriksen, Lasse; Kittl, Roman; Nguyen, Thu-Ha; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens K

    2011-05-25

    Food-grade gene expression systems for lactic acid bacteria are useful for applications in the food industry. We describe a new food-grade host/vector system for Lactobacillus plantarum based on pSIP expression vectors and the use of the homologous alanine racemase gene (alr) as selection marker. A new series of expression vectors were constructed by exchanging the erythromycin resistance gene (erm) in pSIP vectors by the L. plantarum WCFS1 alr gene. The vectors were applied for the overexpression of ?-galactosidase genes from L. reuteri L103 and L. plantarum WCFS1 in an alr deletion mutant of L. plantarum WCFS1. The expression levels obtained in this way, i.e. without the use of antibiotics, were comparable to the levels obtained with the conventional system based on selection for erythromycin resistance. The new system is suitable for the production of ingredients and additives for the food industry. PMID:21504147

  11. A Study of Present Practices and Attitudes Concerning the Letter Grading System of Secondary School Language Arts Teachers and Administrators of Oahu, Hawaii.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Dorothy Loretta

    The attitudes and opinions of secondary school language arts teachers and administrators on the island of Oahu were surveyed regarding the traditional letter grading system and their uses of it. By administering a questionnaire on the letter grade system and computing the responses, data were obtained on educator attitudes toward the definition…

  12. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Cuadros de Familia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parvis-Condon, Katia; Kleinman, Donna; Brown, Joseph; Roa, Angela

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). In the summer of 1996, the Center offered the Culture and Children's…

  13. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Le Geant de Zeralda"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keoseian, Therese; Ladd, Richard; Moakley, Rosanna; Pierce, Constance

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  14. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Le Geant de Zeralda"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keoseian, Therese; Ladd, Richard; Moakley, Rosanna; Pierce, Constance

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  15. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Cuadros de Familia"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parvis-Condon, Katia; Kleinman, Donna; Brown, Joseph; Roa, Angela

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). In the summer of 1996, the Center offered the Culture and Children's…

  16. Music--A Resource Guide for Standards-Based Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany.

    This guide is designed to provide guidance to New York state school districts and teachers to help students achieve the music standards. Teachers throughout New York state met to compile these field-tested lesson plans, teaching strategies, assessments, and resources for teachers of students in pre-kindergarten through grade 12, in all areas of…

  17. Treatment delivery software for a new clinical grade ultrasound system for thermoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Novák, Petr; Moros, Eduardo G; Straube, William L; Myerson, Robert J

    2005-11-01

    A detailed description of a clinical grade Scanning Ultrasound Reflector Linear Array System (SURLAS) applicator was given in a previous paper [Med. Phys. 32, 230-240 (2005)]. In this paper we concentrate on the design, development, and testing of the personal computer (PC) based treatment delivery software that runs the therapy system. The SURLAS requires the coordinated interaction between the therapy applicator and several peripheral devices for its proper and safe operation. One of the most important tasks was the coordination of the input power sequences for the elements of two parallel opposed ultrasound arrays (eight 1.5 cm x 2 cm elements/array, array 1 and 2 operate at 1.9 and 4.9 MHz, respectively) in coordination with the position of a dual-face scanning acoustic reflector. To achieve this, the treatment delivery software can divide the applicator's treatment window in up to 64 sectors (minimum size of 2 cm x 2 cm), and control the power to each sector independently by adjusting the power output levels from the channels of a 16-channel radio-frequency generator. The software coordinates the generator outputs with the position of the reflector as it scans back and forth between the arrays. Individual sector control and dual frequency operation allows the SURLAS to adjust power deposition in three dimensions to superficial targets coupled to its treatment window. The treatment delivery software also monitors and logs several parameters such as temperatures acquired using a 16-channel thermocouple thermometry unit. Safety (in particular to patients) was the paramount concern and design criterion. Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) was applied to the applicator as well as to the entire therapy system in order to identify safety issues and rank their relative importance. This analysis led to the implementation of several safety mechanisms and a software structure where each device communicates with the controlling PC independently of the others. In case of a malfunction in any part of the system or a violation of a user-defined safety criterion based on temperature readings, the software terminates treatment immediately and the user is notified. The software development process consisting of problem analysis, design, implementation, and testing is presented in this paper. Once the software was finished and integrated with the hardware, the therapy system was extensively tested. Results demonstrated that the software operates the SURLAS as intended with minimum risk to future patients. PMID:16372408

  18. A Standards-based Semantic Metadata Repository to Support EHR-driven Phenotype Authoring and Execution.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoqian; Solbrig, Harold R; Kiefer, Richard; Rasmussen, Luke V; Mo, Huan; Speltz, Peter; Thompson, William K; Denny, Joshua C; Chute, Christopher G; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2015-01-01

    This study describes our efforts in developing a standards-based semantic metadata repository for supporting electronic health record (EHR)-driven phenotype authoring and execution. Our system comprises three layers: 1) a semantic data element repository layer; 2) a semantic services layer; and 3) a phenotype application layer. In a prototype implementation, we developed the repository and services through integrating the data elements from both Quality Data Model (QDM) and HL7 Fast Healthcare Inteoroperability Resources (FHIR) models. We discuss the modeling challenges and the potential of our system to support EHR phenotype authoring and execution applications. PMID:26262397

  19. Quasi-isentropic compression using functionally graded materials in gas gun and explosive driven systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Aditi; Menon, S. V. G.

    2009-03-01

    Results of hydrodynamic simulations of dynamic compression experiments performed by impact loading of materials are reported. The simulations pertain to a new approach for generating quasi-isentropic compression using functionally graded materials (FGM). First of all, we focus on quasi-isentropic compression waves generated by a constant velocity impactor (similar to that from a gas gun). Quasi-isentropic compression is characterized from the temporal profiles of pressure at target surface and fluid velocity at target-window interface generated from different functional forms of density variation along the FGM flyer. It is shown that quadratic FGM is the best option for increasing rise time of pressure pulse. Secondly, FGM induced quasi-isentropic compressions are studied by accelerating the impactor with high explosive (HE) driven shocks in both the cases when impactor is in contact with the target (contact geometry) and separated from target by air gap (flyer geometry). The study reveals that nearly isentropic pressure profiles can be realized with quadratic FGM impactor in flyer geometry. Contact geometry produces a distinct initial pressure jump which is undesirable for isentropic compression. Finally, quasi-isentropic compressions are observed for spherically symmetric FGM flyers driven by HE. Here also it is seen that quadratic FGM impactor serves better in improving the peak impact velocity at shell target. Thus, based on the study, we conclude that quadratic FGM is the right choice for generating quasi-isentropic compression. The parameters of the FGM impactors, optimized using a genetic algorithm code, are also presented for both planar and spherical systems.

  20. Free vibration analysis of a rotating hub-functionally graded material beam system with the dynamic stiffening effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Zhang, D. G.; Zhu, W. D.

    2014-02-01

    A comprehensive dynamic model of a rotating hub-functionally graded material (FGM) beam system is developed based on a rigid-flexible coupled dynamics theory to study its free vibration characteristics. The rigid-flexible coupled dynamic equations of the system are derived using the method of assumed modes and Lagrange's equations of the second kind. The dynamic stiffening effect of the rotating hub-FGM beam system is captured by a second-order coupling term that represents longitudinal shrinking of the beam caused by the transverse displacement. The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system with the chordwise bending and stretching (B-S) coupling effect are calculated and compared with those with the coupling effect neglected. When the B-S coupling effect is included, interesting frequency veering and mode shift phenomena are observed. A two-mode model is introduced to accurately predict the most obvious frequency veering behavior between two adjacent modes associated with a chordwise bending and a stretching mode. The critical veering angular velocities of the FGM beam that are analytically determined from the two-mode model are in excellent agreement with those from the comprehensive dynamic model. The effects of material inhomogeneity and graded properties of FGM beams on their dynamic characteristics are investigated. The comprehensive dynamic model developed here can be used in graded material design of FGM beams for achieving specified dynamic characteristics.

  1. Construction of a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering the endogenous toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sen; Kang, Zhen; Cao, Wenlong; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2016-02-10

    Bacillus subtilis as an important workhorse that has been widely used to produce enzymes and metabolites. To broaden its applications, especially in the food and feed industry, we constructed a novel, stable, food-grade expression system by engineering its type II toxin-antitoxin system. The expression of the toxin EndoA, encoded by the chromosomal ydcE gene, was regulated by an endogenous, xylose-inducible promoter, while the ydcD gene, which encodes the unstable antitoxin EndoB, was inserted into a food-grade vector backbone, where its expression was driven by the native, constitutive promoter PylxM. By maintaining the xylose concentration above 2.0gL(-1), this auto-regulated expression system was absolutely stable after 100 generations. Compared with traditional antibiotic-dependent expression systems, this novel expression system resulted in greater biomass and higher titers of desired products (enzymes or metabolites). Our results demonstrate that this stable, food-grade expression system is suitable for enzyme production and pathway engineering, especially for the production of food-grade enzymes and metabolites. PMID:26721182

  2. Mainstreaming Special Education Using a Peer Tutoring System and a Minimum Objective Curriculum for Nine Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Joseph F.; Calevro, Michael J.

    A peer tutoring system was used to improve the math skills of nine eighth grade students in a mainstreaming program. Ss (whose math skill deficits ranged from 3.8 to 6.6 years) met daily with peer tutors for one half hour of instruction from the Sullivan Associates Programmed Math series. Achievement rates after 3 months ranged from 4.8 months per…

  3. Energy Systems - Present, Future: Extra Terrestrials, Grades 7, 8, 9,/Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

    The 12 lessons presented in this guide are structured so that they may be integrated into science lessons in 7th-, 8th-, or 9th-grades. Suggestions are made for extension of study. Lessons are approached through classroom role-playing of outer space visitors who seek to understand energy conversion principles used on Earth. Major emphasis is…

  4. The Objective-Referenced Testing Component of the Delaware Educational Accountability System., Grade Four-Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Janet

    In September 1977 a reading and language arts test, based upon 40 objectives slated for student accomplishment by the end of grade four, was administered to all Delaware fourth graders. This test, the Objective-Referenced Measure in Communications, was intended to provide entry level diagnostic information to classroom teachers and to inform…

  5. When the Bookkeeping System Takes Over: The Effects of Grading Compositions on Student Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Eileen Nause

    Communications to college students about the value of their composition are better expressed in words than in letter grades. Research by Sweet and Seidman suggests that free-style, positive comment on student papers produces a markedly improved attitude toward writing. The author's own research reveals that in the presence of positive, free…

  6. Application of the Navy Average Grade Model to the Naval Underwater Systems Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannis, Laurence S.

    Forecasts for manpower requirements by NUSC for fiscal years 1973 and 1974 were made using a linear regression model of the goal programming variety. An application of one of the Charnes, Cooper, Niehaus career management models for manpower planning was then made to evaluate the consequences of the policy reducing average GS grade to 9.35 while…

  7. Investigation of denitrifying microbe communities within an agricultural drainage system fitted with low-grade weirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhancing wetland characteristics in agricultural drainage ditches with the use of low-grade weirs, has been identified as a potential best management practice (BMP) to mitigate nutrient runoff from agriculture landscapes. This study examined microbe community abundance and diversity involved in den...

  8. Development of a cost-effective machine vision system for in-field sorting and grading of apples: Fruit orientation and size estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop an in-field apple presorting and grading system to separate undersized and defective fruit from fresh market-grade apples. To achieve this goal, a cost-effective machine vision inspection prototype was built, which consisted of a low-cost color camera, L...

  9. Query Health: standards-based, cross-platform population health surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Klann, Jeffrey G; Buck, Michael D; Brown, Jeffrey; Hadley, Marc; Elmore, Richard; Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N

    2014-01-01

    Objective Understanding population-level health trends is essential to effectively monitor and improve public health. The Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) Query Health initiative is a collaboration to develop a national architecture for distributed, population-level health queries across diverse clinical systems with disparate data models. Here we review Query Health activities, including a standards-based methodology, an open-source reference implementation, and three pilot projects. Materials and methods Query Health defined a standards-based approach for distributed population health queries, using an ontology based on the Quality Data Model and Consolidated Clinical Document Architecture, Health Quality Measures Format (HQMF) as the query language, the Query Envelope as the secure transport layer, and the Quality Reporting Document Architecture as the result language. Results We implemented this approach using Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) and hQuery for data analytics and PopMedNet for access control, secure query distribution, and response. We deployed the reference implementation at three pilot sites: two public health departments (New York City and Massachusetts) and one pilot designed to support Food and Drug Administration post-market safety surveillance activities. The pilots were successful, although improved cross-platform data normalization is needed. Discussions This initiative resulted in a standards-based methodology for population health queries, a reference implementation, and revision of the HQMF standard. It also informed future directions regarding interoperability and data access for ONC's Data Access Framework initiative. Conclusions Query Health was a test of the learning health system that supplied a functional methodology and reference implementation for distributed population health queries that has been validated at three sites. PMID:24699371

  10. Instituting a Standards-Based K--12 Science Curriculum Supplement Program at the National Institutes of Health: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherly, Jeffre

    2010-01-01

    Research on student achievement indicates the U.S. K-12 education system is not adequately preparing American students to compete in the 21st century global economy in the areas of science and mathematics. Congress has asked the scientific entities of the federal government to help increase K-12 science learning by creating standards-based…

  11. Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

  12. Implementing Standards-Based Multiple Measures for IASA, Title I Accountability Using Sacramento Achievement Levels Test (SALT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Nancy

    Under the Improving America's Schools Act (IASA), Title I programs are evaluated using standards-based multiple measures. In California, school systems would like to use state standards for the evaluation, but state performance standards are still under development and content standards are very new. The Sacramento City Schools (California) has…

  13. Field Test of the Weighted Airman Promotion System. Phase II. Validation of the System for Grades E-4 through E-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koplyay, Janos B.

    A weighted factors promotion system was field tested and validated using data from the FY 69-B promotion cycle of the Alaskan Air Command. The final sample included 2,290 promotion-eligible airmen in grades E-3 through E-6. The weighted factors composite score, excluding a promotion board component, gave airmen the same relative rank within…

  14. Solid Variant of Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Breast: A Case Series With Proposal of a New Grading System.

    PubMed

    Foschini, Maria P; Rizzo, Antonio; De Leo, Antonio; Laurino, Licia; Sironi, Maria; Rucco, Vittorio

    2016-04-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the breast is a low-grade malignancy "triple negative" breast tumor. ACC of the breast can present a great variety of morphological features having a prognostic impact. Recently, cases of ACC having solid-basaloid features (SBACC) have been described. In the present study, 6 cases of SBACC have been reported. All the cases affected female patients aged 47 to 69 years (mean = 54 years). Two patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes, and 2 patients experienced local recurrences. No deaths due to the tumor were observed. A review of the literature on breast SBACC showed that local recurrences and lymph node metastases are more frequent than in the ACC conventional type; nevertheless, no deaths due to the tumor are registered at the moment. On the contrary, cases of ACC with features of malignant transformation are on record. Therefore, a new grading system on breast ACC is proposed. PMID:26378056

  15. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  16. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  17. Reproducibility and Prognostic Value of WHO1973 and WHO2004 Grading Systems in TaT1 Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mangrud, Ok Målfrid; Waalen, Rune; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Dalen, Ingvild; Tasdemir, Ilker; Janssen, Emiel A. M.; Baak, Jan P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background European treatment guidelines of TaT1 urinary bladder urothelial carcinomas depend highly on stage and WHO1973-grade but grading reproducibility is wanting. The newer WHO2004 grading system is still debated and both systems are currently used. Aims To compare reproducibility and prognostic value (of stage progression) of the WHO1973 and WHO2004. Methods One hundred and ninety-three primary urothelial carcinomas were reviewed. Follow-up data were retrieved from the patient records. Kappa statistics and Harrell's C-index were used. Results Median follow-up was 75 months (range 1–127). 17 patients (9%) progressed, 82% of these within and 18% after 60 months. The distribution of WHO73-grades 1, 2 and 3 was 23%, 51% and 26%, interobserver agreement for each individual grade was 66% (kappa?=?0.68), while for grades 1&2 versus 3 89% (kappa?=?0.68). Intraobserver reproducibility was 68–63% for WHO73 and 88–89% for WHO73 as 1&2 vs.3. Progression free survival rates at 5 years were 95% (grade 1), 98% (grade 2) and 82% (grade 3) and 96% and 82% for grades 1&2 versus 3 (Hazard Ratio, HR, 5.4, p?=?0.003). Using WHO2004, 62% were low grade and 38% high grade, inter-observer agreement 87% (kappa?=?0.70), intraobserver reproducibility 93%, and progression free 5-year survival rates 97% and 85% (HR 6.6, p?=?0.004). Positive and negative predictive values for stage progression within 5 years for the WHO73 (1&2 vs. 3) were 18% and 96%, and 15% and 97% for the WHO04. Using Harrell's C-index, none of the grading systems was prognostically superior. Conclusion None of the grading systems is prognostically stronger than the others. Most importantly, inter-observer reproducibility and sensitivities for stage progression of both systems are low and need improvement for optimal treatment. PMID:24409280

  18. Methods of electrophoretic deposition for functionally graded porous nanostructures and systems thereof

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Joe H; Olson, Tammy Y; Kuntz, Joshua D; Rose, Klint A

    2015-03-03

    In one embodiment, an aerogel includes a layer of shaped particles having a particle packing density gradient in a thickness direction of the layer, wherein the shaped particles are characterized by being formed in an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) process using an impurity. In another embodiment, a method for forming a functionally graded porous nanostructure includes adding particles of an impurity and a solution to an EPD chamber, applying a voltage difference across the two electrodes of the EPD chamber to create an electric field in the EPD chamber, and depositing the material onto surfaces of the particles of the impurity to form shaped particles of the material. Other functionally graded materials and methods are described according to more embodiments.

  19. Earth Science for Educators: Preparing 7-12 Teachers for Standards-based, Inquiry Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, H.

    2002-05-01

    "Earth Science for Educators" is an innovative, standards-based, graduate level teacher education curriculum that presents science content and pedagogic technique in parallel. The curriculum calls upon the resources and expertise of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) to prepare novice New York City teachers for teaching Earth Science. One of the goals of teacher education is to assure and facilitate science education reform through preparation of K-12 teachers who understand and are able to implement standard-based instruction. Standards reflect not only the content knowledge students are expected to attain but also the science skills and dispositions towards science they are expected to develop. Melding a list of standards with a curriculum outline to create inquiry-based classroom instruction that reaches a very diverse population of learners is extremely challenging. "Earth Science for Educators" helps novice teachers make the link between standards and practice by constantly connecting standards with instruction they receive and activities they carry out. Development of critical thinking and enthusiasm for inquiry is encouraged through engaging experience and contact with scientists and their work. Teachers are taught Earth systems science content through modeling of a wide variety of instruction and assessment methods based upon authentic scientific inquiry and aimed at different learning styles. Use of fieldwork and informal settings, such as the Museum, familiarizes novice teachers with ways of drawing on community resources for content and instructional settings. Metacognitive reflection that articulates standards, practice, and the teachers' own learning experience help draw out teachers' insights into their students' learning. The innovation of bring science content together with teaching methods is key to preparing teachers for standards-based, inquiry instruction. This curriculum was successfully piloted with a group of 28 novice teachers as part of the AMNH-City University of New York partnership and the CUNY Teaching Opportunity Program Scholarship. Reactions and feedback from program coordinators and teachers have been extremely positive during the year and a half since its implementation.

  20. Standard-based integration profiles for clinical research and patient safety.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Christel; Erturkmen, Gokce Banu Laleci; Sinaci, Ali Anil; Delaney, Brendan C; Curcin, Vasa; Bain, Landen

    2013-01-01

    EHRs can now be adapted to integrate seamlessly with existing research platforms. However, key challenges need to be overcome in order to provide a platform that functions across many EHR systems. The IHE Quality, Research and Public Health (QRPH) domain addresses the information exchange standards necessary to share information relevant to quality improvement in patient care and clinical research. In collaboration with CDISC's Healthcare Link initiative, IHE QRPH has developed a set of integration profiles that specifically address EHR-enabled research. The panel participants from three European projects will present how subsets of existing IHE QRPH profiles can be pulled together (and extended when necessary) to form a super profile which will standardize and automate the clinical trial process flow. The EHR4CR project is providing adaptable, reusable and scalable tools and services for reusing data from hospital EHRs for Clinical Research. TRANSFoRm is developing an informatics infrastructure to support the learning healthcare system in European Primary Care. SALUS project is providing scalable, standard based interoperability framework for sustainable proactive post market safety studies. Overall, the panel will discuss the key steps towards realizing a joint EHR4CR/TRANSFoRm/SALUS European projectathon demonstrating EHR-enabled clinical research across Europe using standard-based integration and content profiles. PMID:24303234

  1. Standard-based integration profiles for clinical research and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Christel; Erturkmen, Gokce Banu Laleci; Sinaci, Ali Anil; Delaney, Brendan C; Curcin, Vasa; Bain, Landen

    EHRs can now be adapted to integrate seamlessly with existing research platforms. However, key challenges need to be overcome in order to provide a platform that functions across many EHR systems. The IHE Quality, Research and Public Health (QRPH) domain addresses the information exchange standards necessary to share information relevant to quality improvement in patient care and clinical research. In collaboration with CDISC’s Healthcare Link initiative, IHE QRPH has developed a set of integration profiles that specifically address EHR-enabled research. The panel participants from three European projects will present how subsets of existing IHE QRPH profiles can be pulled together (and extended when necessary) to form a super profile which will standardize and automate the clinical trial process flow. The EHR4CR project is providing adaptable, reusable and scalable tools and services for reusing data from hospital EHRs for Clinical Research. TRANSFoRm is developing an informatics infrastructure to support the learning healthcare system in European Primary Care. SALUS project is providing scalable, standard based interoperability framework for sustainable proactive post market safety studies. Overall, the panel will discuss the key steps towards realizing a joint EHR4CR/TRANSFoRm/SALUS European projectathon demonstrating EHR-enabled clinical research across Europe using standard-based integration and content profiles. PMID:24303234

  2. Utilization of the graded universal testing system to increase the efficiency for assessing aerobic and anaerobic capacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, Sandra L.

    1992-01-01

    The in-flight exercise test performed by cosmonauts as part of the Russian Exercise Countermeasure Program is limited to 5 minutes due to communication restrictions. During a recent graded exercise test on a U.S. Shuttle flight, the test was terminated early due to an upcoming loss of signal (LOS) with the ground. This exercise test was a traditional test where the subject's exercise capacity dictates the length of the test. For example, one crew member may take 15 minutes to complete the test, while another may take 18 minutes. The traditional exercise test limits the flight schedulers to large blocks of space flight time in order to provide medical and research personnel information on the fitness capacity (maximal oxygen uptake: VO2max) of crew members during flight. A graded exercise test that would take a finite amount of time and a set preparation and recovery time would ease this problem by allowing flight schedulers to plan exercise tests in advance of LOS. The Graded Universal Testing System (GUTS) was designed to meet this goal. Fitness testing of astronauts before and after flight provides pertinent data on many variables. The Detailed Supplemental Objective (DSO608) protocol (6) is one of the graded exercise tests (GXT) currently used in astronaut testing before and after flight. Test times for this protocol have lasted from 11 to 18 minutes. Anaerobic capacity is an important variable that is currently not being evaluated before and after flight. Recent reports (1,2,5) from the literature have suggested that the oxygen deficit at supramaximal exercise is a measure of anaerobic capacity. We postulated that the oxygen deficit at maximal exercise would be an indication of anaerobic capacity. If this postulate can be accepted, then the efficiency of acquiring data from a graded exercise test would increase at least twofold. To examine this hypothesis anaerobic capacity was measured using a modified treadmill test (3,4) designed to exhaust the anaerobic systems in approximately 45 to 75 seconds. Lactate concentration in the blood was analyzed after all tests, since lactate is the end-product of anaerobic energy production. Therefore, the peak lactate response is an additional indication of anaerobic capacity. A preliminary comparison of the GUTS and the DSO608 suggests that the GUTS protocol would increase the efficiency of VO2max testing of astronauts before and after flight. Results for anaerobic capacity have not been tabulated.

  3. The Grades Transfer from One Grading Scale to Other Algorithmization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieponiene, Jurgita; Kulvietiene, Regina

    2011-01-01

    The article presents the consideration of grading scales used for education outcomes in different countries, describes likeness and differences of applied grading scales. Application of the European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) grading scale is investigated according of the analysis of scientific literature as well as cases of…

  4. Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Hildegard R.

    1976-01-01

    It is hypothesized that the average level of undergraduate grades has been increasing due to a change in grading practices rather than other fundamental factors. Printed sources were searched for the various reasons that have been cited and possible solutions are offered. (LBH)

  5. STRIDE--An integrated standards-based translational research informatics platform.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Henry J; Ferris, Todd A; Hernandez, Penni M; Weber, Susan C

    2009-01-01

    STRIDE (Stanford Translational Research Integrated Database Environment) is a research and development project at Stanford University to create a standards-based informatics platform supporting clinical and translational research. STRIDE consists of three integrated components: a clinical data warehouse, based on the HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM), containing clinical information on over 1.3 million pediatric and adult patients cared for at Stanford University Medical Center since 1995; an application development framework for building research data management applications on the STRIDE platform and a biospecimen data management system. STRIDE's semantic model uses standardized terminologies, such as SNOMED, RxNorm, ICD and CPT, to represent important biomedical concepts and their relationships. The system is in daily use at Stanford and is an important component of Stanford University's CTSA (Clinical and Translational Science Award) Informatics Program. PMID:20351886

  6. Student achievement outcomes in a scaling urban standards-based science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Robert R.

    This work examines the effects on achievement of a multifaceted reform supporting standards based science teaching in urban middle schools. Several project-based inquiry science curriculum units were introduced to the Detroit public schools, supported by aligned professional development, learning technologies, and administrative policy. The units scaled to over 20,000 students in 26 schools over 6 years, producing unique large-scale longitudinal achievement data on curriculum reform. Chapters include a review of achievement studies on scaling reforms, an examination of the impact of the inquiry curriculum units on state standardized test results, and an investigation of the effect of scaling and teacher experience on student learning. Two cohorts of 7th and 8th graders that participated in the curricula are compared with the remainder of the district population using state standardized test results. Both the initial (n = 760) and scaled up (n = 1,043) cohorts show higher science content understanding and process skills, and significantly higher pass rates. The effect does not attenuate with scaling, is greater for students who experience an inquiry curriculum in both 7th and 8th grade, and reduces the gender gap in achievement for urban African-American boys. Scaling effects as the curriculum innovation matured over 4--6 years are examined using pretest/posttest assessments for two curricula involving 6,396 and 5,043 students respectively. There is no attenuation in student achievement as the innovation scales and outside support fades. Student achievement shows significant gains in the first two years of curriculum enactment, before reaching a stable plateau. By contrast, individual teachers show yearly improvement in student achievement on average as they gain experience with curricula. The absence of a plateau suggests that stability of teacher staffing and administrative support for reform are important for maintaining and improving achievement. Together, the findings demonstrate that standards-based, inquiry science curriculum embedded in a multifaceted, aligned reform can lead to substantive achievement gains in historically underserved urban students, and that the gains can be sustained when scaled to large populations.

  7. Impact on the clinical outcome of prostate cancer by the 2005 international society of urological pathology modified Gleason grading system.

    PubMed

    Dong, Fei; Wang, Chaofu; Farris, A Brad; Wu, Shulin; Lee, Hang; Olumi, Aria F; McDougal, W Scott; Young, Robert H; Wu, Chin-Lee

    2012-06-01

    The 2005 International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) Consensus Conference modified the Gleason grading system for prostate cancer. In the modified criteria, ill-defined glands with poorly formed lumina and large cribriform glands with smooth borders, classically described as Gleason pattern 3 adenocarcinoma, were redefined as Gleason pattern 4. To evaluate the clinical outcome of patients upgraded by the ISUP criteria, the histologic slides of 1240 consecutive radical prostatectomy specimens at a single institution were reviewed, and each case of adenocarcinoma was graded on the basis of the original and modified Gleason criteria. A total of 806 patients with prostate cancer of classical Gleason score 3+3=6 or 3+4=7 and modified Gleason score 6 to 8 were analyzed with a median overall follow-up of 12.6 years. In the study population, 34% of patients with classical Gleason score 3+3=6 prostate cancer were upgraded to modified Gleason score 7 or 8 by the ISUP criteria. Compared to patients with modified Gleason score 3+3=6 and patients with classical Gleason score 3+4=7, the upgraded patients were at intermediate risk for biochemical progression (paired log-rank P?0.003) and metastasis (paired log-rank P?0.04) after radical prostatectomy. The hazard ratio for upgrading was 1.60 (95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.35, P=0.02) for biochemical recurrence and 5.02 (95% confidence interval, 1.77-14.2, P=0.003) for metastasis. These results validate the prognostic value of the modified Gleason grading system and suggest that the recognition of an intermediate-risk histological pattern may be useful in the prognosis of patients with prostate cancer. PMID:22592143

  8. Preparation, Placement, Proficiency: Improving Middle Grades Math Performance. Policy and Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trish; Haertel, Edward; Kirst, Michael W.; Rosin, Matthew; Perry, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Early in 2010, EdSource released a landmark study on middle grades education in California. "Gaining Ground in the Middle Grades" looked at the critical 6th- to 8th-grade years in the context of standards-based education. The analysis identified a comprehensive set of practices that differentiated higher from lower schoolwide academic achievement…

  9. Qualitatively Different Ways of Differentiating Student Achievement: A Phenomenographic Study of Academics' Conceptions of Grade Descriptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Kelvin H. K.; Prosser, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The term "grade descriptors" has commonly been used to refer to the practice of describing for students characteristic work that would merit different grades. This paper reports the results of a phenomenographic study on the different ways that academic staff understood and practised grade descriptors as forms of standards-based assessment. Four…

  10. A food-grade fimbrial adhesin FaeG expression system in Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei.

    PubMed

    Lu, W W; Wang, T; Wang, Y; Xin, M; Kong, J

    2016-03-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is the major cause of diarrhea in neonatal piglets. The fimbriae as colonizing factor in the pathogenesis of ETEC constitute a primary target for vaccination against ETEC. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are attractive tools to deliver antigens at the mucosal level. With the safety of genetically modified LAB in mind, a food-grade secretion vector (pALRc or pALRb) was constructed with DNA entirely from LAB, including the replicon, promoter, signal peptide, and selection marker alanine racemase gene (alr). To evaluate the feasibility of the system, the nuclease gene (nuc) from Staphylococcus aureus was used as a reporter to be expressed in both Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus casei. Subsequently, the extracellular secretion of the fimbrial adhesin FaeG of ETEC was confirmed by Western blot analysis. These results showed that this food-grade expression system has potential as the delivery vehicle for the safe use of genetically modified LAB for the development of vaccines against ETEC infection. PMID:26825016

  11. Evidence that low-grade systemic inflammation can induce islet dysfunction as measured by impaired calcium handling

    PubMed Central

    Dula, Stacey B.; Jecmenica, Mladen; Wu, Runpei; Jahanshahi, Pooya; Verrilli, Gretchen M.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; Brayman, Kenneth L.; Nunemaker, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In obesity and the early stages of type 2 diabetes (T2D), pro-inflammatory cytokines are mildly elevated in the systemic circulation. This low-grade systemic inflammation exposes pancreatic islets to these circulating cytokines, but at levels ~100–1000x lower than seen within the islet during insulitis, which have not been well described. We examined mouse islets treated overnight with a low-dose cytokine combination commonly associated with inflammation (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IFN-gamma). We then examined islet function primarily using intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), a key component of insulin secretion and cytokine signaling. Cytokine-treated islets demonstrated several features that suggested dysfunction including excess [Ca2+]i in low physiological glucose (3mM), reduced responses to glucose stimulation, and disrupted [Ca2+]i oscillations. Interestingly, islets taken from young db/db mice showed similar disruptions in [Ca2+]i dynamics as cytokine-treated islets. Additional studies of control islets showed that the cytokine-induced elevation in basal [Ca2+]i was due to both greater calcium influx through L-type-calcium-channels and reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium storage. Many of these cytokine-induced disruptions could be reproduced by SERCA blockade. Our data suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation produces circulating cytokine levels that are sufficient to induce beta-cell dysfunction and may play a contributing role in beta-cell failure in early T2D. PMID:20800281

  12. Evidence that low-grade systemic inflammation can induce islet dysfunction as measured by impaired calcium handling.

    PubMed

    Dula, Stacey B; Jecmenica, Mladen; Wu, Runpei; Jahanshahi, Pooya; Verrilli, Gretchen M; Carter, Jeffrey D; Brayman, Kenneth L; Nunemaker, Craig S

    2010-01-01

    In obesity and the early stages of type 2 diabetes (T2D), proinflammatory cytokines are mildly elevated in the systemic circulation. This low-grade systemic inflammation exposes pancreatic islets to these circulating cytokines at much lower levels than seen within the islet during insulitis. These low-dose effects have not been well described. We examined mouse islets treated overnight with a low-dose cytokine combination commonly associated with inflammation (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IFN-gamma). We then examined islet function primarily using intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)), a key component of insulin secretion and cytokine signaling. Cytokine-treated islets demonstrated several features that suggested dysfunction including excess [Ca(2+)](i) in low physiological glucose (3mM), reduced responses to glucose stimulation, and disrupted [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations. Interestingly, islets taken from young db/db mice showed similar disruptions in [Ca(2+)](i) dynamics as cytokine-treated islets. Additional studies of control islets showed that the cytokine-induced elevation in basal [Ca(2+)](i) was due to both greater calcium influx through L-type-calcium-channels and reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium storage. Many of these cytokine-induced disruptions could be reproduced by SERCA blockade. Our data suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation produces circulating cytokine levels that are sufficient to induce beta-cell dysfunction and may play a contributing role in beta-cell failure in early T2D. PMID:20800281

  13. The relationship of physiological maturity and marbling judged according to Korean grading system to meat quality traits of Hanwoo beef females.

    PubMed

    Moon, S S; Yang, H S; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2006-11-01

    Fifty seven carcasses from Hanwoo beef females were randomly selected by official meat graders and were sorted into three levels of maturity and marbling. Carcass data was collected for back fat thickness, longissimus area, carcass weight, meat colour, fat colour, marbling score, yield and quality grades. Mature carcasses had more yellow fat, coarser texture, a larger longissimus muscle area and lower quality grades and marbling scores (P<0.05). Carcasses with a higher marbling score had thicker fat and a higher quality grade. Carcasses with low marbling had a higher yield grade and a coarser texture (P<0.05). Higher marbling scores corresponded with lower cook and drip loss values for longissimus steaks. As the maturity of carcass was increased, the redness and lightness of meat and the yellowness of fat all tended to increase. Tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability scores for the older maturity group were lower than for younger and intermediate groups. Marbling was significantly (P<0.01) correlated with quality grade, crude fat content, cook and drip losses, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. The maturity level was also significantly (P<0.01) correlated with quality grade, fat colour, texture score, number of calves produced and milk teeth, meat redness and yellowness, fat yellowness, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Results indicate that a low marbling group and older maturity group based on Korean grading system could negatively influence carcass traits and beef qualities of Hanwoo beef female. PMID:22063056

  14. How Principals and Teachers Respond to States' Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyemi

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1990s, many states have started implementing standards-based reforms and developed their own accountability systems. Each state established academic content and performance standards, implemented test for all the students in grades 3 through 8 annually, and set up annual measurable objectives in reading and mathematics for districts,…

  15. The Role of System Alignment in Care and Education of Children from Birth to Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.; Yuan, Jing; Hu, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    The emerging concept of system alignment refers to how different systems in care and education of young children can be integrated to work together as a whole system that is more effective, efficient, and equitable to produce excellent outcomes in children. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the existing literature on system…

  16. Grading of Non-Rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcoma in Children and Adolescents: A Comparison of Parameters Used for the FNCLCC and POG systems

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Joseph D.; Coffin, Cheryl M.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Anderson, James R.; Meyer, William H.; Parham, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Two systems for grading soft tissue sarcoma are widely used currently: the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Fédération Nationale des Centers de Lutte Contre le Cancer (FNCLCC) systems. Both were developed using cohorts of predominantly adult patients. The Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) system, based on the NCI system, was adapted for grading pediatric non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcoma (NRSTS). The applicability and prognostic utility of the FNCLCC system in pediatric NRSTS has not been assessed or compared to the POG system. Tumors from 130 patients with malignant NRSTS enrolled on three completed multi-institutional clinical trials were assessed. Of 130 tumors, 102 (78%) were localized and 28 (22%) metastatic. Of the localized tumors, 55/102 (54%) were >5cm. The estimated 5-year EFS for the entire group was 47%. As expected, stage and tumor size were predictive of EFS (p<0.001). Both systems were predictive of 5-year event-free survival (EFS) (POG p=0.0095 and FNCLCC p=0.0075). Patients whose tumors received discrepant grades (POG-G3 vs. FNCLCC-G2/G1) (n=44) had an intermediate outcome between those with concordant (G3 (n=44) or G1/G2 (n=42)) grades on both systems (p=0.0018). By multivariate analysis, the mitotic index was predictive of EFS using a cutoff of 10 mitotic figures per 10 high power fields (p<0.001). In conclusion, both the FNCLCC and POG systems provide an adequate prognostic measure of outcome for pediatric NRSTS; albeit, a sizeable subset of cases with apparently intermediate prognosis was graded differently by the two systems. The mitotic index appears to be a key parameter in grading pediatric NRSTS. PMID:20166208

  17. ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM mapping of the AAST Emergency General Surgery disease severity grading systems: Conceptual approach, limitations, and recommendations for the future.

    PubMed

    Utter, Garth H; Miller, Preston R; Mowery, Nathan T; Tominaga, Gail T; Gunter, Oliver; Osler, Turner M; Ciesla, David J; Agarwal, Suresh K; Inaba, Kenji; Aboutanos, Michel B; Brown, Carlos V R; Ross, Steven E; Crandall, Marie L; Shafi, Shahid

    2015-05-01

    The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) recently established a grading system for uniform reporting of anatomic severity of several emergency general surgery (EGS) diseases. There are five grades of severity for each disease, ranging from I (lowest severity) to V (highest severity). However, the grading process requires manual chart review. We sought to evaluate whether International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revisions, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM, ICD-10-CM) codes might allow estimation of AAST grades for EGS diseases. The Patient Assessment and Outcomes Committee of the AAST reviewed all available ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes relevant to 16 EGS diseases with available AAST grades. We then matched grades for each EGS disease with one or more ICD codes. We used the Official Coding Guidelines for ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM and the American Hospital Association's "Coding Clinic for ICD-9-CM" for coding guidance. The ICD codes did not allow for matching all five AAST grades of severity for each of the 16 diseases. With ICD-9-CM, six diseases mapped into four categories of severity (instead of five), another six diseases into three categories of severity, and four diseases into only two categories of severity. With ICD-10-CM, five diseases mapped into four categories of severity, seven diseases into three categories, and four diseases into two categories. Two diseases mapped into discontinuous categories of grades (two in ICD-9-CM and one in ICD-10-CM). Although resolution is limited, ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes might have some utility in roughly approximating the severity of the AAST grades in the absence of more precise information. These ICD mappings should be validated and refined before widespread use to characterize EGS disease severity. In the long-term, it may be desirable to develop alternatives to ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM codes for routine collection of disease severity characteristics. PMID:25909431

  18. Science for Iowa Schools, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nice, Karl; And Others

    This guide includes four units for use in each of grades 4 through 6. The fourth grade units are entitled Measurement Systems, Classification Systems, Bio-Control Systems, and Hydrologic Systems; the fifth grade units are Chemical Systems, Force Systems, Bio-Systems, and Astro-Systems; and the sixth grade units are Equilibrium Systems

  19. Transformative Shifts in Art History Teaching: The Impact of Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormond, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article examines pedagogical shifts in art history teaching that have developed as a response to the implementation of a standards-based assessment regime. The specific characteristics of art history standards-based assessment in the context of New Zealand secondary schools are explained to demonstrate how an exacting form of assessment has…

  20. Peers Add a Potent Perspective: Vermont Teachers Combine Forces to Create Standards-Based Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Judy F.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the peer review process in Vermont. Teachers across the state learned lessons of their own in creating standards-based units based on a checklist of criteria and a scorecard. Developing and critiquing lessons helped teachers make connections, internalize, and apply the tenets of high-quality, standards-based classroom…

  1. Parents' and Teachers' Perceptions of Standards-Based and Traditional Report Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Gerry M.; Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine parents' and teachers' perceptions of standards-based and traditional report cards. Participants included 115 parents/guardians of students from a single, midsize school district that had implemented a standards-based report card. During the first two marking periods, all parents/guardians…

  2. Parents' and Teachers' Perceptions of Standards-Based and Traditional Report Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Gerry M.; Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine parents' and teachers' perceptions of standards-based and traditional report cards. Participants included 115 parents/guardians of students from a single, midsize school district that had implemented a standards-based report card. During the first two marking periods, all parents/guardians…

  3. Two RFID standard-based security protocols for healthcare environments.

    PubMed

    Picazo-Sanchez, Pablo; Bagheri, Nasour; Peris-Lopez, Pedro; Tapiador, Juan E

    2013-10-01

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems are widely used in access control, transportation, real-time inventory and asset management, automated payment systems, etc. Nevertheless, the use of this technology is almost unexplored in healthcare environments, where potential applications include patient monitoring, asset traceability and drug administration systems, to mention just a few. RFID technology can offer more intelligent systems and applications, but privacy and security issues have to be addressed before its adoption. This is even more dramatical in healthcare applications where very sensitive information is at stake and patient safety is paramount. In Wu et al. (J. Med. Syst. 37:19, 43) recently proposed a new RFID authentication protocol for healthcare environments. In this paper we show that this protocol puts location privacy of tag holders at risk, which is a matter of gravest concern and ruins the security of this proposal. To facilitate the implementation of secure RFID-based solutions in the medical sector, we suggest two new applications (authentication and secure messaging) and propose solutions that, in contrast to previous proposals in this field, are fully based on ISO Standards and NIST Security Recommendations. PMID:23949845

  4. Strategic Plan for Standards-Based Reform. Report of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of the Superintendent.

    This report summarizes the expectations, mission, guiding principles, standards, assessments, and time line for standards implementation for the state of Hawai'i. Implementation was scheduled for completion by August 2000. A technical reference matrix tracks the development of the assessment and accountability system. The completion of specific…

  5. Managing Marginal School Employees: Applying Standards-Based Performance Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lynette; Reck, Brianne; Egley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This book contains a collection of case studies that provide a variety of situations in managing or working with marginal employees in a school system. Managing Marginal School Employees will serve as a primary or companion text for administrator candidates or current administrators that include dilemmas for the student to think about, discuss,…

  6. Conceptualizing Teaching to the Test under Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; Eastwood, Melissa; D'Agostino, Jerome V.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and school accountability systems based on high-stakes tests are ubiquitous throughout the United States and appear to be growing as a catalyst for reform. As a result, educators have increased the proportion of instructional time devoted to test preparation. Although guidelines for what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate test…

  7. Conceptualizing Teaching to the Test under Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; Eastwood, Melissa; D'Agostino, Jerome V.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and school accountability systems based on high-stakes tests are ubiquitous throughout the United States and appear to be growing as a catalyst for reform. As a result, educators have increased the proportion of instructional time devoted to test preparation. Although guidelines for what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate test…

  8. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, Richard J.; Wagner, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Any practical WSN deployment must contend with a number of difficulties in its radio frequency (RF) environment. Multi-path reflections can distort signals, limit data rates, and cause signal fades that prevent nodes from having clear access to channels, especially in a closed environment such as a spacecraft. Other RF signal sources, such as wireless internet, voice, and data systems may contend with the sensor nodes for bandwidth. Finally, RF noise from electrical systems and periodic scattering from moving objects such as crew members will all combine to give an incredibly unpredictable, time-varying communication environment.

  9. Improving the Quality of Maternal and Neonatal Care: the Role of Standard Based Participatory Assessments

    PubMed Central

    Tamburlini, Giorgio; Yadgarova, Klara; Kamilov, Asamidin; Bacci, Alberta

    2013-01-01

    Background Gaps in quality of care are seriously affecting maternal and neonatal health globally but reports of successful quality improvement cycles implemented at large scale are scanty. We report the results of a nation-wide program to improve quality of maternal and neonatal hospital care in a lower-middle income country focusing on the role played by standard-based participatory assessments. Methods Improvements in the quality of maternal and neonatal care following an action-oriented participatory assessment of 19 areas covering the whole continuum from admission to discharge were measured after an average period of 10 months in four busy referral maternity hospitals in Uzbekistan. Information was collected by a multidisciplinary national team with international supervision through visit to hospital services, examination of medical records, direct observation of cases and interviews with staff and mothers. Scores (range 0 to 3) attributed to over 400 items and combined in average scores for each area were compared with the baseline assessment. Results Between the first and the second assessment, all four hospitals improved their overall score by an average 0.7 points out of 3 (range 0.4 to 1), i.e. by 22%. The improvements occurred in all main areas of care and were greater in the care of normal labor and delivery (+0.9), monitoring, infection control and mother and baby friendly care (+0.8) the role of the participatory action-oriented approach in determining the observed changes was estimated crucial in 6 out of 19 areas and contributory in other 8. Ongoing implementation of referral system and new classification of neonatal deaths impede the improved process of care to be reflected in current statistics. Conclusions Important improvements in the quality of hospital care provided to mothers and newborn babies can be achieved through a standard-based action-oriented and participatory assessment and reassessment process. PMID:24167616

  10. Enhanced Access to Earth Science Data through Standards-based Web Services and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiatt, S. H.; Hashimoto, H.; Melton, F. S.; Michaelis, A.; Milesi, C.; Nemani, R. R.; Votava, P.; Wang, W.

    2009-12-01

    The Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) at NASA Ames Research Center's Ecological Forecasting Lab generates a suite of gridded data products in near real-time that are designed to enhance management decisions related to floods, droughts, forest fires, human health, as well as crop, range, and forest production. Derived from the synthesis of satellite imagery, ground observations, and specialized ecosystem models, our data products hold great potential for supporting research and practical applications across a wide range of disciplines. In order to provide enhanced access to our data and to promote multidisciplinary collaboration we implement standards-based web services. We serve TOPS data conforming to the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP) which allows subsetting and distribution of large HDF or NetCDF datasets, complete with standards-based metadata. Additionally, we implement a standard Web Map Service (WMS) for visualization of geospatial data. To further extend the use of our data to a wider audience we build upon these web services to develop browser-based visualization and analysis tools. We use Asynchronous Javascript and XML (AJAX) techniques to build interactive web applications leveraging our web services. For example, our WMS provides the map image tiles used in our mapping client. Users can click on the map to query TOPS datasets and regional summaries via OPeNDAP, producing time-series charts allowing temporal analysis of environmental trends and associated phenomena. We present the TOPS Data Gateway and its components, highlighting how the use of open protocols and standards provides improved data access for our clients and research partners, encouraging data interoperability and multidisciplinary collaboration.

  11. Science Grades K-4 Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document explains the Arkansas science benchmarks for grades K-4 which were developed to provide guidance to science teachers. The content standards for three strands--physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems--were identified based on grade levels. (YDS)

  12. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standby Power System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    DEHKORDI, N.H.

    2000-04-12

    PFP's Standby Power System consists of the diesel generators, the generator control system, Rm 308 UPS, switchgear batteries, and the electrical equipment used to distribute this power. Due to the nature of the equipment and its use throughout general industry, the majority of the system falls within the CGI definition HNF-PRO-268, ''Control of Purchased Items and Services'' and HNF-PRO-1819, ''PHMC Engineering Requirements'' require that the critical characteristics of CGI-procured equipment be established in an engineering document prior to placing the order. HNF-5043 established these critical characteristics for the Standby Power System. This modification adds several items to the document.

  13. Impact of Writing Interventions Informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics with a Focus on Tenor, on Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Katherine Hayes

    2012-01-01

    This action research study examines the impact instruction informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) with a particular focus on tenor and socio-cultural theory has on sixth, seventh and eighth grade English language learners in an urban school. Over the course of seven and 1/2 months I used Systemic Functional Linguistics with a focus on…

  14. The Nature of Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses grading in elementary and secondary schools, focusing on the following topics: combining and weighting data, grading criteria, absolute grade standards, relative grade standards, contracting for grades, mastery and continuous progress grading, grading for effort or improvement, report cards, and procedures for grading students. (SR)

  15. Motion Imagery and Robotics Application (MIRA): Standards-Based Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Lindolfo; Rich, Thomas; Lucord, Steven; Diegelman, Thomas; Mireles, James; Gonzalez, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This technology development originated from the need to assess the debris threat resulting from soil material erosion induced by landing spacecraft rocket plume impingement on extraterrestrial planetary surfaces. The impact of soil debris was observed to be highly detrimental during NASA s Apollo lunar missions and will pose a threat for any future landings on the Moon, Mars, and other exploration targets. The innovation developed under this program provides a simulation tool that combines modeling of the diverse disciplines of rocket plume impingement gas dynamics, granular soil material liberation, and soil debris particle kinetics into one unified simulation system. The Unified Flow Solver (UFS) developed by CFDRC enabled the efficient, seamless simulation of mixed continuum and rarefied rocket plume flow utilizing a novel direct numerical simulation technique of the Boltzmann gas dynamics equation. The characteristics of the soil granular material response and modeling of the erosion and liberation processes were enabled through novel first principle-based granular mechanics models developed by the University of Florida specifically for the highly irregularly shaped and cohesive lunar regolith material. These tools were integrated into a unique simulation system that accounts for all relevant physics aspects: (1) Modeling of spacecraft rocket plume impingement flow under lunar vacuum environment resulting in a mixed continuum and rarefied flow; (2) Modeling of lunar soil characteristics to capture soil-specific effects of particle size and shape composition, soil layer cohesion and granular flow physics; and (3) Accurate tracking of soil-borne debris particles beginning with aerodynamically driven motion inside the plume to purely ballistic motion in lunar far field conditions.

  16. Special Automotive Repair Service Curriculum for Grades 9-12. Vehicle Emission Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubbins Associates, Hadlyme, CT.

    This curriculum is intended to serve as a guide for high school instructors teaching a basic course on emission control systems on General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler products. The material may also be incorporated on an engine system basis and inserted into an overall tune-up curriculum. Other uses of the curriculum include specialized training…

  17. An Integrated Learning System: Impact on At-Risk Students' Ninth Grade TAKS Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Tina D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an integrated learning system on students who were considered at-risk of academic failure on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment. Voyager Math (VMath), an integrated learning system had been implemented to address the needs of students at-risk of…

  18. An Integrated Learning System: Impact on At-Risk Students' Ninth Grade TAKS Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Tina D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of an integrated learning system on students who were considered at-risk of academic failure on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) mathematics assessment. Voyager Math (VMath), an integrated learning system had been implemented to address the needs of students at-risk of…

  19. Prom Night in Mississippi: A Teacher's Guide with Standards-Based Lessons for Grades 7 and up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holladay, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    When Morris Dees was a young man in Alabama, the law said that black people couldn't drink from the same water fountain as white people, or sit at the same lunch counter. Back then, the government created and sanctioned divisions between human beings. The Civil Rights Movement changed all of that, of course, and ended state-mandated apartheid in…

  20. The Nature of Feedback Provided to Elementary Students by Teachers in Schools where Grading and Reporting Are Standards-Based

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souter, Dawn H.

    2009-01-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement. Hattie (2002) found that the giving of quality feedback to students is one of the top five strategies teachers can use to improve student achievement. Research has confirmed that the right kind of feedback is essential for effective teaching and learning (McMillan, 2007).…

  1. A physiome standards-based model publication paradigm.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, David P; Buist, Martin L

    2009-05-28

    In this era of widespread broadband Internet penetration and powerful Web browsers on most desktops, a shift in the publication paradigm for physiome-style models is envisaged. No longer will model authors simply submit an essentially textural description of the development and behaviour of their model. Rather, they will submit a complete working implementation of the model encoded and annotated according to the various standards adopted by the physiome project, accompanied by a traditional human-readable summary of the key scientific goals and outcomes of the work. While the final published, peer-reviewed article will look little different to the reader, in this new paradigm, both reviewers and readers will be able to interact with, use and extend the models in ways that are not currently possible. Here, we review recent developments that are laying the foundations for this new model publication paradigm. Initial developments have focused on the publication of mathematical models of cellular electrophysiology, using technology based on a CellML- or Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML)-encoded implementation of the mathematical models. Here, we review the current state of the art and what needs to be done before such a model publication becomes commonplace. PMID:19380314

  2. A standards-based content analysis of selected biological science websites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Joy E.

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled with criteria derived from the Web-based Inquiry (WBI) for Learning Science instrument (Bodzin, 2005) and other pertinent published educational literature, was utilized. The analysis focused on elucidating the appropriateness of the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment tools of selected websites for facilitating the biological science education of Grade 12 students. Frequencies of agreement and disagreement of the content of each selected website with criteria included in the data collection instrument were used for alignment determination of the content of each website with the NSES. Chi-square tests were performed by Microsoft Excel to determine the statistical significance of differences of actual and expected 85% frequencies of alignment of the analyzed website parameters with indicators of alignment to NSES. Chi-square tests indicated that at a 0.05 level of significance there was an overall difference between the actual and expected 85% frequencies of alignment of biology content, instructional strategies and assessment methods with website indicators of alignment with the NSES (p < 0.05). Chi-square tests also indicated that there was a significant difference between the actual and expected frequencies of alignment of analyzed categories (biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods) of the sampled websites with website indicators of alignment with the NSES ( p < 0.05). Major findings of this study indicated that 3 out of 4 of the analyzed content attributes, 12 out of 13 of the instructional strategies, and all the assessment methods of the researched biological science websites were less than 85% aligned with the NSES. Only 11 out of 80 (13.75%) of the analyzed websites had collective biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods attributes that were 85% or more aligned with the NSES. Appropriately sequenced content that fostered acquisition of fundamental biology knowledge was the only content attribute with significantly more than 85% alignment with the NSES. Provision of illustrative examples to enhance understanding of facts and/or ideas in the context of a conceptual framework was the only instructional strategies attribute that was significantly more than 85% aligned with the NSES. Alignment of website attributes with the NSES has the potential to enhance the educational value of science websites. It is hoped that the findings of this study will motivate science website designers to comply with the NSES. Hope also exists that educators will be motivated to engage in standards-based reform measures for promoting scientific literacy among students.

  3. 7 CFR 52.772 - Grades.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Cherries 1 Identity and Grades § 52.772 Grades. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of canned red tart pitted cherries that have at least the following attributes: (1) At least a reasonably... system outlined in this subpart. Canned red tart pitted cherries of this grade may contain not more...

  4. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Standby Power System Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Critical Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    BUSCH, M.S.

    1999-09-16

    PEP's Standby Power System consists of the diesel generators, the generator control system, Rm 308 UPS, switchgear batteries, and the electrical equipment used to distribute this power. Due to the nature of the equipment and its use throughout general industry, the majority of the system falls within the CGI definition HNF-PRO-268. ''Control of Purchased Items and Services'' and HNF-PRO-1819, ''PHMC Engineering Requirements'' require that the critical characteristics of CGI-procured equipment be established in an engineering document prior to placing the order. HNF-5043 establishes these critical characteristics for the Standby Power System. Equipment will be added to the list as required to support future CGI procurements.

  5. Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO): Exploration Begins Here [Grades K-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

  6. Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Education 101: Exploration Begins Here [Grades 9-12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

  7. A Failing Grade for the German End-of-Life Vehicles Take-Back System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Nina; Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2005-01-01

    The German end-of-life vehicle take-back system is described and analyzed in terms of its impact on the environment and the car companies involved. It is concluded that although this system is often cited as an example of a successful take-back scheme, it is not one that maximizes the value recovered from end-of-life vehicles. As a result,…

  8. The Minnesota Grading System Using Fundus Autofluorescence of Eye Bank Eyes: A Correlation To Age-Related Macular Degeneration (An AOS Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Timothy W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To establish a grading system of eye bank eyes using fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and identify a methodology that correlates FAF to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with clinical correlation to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS). Methods Two hundred sixty-two eye bank eyes were evaluated using a standardized analysis of FAF. Measurements were taken with the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO). First, high-resolution, digital, stereoscopic, color images were obtained and graded according to AREDS criteria. With the neurosensory retina removed, mean FAF values were obtained from cSLO images using software analysis that excludes areas of atrophy and other artifact, generating an FAF value from a grading template. Age and AMD grade were compared to FAF values. An internal fluorescence reference standard was tested. Results Standardization of the cSLO machine demonstrated that reliable data could be acquired after a 1-hour warm-up. Images obtained prior to 1 hour had falsely elevated levels of FAF. In this initial analysis, there was no statistical correlation of age to mean FAF. There was a statistically significant decrease in FAF from AREDS grade 1, 2 to 3, 4 (P < .0001). An internal fluorescent standard may serve as a quantitative reference. Conclusions The Minnesota Grading System (MGS) of FAF (MGS-FAF) establishes a standardized methodology for grading eye bank tissue to quantify FAF compounds in the retinal pigment epithelium and correlate these findings to the AREDS. Future studies could then correlate specific FAF to the aging process, histopathology AMD phenotypes, and other maculopathies, as well as to analyze the biochemistry of autofluorescent fluorophores. PMID:19277247

  9. Achieving standards in urban systemic reform: An example of a sixth grade project-based science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivet, Ann E.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2004-09-01

    A challenge for urban systemic reform initiatives in science education has been to achieve local, state, and national standards for teaching and learning. We have collaborated with teachers in the Detroit Public School System to design project-based curriculum materials that contextualize the learning of science in meaningful real-world problems, engage students in science inquiry, and use learning technologies. We present a sixth grade project-based science unit in which students explored the driving question How Do Machines Help Me Build Big Things? and address the science learning goals of balanced and unbalanced forces, simple and complex machines, and mechanical advantage. Twenty-four teachers and over 2500 students in Detroit participated in enactments of this project over 4 years. Student learning outcomes were determined for the three learning goals and inquiry process skills using pre- and postachievement tests. Achievement outcomes as measured by the pre/posttest show significant and consistently high learning gains, even as participation in the project increased to include greater numbers of teachers and students in successive enactments, and leadership of the professional development support for this project transitioned from university researchers to district teacher leaders. These results illustrate that materials which contextualize learning and support student inquiry as part of an urban systemic reform effort can promote learning of important and meaningful science content aligned with standards.

  10. Using Case-Based Reasoning to Improve the Quality of Feedback Provided by Automated Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrilov, Angelo; Noelle, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Information technology is now ubiquitous in higher education institutions worldwide. More than 85% of American universities use e-learning systems to supplement traditional classroom activities while some have started offering Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs), which are completely online. An obvious benefit of these online tools is their…

  11. Examinations and Grading: The System of Open-Book Examination is Excellent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ching-yen, Chang

    1973-01-01

    Positive support for the system of open-book examination is presented. A case study of an open-book examination in organic chemistry is cited as a basis for theories that testing method improves capacity for analyzing and solving problems, deepens knowledge, and helps to overcome shortcomings of casual readings. (SM)

  12. System design considerations for a production-grade, ESR-based x-ray lithography beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Stephen; Melore, Dan; Cerrina, Franco; Cole, Richard K.

    1991-08-01

    As electron storage ring (ESR) based x-ray lithography technology moves closer to becoming an industrial reality, more and more attention has been devoted to studying problem areas related to its application in the production environment. A principle component is the x-ray lithography beamline (XLBL) and its associated design requirements. XLBL, an x-ray radiation transport system, is one of the three major subunits in the ESR-based x-ray lithography system (XLS) and has a pivotal role in defining performance characteristics of the entire XLS. Its major functions are to transport the synchrotron orbital radiation (SOR) to the lithography target area with defined efficiency and to modify SOR into the spectral distribution defined by the lithography process window. These functions must be performed reliably in order to satisfy the required high production rate and ensure 0.25 micron resolution lithography conditions. In this paper the authors attempt to answer some specific questions that arise during the formulation of an XLBL system design. Three principle issues that are essential to formulating a design are (1) Radiation transport efficiency, (2) X-ray optical configurations in the beamline, (3) Beamline system configurations. Some practical solutions to thee problem areas are presented, and the effects of these parameters on lithography production rate are examined.

  13. THE FOOD INTAKE RECORDING SOFTWARE SYSTEM (FIRSST) IS VALID AMONG 4TH GRADE CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to assess how accurately the Food Intake Recording Software System (FIRSSt) enabled children to report what they ate the previous day as compared to a dietitian conducted diet recall; and to test the effects of several procedures on accuracy of dietary report. We u...

  14. Middle School Math Acceleration and Equitable Access to Eighth-Grade Algebra: Evidence from the Wake County Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Shaun M.; Goodman, Joshua S.; Hill, Darryl V.; Litke, Erica G.; Page, Lindsay C.

    2015-01-01

    Taking algebra by eighth grade is considered an important milestone on the pathway to college readiness. We highlight a collaboration to investigate one district's effort to increase middle school algebra course-taking. In 2010, the Wake County Public Schools began assigning middle school students to accelerated math and eighth-grade algebra based…

  15. Assessing the performance of four different categories of histological criteria in brain tumours grading by means of a computer-aided diagnosis image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Kostopoulos, S; Konstandinou, C; Sidiropoulos, K; Ravazoula, P; Kalatzis, I; Asvestas, P; Cavouras, D; Glotsos, D

    2015-10-01

    Brain tumours are considered one of the most lethal and difficult to treat forms of cancer, with unknown aetiology and lack of any realistic screening. In this study, we examine, whether the combination of descriptive criteria, used by expert histopathologists in assessing histologic tissue samples, and quantitative image analysis features may improve the diagnostic accuracy of brain tumour grading. Data comprised 61 cases of brain cancers (astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, meningiomas) collected from the archives of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece. Incorporating physician's descriptive criteria and image analysis's quantitative features into a discriminant function, a computer-aided diagnosis system was designed for discriminating low-grade from high-grade brain tumours. Physician's descriptive features, when solely used in the system, proved of high discrimination accuracy (93.4%). When verbal descriptive features were combined with quantitative image analysis features in the system, discrimination accuracy improved to 98.4%. The generalization of the proposed system to unseen data converged to an overall prediction accuracy of 86.7% ± 5.4%. Considering that histological grading affects treatment selection and diagnostic errors may be notable in clinical practice, the utilization of the proposed system may safeguard against diagnostic misinterpretations in every day clinical practice. PMID:25974641

  16. Industry-Grade Seismic Processing System for Controlled- (and Passive-) Source Research in Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubak, G.; Morozov, I.

    2004-05-01

    Open-source seismic processing provides flexibility, functionality and value that are not found in commercial packages. A seismic processing system called SIA, initially developed at the University of Wyoming and continued at the University of Saskatchewan, represents one of the most extensive efforts to integrate the flexibility of academic seismic data analysis with polish and performance of a commercial processor. At present, SIA offers capabilities for nearly complete reflection processing, combined with built-in support for multicomponent, variable-format seismic data, extensive database capabilities, input/output in several data formats accepted in exploration and earthquake seismology (e.g., SEG-Y, SEG-2, Seismic UNIX, PASSCAL-SEGY, GSE3.0, SAC), original inversion codes (e.g., 2-D and 3-D reflection and receiver function migration, genetic algorithms and artificial neural networks), software and documentation maintenance, and interfaces to popular packages such as Datascope, GMT, rayinvr, reflectivity, and Seismic UNIX. Recently, we included in the system a modern graphical user interface (GUI) based on the open-source, platform-independent QT technology by TrollTech. The interface organizes project data while hiding the system structure from the user and generally resembles that of ProMAX (by Landmark Graphics). Nearly 200 tools are arranged into packages (e.g., reflection, travel-time, earthquake data processing, or graphics), and processing flows are constructed by dragging these tools and dropping them in the flows. Multiple processing flows may be opened simultaneously allowing the user to edit and execute concurrent jobs. Context-sensitive help can be accessed through the interface, in addition to the full HTML documentation automatically generated by the system. Context-dependent color highlighting is used to improve readability of the parameters. Processing jobs are submitted through the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) which allows multiple processes to be initiated and controlled from a single interface. Jobs may be executed either locally or on a single or multiple remote systems in a heterogeneous computing environment. The GUI includes tools for run-time control of both local and remote processes.. The GUI also includes provisions for cluster scheduling, allowing processes to be executed on Beowulf clusters. Depending on their design, individual tools or flows can be parallelized using either PVM or MPI (Message Passing Interface). With the decentralized processing concept implemented in SIA, grid computing and seamless data exchange could become a reality without any effort from the users. In passive-source work, which is quickly adopting reflection processing techniques, this industry-style processing could provide sophisticated, inexpensive, and high performance approaches to data retrieval and access to hundreds of signal enhancement tools developed in reflection seismics.

  17. Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2014-06-01

    All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

  18. Reversing Platinum Resistance in High-Grade Serous Ovarian Carcinoma: Targeting BRCA and the Homologous Recombination System

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemeyer, W. Ruprecht; Beach, Jessica A.; Karlan, Beth Y.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to platinum chemotherapy is one of the main factors driving ovarian cancer mortality, and overcoming platinum resistance is considered one of the greatest challenges in ovarian cancer research. Genetic and functional evidence points to the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair system, and BRCA1 and BRCA2 in particular, as main determinants of response to platinum therapy. BRCA-mutant ovarian cancers are especially sensitive to platinum, associated with better survival, and amenable to poly ADP ribose polymerase inhibitor treatment. Here, we discuss a therapeutic concept that seeks to disrupt HR capacity via targeting of BRCA1 and BRCA2 functionality in order to reverse platinum resistance in BRCA-proficient high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOC). We review the molecular signaling pathways that converge on BRCA1 and BRCA2, their activation status in ovarian cancer, and therapeutic options to modulate BRCA function. Several recent publications demonstrate efficient chemosensitization of BRCA-proficient cancers by combining targeted therapy with standard platinum-based agents. Due to its inherent genomic heterogeneity, molecularly defined subgroups of HGSOC may require different approaches. We seek to provide an overview of available agents and their potential use to reverse platinum resistance by inhibiting the HR system, either directly or indirectly, by targeting oncogenic activators of HR. PMID:24624361

  19. Designing a graded index depressed clad non-zero dispersion shifted optical fiber for wide band transmission system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Dipankar; Ghosh, Debashri; Basu, Mousumi

    2008-02-01

    Non-zero dispersion shifted fibers (NZ-DSFs) find extensive use in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) system as it reduces the non-linear effects like four-wave mixing (FWM) generation. A depressed clad graded index fiber with a central dip in the refractive index profile, as well as without dip, has been modeled to perform as an NZ-DSF using the spot size optimization technique. The performance characteristics of the proposed NZ-DSF have been studied by changing different fiber parameters; such as inner core radius (a), relative refractive index differences ([Delta]+), normalized end position of depressed clad (C), depression parameter ([rho]), etc. for a given value of Petermann-2 spot size . By suitably adjusting the fiber parameters, the effective core areas (Aeff) as simulated here are very large (~80 [mu]m2) so that the effect of non-linearities upon them can be minimized. These NZ-DSFs have also been optimized for WDM transmission system. The dispersion slopes of the proposed fibers with and without dip have been estimated which are comparable with the reported results.

  20. Calorimetry of the PD-D{sub 2}O system: The drive towards high levels of low grade heat

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischmann, M.; Pons, S.

    1995-12-01

    We review some of the factors which prompted our search for anomalously fast nuclear reactions of D{sup +} electrochemically compressed into Pd (and Pd-alloy) host lattices using calorimetry as a principal means of investigation. The most surprising results are that the high levels of excess heat generated are riot accompanied by the expected levels of tritium and neutrons (low but significant levels of these {open_quotes}nuclear ashes{close_quotes} are detected). It has been found that excess heat generation is dependent on the protocol of the experiments mainly because of positive feedback. A rationale for such positive feedback is presented; this also leads to oscillation in the system properties which must be minimised so as to reach high levels of excess enthalpy generation at intermediate temperatures ({approximately}100{degrees}C i.e. low grade heat). We illustrate the progressive development by the achievement of specific rates of {approximately}20Wcm{sup -3}, {approximately}100Wcm{sup -3} and 4kWcm{sup -3} corresponding to those of gas cooled, pressurised water and fast breeder reactors. The highest levels require restrictions of the engineering of the systems which we will outline.

  1. Flat-plate solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The engineering design, fabrication, assembly, operation, economic analysis, and process support research and development for an Experimental Process System Development Unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the slane-to-silicon process are reported. The design activity was completed. About 95% of purchased equipment was received. The draft of the operations manual was about 50% complete and the design of the free-space system continued. The system using silicon power transfer, melting, and shotting on a psuedocontinuous basis was demonstrated.

  2. The Impact of Birth Month, within Grade Levels, on Student Performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speziale, Kerry Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether chronological age differences among students in the same grade level affected their respective levels of academic performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics assessment. The study analyzed the additional independent variables of gender, socioeconomic status, and special education…

  3. Measuring Quality in Rural Kindergarten Classrooms: Reliability and Validity Evidence for the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, Kindergarten-Third Grade (CLASS K-3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandilos, Lia E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the structural validity and stability of scores on a measure of global classroom quality, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, Kindergarten-Third Grade (CLASS K-3; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008). Using data from a sample of 417 kindergarten classrooms in the rural Southern and Mid-Atlantic…

  4. Measuring Quality in Rural Kindergarten Classrooms: Reliability and Validity Evidence for the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, Kindergarten-Third Grade (CLASS K-3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandilos, Lia E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the structural validity and stability of scores on a measure of global classroom quality, the Classroom Assessment Scoring System, Kindergarten-Third Grade (CLASS K-3; Pianta, La Paro, & Hamre, 2008). Using data from a sample of 417 kindergarten classrooms in the rural Southern and Mid-Atlantic…

  5. Western Europe: The Political, Social, and Economic Systems of Britain, France, and Germany. Grade Eleven. [Resource Unit I, Sub Unit 3.] Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    These two subunits on Western Europe are part of one of four resource units for an eleventh grade area studies course. The subunits cover foreign policy and the political, social and economic systems of Britain, France, and Germany, and a summary section for the entire unit on Western Europe. Generalizations, skills, and attitudes are listed. The…

  6. The Development and Technical Adequacy of Seventh-Grade Reading Comprehension Measures in a Progress Monitoring Assessment System. Technical Report #1102

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2011-01-01

    This technical report describes the process of development and piloting of reading comprehension measures that are appropriate for seventh-grade students as part of an online progress screening and monitoring assessment system, http://easycbm.com. Each measure consists of an original fictional story of approximately 1,600 to 1,900 words with 20…

  7. Snapshot Assessment System for Migrant, Language-Minority, and Mobile Students. An Informal Tool for Classroom Teachers. Intermediate Level: Grades 4-6. User's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rangel, Richard; Bansberg, Bill

    This classroom assessment tool for grades 4-6 offers teachers a method to quickly identify the needs of migrant, language-different, and mobile students in language arts, mathematics, and science in relation to national content standards. The Snapshot System asks the student to perform a series of tasks that are keyed to content standards and…

  8. A Study of Constant Errors in Subtraction and in the Application of Selected Principles of the Decimal Numeration System Made by Third and Fourth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Charles Winston, Jr.

    Reported are the results of a study to determine if specific errors in subtraction occur when students demonstrate ability to apply selected decimal numeration system principles. A secondary purpose was to examine and compare errors made by various subsets of the sample population characterized by grade level, arithmetic achievement, mental…

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Aron; Jon Gore, Roger Dalton; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Owen Thomas; Tim Jarman

    2003-07-01

    This report describes progress, experiments, and results for a project to develop a pipeline inline inspection tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). There is a brief introduction that gives background material about EMATs and relevant previous Tuboscope work toward a tool. This work left various choices about the modes and transducers for this project. The experimental section then describes the lab systems, improvements to these systems, and setups and techniques to narrow the choices. Improvements, which involved transducer matching networks, better magnetic biasing, and lower noise electronics, led to improved signal to noise (SNR) levels. The setups permitted transducer characterizations and interaction measurements in plates with man-made cracks, pipeline sections with SCC, and a full pipe with SCC. The latter were done with a moveable and compact EMAT setup, called a lab mouse, which is detailed. Next, the results section justifies the mode and transducer choices. These were for magnetostrictive EMATs and the use of EMAT launched modes: SH0 (at 2.1 MHz-mm) and SV1 (at 3.9 MHz-mm). This section then gives details of measurements on these modes. The measurements consisted of signal to noise ratio, insertion loss, magnetic biasing sensitivities crack reflection and transmission coefficients, beam width, standoff and tilt sensitivities. For most of the measurements the section presents analysis curves, such as reflection coefficient versus crack depth. Some notable results for the chosen modes are: that acceptable SNRs were generated in a pipe with magnetostrictive EMATs, that optimum bias for magnetostrictive transmitters and receivers is magnetic saturation, that crack reflection and transmission coefficients from crack interactions agree with 2 D simulations and seem workable for crack grading, and that the mouse has good waveform quality and so is ready for exhaustive measurement EMAT scans of SCC interactions. This section also reviews further coil optimization and implementation requirements. These involve transmitter and receiver power, acquisition parameters, and magnetic configuration. At this time all these seem reasonable for an ILI tool.

  10. Brittle nail syndrome: a pathogenesis-based approach with a proposed grading system.

    PubMed

    van de Kerkhof, Peter C M; Pasch, Marcel C; Scher, Richard K; Kerscher, Martina; Gieler, Uwe; Haneke, Eckard; Fleckman, Philip

    2005-10-01

    Brittle nail syndrome is a heterogeneous abnormality, characterized by increased fragility of the nail plate. Brittle nails affect about 20% of the population and women are affected twice as frequently as men. The vast majority of patients experience brittle nails as a significant cosmetic problem and a substantial number indicate that these nail abnormalities are painful, impair daily activities, and may have a negative impact on occupational abilities. Pathogenic factors leading to brittle nails are factors that impair intercellular adhesion of the corneocytes of the nail plate or factors that cause a pathologic nail formation by involving the matrix. Clinical features of brittle nail syndrome are onychoschizia and onychorrhexis: the impairment of intercellular adhesive factors of the nail plate is expressed as onychoschizia, whereas the involvement of the nail matrix is expressed as onychorrhexis. Although impairment of life quality has not been evaluated for patients with brittle nail syndrome, the reduction of life quality in other nail problems has been studied and is evident. A proposed scoring system of key features of brittle nails is presented, and therapeutic approaches focussed on the pathogenic factors are discussed. PMID:16198786

  11. Zebrafish as a Model System for Environmental Health Studies in the Grade 9–12 Classroom

    PubMed Central

    Hesselbach, Renee; Carvan, Michael John; Goldberg, Barbara; Berg, Craig A.; Petering, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Developing zebrafish embryos were used as a model system for high school students to conduct scientific investigations that reveal features of normal development and to test how different environmental toxicants impact the developmental process. The primary goal of the module was to engage students from a wide range of socio-economic backgrounds, with particular focus on underserved inner-city high schools, in inquiry-based learning and hands-on experimentation. In addition, the module served as a platform for both teachers and students to design additional inquiry-based experiments. In this module, students spawned adult zebrafish to generate developing embryos, exposed the embryos to various toxicants, then gathered, and analyzed data obtained from control and experimental embryos. The module provided a flexible, experimental framework for students to test the effects of numerous environmental toxicants, such as ethanol, caffeine, and nicotine, on the development of a model vertebrate organism. Students also observed the effects of dose on experimental outcomes. From observations of the effects of the chemical agents on vertebrate embryos, students drew conclusions on how these chemicals could impact human development and health. Results of pre-tests and post-tests completed by participating students indicate statistically significant changes in awareness of the impact of environmental agents on fish and human beings In addition, the program's evaluator concluded that participation in the module resulted in significant changes in the attitude of students and teachers toward science in general and environmental health in particular. PMID:24941301

  12. Dual-component video image analysis system (VIASCAN) as a predictor of beef carcass red meat yield percentage and for augmenting application of USDA yield grades.

    PubMed

    Cannell, R C; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E; Wise, J W; Clayton, R P; Smith, G C

    1999-11-01

    An improved ability to quantify differences in the fabrication yields of beef carcasses would facilitate the application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of the Dual-Component Australian VIASCAN to 1) predict fabricated beef subprimal yields as a percentage of carcass weight at each of three fat-trim levels and 2) augment USDA yield grading, thereby improving accuracy of grade placement. Steer and heifer carcasses (n = 240) were evaluated using VIASCAN, as well as by USDA expert and online graders, before fabrication of carcasses to each of three fat-trim levels. Expert yield grade (YG), online YG, VIASCAN estimates, and VIASCAN estimated ribeye area used to augment actual and expert grader estimates of the remaining YG factors (adjusted fat thickness, percentage of kidney-pelvic-heart fat, and hot carcass weight), respectively, 1) accounted for 51, 37, 46, and 55% of the variation in fabricated yields of commodity-trimmed subprimals, 2) accounted for 74, 54, 66, and 75% of the variation in fabricated yields of closely trimmed subprimals, and 3) accounted for 74, 54, 71, and 75% of the variation in fabricated yields of very closely trimmed subprimals. The VIASCAN system predicted fabrication yields more accurately than current online yield grading and, when certain VIASCAN-measured traits were combined with some USDA yield grade factors in an augmentation system, the accuracy of cutability prediction was improved, at packing plant line speeds, to a level matching that of expert graders applying grades at a comfortable rate. PMID:10568462

  13. A case study of primary teachers' personal theories and understandings of standards-based science education reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieseman, Katherine Claire

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to contribute to current understandings of teachers' perspectives of standards-based science education reform, and (2) to describe and document the relationships between the personal theories about science teaching and learning held by three "unique" experienced primary teachers and the teachers' understandings of a state-level standards-based vision of school science. These teachers were unique because they had been members of a two year-long district-level standards-based science curriculum reform initiative. This study was framed by the conception of personal theories as a representation of teacher beliefs. This qualitative case study extended from the summer of 1996 through the spring of 1998. Methods of data collection were: interviewing and informal conversations, participant observation, video and audio taping, generation of field notes, and examination of documents and artifacts. Data analysis involved constant comparison of data, generation of categories, description of properties of and relationships between categories, and theorizing about the data. The results of this qualitative case study revealed that, overall, direct involvement in the science curriculum reform effort was a positive and meaningful professional development experience providing opportunities for personal and professional growth. For two of the teachers, the experience signified a turning point in the history of their personal theories about science teaching and learning. Although the reform effort was philosophically grounded in a state-level standards-based vision of school science, implementing the new hands-on science program, adopted as a dimension of the work of the reform effort, was in the forefront of teachers' thoughts. A standards vision played a secondary role as a referrent for thinking about the teaching of science. The findings suggest that teachers' personal theories could act as mediating forces in teachers' endeavors to understand contemporary science education reform. Generally, the teachers felt that a standards vision complimented their personal theories. They agreed with reform ideas like coherent K-12 curriculum development based on a depth over breadth approach, emphasis of science as both a knowledge base and as inquiry, the teacher role as facilitator, and learners' active engagement in learning. The teachers also noted challenges for the future of standards-based science education reform, including: commitment by local and state authorities to systemic reform for a hands-on/minds-on science program, the practical feasibility of some reform ideas, and multiple interpretations of standards language.

  14. Optimization proposal of a standard-based patient monitoring platform for ubiquitous environments.

    PubMed

    Martínez, I; Escayola, J; Fernández de Bobadilla, I; Martínez-Espronceda, M; Serrano, L; Trigo, J; Led, S; García, J

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the optimization of a patient telemonitoring platform based on the ISO/IEEE11073 (X73) standard to enable medical device interoperability. In order to achieve this, principal advantages and remaining improvements are evaluated to include in further upgrades towards the new profile evolution, oriented to ubiquitous environments and wearable devices (Personal Health Devices, X73-PHD), and opened to additional plug-and-play features and remote management. After evaluating the possibilities, we describe the platform porting process, a required step to adapt it to the new functionalities and allowing the development of end-to-end standard based systems. The paper details the implementation of the agent-manager architecture, particularized on the X73-PHD communication protocol between a Medical Device (MD) and a central gateway (Compute Engine, CE). Lastly, the obtained results are evaluated, oriented to constitute an X73-PHD tester to prove the challenges currently under discussion in the European Standardization Committee (CEN). PMID:19163034

  15. Hyperleptinemia is associated with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obese human beings

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Solís-Lozano, Lourdes; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; González-Chávez, Antonio; Béjar, Yadira L.; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Escobedo, Galileo

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-?, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r = 0.4173), central obesity (r = 0.4678), and body fat percentage (r = 0.3583). Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-? (r = 0.6989), IL-12 (r = 0.3093), and IL-10 (r = ?0.5691). Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r = 0.5227) and insulin (r = 0.2229), as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r = 0.3611) and circulating triglyceride (r = 0.4135). These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings. PMID:23986664

  16. Modeling Platinum Sensitive and Resistant High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer: Development and Applications of Experimental Systems

    PubMed Central

    Cunnea, Paula; Stronach, Euan A.

    2014-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian cancer remains the most common sub-type of ovarian cancer and, characterized by high degrees of genomic instability and heterogeneity, is typified by a transition from early response to acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. Conventional models for the study of ovarian cancer have been largely limited to a set of relatively poorly characterized immortalized cell lines and recent studies have called into question the validity of some of these as reliable models. Here, we review new approaches and models systems that take into account advances in our understanding of ovarian cancer biology and advances in the technology available for their generation and study. We discuss primary cell models, 2D, 3D, and organotypic models, and “paired” sample approaches that capture the evolution of chemotherapy failure within single cases. We also overview new methods for non-invasive collection of representative tumor material from blood samples. Adoption of such methods and models will improve the quality and clinical relevance of ovarian cancer research. PMID:24860781

  17. Online evaluation of a commercial video image analysis system (Computer Vision System) to predict beef carcass red meat yield and for augmenting the assignment of USDA yield grades. United States Department of Agriculture.

    PubMed

    Cannell, R C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Chapman, P L; Scanga, J A; Smith, G C

    2002-05-01

    Objective quantification of differences in wholesale cut yields of beef carcasses at plant chain speeds is important for the application of value-based marketing. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of a commercial video image analysis system, the Computer Vision System (CVS) to 1) predict commercially fabricated beef subprimal yield and 2) augment USDA yield grading, in order to improve accuracy of grade assessment. The CVS was evaluated as a fully installed production system, operating on a full-time basis at chain speeds. Steer and heifer carcasses (n = 296) were evaluated using CVS, as well as by USDA expert and online graders, before the fabrication of carcasses into industry-standard subprimal cuts. Expert yield grade (YG), online YG, CVS estimated carcass yield, and CVS measured ribeye area in conjunction with expert grader estimates of the remaining YG factors (adjusted fat thickness, percentage of kidney-pelvic-heart fat, hot carcass weight) accounted for 67, 39, 64, and 65% of the observed variation in fabricated yields of closely trimmed subprimals. The dual component CVS predicted wholesale cut yields more accurately than current online yield grading, and, in an augmentation system, CVS ribeye measurement replaced estimated ribeye area in determination of USDA yield grade, and the accuracy of cutability prediction was improved, under packing plant conditions and speeds, to a level close to that of expert graders applying grades at a comfortable rate of speed offline. PMID:12019606

  18. The formation of high-grade ignimbrites, I: Experiments on high- and low-concentration transport systems containing sticky particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freundt, Armin

    High-grade ignimbrites are thought to be deposited by pyroclastic flows at temperatures exceeding minimum welding temperature or even solidus temperature. Corresponding pyroclastic-flow particles range from plastic to partially liquid and are able to aggregate or coalesce. This contrasts with particles in pyroclastic flows producing unwelded ignimbrite, which are capable of elastic grain interactions. The low aspect ratio and great areal extent of high-grade ignimbrites requires transport in a particulate state either by (a) high-concentration mass flow facilitated by fluidizing gas reducing internal friction, or by (b) expanded turbulent flow of low but downward increasing concentration. This paper presents experiments designed to investigate the effects of plastic to liquid particles on these two contrasting transport mechanisms. Gas fluidization experiments using polyethyleneglycole (PEG) powders heated above minimum sintering (Tms) and melting (Tm) temperatures cover a wide range of fluidization velocities (Umf>Ua>0.6.Ut) but are always in the bubbly fluidization regime similar to fluidized ignimbrite ash, where particle volume concentration outside the bubbles is high ( 10-1). When the powders reach a critical temperature Tm>=T>=Tms, defluidization by catastrophic particle aggregation immediately commences in both stationary and laterally moving fluidized beds as well as in experiments using mixtures of high- and low-Tm (>=30wt.%) PEG powders, when T>=Tms of the lower-Tm powder. This indicates that extended particulate transport at T>=Tms is not possible at such high particle concentrations. In the turbulent flow experiments, liquid sprays of molten PEG or water, vertically injected into a high-Re (>104) horizontal air flow, form a low-concentration (10-5 to 10-4) turbulent suspension current. Proximal formation of partially coalesced aggregates, which settle faster than individual particles, causes the measured downstream decay of sedimentation rate to be steeper than predicted by theory of single solid-particle sedimentation from turbulent suspensions. As particles become finer downstream and coalescence efficiency decreases in response to cooling, more distally formed aggregates become too small and rare to modify sedimentation-rate decay from that of suspension flows containing solid particles. The key difference between the two transport systems is particle concentration, C. Since particle collision rate Rcoll C2, collision rates in fluidized beds are so high that all particles immediately aggregate when coalescence efficiency (1>=Ecoal>=0) is larger than 10-3. Low-concentration suspensions, on the other hand, require much higher values of Ecoal for significant aggregation to occur. Dilute pyroclastic flows will have higher particle volume fractions ( 10-3) than the experimental currents, but then viscous pyroclasts should have lower coalescence efficiencies than PEG droplets. Experimental results thus support an expanded turbulent transport mechanism of pyroclastic flows generating extensive high-grade ignimbrite sheets.

  19. Low Grade Gliomas in Children.

    PubMed

    Chalil, Alan; Ramaswamy, Vijay

    2016-03-01

    Gliomas represent the most common solid tumor of the nervous system, and can occur as both low and high-grade tumors. Current risk stratification and treatment approaches rely heavily on the morphological classification of gliomas whereby low-grade gliomas have an excellent prognosis, particularly pilocytic astrocytomas, while high-grade gliomas have a poor prognosis. The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in scholars' knowledge of the biology of pediatric low-grade gliomas particularly through the advent of integrated genomics and next generation sequencing. Indeed, many of these biological advances are changing treatment paradigms, particularly in low-grade gliomas, where rationale targeted therapies are currently being explored in clinical trials. In this review the authors summarize the current approach to pediatric low grade gliomas and outline the biological advances over the past 10 years, which will be driving the next generation of clinical trials. PMID:26286938

  20. Grading Practices: The Third Rail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Although Social Security funds are in decline and no solution is evident, few politicians have the temerity to try to change the system. Why? Because Social Security is the third rail in politics: if one touches it, he or she will die. The field of education has an issue that is equally as lethal: grading. Grading is one of the most private…

  1. Graded Hilbert C*-modules

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chunxiang

    2014-02-15

    The notion of Hilbert C*-modules graded by a semilattice was first introduced in the study of many-body systems. We show the relationship between these Hilbert C*-modules and their homogeneous subspaces. We study the stability of graded Hilbert C*-modules under tensor products and crossed products.

  2. Grading Practices: The Third Rail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Although Social Security funds are in decline and no solution is evident, few politicians have the temerity to try to change the system. Why? Because Social Security is the third rail in politics: if one touches it, he or she will die. The field of education has an issue that is equally as lethal: grading. Grading is one of the most private…

  3. The Project MACULA Retinal Pigment Epithelium Grading System for Histology and Optical Coherence Tomography in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zanzottera, Emma C.; Messinger, Jeffrey D.; Ach, Thomas; Smith, R. Theodore; Freund, K. Bailey; Curcio, Christine A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To seek pathways of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) fate in age-related macular degeneration via a morphology grading system; provide nomenclature, visualization targets, and metrics for clinical imaging and model systems. Methods. Donor eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and one GA eye with previous clinical spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) imaging were processed for histology, photodocumented, and annotated at predefined locations. Retinal pigment epithelial cells contained spindle-shaped melanosomes, apposed a basal lamina or basal laminar deposit (BLamD), and exhibited recognizable morphologies. Thicknesses and unbiased estimates of frequencies were obtained. Results. In 13 GA eyes (449 locations), ‘Shedding,’ ‘Sloughed,’ and ‘Dissociated’ morphologies were abundant; 22.2% of atrophic locations had ‘Dissociated’ RPE. In 39 CNV eyes (1363 locations), 37.3% of locations with fibrovascular/fibrocellular scar had ‘Entombed’ RPE; ‘Sloughed,’ ‘Dissociated,’ and ‘Bilaminar’ morphologies were abundant. Of abnormal RPE, CNV and GA both had ?35% ‘Sloughed’/‘Intraretinal,’ with more Intraretinal in CNV (9.5% vs. 1.8%). ‘Shedding’ cells associated with granule aggregations in BLamD. The RPE layer did not thin, and BLamD remained thick, with progression. Granule-containing material consistent with three morphologies correlated to SDOCT hyperreflective foci in the previously examined GA patient. Conclusions. Retinal pigment epithelium morphology indicates multiple pathways in GA and CNV. Atrophic/scarred areas have numerous cells capable of transcribing genes and generating imaging signals. Shed granule aggregates, possibly apoptotic, are visible in SDOCT, as are ‘Dissociated’ and ‘Sloughed’ cells. The significance of RPE phenotypes is addressable in longitudinal, high-resolution imaging in clinic populations. Data can motivate future molecular phenotyping studies. PMID:25813989

  4. Composition-graded nanowire solar cells fabricated in a single process for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Derek; Liu, Zhicheng; Shelhammer, David; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Nanomaterials such as semiconductor nanowires have unique features that could enable novel optoelectronic applications such as novel solar cells. This paper aims to demonstrate one such recently proposed concept: Monolithically Integrated Laterally Arrayed Multiple Band gap (MILAMB) solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems. Two cells with different band gaps were fabricated simultaneously in the same process on a single substrate using spatially composition-graded CdSSe alloy nanowires grown by the Dual-Gradient Method in a chemical vapor deposition system. CdSSe nanowire ensemble devices tested under 1 sun AM1.5G illumination achieved open-circuit voltages up to 307 and 173 mV and short-circuit current densities as high as 0.091 and 0.974 mA/cm(2) for the CdS- and CdSe-rich cells, respectively. The open-circuit voltages were roughly three times those of similar CdSSe film cells fabricated for comparison due to the superior optical quality of the nanowires. I-V measurements were also performed using optical filters to simulate spectrum-splitting. The open-circuit voltages and fill factors of the CdS-rich subcells were uniformly larger than the corresponding CdSe-rich cells for similar photon flux, as expected. This suggests that if all wires can be contacted, the wide-gap cell is expected to have greater output power than the narrow-gap cell, which is the key to achieving high efficiencies with spectrum-splitting. This paper thus provides the first proof-of-concept demonstration of simultaneous fabrication of MILAMB solar cells. This approach to solar cell fabrication using single-crystal nanowires for spectrum-splitting photovoltaics could provide a future low-cost high-efficiency alternative to the conventional high-cost high-efficiency tandem cells. PMID:25203692

  5. Standards-Based Mathematics Training To Improve Teacher's Content Knowledge and Enhance Parental Support for Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Lora B.

    The purpose of this research is to provide elementary mathematics teachers strategies that will enhance their knowledge of standards-based mathematics content and pedagogy and to increase parents' and homework help-line employees' knowledge of standards-based mathematics concepts. Teacher participation in standards-based mathematics activities is…

  6. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  7. Plasma spraying of functionally graded yttria stabilized zirconia/NiCoCrAlY coating system using composite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khor, K. A.; Gu, Y. W.; Dong, Z. L.

    2000-06-01

    Pre-alloyed and plasma spheroidized composite powders were used as the feedstock in the plasma spraying of functionally graded yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/NiCoCrAlY coatings. The ball milling parameters of the composite powders and the plasma spraying parameters for preparing functionally graded materials (FMGs) coatings were optimized to obtain the best performance for the thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). Microstructure, physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of YSZ/NiCoCrAlY FGMs coatings were investigated and compared with those of traditional duplex coatings. Results showed that the advantages of using pre-alloyed composite powders in plasma spraying were to ensure chemical homogeneity and promote uniform density along the graded layers. Microstructure observation showed the gradient distribution of YSZ and NiCoCrAlY phases in the coating, and no clear interface was found between two adjacent different layers. Oxidation occurred during plasma spray and the resultant aluminum oxide combines with YSZ in a wide range of proportions. The bond strength of functionally graded coatings was about twice as high as that of the duplex coatings because of the significant reduction of the residual stresses in the coatings. The thermal cycling resistance of functionally graded coating was much better than that of duplex coating.

  8. Follicular lymphoma grade 3: review and updates.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Gayatri; Czuczman, Myron S

    2014-12-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL), Grade 3, is recognized as a distinct entity in the World Health Organization classification of lymphoma. It is further classified into Grade 3a and Grade 3b depending on the Bernard cell counting system and percentage of centroblasts. Grade 3 has molecular and genetic characteristics that distinguish it from other grades of FL. There is confusion and misunderstanding about the natural history and clinical course of Grade 3a and 3b because some studies indicate them as having indolent behavior and others describe more aggressive biology. The purpose of this article is to understand the concept of Grade 3 FL, especially the fundamental differences between Grade 3a and Grade 3b FL. Grade 3 FL is still an evolving subclass in FL and the practicing physician should understand the aggressive nature of Grade 3b, which typically requires timely attention, compared with Grade 3a. Grade 3a FL has more indolent characteristics but can possibly progress to Grade 3b and/or transform to diffuse large B-cell lymphoma at a future time. Nevertheless, large prospective studies are missing for an optimal evidence-based management approach for patients with Grade 3 FL at this time. PMID:25066038

  9. AN INVESTIGATION OF ACHIEVEMENT GRADING BASED ON SCHOLASTIC ABILITY DISTRIBUTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MASON, GEOFFREY

    IN A STUDY OF GRADING METHODS PRACTICED BY TEACHERS OF 103 SIXTH GRADE CLASSES, IT WAS FOUND THAT USE OF THE I.Q. SYSTEM AS A BASIS FOR ACHIEVEMENT GRADING PRODUCES APPROXIMATELY THE SAME RESULTS AS PERMITTING TEACHERS TO USE THEIR OWN JUDGMENT IN ASSIGNING ACHIEVEMENT GRADES. TWO HYPOTHESES WERE TESTED--(1) THE AVERAGE I.Q. LETTER GRADE OF A…

  10. Pathological Assessment of the AJCC Tumor Regression Grading System After Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy for Chinese Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu-Ning; Xiao, Wei-Wei; Xi, Shao-Yan; OuYang, Pu-Yun; You, Kai-Yun; Zeng, Zhi-Fan; Ding, Pei-Rong; Zhang, Hui-Zhong; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Xu, Rui-Hua; Gao, Yuan-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We used American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual system to assess the prognostic significance of tumor regression grading (TRG) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) (T3/4 or N+) patients who were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT).The 4 AJCC-TRG classifications were evaluated on surgical specimens from 295 LARC patients receiving CRT. Overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression model.Classifications of TRG 0, 1, 2, and 3 were found in 27.5%, 19.3%, 45.7%, and 7.5% of the resected specimens, respectively. Three-year OS was 95.5% for TRG0, 91.5% for TRG1, 84.8% for TRG2, and 85.7% for TRG3 (P?=?0.035). Three-year DFS was 89.0% for TRG0, 74.4% for TRG1, 70.9% for TRG2, and 62% for TRG3 (P?=?0.018). By multivariate analysis, AJCC-TRG (P?=?0.033), residual lymph node metastasis (ypN+) (P?

  11. Dietary xylooligosaccharide downregulates IFN-γ and the low-grade inflammatory cytokine IL-1β systemically in mice.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Camilla H F; Frøkiær, Hanne; Christensen, Annette G; Bergström, Anders; Licht, Tine R; Hansen, Axel K; Metzdorff, Stine B

    2013-04-01

    Dietary carbohydrates improve growth conditions for distinct populations of bacteria that may affect mucosal and systemic immunity. In this study, we fed in a parallel experiment a 10% xylooligosaccharide (XOS)-supplemented diet or a control diet to 2 groups of male C57BL/6NTac mice for 10 wk from weaning. We found that the XOS diet significantly increased Bifidobacterium throughout the intestine compared with control-fed mice, with the highest proportions found in the ileum after XOS feeding (P < 0.001). In the intestinal epithelium, most innate immune-related genes were unaffected by XOS feeding, whereas expression of interleukin 1β (Il1β) (P < 0.01) and interferon γ (Ifnγ) (P < 0.05) was significantly less in blood from XOS-fed mice than from control-fed mice. In vitro treatment of blood with propionate significantly decreased Il1β (P < 0.01), Ifnγ (P < 0.01), and interleukin 18 (Il18) (P < 0.001) expression, supporting our hypothesis that increased production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the gut, which are transported across the intestine and into the systemic compartments, results in downregulation of low-grade inflammatory cytokines. The defensin regenerating islet-derived protein 3γ (RegIIIγ) was significantly more highly expressed in the small intestine (P < 0.01) in XOS-fed mice compared with control-fed mice, suggesting only minor contact between bifidobacteria and epithelial cells. In support of this, the SCFA-induced sodium/hydrogen exchanger isoform 3 expression tended to be greater in the XOS group than in the control group (P = 0.06), indicating an indirect SCFA-mediated antiinflammatory effect of XOS. In conclusion, XOS feeding decreases systemic inflammation, and this effect is most likely caused by higher SCFA concentrations as a result of an increased bifidobacterial saccharolytic fermentation in the entire gut and not only in the large intestine. PMID:23427328

  12. Clinical Validation of the 2005 ISUP Gleason Grading System in a Cohort of Intermediate and High Risk Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Kasra; Fedor, Helen; Glavaris, Stephanie; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Tosoian, Jeffrey; Johnson, Michael H.; Davicioni, Elai; Trock, Bruce J.; Schaeffer, Edward M.; Ross, Ashley E.; Netto, George J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2005, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced several modifications to the original Gleason system that were intended to enhance the prognostic power of Gleason score (GS). The objective of this study was to clinically validate the 2005 ISUP Gleason grading system for its ability to detect metastasis. We queried our institutional RP database for men with NCCN clinically localized intermediate to high-risk disease undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1992 and 2010 with no additional treatment until the time of metastatic progression. A case-cohort design was utilized. A total of 333 available RP samples were re-reviewed and GS was reassigned per the 2005 ISUP Gleason system. Cumulative incidence of metastasis was 0%, 8.4%, 24.5% and 44.4% among specimens that were downgraded, unchanged, had one point GS increase and two point GS increase, respectively. The hazard ratio for metastasis raised in GS 8 and 9 compared to GS 7 from 2.77 and 5.91 to 3.49 and 9.31, respectively. The survival c-index of GS increased from 0.70 to 0.80 when samples were re-graded at 5 years post RP. The c-index of the reassigned GS was higher than the original GS (0.77 vs 0.64) for predicting PCSM at 10 years post RP. The regraded GS improved the prediction of metastasis and PCSM. This validates the updated Gleason grading system using an unambiguous clinical endpoint and highlights the need for reassignment of Gleason grading according to 2005 ISUP system when considering comparisons of novel biomarkers to clinicopathological variables in archival cohorts. PMID:26731672

  13. Clinical Validation of the 2005 ISUP Gleason Grading System in a Cohort of Intermediate and High Risk Men Undergoing Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Sheila F; Bezerra, Stephania M; Yousefi, Kasra; Fedor, Helen; Glavaris, Stephanie; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Tosoian, Jeffrey; Johnson, Michael H; Davicioni, Elai; Trock, Bruce J; Schaeffer, Edward M; Ross, Ashley E; Netto, George J

    2016-01-01

    In 2005, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) introduced several modifications to the original Gleason system that were intended to enhance the prognostic power of Gleason score (GS). The objective of this study was to clinically validate the 2005 ISUP Gleason grading system for its ability to detect metastasis. We queried our institutional RP database for men with NCCN clinically localized intermediate to high-risk disease undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP) between 1992 and 2010 with no additional treatment until the time of metastatic progression. A case-cohort design was utilized. A total of 333 available RP samples were re-reviewed and GS was reassigned per the 2005 ISUP Gleason system. Cumulative incidence of metastasis was 0%, 8.4%, 24.5% and 44.4% among specimens that were downgraded, unchanged, had one point GS increase and two point GS increase, respectively. The hazard ratio for metastasis raised in GS 8 and 9 compared to GS 7 from 2.77 and 5.91 to 3.49 and 9.31, respectively. The survival c-index of GS increased from 0.70 to 0.80 when samples were re-graded at 5 years post RP. The c-index of the reassigned GS was higher than the original GS (0.77 vs 0.64) for predicting PCSM at 10 years post RP. The regraded GS improved the prediction of metastasis and PCSM. This validates the updated Gleason grading system using an unambiguous clinical endpoint and highlights the need for reassignment of Gleason grading according to 2005 ISUP system when considering comparisons of novel biomarkers to clinicopathological variables in archival cohorts. PMID:26731672

  14. Modern shallow-water graded sand layers from storm surges, Bering Shelf: a mimic of Bouma sequences and turbidite systems.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    A sequence of graded sand layers, interbedded with mud, extends offshore over 100km from the Yukon Delta shoreline across the flat, shallow epicontinental shelf of the northern Bering Sea, Alaska. Proximal graded sand beds on the delta-front platform near the shoreline are coarser, thicker and contain more complete vertical sequences of sedimentary structures than distal beds. The sequence of graded sands appears to be related to the major storm surges that occur every several years. The major storms increase the average 10-m water depth in southern Norton Sound as much as 5m and cause fluctuations in pore pressure from wave cyclic loading that may liquefy the upper 2 to 3m of sediment. -from Author

  15. Dimensions of Norm-Referenced Compulsory School Grades and Their Relative Importance for the Prediction of Upper Secondary School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsen, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of the grading system, grades are the most valid instrument for predicting educational success. Previous studies have shown that criterion-referenced compulsory school grades are multidimensional, reflecting subject-specific dimensions and a common grade dimension, both of which contribute to the predictive validity of grades. This…

  16. Dimensions of Norm-Referenced Compulsory School Grades and Their Relative Importance for the Prediction of Upper Secondary School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsen, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of the grading system, grades are the most valid instrument for predicting educational success. Previous studies have shown that criterion-referenced compulsory school grades are multidimensional, reflecting subject-specific dimensions and a common grade dimension, both of which contribute to the predictive validity of grades. This…

  17. [GRADE: Methodology for formulating and grading recommendations in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Andrea Juliana; Rigau, David; Rotaeche, Rafael; Selva, Anna; Marzo-Castillejo, Mercè; Alonso-Coello, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines (CPG) provide recommendations on the benefits and harms of different healthcare interventions. Proper CPG development and implementation can potentially reduce variability in clinical practice while improving its quality and safety. The GRADE system is used to assess the quality of evidence and to grade the strength of recommendations in the context of the development of CPGs, systematic reviews or health technology assessments. The aim of this article is to describe the main characteristics of the GRADE system through relevant examples in the context of primary care. PMID:24684818

  18. Flat-plate solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The process technology for the manufacture of semiconductor-grade silicon in a large commercial plant by 1986, at a price less than $14 per kilogram of silicon based on 1975 dollars is discussed. The engineering design, installation, checkout, and operation of an Experimental Process System Development unit was discussed. Quality control of scaling-up the process and an economic analysis of product and production costs are discussed.

  19. Increasing On-Task Behavior in Every Student in a Second-Grade Classroom during Transitions: Validating the Color Wheel System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fudge, Daniel L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Jacqueline L.; Cowden, Dan; Clark, Janice; Bliss, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A single-case (B-C-B-C) experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel classroom management system (CWS) on on-task (OT) behavior in an intact, general-education, 2nd-grade classroom during transitions. The CWS included three sets of rules, posted cues to indicate the rules students are expected to be following at that…

  20. Low cost solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and installation of an experimental process system development unit (EPSDU) were analyzed. Supporting research and development were performed to provide an information data base usable for the EPSDU and for technological design and economical analysis for potential scale-up of the process. Iterative economic analyses were conducted for the estimated product cost for the production of semiconductor grade silicon in a facility capable of producing 1000-MT/Yr.

  1. A Professional Learning Community at Work: Developing a Standards-Based Principal Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackmann, Donald G.; Walker, Janice M.; Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2006-01-01

    Due to the state's recent adoption of the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium standards, all leadership preparation programs are required to develop a standards-based curriculum emphasizing the principal's responsibility to lead schools committed to student success. The Midwest State University (MSU) educational leadership faculty,…

  2. Making Meaning in a Standards-Based World: Negotiating Tensions in Global Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    In a largely standards-driven educational climate, educators are challenged to navigate the tensions between standards-based, scholarly pursuits and the more experiential, student-driven techniques of technology-enabled global education. At a time when these tensions are at their zenith, we need to prioritize global competencies and other…

  3. Got Health? The Hawaii Partnership for Standards-based School Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pateman, Beth; Irvin, Lola Hiroko; Nakasato, Steve; Serna, Kuulei; Yahata, Dan K.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Hawaii Partnership for Standards-Based School Health Education, which includes various state agencies, a university, local businesses, and the American Cancer Society, highlighting: the development of the standards; the history of the partnership; partnership activities to date; concurrent supporting efforts; future plans; and…

  4. Leandro: The Merging of Adequacy and Standards-Based Reforms. SERVE Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColl, Ann

    This policy brief addresses the first two rulings of the North Carolina lawsuit on the state constitutional right to education, commonly referred to as "Leandro." The "Leandro" Supreme Court opinion and subsequent court rulings add a model of adequacy that dovetails almost perfectly with standards-based education reform. Model elements include:…

  5. Professional Knowledge and Standards-Based Reforms: Learning from the Experiences of Early Career Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the paradoxical situation of early career teachers in this era of standards-based reforms, beginning with the experiences of an English teacher working in a state school in Queensland, Australia and expanding to consider the viewpoints of her colleagues. Our goal is to trace the ways she and the other early career teachers at…

  6. Tech-Know: Integrating Engaging Activities through Standards-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Taylor, Jerianne S.; Peterson, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2001, North Carolina State University received a four-year grant from the National Science Foundation to develop standards-based instructional materials for 20 Technology Student Association (TSA) activities. The TECH-know Project represents a significant collaboration between selected state departments, universities, businesses, and…

  7. Development and Evaluation of a Standards-Based Approach to Instruction in General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Eugene P.; DiBiase, Warren J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Operation CHEM1251, an on-going project designed to implement a standards-based approach to instruction in the general chemistry curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Results indicate that this is the first time in five years that any day-time first semester general chemistry course section scored significantly…

  8. Teacher Preparation: Assessing Teacher Quality, Administrative Support, Standards-Based Teacher Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliakoff, Anne Rogers, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of papers focuses on the preparation of teachers by university-based education programs. The papers are: "The STEPS That Support P-12 Learning and Achievement" (Diana Rigden), which describes the Standards-based Teacher Education Project (STEP) for improving student learning; "The Responsibility for Assessing Beginning Teachers"…

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Standards-Based Approach to Instruction in General Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Eugene P.; DiBiase, Warren J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes Operation CHEM1251, an on-going project designed to implement a standards-based approach to instruction in the general chemistry curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Results indicate that this is the first time in five years that any day-time first semester general chemistry course section scored significantly…

  10. Successful Strategies for Implementation of a High School Standards-Based Integrated Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Math achievement for students in the United States is not as high as in other countries. In response, one state implemented a new standards-based, integrated math curriculum that combines traditional high school math courses and emphasizes student centered instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of a standards…

  11. The Social Organization of School Counseling in the Era of Standards-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    The reform policies of standards-based accountability, as outlined in NCLB, impede the functioning of school counseling programs and the delivery of services to students. Although recent studies have focused on the transformation of the school counseling profession, a gap exists in the literature with regard to how the experiences of school…

  12. Geography for Life and Standards-Based Education in the Commonwealth of Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, David A.; Mountain, Keith R.

    2004-01-01

    Public education in Kentucky schools was fundamentally changed in 1990 with the passage of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). This educational reform--mandated by the Kentucky Supreme Court ruling that funding for Kentucky public school districts was neither adequate nor equitably distributed--established a platform on which standards-based…

  13. Standards-Based Evaluation and Teacher Career Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, Sharon; Muncey, Donna E.; You, Sukkyung

    2005-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of a conceptual model specifying hypothesized linkages among perceptions of characteristics of standards-based evaluation, work environment mediators, and career satisfaction and other outcomes. Four comprehensive high schools located in two neighboring counties in southern…

  14. The Impact of Standards-Based Reform: Applying Brantlinger's Critique of "Hierarchical Ideologies"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Jessica; Ferri, Beth

    2013-01-01

    Brantlinger's [2004b. "Ideologies Discerned, Values Determined: Getting past the Hierarchies of Special Education." In "Ideology and the Politics of (in)Exclusion," edited by L. Ware, 11-31. New York: Peter Lang Publishing] critique of hierarchical ideologies lays bare the logics embedded in standards-based reform. Drawing…

  15. The Social Organization of School Counseling in the Era of Standards-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    The reform policies of standards-based accountability, as outlined in NCLB, impede the functioning of school counseling programs and the delivery of services to students. Although recent studies have focused on the transformation of the school counseling profession, a gap exists in the literature with regard to how the experiences of school…

  16. Standards-Based Education Reform in Wisconsin: What It Will Take To Make It Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark; Western, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Standards-based reform activity dominated K-12 education during the 1990s, reflecting a consensus that improving learning requires state-level curricular standards and examinations. Opponents argue state-imposed standards and tests overly burden districts, degrade teaching and learning, suffer from numerous technical problems, and have failed to…

  17. "Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics achievement.…

  18. "Standards"-based Mathematics Curricula and Secondary Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwell, Michael R.; Post, Thomas R.; Maeda, Yukiko; Davis, Jon D.; Cutler, Arnold L.; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the mathematical achievement of high school students enrolled for 3 years in one of three NSF funded "Standards"-based curricula (IMP, CMIC, MMOW). The focus was on traditional topics in mathematics as measured by subtests of a standardized achievement test and a criterion-referenced test of mathematics achievement.…

  19. Historicizing and Contextualizing Global Policy Discourses: Test- and Standards-Based Accountabilities in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lingard, Bob

    2013-01-01

    This paper in commenting on the contributions to this special number demonstrates the necessity of historicizing and contextualizing the rise of test- and standards-based modes of accountability in contemporary education policy globally. Both are imperative for understanding specific national manifestations of what has become a globalized…

  20. Evaluation of stone-free rate using Guy's Stone Score and assessment of complications using modified Clavien grading system for percutaneous nephro-lithotomy.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajan Kumar; Mukherjee, Subhabrata; Jindal, Tarun; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Saha, Barun; Mitra, Nilanjan; Kumar, Jay; Mukhopadhyay, Chandranath; Ghosh, Nabankur; Kamal, Mir Reza; Mandal, Soumendra Nath; Karmakar, Dilip

    2015-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate the ability of Guy's Stone Score (GSS) in predicting stone clearance rate and complication rate (by modified Clavien grade) for renal stones treated by percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). From January 2013 to June 2014, a total of 142 patients undergoing PNL were evaluated prospectively. Patients with co-morbidities like hypertension, diabetes, renal failure were excluded from the study. All patients were classified according to GSS based on the findings of pre-operative intravenous urography (IVU) and per-operative retrograde pyelography (RGP). All PNL procedures were done by standard technique in prone position and success was defined as no residual stone visible on X-ray KUB done on the third postoperative day. Complications were classified according to modified Clavien grading system. The initial stone clearance rate was 71.1% and overall final stone clearance rate was 90.14%. The complication rate according to Clavien grading system was 40.1%. The final stone clearance rates were 93.9, 85.71, 90.47, and 77.77% in GSS I, II, III, and IV, respectively (p<0.001, <0.05, <0.05 and >0.05, respectively). The Clavien complication rates were 23, 61, 52, and 77.7% in GSS I, II, III, and IV, respectively (p<0.001). The GSS is a simple and easily reproducible system to preoperatively predict stone-free rate and perioperative complication rate. It helps in better patient counseling preoperatively. PMID:25850962

  1. 77 FR 35163 - Systems for Telephonic Notification of Unsafe Conditions at Highway-Rail and Pathway Grade Crossings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... (NPRM) published March 4, 2011 (76 FR 11992). To a certain extent, this rule also builds on pre-existing... or pathway grade crossing.'' 76 FR 11992, 12009 (March 4, 2011). The CPUC recommended that all public... modified inventory database that facilitates the identification of the relevant crossing and railroad....

  2. An Exercise in Using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Hazard Ranking System: A Simulation. Grades 8-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HAZWRAP, The Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program.

    The educational objective of this exercise is for students to use a risk assessment tool to evaluate a hazardous release site and for students in grades 8-12 to increase their experience with geology, aquifers, soils, land use, pollution, data analysis, and map concepts. Students use background information on hazardous materials, the Environmental…

  3. Xbox Kinect Gaming Systems as a Supplemental Tool within a Physical Education Setting: Third and Fourth Grade Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewmake, Cole J.; Merrie, Michael D.; Calleja, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Literature indicates that technology, including exergaming, is popular among adolescents and can be used as a supplemental tool in the physical education classroom. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine third and fourth grade students' perceived enjoyment and exertion levels toward exergaming in relation to traditional physical…

  4. The International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading system for renal cell carcinoma and other prognostic parameters.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; Cheville, John C; Martignoni, Guido; Humphrey, Peter A; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; McKenney, Jesse; Egevad, Lars; Algaba, Ferran; Moch, Holger; Grignon, David J; Montironi, Rodolfo; Srigley, John R

    2013-10-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology 2012 Consensus Conference made recommendations regarding classification, prognostic factors, staging, and immunohistochemical and molecular assessment of adult renal tumors. Issues relating to prognostic factors were coordinated by a workgroup who identified tumor morphotype, sarcomatoid/rhabdoid differentiation, tumor necrosis, grading, and microvascular invasion as potential prognostic parameters. There was consensus that the main morphotypes of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) were of prognostic significance, that subtyping of papillary RCC (types 1 and 2) provided additional prognostic information, and that clear cell tubulopapillary RCC was associated with a more favorable outcome. For tumors showing sarcomatoid or rhabdoid differentiation, there was consensus that a minimum proportion of tumor was not required for diagnostic purposes. It was also agreed upon that the underlying subtype of carcinoma should be reported. For sarcomatoid carcinoma, it was further agreed upon that if the underlying carcinoma subtype was absent the tumor should be classified as a grade 4 unclassified carcinoma with a sarcomatoid component. Tumor necrosis was considered to have prognostic significance, with assessment based on macroscopic and microscopic examination of the tumor. It was recommended that for clear cell RCC the amount of necrosis should be quantified. There was consensus that nucleolar prominence defined grades 1 to 3 of clear cell and papillary RCCs, whereas extreme nuclear pleomorphism or sarcomatoid and/or rhabdoid differentiation defined grade 4 tumors. It was agreed upon that chromophobe RCC should not be graded. There was consensus that microvascular invasion should not be included as a staging criterion for RCC. PMID:24025520

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

    2005-02-01

    This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length and depth could be determined for deep enough cracks. Defect shadow and short length effects were apparent but may be taken into account. The SH0 scan was done with the mule prototype circuits and permanent magnet EMATs. These gave good enough results that this hardware and the processing techniques are very encouraging for use in a practical ILI tool.

  6. The effectiveness of the Invisalign appliance in extraction cases using the the ABO model grading system: a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weihong; Wang, Shimei; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess treatment outcomes of the Invisalign and compare results with braces. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two adult orthodontic patients, referred to two Orthodontic Specialist Clinics, were randomized to receive either invisalign or brace treatment. All patients were evaluated by using methods from the American Board of Orthodontics Phase III examination. The discrepancy index was used to analyze pretreatment records to control for initial severity of malocclusion. The objective grading system was used to systematically grade posttreatment records. The Wilcoxon 2-sample tests were used to evaluate treatment outcome of Invisalign and braces. Results: The total mean scores of the objective grading system categories were improved after treatment in both groups. The improvements were not statistically significant in scores for alignment, marginal ridges, occlusal relations, over jet, inter-proximal contacts, and root angulation. Invisalign scores were consistently lower than braces scores for buccolingual inclination and occlusal contacts. Conclusions: The overall improvement in OGS scores indicate that both Invisalign and fixed appliances were successful in treating Class I adult extraction cases in this sample. PMID:26221410

  7. Development of a decision support system for diagnosis and grading of brain tumours using in vivo magnetic resonance single voxel spectra.

    PubMed

    Tate, Anne R; Underwood, Joshua; Acosta, Dionisio M; Julià-Sapé, Margarida; Majós, Carles; Moreno-Torres, Angel; Howe, Franklyn A; van der Graaf, Marinette; Lefournier, Virginie; Murphy, Mary M; Loosemore, Alison; Ladroue, Christophe; Wesseling, Pieter; Luc Bosson, Jean; Cabañas, Miquel E; Simonetti, Arjan W; Gajewicz, Witold; Calvar, Jorge; Capdevila, Antoni; Wilkins, Peter R; Bell, B Anthony; Rémy, Chantal; Heerschap, Arend; Watson, Des; Griffiths, John R; Arús, Carles

    2006-06-01

    A computer-based decision support system to assist radiologists in diagnosing and grading brain tumours has been developed by the multi-centre INTERPRET project. Spectra from a database of 1H single-voxel spectra of different types of brain tumours, acquired in vivo from 334 patients at four different centres, are clustered according to their pathology, using automated pattern recognition techniques and the results are presented as a two-dimensional scatterplot using an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI). Formal quality control procedures were performed to standardize the performance of the instruments and check each spectrum, and teams of expert neuroradiologists, neurosurgeons, neurologists and neuropathologists clinically validated each case. The prototype decision support system (DSS) successfully classified 89% of the cases in an independent test set of 91 cases of the most frequent tumour types (meningiomas, low-grade gliomas and high-grade malignant tumours--glioblastomas and metastases). It also helps to resolve diagnostic difficulty in borderline cases. When the prototype was tested by radiologists and other clinicians it was favourably received. Results of the preliminary clinical analysis of the added value of using the DSS for brain tumour diagnosis with MRS showed a small but significant improvement over MRI used alone. In the comparison of individual pathologies, PNETs were significantly better diagnosed with the DSS than with MRI alone. PMID:16763971

  8. Method and system using power modulation for maskless vapor deposition of spatially graded thin film and multilayer coatings with atomic-level precision and accuracy

    DOEpatents

    Montcalm, Claude; Folta, James Allen; Tan, Swie-In; Reiss, Ira

    2002-07-30

    A method and system for producing a film (preferably a thin film with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) on a flat or graded substrate (such as concave or convex optics), by sweeping the substrate across a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. In preferred embodiments, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. A user selects a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a predetermined desired thickness profile of the deposited film. The method relies on precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

  9. A Standards-Based Content Analysis of Selected Biological Science Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled…

  10. A Standards-Based Content Analysis of Selected Biological Science Websites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Joy E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the biology content, instructional strategies, and assessment methods of 100 biological science websites that were appropriate for Grade 12 educational purposes. For the analysis of each website, an instrument, developed from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for Grade 12 Life Science coupled…

  11. Analysis of a grading system to assess the quality of small-bowel preparation for capsule endoscopy: in search of the Holy Grail

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Jatinder; Goel, Anshum; McGwin, Gerald; Weber, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy is vulnerable to inadequate visualization related to residual bile or chyme remaining in the lumen despite intestinal lavage. It has been challenging to determine the optimal lavage preparation of the bowel and patient diet before capsule endoscopy, as well as the timing of the procedure, because no well-accepted, validated grading system for assessing the quality of intestinal lavage before capsule endoscopy is available. There remains no consensus on the reliability of qualitative, quantitative, or computer-derived assessments of the quality of preparation for capsule endoscopy. This study evaluates intra-observer and interobserver agreement for a previously validated scale. Materials and methods: The digital images of 34 patients who underwent capsule endoscopy were independently reviewed by two blinded physicians according to a previously validated grading scale. One of the physicians reviewed and graded the patients a second time. The quality of the bowel luminal preparation was assessed with a qualitative parameter (fluid transparency) and a more quantitative parameter (mucosal invisibility) for each of three small-intestinal segments, and an overall small-bowel score for each parameter was assigned as well. A weighted kappa coefficient was used to calculate intra-observer (observer 1A and 1B) and interobserver (observer 1A and observer 2) agreement. A kappa value of 0.60 or more suggests strong agreement, 0.40 to 0.60 moderate agreement, and less than 0.40 poor agreement. Results: The intra-observer weighted kappa index for both fluid transparency and mucosal visibility was 0.52, which is consistent with moderate agreement. The interobserver weighted kappa indices for fluid transparency and mucosal invisibility were 0.29 and 0.42, respectively, demonstrating suboptimal interobserver agreement. The individual segment interobserver kappa indices were better for mucosal visibility (0.52, 0.39, and 0.47 for small-bowel segments 1, 2, and 3, respectively) than for fluid transparency (0.18, 0.38, and 0.31). Conclusions: The proposed grading scale for assessing the quality of preparation for capsule endoscopy has inadequate interobserver and intra-observer agreement. Capsule endoscopy preparation grading scales that focus more on quantitative than on qualitative assessment may demonstrate more reliable performance characteristics. Optimizing the quality of preparation and diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy will first require the development of a well-validated grading scale. PMID:26134966

  12. Best Practices for Making Scientific Data Discoverable and Accessible through Integrated, Standards-Based Data Portals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucido, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists in the fields of hydrology, geophysics, and climatology are increasingly using the vast quantity of publicly-available data to address broadly-scoped scientific questions. For example, researchers studying contamination of nearshore waters could use a combination of radar indicated precipitation, modeled water currents, and various sources of in-situ monitoring data to predict water quality near a beach. In discovering, gathering, visualizing and analyzing potentially useful data sets, data portals have become invaluable tools. The most effective data portals often aggregate distributed data sets seamlessly and allow multiple avenues for accessing the underlying data, facilitated by the use of open standards. Additionally, adequate metadata are necessary for attribution, documentation of provenance and relating data sets to one another. Metadata also enable thematic, geospatial and temporal indexing of data sets and entities. Furthermore, effective portals make use of common vocabularies for scientific methods, units of measure, geologic features, chemical, and biological constituents as they allow investigators to correctly interpret and utilize data from external sources. One application that employs these principles is the National Ground Water Monitoring Network (NGWMN) Data Portal (http://cida.usgs.gov/ngwmn), which makes groundwater data from distributed data providers available through a single, publicly accessible web application by mediating and aggregating native data exposed via web services on-the-fly into Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant service output. That output may be accessed either through the map-based user interface or through the aforementioned OGC web services. Furthermore, the Geo Data Portal (http://cida.usgs.gov/climate/gdp/), which is a system that provides users with data access, subsetting and geospatial processing of large and complex climate and land use data, exemplifies the application of International Standards Organization (ISO) metadata records to enhance data discovery for both human and machine interpretation. Lastly, the Water Quality Portal (http://www.waterqualitydata.us/) achieves interoperable dissemination of water quality data by referencing a vocabulary service for mapping constituents and methods between the USGS and USEPA. The NGWMN Data Portal, Geo Data Portal and Water Quality Portal are three examples of best practices when implementing data portals that provide distributed scientific data in an integrated, standards-based approach.

  13. Graded zooming

    DOEpatents

    Coffland, Douglas R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-04-25

    A system for increasing the resolution in the far field resolution of video or still frame images, while maintaining full coverage in the near field. The system includes a camera connected to a computer. The computer applies a specific zooming scale factor to each of line of pixels and continuously increases the scale factor of the line of pixels from the bottom to the top to capture the scene in the near field, yet maintain resolution in the scene in the far field.

  14. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and non-cognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades, undermining their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge the ‘increases in grade point average’ definition of grade inflation and argue that grade inflation must be understood in terms of the signaling power of grades. Analyzing data from four nationally representative samples, we find that in the decades following 1972: (a) grades have risen at high schools and dropped at four-year colleges, in general, and selective four-year institutions, in particular; and (b) the signaling power of grades has attenuated little, if at all. PMID:25288826

  15. Design and validation of a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Patricia Reda

    National standards for K--12 science education address all aspects of science education, with their main emphasis on curriculum---both science subject matter and the process involved in doing science. Standards for science teacher education programs have been developing along a parallel plane, as is self-efficacy research involving classroom teachers. Generally, studies about efficacy have been dichotomous---basing the theoretical underpinnings on the work of either Rotter's Locus of Control theory or on Bandura's explanations of efficacy beliefs and outcome expectancy. This study brings all three threads together---K--12 science standards, teacher education standards, and efficacy beliefs---in an instrument designed to measure science teacher efficacy with items based on identified critical attributes of standards-based science teaching and learning. Based on Bandura's explanation of efficacy being task-specific and having outcome expectancy, a developmental, systematic progression from standards-based strategies and activities to tasks to critical attributes was used to craft items for a standards-based science teacher efficacy instrument. Demographic questions related to school characteristics, teacher characteristics, preservice background, science teaching experience, and post-certification professional development were included in the instrument. The instrument was completed by 102 middle level science teachers, with complete data for 87 teachers. A principal components analysis of the science teachers' responses to the instrument resulted in two components: Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Teaching (BAT, reliability = .92) and Standards-Based Science Teacher Efficacy: Beliefs About Student Achievement (BASA, reliability = .82). Variables that were characteristic of professional development activities, science content preparation, and school environment were identified as members of the sets of variables predicting the BAT and BASA subscales. Correlations were computed for BAT, BASA, and demographic variables to identify relationships between teacher efficacy, teacher characteristics, and school characteristics. Further research is recommended to refine the instrument and apply its use to a larger sample of science teachers. Its further development also has significance for the enhancement of science teacher education programs.

  16. Graded negative index lens by photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi; Gibbons, John M; Park, Wounjhang

    2008-10-13

    Numerical studies on a graded negative index lens made by a slab of graded photonic crystal (PC) are reported. The graded negative index lens is capable of focusing plane waves and can also be made highly insensitive to frequency, enabling broadband negative index imaging. We provide a simple model for the graded PC lens and predict its superior focusing properties such as low chromatic aberrations and broadband operation. Those properties were also confirmed and analyzed by the finite-difference time-domain simulations. We believe the negative index graded PCs will expand the utility of PC lenses and enable new applications in optoelectronic systems. PMID:18852802

  17. Eighth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for eighth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, eighth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  18. Fifth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fifth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fifth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  19. First Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for first grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, first grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  20. Fourth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fourth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fourth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  1. Seventh Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for seventh grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, seventh grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  2. Science Grades 5-8 Benchmarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document explains the Arkansas science benchmarks for grades 5-8 which were developed to provide guidance to science teachers. The content standards for three strands--physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems--were identified based on grade levels. (YDS)

  3. Second Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for second grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, second grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  4. Third Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for third grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, third grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  5. Sixth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for sixth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, sixth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  6. High-gravity-assisted pulsed laser ablation system for the fabrication of functionally graded material thin film.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, T; Morinaga, S; Nagayama, K

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a novel method for the fabrication of a thin film deposited on an appropriate substrate having a continuous composition gradient. The composition gradient was achieved by a combination of pulsed laser ablation (PLA) of the target material with a very strong acceleration field generated on a moving disk rotating at a very high speed. The PLA process was used to produce a cloud of high-energy particles of the target material that will be deposited on a substrate placed on the rotating disk. After deposition, the particles will diffuse on the surface of the thin film under a strong acceleration field. The high energy of the particles and their diffusion on the substrate surface in a high-vacuum environment produces a macroscopic composition distribution in the thin film. We have constructed an experimental apparatus consisting of a vacuum chamber in which a circular disk made of titanium is driven by a high-frequency inductive motor. An acceleration field of up to 10,000 G can be generated by this apparatus. Functionally graded material thin films of FeSi(2) with a continuous concentration gradient were successfully fabricated by this method under a gravity field of 5400 G. A significant advantage of this method is that it allows us to fabricate graded thin films with a very smooth surface covered by few droplets. PMID:19334931

  7. Instituting a standards-based K--12 science curriculum supplement program at the National Institutes of Health: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witherly, Jeffre

    Research on student achievement indicates the U.S. K-12 education system is not adequately preparing American students to compete in the 21st century global economy in the areas of science and mathematics. Congress has asked the scientific entities of the federal government to help increase K-12 science learning by creating standards-based learning tools for science classrooms as part of a "voluntary curriculum." One problem facing federal entities, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is the need to create science-learning tools that conform to the National Science Education Standards (NSES) for curriculum materials and, therefore, are standards-based and applicable to the K-12 curriculum. This case study sought to better understand the change process at one federal agency as it went from producing K-12 learning tools that were educational in nature to a program that produced K-12 standards-based learning tools: the NIH Science Curriculum Supplement Program (NIH SCSP). The NIH SCSP was studied to gain insight into how this change in educational approach occurred, what factors enabled or inhibited the change process, and what the long-term benefits of the NIH SCSP are to the NIH. Kurt Lewin's three-step theory of change guided data gathering and data analysis. Semi-structured interviews and programmatic document review served as the major data gathering sources. Details describing the process of organizational change at the NIH were revealed during analysis of these data following the coding of interview transcripts and written record documents. The study found the process of change at the NIH proceeded in a manner generally predicted by the Lewinian change model. Enablers to the change were cost-sharing with individual institutes, support of senior leadership, and crediting the role of individual institutes prominently in each supplement. The cost of creating a supplement was reported as the single inhibitor to the program. This case study yielded a detailed description of the process of change at this federal institution that may offer valuable insights to similar federal organizations confronting educational change. The study may also contribute to the existing body of knowledge regarding the process of organizational change in a federal setting.

  8. Faculty/Staff Perceptions of a Standards-Based Exit Portfolio System for Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tena L.; Bailey, Rita L.

    2006-01-01

    New standards for certification were recently developed for speech-language pathology graduate training programs by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. The new standards are outcomes-based rather than process-based. Using a collective case study approach, this article highlights the perceptions of faculty and staff regarding use of a…

  9. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  10. Developing Knowledgeable Teachers: A Framework for Standards-Based Teacher Education Supported by Institutional Collaboration. The STEP Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvin, Patty, Ed.

    This collection of papers describes the process of creating a standards-based teacher education program through strong collaboration among arts and science, education, and P-12 faculty members and administrators. The Standards-based Teacher Education Project (STEP) was designed to help teacher education programs ensure that their graduates know…

  11. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  12. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  13. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and noncognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades and undermines their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge…

  14. Development of analytical tools for evaluating operations of light rail at grade within an urban signal system. Interim report 3. Research report, September 1991-August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R.A.; Walters, C.H.

    1994-11-01

    This report identifies and recommends measures of impact that are applicable to the operation of at-grade light rail crossings within traffic signal systems. The key point in identifying measures of impact is to maintain consistency with traffic signal measures of impacts. The recommended measures of impact include average delay and queue length. The report illustrates how the analyst can apply both manual calculation methods and computer models to estimate these measures of impact. Included in the discussion is a screening procedure that is desinged to minimize total work effort by identifying impacts and mitigating them with the least intensive analysis method. However, if the analysis results are marginal, then full simulation of the traffic signal system including the light rail line is warranted. The recommended programs for such evaluation are TRANSYT-7F for simpler problems and Traf-NETSIM for complex problems and analysis of system variances.

  15. Cool Apps: Building Cryospheric Data Applications with Standards-Based Service Oriented Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenburg, J.; Truslove, I.; Collins, J. A.; Liu, M.; Lewis, S.; Brodzik, M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) holds a large collection of cryospheric data, and is involved in a number of informatics research and development projects aimed at improving the discoverability and accessibility of these data. To develop high- quality software in a timely manner, we have adopted a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach for our core technical infrastructure development. Data services at NSIDC are internally exposed to other tools and applications through standards-based service interfaces. These standards include OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting), various OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards including WMS (Web Map Service) and WFS (Web Feature Service), ESIP (Federation of Earth Sciences Information Partners) OpenSearch, and NSIDC-defined service endpoints which follow a RESTful architecture. By taking a standards-based approach, we are able to use off-the-shelf tools and libraries to consume, translate and broker these data services, and thus develop applications faster. Additionally, by exposing public interfaces to these services we provide valuable data services to technical collaborators; for example, NASA Reverb (http://reverb.echo.nasa.gov) uses NSIDC's WMS services. Our latest generation of web applications consume these data services directly. The most complete example of this is the Operation IceBridge Data Portal (http://nsidc.org/icebridge/ portal) which depends on many of the aforementioned services, retrieving data in several ways. The maps it displays are obtained through the use of WMS and WFS protocols from a MapServer instance hosted at NSIDC. Links to the scientific data collected on Operation IceBridge campaigns are obtained through ESIP OpenSearch requests service providers that encapsulate our metadata databases. These standards-based web services are also developed at NSIDC and are designed to be used independently of the Portal. This poster provides a visual representation of the relationships described above, with additional details and examples, and more generally outlines the benefits and challenges of this SOA approach.

  16. Plus/Minus Grading: A within Instructor Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Michael L.; Feeney, Linda

    2006-01-01

    A three semester, within instructor, interrupted time series analysis of grading practices was conducted in order to observe the effects of the implementation of a plus minus grading system. Over 260 individual instructor's grades were compared before and after implementation of plus minus grading. The results indicate no overall effect of the…

  17. Changes in the aromatic profile of espresso coffee as a function of the grinding grade and extraction time: a study by the electronic nose system.

    PubMed

    Severini, C; Ricci, I; Marone, M; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2015-03-01

    The changes in chemical attributes and aromatic profile of espresso coffee (EC) were studied taking into account the extraction time and grinding level as independent variables. Particularly, using an electronic nose system, the changes of the global aromatic profile of EC were highlighted. The results shown as the major amounts of organic acids, solids, and caffeine were extracted in the first 8 s of percolation. The grinding grade significantly affected the quality of EC probably as an effect of the particle size distribution and the percolation pathways of water through the coffee cake. The use of an electronic nose system allowed us to discriminate the fractions of the brew as a function of the percolation time and also the regular coffee obtained from different grinding grades. Particularly, the aromatic profile of a regular coffee (25 mL) was significantly affected by the grinding level of the coffee grounds and percolation time, which are two variables under the control of the bar operator. PMID:25665600

  18. TEAM TEACHING IN ELEMENTARY GRADES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Research Service, Arlington, VA.

    INFORMATION ON THE PRACTICE OF TEAM TEACHING IN THE ELEMENTARY GRADES DRAWN FROM A SURVEY OF SCHOOL SYSTEMS HAVING SUCH PROBLEMS IS PRESENTED IN THIS CIRCULAR. OVER 400 SCHOOL SYSTEMS WITH ENROLLMENTS OF 12,000 AND ABOVE WERE INITIALLY SURVEYED, AND THE 169 WHICH INDICATED THEY USED SOME TEAM TEACHING WERE SENT QUESTIONNAIRES. THE PROGRAMS OF 76…

  19. Standards-based publication and sharing of time series information in the DRIHM project: a EU-US collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Richard; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Parodi, Antonio; Gochis, David; Jha, Shantenu; Whitenack, Thomas; Valentine, David; Caumont, Olivier; Dekic, Ljiljana; Ivkovic, Marija; Molini, Luca; Bedrina, Tatiana; Gijsbers, Peter J. A.; de Rooij, Erik; Rebora, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    To enable a plug-and-play infrastructure, the European DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project aims to develop a comprehensive data publication and sharing system presenting uniform standards-based data discovery and access interfaces for hydrometeorological data collected by DRIHM partners in several European countries. This is a challenging task due to heterogeneity in types of data being collected and organized for modeling, and different semantic and structural conventions adopted by different data publishers. To meet this goal, the DRIHM project, and its DRIHM2US extension, collaborates with the recently funded US SCIHM (Standards-based Cyberinfrastructure for HydroMeteorology) project to develop a data sharing infrastructure for time series information. We report initial results of the application of the data integrating technologies developed by the NSF-funded CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Data, Inc., Hydrologic Information System) project, to information collected within DRIHM. The CUAHSI HIS system has been widely used in the US; it provides access to about a hundred water data collections that can be queried via uniform web services. The DRIHM partners initially implementing the system, include the CIMA Research Foundation (Italy), the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. The collected time series information was ingested into CUAHSI Observations Data Model databases, and water data services were created for each of the partners. At the time of writing, the water data services include SOAP and REST endpoints that provide access to the time series in WaterML 1 and WaterML 2.0 formats. The former encoding, developed by CUAHSI HIS, has been adopted by a number of federal agencies and research groups in the US, while the latter, created by an international group of experts under the aegis of the Hydrology Domain Working Group of the Open Geospatial Consortium and the World Meteorological Organization, has been recently adopted as an international standard for exchanging hydrologic data. The services are registered at the central catalog, which supports discovery of time series based on their spatio-temporal characteristics and on variable semantics. The semantics of the measurements is aligned , in the process of publication and service registration, with a set of centrally managed controlled vocabularies and a parameter vocabulary. Data from multiple collections can be discovered, accessed, visualized and analyzed using CUAHSI HydroDesktop software, or other clients that support water data service interfaces. While HydroDesktop relies on WaterML 1 format, the Delft FEWS system, maintained by a DRIHM partner Deltares, is already capable of ingesting WaterML 2.0 services, which enables interfacing WaterML 2.0-formatted streams with forecast models. Development of a consistent data sharing system is one of the first steps in realizing DRIHM objectives. Next steps include further integration of water data services with simulation models, WRF and WRF-Hydro in particular, and integrating point time series with gridded information to be used as model input. We discuss these additional steps and associated challenges, and demonstrate the complementarity and benefits of US-EU collaboration in the development of global standards-based infrastructure for hydrometeorological data.

  20. Using First-Grade Teacher Ratings to Predict Third-Grade English Language Arts and Mathematics Achievement on a High-Stakes Statewide Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Dorinda J.

    2013-01-01

    Early childhood professional organizations support teachers as the best assessors of students' academic, social, emotional, and physical development. This study investigates the predictive nature of teacher ratings of first-grade students' performance on a standards-based curriculum-embedded performance assessment within the context of a state…

  1. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  2. Survival Analyses for Patients With Surgically Resected Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors by World Health Organization 2010 Grading Classifications and American Joint Committee on Cancer 2010 Staging Systems

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Ke, Neng-wen; Zeng, Lin; Zhang, Yi; Tan, Chun-lu; Zhang, Hao; Mai, Gang; Tian, Bo-le; Liu, Xu-bao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2010, World Health Organization (WHO) reclassified pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs) into 4 main groups: neuroendocrine tumor G1 (NET G1), neuroendocrine tumor G2 (NET G2), neuroendocrine carcinoma G3 (NEC G3), mixed adeno and neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC). Clinical value of these newly updated WHO grading criteria has not been rigorously validated. The authors aimed to evaluate the clinical consistency of the new 2010 grading classifications by WHO and the 2010 tumor-node metastasis staging systems by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) on survivals for patients with surgically resected p-NETs. Moreover, the authors would validate the prognostic value of both criteria for p-NETs. The authors retrospectively collected the clinicopathologic data of 120 eligible patients who were all surgically treated and histopathologically diagnosed as p-NETs from January 2004 to February 2014 in our single institution. The new WHO criteria were assigned to 4 stratified groups with a respective distribution of 62, 35, 17, and 6 patients. Patients with NET G1 or NET G2 obtained a statistically better survival compared with those with NEC G3 or MANEC (P?systems were respectively defined in 61, 36, 12, and 11 patients for each stage. Differences of survivals of stage I with stage III and IV were significant (P?systems were both significant in univariate and multivariate analysis (P?grading classifications and the AJCC 2010 staging systems could consistently reflect the clinical outcome of patients with surgically resected p-NETs. Meanwhile, both criteria could be independent predictors for survival analysis of p-NETs. PMID:26632896

  3. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    Lejeune, A; Skorupski, K; Frazier, S; Vanhaezebrouck, I; Rebhun, R B; Reilly, C M; Rodriguez, C O

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359 days (range, 188-2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120 days (149-2325 days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103 days; 188-2010 days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056 days; 300-2340 days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40 months. PMID:23721492

  4. Design, Implementation, Use, and Preliminary Evaluation of SEBASTIAN, a Standards-Based Web Service for Clinical Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lobach, David F.

    2005-01-01

    Despite their demonstrated ability to improve care quality, clinical decision support systems are not widely used. In part, this limited use is due to the difficulty of sharing medical knowledge in a machine-executable format. To address this problem, we developed a decision support Web service known as SEBASTIAN. In SEBASTIAN, individual knowledge modules define the data requirements for assessing a patient, the conclusions that can be drawn using that data, and instructions on how to generate those conclusions. Using standards-based XML messages transmitted over HTTP, client decision support applications provide patient data to SEBASTIAN and receive patient-specific assessments and recommendations. SEBASTIAN has been used to implement four distinct decision support systems; an architectural overview is provided for one of these systems. Preliminary assessments indicate that SEBASTIAN fulfills all original design objectives, including the re-use of executable medical knowledge across diverse applications and care settings, the straightforward authoring of knowledge modules, and use of the framework to implement decision support applications with significant clinical utility. PMID:16779066

  5. Gleason and Fuhrman no longer make the grade.

    PubMed

    Delahunt, Brett; Egevad, Lars; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Martignoni, Guido; Nacey, John N; Srigley, John R

    2016-03-01

    Grading is an important prognostic parameter for prostate adenocarcinoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC); however, the most frequently used classifications fail to account for advances in our understanding of the diagnostic features, classification and/or behaviour of these tumours. In 2005 and 2014, the International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) proposed changes to Gleason scoring with the adoption of the ISUP grading for prostate cancer in 2014 (grade 1, score 3 + 3; grade 2, score 3 + 4; grade 3, score 4 + 3; grade 4, score 8; grade 5, score 9-10). Internationally the Fuhrman grading system is widely employed despite criticisms related to its application, validity, and reproducibility. In 2012, the ISUP established a grading system for RCC (grade 1, the nucleolus is not seen or is inconspicuous and basophilic at ×400 magnification; grade 2, nucleoli are eosinophilic and clearly visible at ×400 magnification; grade 3, nucleoli are clearly visible at ×100 magnification; grade 4, tumours show extreme pleomorphism or rhabdoid and/or sarcomatoid morphology). This grading has been validated for clear cell RCC and papillary RCC. It was further recommended that chromophobe RCC not be graded. For other morphotypes of RCC, ISUP grading has not been validated as a prognostic parameter, but can be used for descriptive purposes. PMID:26266664

  6. Students' Knowledge about Chemical Reactions--Development and Analysis of Standard-Based Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpuski, Maik; Ropohl, Mathias; Sumfleth, Elke

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 national educational standards for chemistry were implemented in Germany. While the standards describe different competencies to be reached after grade 10, no compulsory contents are defined. The contents are defined by the different German states individually. This means that there are no defined common topics taught in all states that…

  7. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "La Mujer Que Brillaba Aun Mas Que el Sol"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullitt, Leslie Kay; Gonzalez, Augusta C.; Luna, Boni

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  8. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "La Mujer Que Brillaba Aun Mas Que el Sol"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullitt, Leslie Kay; Gonzalez, Augusta C.; Luna, Boni

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  9. Structures around the World: A Standards-Based Unit/Lesson Template

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    "Structures Around the World" is an eighth-grade activity that places special emphasis on creativity and the aspects of design. This lesson interrelates across a variety of curriculums. Due to its diversity, this activity brings validity to technology education and how ideas are conceptualized. In this activity, students explore various structures…

  10. Establishing an appropriate mode of comparison for measuring the performance of marbling score output from video image analysis beef carcass grading systems.

    PubMed

    Moore, C B; Bass, P D; Green, M D; Chapman, P L; O'Connor, M E; Yates, L D; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2010-07-01

    A beef carcass instrument grading system that improves accuracy and consistency of marbling score (MS) evaluation would have the potential to advance value-based marketing efforts and reduce disparity in quality grading among USDA graders, shifts, and plants. The objectives of this study were to use output data from the Video Image Analysis-Computer Vision System (VIA-CVS, Research Management Systems Inc., Fort Collins, CO) to develop an appropriate method by which performance of video image analysis MS output could be evaluated for accuracy, precision, and repeatability for purposes of seeking official USDA approval for using an instrument in commerce to augment assessment of quality grade, and to use the developed standards to gain approval for VIA-CVS to assist USDA personnel in assigning official beef carcass MS. An initial MS output algorithm was developed (phase I) for the VIA-CVS before 2 separate preliminary instrument evaluation trials (phases II and III) were conducted. During phases II and III, a 3-member panel of USDA expert graders independently assigned MS to 1,068 and 1,242 stationary carcasses, respectively. Mean expert MS was calculated for each carcass. Additionally, a separate 3-member USDA expert panel developed a consensus MS for each carcass in phase III. In phase II, VIA-CVS stationary triple-placement and triple-trigger instrument repeatability values (n = 262 and 260, respectively), measured as the percentage of total variance explained by carcasses, were 99.9 and 99.8%, respectively. In phases II and III, 95% of carcasses were assigned expert MS for which differences between individual expert MS, and for which the consensus MS in phase III only, was < or = 96 MS units. Two differing approaches to simple regression analysis, as well as a separate method-comparability analysis that accommodates error in both dependent and independent variables, were used to assess accuracy and precision of instrument MS predictions vs. mean expert MS. Method-comparability analysis was more appropriate in assessing the bias and precision of instrument MS predictions. Ether-extractable fat percentages (n = 257; phase II) differed among MS (P < 0.05) but were not suitable to predict or validate assigned MS. The performance and reproducibility of expert MS assignment in future evaluations was considered, and an official USDA performance standard was established, to which an instrument must conform to be approved for official on-line MS assessment. The VIA-CVS subsequently was approved to assign MS to carcasses on-line after completion of a 2006 USDA instrument approval trial conducted according to methods developed during completion of this study. PMID:20348376

  11. Lifestyle and nutritional imbalances associated with Western diseases: causes and consequences of chronic systemic low-grade inflammation in an evolutionary context.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Núñez, Begoña; Pruimboom, Leo; Dijck-Brouwer, D A Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2013-07-01

    In this review, we focus on lifestyle changes, especially dietary habits, that are at the basis of chronic systemic low grade inflammation, insulin resistance and Western diseases. Our sensitivity to develop insulin resistance traces back to our rapid brain growth in the past 2.5 million years. An inflammatory reaction jeopardizes the high glucose needs of our brain, causing various adaptations, including insulin resistance, functional reallocation of energy-rich nutrients and changing serum lipoprotein composition. The latter aims at redistribution of lipids, modulation of the immune reaction, and active inhibition of reverse cholesterol transport for damage repair. With the advent of the agricultural and industrial revolutions, we have introduced numerous false inflammatory triggers in our lifestyle, driving us to a state of chronic systemic low grade inflammation that eventually leads to typically Western diseases via an evolutionary conserved interaction between our immune system and metabolism. The underlying triggers are an abnormal dietary composition and microbial flora, insufficient physical activity and sleep, chronic stress and environmental pollution. The disturbance of our inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balance is illustrated by dietary fatty acids and antioxidants. The current decrease in years without chronic disease is rather due to "nurture" than "nature," since less than 5% of the typically Western diseases are primary attributable to genetic factors. Resolution of the conflict between environment and our ancient genome might be the only effective manner for "healthy aging," and to achieve this we might have to return to the lifestyle of the Paleolithic era as translated to the 21st century culture. PMID:23657158

  12. The Meaning of Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Serna E.

    1996-01-01

    Asserts that students see grades as an indicator of effort unconnected to the content of the course while teachers regard grades as a measure of achievement within a discipline. Discusses some of the current controversies and approaches concerning grades and how they relate to school reform. (MJP)

  13. General Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    This paper describes the graded response model. The graded response model represents a family of mathematical models that deal with ordered polytomous categories, such as: (1) letter grading; (2) an attitude survey with "strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree" choices; (3) partial credit given in accord with an individual's degree…

  14. Bias in Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John

    2008-01-01

    Bias in grading can be conscious or unconscious. The author describes different types of bias, such as those based on student attractiveness or performance in prior courses, and a variety of methods of reducing bias, including keeping students anonymous during grading and using detailed criteria for subjective grading.

  15. An Analysis of the Education Systems in Mexico and the United States from Pre-Kinder to 12 Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosado, Luis A.; Hellawell, Marisa; Zamora, Ezequiel Benedicto

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the public school system in Mexico from early childhood to high school, and compares it with the American education system. It also identifies educational terminology and concepts unique to the Mexican system that can become possible sources of conflict and confusion for American educators. (Contains 7…

  16. Improving performance of Zambia Defence Force antiretroviral therapy providers: evaluation of a standards-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Mi; Banda, Joseph; Kanjipite, Webby; Sarkar, Supriya; Bazant, Eva; Hiner, Cyndi; Tholandi, Maya; Reinhardt, Stephanie; Njobvu, Panganani Dalisani; Kols, Adrienne; Benavides, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Zambia Defence Force (ZDF) has applied the Standards-Based Management and Recognition (SBM-R®) approach, which uses detailed performance standards, at some health facilities to improve HIV-related services offered to military personnel and surrounding civilian communities. This study examines the effectiveness of the SBM-R approach in improving facility readiness and provider performance at ZDF facilities. Methods: We collected data on facility readiness and provider performance before and after the 2010–2012 intervention at 4 intervention sites selected for their relatively poor performance and 4 comparison sites. Assessors observed whether each facility met 16 readiness standards and whether providers met 9 performance standards during consultations with 354 returning antiretroviral therapy (ART) clients. We then calculated the percentages of criteria achieved for each readiness and performance standard and conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses of provider performance data. Results: Facilities' ART readiness scores exceeded 80% before the intervention at both intervention and comparison sites. At endline, scores improved on 4 facility readiness standards in the intervention group but on only 1 standard in the comparison group. Multivariate analysis found that the overall provider performance score increased significantly in the intervention group (from 58% to 84%; P<.01) but not in the comparison group (from 62% to 70%). The before-and-after improvement in scores was significantly greater among intervention sites than among comparison sites for 2 standards—initial assessment of the client's condition and nutrition counseling. Conclusion: The standards-based approach, which involved intensive and mutually reinforcing intervention activities, showed modest improvements in some aspects of providers' performance during ART consultations. Further research is needed to determine whether improvements in provider performance affect client outcomes such as adherence to ART. PMID:25276534

  17. Cool Apps: Building Cryospheric Data Applications With Standards-Based Service Oriented Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; Truslove, I.; Billingsley, B. W.; Oldenburg, J.; Brodzik, M.; Lewis, S.; Liu, M.

    2012-12-01

    The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) holds a large collection of cryospheric data, and is involved in a number of informatics research and development projects aimed at improving the discoverability and accessibility of these data. To develop high-quality software in a timely manner, we have adopted a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach for our core technical infrastructure development. Data services at NSIDC are internally exposed to other tools and applications through standards-based service interfaces. These standards include OAI-PMH (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting), various OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards including WMS (Web Map Service) and WFS (Web Feature Service), ESIP (Federation of Earth Sciences Information Partners) OpenSearch, and NSIDC-specific RESTful services. By taking a standards-based approach, we are able to use off-the-shelf tools and libraries to consume, translate and broker these data services, and thus develop applications faster. Additionally, by exposing public interfaces to these services we provide valuable data services to technical collaborators; for example, NASA Reverb (http://reverb.echo.nasa.gov) uses NSIDC's WMS services. Our latest generation of web applications consume these data services directly. The most complete example of this is the Operation IceBridge Data Portal (http://nsidc.org/icebridge/portal) which depends on many of the aforementioned services, and clearly exhibits many of the advantages of building applications atop a service-oriented architecture. This presentation outlines the architectural approach and components and open standards and protocols adopted at NSIDC, demonstrates the interactions and uses of public and internal service interfaces currently powering applications including the IceBridge Data Portal, and outlines the benefits and challenges of this approach.

  18. Portable optical frequency standard based on sealed gas-filled hollow-core fiber using a novel encapsulation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triches, Marco; Brusch, Anders; Hald, Jan

    2015-12-01

    A portable stand-alone optical frequency standard based on a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is developed to stabilize a fiber laser to the ^{13}{C}_2{H}_2 P(16) (? _1 + ? _3) transition at 1542 nm using saturated absorption. A novel encapsulation technique is developed to permanently seal the hollow-core fiber with easy light coupling, showing negligible pressure increase over two months. The locked laser shows a fractional frequency instability below 8 × 10^{-12} for an averaging time up to 104 s. The lock-point repeatability over one month is 2.6 × 10^{-11}, corresponding to a standard deviation of 5.3 kHz. The system is also assembled in a more compact and easy-to-use configuration ( Plug&Play), showing comparable performance with previously published work. The real portability of this technology is proved by shipping the system to a collaborating laboratory, showing unchanged performance after the return.

  19. Increasing on-task behavior in every student in a second-grade classroom during transitions: validating the Color Wheel system.

    PubMed

    Fudge, Daniel L; Skinner, Christopher H; Williams, Jacqueline L; Cowden, Dan; Clark, Janice; Bliss, Stacy L

    2008-10-01

    A single-case (B-C-B-C) experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel classroom management system (CWS) on on-task (OT) behavior in an intact, general-education, 2nd-grade classroom during transitions. The CWS included three sets of rules, posted cues to indicate the rules students are expected to be following at that time, and transition procedures for altering activities and rules. Class-wide data analysis showed large, immediate, and sustained increases in OT behavior when the CWS was applied, with OT behavior returning to baseline levels when typical classroom management (TCM) procedures were reinstated. Each student's average phase data also showed increases in OT behavior when the CWS was applied and re-applied, and showed reductions when the CWS was withdrawn. Discussion focuses on evaluating the internal, external, and contextual validity of class-wide remediation and prevention procedures. PMID:19083373

  20. The Application of Ti/Al2O3 Composite in W-Mo-Al System Wave Impedance Graded Flier-plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Feng, S.; Shi, G. P.; Shen, Q.; Zhang, L. M.

    2013-03-01

    Ti/Al2O3 composite of different components were prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering technique, mechanical and acoustical properties of Ti/Al2O3 composite were analyzed, weldability of Ti/Al2O3 composite with Mo and Al was also studied. The results indicate that 38.5vol%Ti/Al2O3 composite has good mechanical performance with relative density >99.20%, bending strength 897MPa, fracture toughness 17.38 MPa·m1/2 and micro-hardness 17.13GPa. The wave impedance of the composite was between which of Mo and Al, and the 38.5vol% Ti/Al2O3 welded well with Mo and Ti. These demonstrate that 38.5vol%Ti/Al2O3 composite could serve as one of interlayer materials in W-Mo-Al system graded flier-plate.

  1. Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ca.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system

    DOEpatents

    Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5.mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photovoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of the growing layer.

  2. Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system

    DOEpatents

    Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5 .mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photolvoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of growing layer.

  3. The Effects of a Concept Map-Based Information Display in an Electronic Portfolio System on Information Processing and Retention in a Fifth-Grade Science Class Covering the Earth's Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Paul; Olaciregui, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    An electronic portfolio system, designed to serve as a resource-based learning space, was tested in a fifth-grade science class. The control-group students accessed a traditional folder-based information display in the system and the experimental-group students accessed a concept map-based information display to review a science portfolio. The…

  4. Perceptions and attitudes of clinicians in Spain toward clinical practice guidelines and grading systems: a protocol for a qualitative study and a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have become a very popular tool for decision making in healthcare. While there is some evidence that CPGs improve outcomes, there are numerous factors that influence their acceptability and use by healthcare providers. While evidence of clinicians' knowledge, perceptions and attitudes toward CPGs is extensive, results are still disperse and not conclusive. Our study will evaluate these issues in a large and representative sample of clinicians in Spain. Methods/Design A mixed-method design combining qualitative and quantitative research techniques will evaluate general practitioners (GPs) and hospital-based specialists in Spain with the objective of exploring attitudes and perceptions about CPGs and evidence grading systems. The project will consist of two phases: during the first phase, group discussions will be carried out to gain insight into perceptions and attitudes of the participants, and during the second phase, this information will be completed by means of a survey, reaching a greater number of clinicians. We will explore these issues in GPs and hospital-based practitioners, with or without previous experience in guideline development. Discussion Our study will identify and gain insight into the perceived problems and barriers of Spanish practitioners in relation to guideline knowledge and use. The study will also explore beliefs and attitudes of clinicians towards CPGs and evidence grading systems used to rate the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations. Our results will provide guidance to healthcare researchers and healthcare decision makers to improve the use of guidelines in Spain and elsewhere. PMID:21129195

  5. Achieving Standards in Urban Systemic Reform: An Example of a Sixth Grade Project-Based Science Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivet, Ann E.; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    A challenge for urban systemic reform initiatives in science education has been to achieve local, state, and national standards for teaching and learning. We have collaborated with teachers in the Detroit Public School System to design project-based curriculum materials that contextualize the learning of science in meaningful real-world problems,…

  6. Red Light-Green Light: A Classwide Management System for Students with Behavior Disorders in Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbetta, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    Red Light-Green Light is a levels system providing immediate behavior modification feedback and varying privilege levels throughout the school day for primary students with behavior disorders. This article presents guidelines for implementation, covering development of classroom rules, classroom expectations, and system maintenance. Tips for…

  7. Effect of Digital Game Based Learning on Ninth Grade Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearingen, Dixie K.

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of an educational massive multiplayer online game (MMOG) on achievement on a standards-based mathematics exam. It also examined the interaction of student characteristics (gender and socioeconomic status) with digital game play on mathematics achievement. Two hundred eighty ninth grade students from a…

  8. Should Grade Retention Decisions Be Indicators-Based or Model-Driven? CSE Technical Report 716

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia; Wang, Haiwen

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates a large urban district's standards-based promotion policy decisions against a model-driven classification. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to explore factors related to grade retention at both the student and school level. Statistical results indicate that using students' next year achievement test scores as…

  9. Ian Reid on Grades: An Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ian E.; Dunn-Rankin, Peter

    1978-01-01

    With reference to his own experiences as an Educational Psychology professor at the University of Hawaii College of Education, Ian Reid discusses student and faculty feelings about traditional letter grades and about credit/no credit grading, and the impact of these two systems on the instructional process. (SJL)

  10. Texas's Decision to Have Twelve Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watlington, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    A majority of American students have taken the journey through schools that progressed from first to twelfth grade. So by the 1913 Committee on the Economy of Time in Education, American education featured a twelve-grade system quickly evolving from the forces of consolidation and corporate efficiency. Such was not the reality in Texas schools.…

  11. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  12. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  13. Survey of Evaluation and Gradings in Undergraduate Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Narl C.

    1976-01-01

    Presents data, covering 1971-74, concerning grading and instructional systems at 92 college chemistry departments. Among the conclusions were that all of the institutions use the traditional letter grading system and that grade distributions and patterns have been stable. (MLH)

  14. The Case for a National Standard of Grade Weighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Norma R.; Mohr, Joan Isaac

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed high schools as to their models and practices of grade weighting, sought opinions from college respondents who participated in past national surveys on weighting averages, and determined feasibility of recommending national grade weighting system. Found that weighted grading system is preferred by college admission professionals. (NB)

  15. Passive atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping in {sup 87}Rb using injection-locked lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Han Seb; Park, Sang Eon; Park, Young-Ho; Lee, Lim; Kim, Jung Bog

    2006-11-15

    We present a microwave frequency standard based on coherent population trapping (CPT) in the {sup 87}Rb D{sub 1} line. The CPT spectrum is obtained using two Raman lasers with a 6.8 GHz frequency offset by injection locking of a master laser to a slave laser. We have constructed an atomic clock employing a 5 cm long Rb vapor cell confined with 6.67 kPa neon buffer gas at 70 degree sign C. Using this system, we improve the CPT contrast through the elimination of undesired off-resonant fields created by the direct modulation method. We measured the frequency shift of the CPT signal as a function of the temperature of the Rb cell and estimated it to be approximately 1.3x10{sup -9}/K. The frequency of a 10 MHz crystal oscillator has been stabilized to the CPT spectrum between the two ground states in {sup 87}Rb. The relative frequency stability is approximately 2.3x10{sup -12} for an average time of 68 s.

  16. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis-Membrane Distillation System for Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat: Thermodynamic Analysis and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, SH; Yip, NY; Cath, TY; Osuji, CO; Elimelech, M

    2014-05-06

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 degrees C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 degrees C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance optimization.

  17. Grading Student Writing: An Experiment and a Commentary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Jeffrey

    1993-01-01

    Uses a student essay and dialog journal entries to discuss problems raised by context in grading student writing. Encourages teachers to rethink the whole system of grading and to discuss their conclusions openly. (SR)

  18. Standards-Based Accountability as a Tool for Making a Difference in Student Learning. A State and an Institutional Perspective on Standards-Based Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkerson, Judy R.

    This paper examines Florida's standards-driven performance assessment, emphasizing teacher preparation, and touching on K-12 accountability. Florida's educational reform and accountability efforts are driven by the Florida System of School Improvement and Accountability document. The system is derived from state goals similar to the national Goals…

  19. A study of science leadership and science standards in exemplary standards-based science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Wendy Renae

    The purpose for conducting this qualitative study was to explore best practices of exemplary standards-based science programs and instructional leadership practices in a charter high school and in a traditional high school. The focus of this study included how twelve participants aligned practices to National Science Education Standards to describe their science programs and science instructional practices. This study used a multi-site case study qualitative design. Data were obtained through a review of literature, interviews, observations, review of educational documents, and researcher's notes collected in a field log. The methodology used was a multi-site case study because of the potential, through cross analysis, for providing greater explanation of the findings in the study (Merriam, 1988). This study discovered six characteristics about the two high school's science programs that enhance the literature found in the National Science Education Standards; (a) Culture of expectations for learning-In exemplary science programs teachers are familiar with a wide range of curricula. They have the ability to examine critically and select activities to use with their students to promote the understanding of science; (b) Culture of varied experiences-In exemplary science programs students are provided different paths to learning, which help students, take in information and make sense of concepts and skills that are set forth by the standards; (c) Culture of continuous feedback-In exemplary science programs teachers and students work together to engage students in ongoing assessments of their work and that of others as prescribed in the standards; (d) Culture of Observations-In exemplary science programs students, teachers, and principals reflect on classroom instructional practices; teachers receive ongoing evaluations about their teaching and apply feedback towards improving practices as outlined in the standards; (e) Culture of continuous learning-In exemplary science programs teachers value continuous personal development, teachers are provided on-going science professional development opportunities to improve instructional practices, teachers reflect and share professional practices, and teachers establish professional learning communities within their classrooms; and (f) Culture of shared leadership-In exemplary science programs instructional leadership purposes and values are consistently shared among all stakeholders which are outlined in the standards. These results are potentially useful for understanding exemplary standards-based science programs and science instructional leadership practices as a model for science programs trying to improve science education so that all students can have a true scientific learning experience.

  20. Evaluation of the food grade expression systems NICE and pSIP for the production of 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid reductase (2,5-DKG reductase) catalyses the reduction of 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid (2,5-DKG) to 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KLG), a direct precursor (lactone) of L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C). This reaction is an essential step in the biocatalytic production of the food supplement vitamin C from D-glucose or D-gluconic acid. As 2,5-DKG reductase is usually produced recombinantly, it is of interest to establish an efficient process for 2,5-DKG reductase production that also satisfies food safety requirements. In the present study, three recently described food grade variants of the Lactobacillales based expression systems pSIP (Lactobacillus plantarum) and NICE (Lactococcus lactis) were evaluated with regard to their effictiveness to produce 2,5-DKG reductase from Corynebacterium glutamicum. Our results indicate that both systems are suitable for 2,5-DKG reductase expression. Maximum production yields were obtained with Lb. plantarum/pSIP609 by pH control at 6.5. With 262 U per litre of broth, this represents the highest heterologous expression level so far reported for 2,5-DKG reductase from C. glutamicum. Accordingly, Lb. plantarum/pSIP609 might be an interesting alternative to Escherichia coli expression systems for industrial 2,5-DKG reductase production. PMID:23356419

  1. Student and Faculty Perceptions of Plus/Minus Grading and Its Effect on Course Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Graham, Donna L.; Dixon, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2005, the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences at the University of Arkansas authorized the optional use of a plus/minus grading system. Since 2005, approximately one-half of courses have been graded using plus/minus and one-half using the straight letter grade system. This study examined student (n = 338) and…

  2. Student and Faculty Perceptions of Plus/Minus Grading and Its Effect on Course Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Graham, Donna L.; Dixon, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2005, the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences at the University of Arkansas authorized the optional use of a plus/minus grading system. Since 2005, approximately one-half of courses have been graded using plus/minus and one-half using the straight letter grade system. This study examined student (n = 338) and…

  3. Development of a Media Driven Online Assessment System: Improving Quality, Frequency, and Deployment of Grades and Feedback in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaurez, James J.

    2013-01-01

    Information communication technologies (ICT) in education is an expanding field, and within this field there is a need for development of effective systems for faculty and learners to communicate feedback and assess performance. The increasing migration of many academic disciplines and courses to an online format has prompted an increased need for…

  4. Learning about Body Systems. Superific Science Book IX. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    This document offers an explanation and drawings of each of the major systems of the human body and of the five senses. It provides teachers with classroom activities, demonstrations, and experiments which are intended to involve students in the acquisition of knowledge concerning the structure and function of their bodies. The drawings of the…

  5. Learning about Body Systems. Superific Science Book IX. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    This document offers an explanation and drawings of each of the major systems of the human body and of the five senses. It provides teachers with classroom activities, demonstrations, and experiments which are intended to involve students in the acquisition of knowledge concerning the structure and function of their bodies. The drawings of the…

  6. Messages from Space: The Solar System and Beyond. Grades 508. Teacher's Guide. Great Explorations in Science (GEMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Kevin; Erickson, John; Sneider, Cary

    Building on collaborative work between the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute and the Lawrence Hall of Science, this curriculum takes advantage of humans' fascination with extraterrestrials to catalyze the study of the solar system and beyond. The unit begins when students attempt to decode a fictitious message from outer…

  7. Messages from Space: The Solar System and Beyond. Grades 508. Teacher's Guide. Great Explorations in Science (GEMS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beals, Kevin; Erickson, John; Sneider, Cary

    Building on collaborative work between the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute and the Lawrence Hall of Science, this curriculum takes advantage of humans' fascination with extraterrestrials to catalyze the study of the solar system and beyond. The unit begins when students attempt to decode a fictitious message from outer…

  8. Electronic Communications Systems. Grade 11-12. Course #8136 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide is intended for use in teaching a course in electronic communications systems. Class activities during the course examine the processes of creating electronic signals and transmitting various coded messages to other locations. Methods of changing the form of electric current are emphasized, and the latest techniques in data processing…

  9. Manufacturing Systems. Grades 9-10. Course #8115 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The course materials included in this guide are intended to introduce students to the manufacturing industry and its relationships with society, individuals, and the environment. The following topics are covered in the nine learning modules: manufacturing and society and manufacturing systems; manufacturing materials and processes (types of…

  10. Teacher and Parent Views on the Instruction of 5th Grade Students by Branch Teachers in the 4+4+4 Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildizhan, Yusuf Hayri

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the teacher and parent views on the instruction of 5th grade students by branch teachers. This study is designed according to the phenomenology design and uses qualitative data. In order to collect data, open-ended questions were asked to 18 teachers and 16 parents of 5th grade students on the subject, and…

  11. Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple…

  12. Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple…

  13. Standards-based sensor interoperability and networking SensorWeb: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolling, Sam

    2012-06-01

    The War fighter lacks a unified Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) environment to conduct mission planning, command and control (C2), tasking, collection, exploitation, processing, and data discovery of disparate sensor data across the ISR Enterprise. Legacy sensors and applications are not standardized or integrated for assured, universal access. Existing tasking and collection capabilities are not unified across the enterprise, inhibiting robust C2 of ISR including near-real time, cross-cueing operations. To address these critical needs, the National Measurement and Signature Intelligence (MASINT) Office (NMO), and partnering Combatant Commands and Intelligence Agencies are developing SensorWeb, an architecture that harmonizes heterogeneous sensor data to a common standard for users to discover, access, observe, subscribe to and task sensors. The SensorWeb initiative long term goal is to establish an open commercial standards-based, service-oriented framework to facilitate plug and play sensors. The current development effort will produce non-proprietary deliverables, intended as a Government off the Shelf (GOTS) solution to address the U.S. and Coalition nations' inability to quickly and reliably detect, identify, map, track, and fully understand security threats and operational activities.

  14. Direct frequency comb optical frequency standard based on two-photon transitions of thermal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S. Y.; Wu, J. T.; Zhang, Y. L.; Leng, J. X.; Yang, W. P.; Zhang, Z. G.; Zhao, J. Y.

    2015-10-01

    Optical clocks have been the focus of science and technology research areas due to their capability to provide highest frequency accuracy and stability to date. Their superior frequency performance promises significant advances in the fields of fundamental research as well as practical applications including satellite-based navigation and ranging. In traditional optical clocks, ultrastable optical cavities, laser cooling and particle (atoms or a single ion) trapping techniques are employed to guarantee high stability and accuracy. However, on the other hand, they make optical clocks an entire optical tableful of equipment, and cannot work continuously for a long time; as a result, they restrict optical clocks used as very convenient and compact time-keeping clocks. In this article, we proposed, and experimentally demonstrated, a novel scheme of optical frequency standard based on comb-directly-excited atomic two-photon transitions. By taking advantage of the natural properties of the comb and two-photon transitions, this frequency standard achieves a simplified structure, high robustness as well as decent frequency stability, which promise widespread applications in various scenarios.

  15. Direct frequency comb optical frequency standard based on two-photon transitions of thermal atoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S. Y.; Wu, J. T.; Zhang, Y. L.; Leng, J. X.; Yang, W. P.; Zhang, Z. G.; Zhao, J. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Optical clocks have been the focus of science and technology research areas due to their capability to provide highest frequency accuracy and stability to date. Their superior frequency performance promises significant advances in the fields of fundamental research as well as practical applications including satellite-based navigation and ranging. In traditional optical clocks, ultrastable optical cavities, laser cooling and particle (atoms or a single ion) trapping techniques are employed to guarantee high stability and accuracy. However, on the other hand, they make optical clocks an entire optical tableful of equipment, and cannot work continuously for a long time; as a result, they restrict optical clocks used as very convenient and compact time-keeping clocks. In this article, we proposed, and experimentally demonstrated, a novel scheme of optical frequency standard based on comb-directly-excited atomic two-photon transitions. By taking advantage of the natural properties of the comb and two-photon transitions, this frequency standard achieves a simplified structure, high robustness as well as decent frequency stability, which promise widespread applications in various scenarios. PMID:26459877

  16. Direct frequency comb optical frequency standard based on two-photon transitions of thermal atoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, S Y; Wu, J T; Zhang, Y L; Leng, J X; Yang, W P; Zhang, Z G; Zhao, J Y

    2015-01-01

    Optical clocks have been the focus of science and technology research areas due to their capability to provide highest frequency accuracy and stability to date. Their superior frequency performance promises significant advances in the fields of fundamental research as well as practical applications including satellite-based navigation and ranging. In traditional optical clocks, ultrastable optical cavities, laser cooling and particle (atoms or a single ion) trapping techniques are employed to guarantee high stability and accuracy. However, on the other hand, they make optical clocks an entire optical tableful of equipment, and cannot work continuously for a long time; as a result, they restrict optical clocks used as very convenient and compact time-keeping clocks. In this article, we proposed, and experimentally demonstrated, a novel scheme of optical frequency standard based on comb-directly-excited atomic two-photon transitions. By taking advantage of the natural properties of the comb and two-photon transitions, this frequency standard achieves a simplified structure, high robustness as well as decent frequency stability, which promise widespread applications in various scenarios. PMID:26459877

  17. Creation of a functional graded nanobiomembrane using a new electrospinning system for drug release control and an in vitro validation of drug release behavior of the coating membrane.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Hee; Chung, Min-Young; Unnithan, Afeesh Rajan; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2015-05-01

    Functional graded nanobiomembranes (FGMs) with multiple layers were created by a single process using a novel electrospinning system equipped with a generator and a PCI type motion board as a controller in order to control the drug release rate. By varying physical apparatus-related parameters such as nozzle-to-collector distance via a robot and the collector moving velocity the FGMs were formed. For the membrane base layer, poly-(?-caprolactone) (PCL) with paclitaxel (PTX) was dissolved in a solvent (dichloromethane, N,N-dimethylformamide) and electrospun. For the top layers, the PCL solution was electrospun according to the distance and FGM system parameters, which can move the collector location at a constant ratio. It was observed that pore size, porosity, and permeability were higher when the membrane was spun at the far distance. The top surface of FGM is more porous, rougher, more permeable, and more hydrophilic so as to be active to the surrounding tissue cells. Meanwhile, the porous inside membrane was as low as the membrane spun at a close distance. Thus it induced a slow drug release due to the internal structure of FGM, which is considered to be very effective for slow drug release as well as bioactivity and bioconductivity. PMID:25746254

  18. Correlation between Teacher Turnover Rates in the State of Alaska and Standardized Test Scores in the Area of Mathematics on the Standards Based Assessments/High School Qualifying Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehl, Roy F., II

    2010-01-01

    This study utilized bivariate correlations, partial correlations, multivariate analysis including Hotelling-T, and observed power to investigate the possible correlations and connections of teacher turnover in Alaska's public school system to performance on the standards-based assessment of the Alaska High School Qualifying Exam (HSQE). The study…

  19. Power-grade butanol recovery and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Noon, R.

    1982-02-12

    As an alternative to the traditional recovery systems, it was proposed in a previous publication that the n-butanol/acetone/ethanol fermentation products could be recovered as a power grade fuel blend and used directly as a fuel. This would affect a savings in process energy requirements because each chemical component would not have to be processed individually to technical grade purity. Further, some residual water could be tolerated in the fuel blend. To develop such a power grade fuel recovery scheme beyond the conceptual stage, the Energy Research and Resource Division of the Kansas Energy Office undertook a two-fold program to demonstrate and test a power grade butanol/acetone/ethanol fuel recovery system, and further to demonstrate the feasibility of using the fuel blend in a standard type engine. A development program was initiated to accomplish the following objectives: design and test an operational power grade butanol recovery plant that would operate at one liter per hour output; and test and assess the performance of power grade butanol in a spark ignition automotive engine. This project has demonstrated that recovery of a power grade butanol fuel blend is simple and can be accomplished at a considered energy advantage over ethanol. It was further demonstrated that such a power grade blend works well in a typical spark ignition engine.

  20. Impact of Toxicity Grade and Scoring System on the Relationship Between Mean Lung Dose and Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in a Large Cohort of Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Susan L.; Jin Hekun; Wei Xiong

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To compute the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with RP scored using three grading systems and analyzed at four threshold levels of toxicity in a large cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: On the basis of medical records and radiographic images, RP was scored retrospectively in 442 patients with NSCLC who had {>=}6 months of follow-up after the end of RT. The severity of RP was scored for each patient using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0 (CTC2.0); the NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0 (CTCAE3.0); and the grading system of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). For each grading system and for each of four levels of toxicity (Grade {>=}1, {>=}2, {>=}3, {>=}4), the Lyman, logistic, and log-logistic normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were fitted to the data as functions of MLD. The parameter estimates from the model fits are listed in table form, and the RP risk estimates are presented graphically for the Lyman and log-logistic NTCP models. Results: The results presented here illustrate the impact of scoring system and level of toxicity on the relationship between MLD and RP risk. Conclusions: These results facilitate quantitative comparisons between our data and studies of RP risk reported by others, and several examples of such comparisons are provided.

  1. The Impact of Sustained, Standards-Based Professional Learning on Second and Third Grade Teachers' Content and Pedagogical Knowledge in Integrated Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Lora B.

    2010-01-01

    This 3 year longitudinal study reports the feasibility of an "Improving Teacher Quality: No Child Left Behind" project for impacting teachers' content and pedagogical knowledge in mathematics in nine Title I elementary schools in the southeastern United States. Data were collected for 3 years to determine the impact of standards and research-based…

  2. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  3. Are Grades Undermining Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliner, David; Casanova, Ursula

    1988-01-01

    A study of fifth and sixth grade public school students in Israel suggests that grades and other norm-referenced methods are less effective than task-involving evaluation methods in enhancing student performance, interest, and motivation. This article consists of two commentaries on the findings, with suggestions for implementing task-involving…

  4. Minimum Grading, Maximum Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Theodore; Carifio, James

    2011-01-01

    Fair and effective schools should assign grades that align with clear and consistent evidence of student performance (Wormeli, 2006), but when a student's performance is inconsistent, traditional grading practices can prove inadequate. Understanding this, increasing numbers of schools have been experimenting with the practice of assigning minimum…

  5. Beef grading by ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  6. Skill Schemes: Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Jerry

    The sixth grade instructional unit, part of a field-tested grade school level career education series, is designed to assist learners in understanding how present experiences relate to past and future ones. Before the main body of the lessons is described, field testing results are reported and key items are presented: the concepts, the estimated…

  7. Grades out, Badges in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Grades are broken. Students grub for them, pick classes where good ones come easily, and otherwise hustle to win the highest scores for the least learning. As a result, college grades are inflated to the point of meaninglessness--especially to employers who want to know which diploma-holder is best qualified for their jobs. An alternative is to…

  8. Third Grade Reading Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

  9. Growing beyond Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perchemlides, Natalia; Coutant, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Once students are asked to assess their own writing progress, they will begin to do their best for writing great prose instead of just great grades. Teachers will have to create a grade-free zone, allow students to set their own writing goals, provide a common language such as the Six Traits Model, and provide evaluation and instructional models…

  10. Grading and Measuring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diederich, Paul B.

    The low rate of agreement among readers of College Entrance Examination essays suggested the need to examine the qualities in student writing which caused wide variance in grading. To study this question, 300 homework papers by freshmen at three universities were graded by 60 distinguished readers in six fields. The following factors, by rank,…

  11. The Grades Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleenor, Andy; Lamb, Sarah; Anton, Jennifer; Stinson, Todd; Donen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    It can be quite alarming (and eye-opening) to see exactly how many of the grades students receive are based on their behaviors rather than their learning. Students should be assessed on what they know and can use rather than on their behavior. The reality, unfortunately, is that the opposite is often the case. Grades for students who work hard are…

  12. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  13. MAGNETIC LIQUID DEFORMABLE MIRRORS FOR ASTRONOMICAL APPLICATIONS: ACTIVE CORRECTION OF OPTICAL ABERRATIONS FROM LOWER-GRADE OPTICS AND SUPPORT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, E. F.

    2012-08-01

    Deformable mirrors are increasingly used in astronomy. However, they still are limited in stroke for active correction of high-amplitude optical aberrations. Magnetic liquid deformable mirrors (MLDMs) are a new technology that has the advantages of high-amplitude deformations and low costs. In this paper, we demonstrate extremely high strokes and interactuator strokes achievable by MLDMs which can be used in astronomical instrumentation. In particular, we consider the use of such a mirror to suggest an interesting application for the next generation of large telescopes. We present a prototype 91 actuator deformable mirror made of a magnetic liquid (ferrofluid). This mirror uses a technique that linearizes the response of such mirrors by superimposing a large and uniform magnetic field on the magnetic field produced by an array of small coils. We discuss experimental results that illustrate the performance of MLDMs. A most interesting application of MLDMs comes from the fact they could be used to correct the aberrations of large and lower optical quality primary mirrors held by simple support systems. We estimate basic parameters of the needed MLDMs, obtaining reasonable values.

  14. Packing Up for the Moon: Human Exploration Project Engineering Design Challenge. Design, Build and Evaluate. A Standards-Based Middle School Unit Guide. Engineering By Design: Advancing Technological Literacy--A Standards-Based Program Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASA Educator Resource Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Human Exploration Project (HEP) units have several common characteristics. All units: (1) Are based upon the Technological Literacy standards (ITEA, 2000/2002); (2) Coordinate with Science (AAAS, 1993) and Mathematics standards (NCTM, 2000); (3) Utilize a standards-based development approach (ITEA, 2005); (4) Stand alone and coordinate with…

  15. Fabrication of Functionally Graded SOFC by APS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. Z.; Zhang, H. O.; Wang, G. L.; Xia, W. S.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric plasma spray (APS) was used to prepare the planar positive/electrolyte/negative (PEN) and mono-block layer built (MOLB) type PEN solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). On the basis of the spraying conditions optimized previously and the self-developed functionally graded powder feeder system, two types of PEN cells were fabricated. Then the microstructure and material composition of the PEN cells were analyzed. The results show that graded layers formed between the electrodes and electrolyte. Moreover, the material composition and the porosity of the graded layers vary gradually. In particular, the porosities of the resultant anode and cathode reach 32.74 and 32.24%, respectively. Using the AC complex impedance technique, the conductivity of the MOLB type composite electrode is tested. The electrical conductivity of the MOLB type composite electrode with the graded layers is larger than that without the graded layers.

  16. 5 CFR 532.409 - Grading or regrading of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grading or regrading of positions. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.409 Grading or regrading of positions. Except as provided in... the employee's position shall be effective on the date the grading or regrading action is...

  17. 5 CFR 532.409 - Grading or regrading of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grading or regrading of positions. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.409 Grading or regrading of positions. Except as provided in... the employee's position shall be effective on the date the grading or regrading action is...

  18. 5 CFR 532.409 - Grading or regrading of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grading or regrading of positions. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.409 Grading or regrading of positions. Except as provided in... the employee's position shall be effective on the date the grading or regrading action is...

  19. 5 CFR 532.409 - Grading or regrading of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grading or regrading of positions. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.409 Grading or regrading of positions. Except as provided in... the employee's position shall be effective on the date the grading or regrading action is...

  20. 5 CFR 532.409 - Grading or regrading of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grading or regrading of positions. 532... PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.409 Grading or regrading of positions. Except as provided in... the employee's position shall be effective on the date the grading or regrading action is...

  1. Grading Homework to Emphasize Problem-Solving Process Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Kathleen A.

    2012-10-01

    This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process- based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.

  2. Middle Grades: Quality Teaching Equals Higher Student Achievement. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Hertl, Jordan; Mollette, Melinda; Patterson, Lenora

    2014-01-01

    The middles grades are critical to public school systems and our nation's economy. It's the make-or-break point in students' futures. Studies repeatedly show when students are not engaged and lose interest in the middle grades, they are likely to fall behind in ninth grade and later drop out of school. When this happens, the workforce suffers, and…

  3. Job Grading Standard for Wood Worker, WG-4604.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    A job grading standard for Wood Worker WG-4604 is given for grading jobs under the Federal Wage System. The standard covers physical requirements, tools, job task, skills, and knowledge at three grade levels, and the limits placed on the requirements at each level. In general the wood worker makes and repairs such supply shipping, and storage…

  4. Grading Homework to Emphasize Problem-Solving Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Kathleen A.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a grading approach that encourages students to employ particular problem-solving skills. Some strengths of this method, called "process-based grading," are that it is easy to implement, requires minimal time to grade, and can be used in conjunction with either an online homework delivery system or paper-based homework.

  5. Hybrid pressure retarded osmosis-membrane distillation system for power generation from low-grade heat: thermodynamic analysis and energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shihong; Yip, Ngai Yin; Cath, Tzahi Y; Osuji, Chinedum O; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 °C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance optimization. PMID:24724732

  6. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  7. Paperless Grades and Faculty Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, James C.; Jones, Dennis; Turner, Sandy

    2003-01-01

    Provides overview of process of switching from paper-based grade reporting to computer-based grading. Authors found that paperless grading decreased number of errors, made student access more immediate, and reduced costs incurred by purchasing and storing grade-scanning sheets. Authors also argue that direct entry grading encourages faculty to…

  8. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  9. Manufacture of Clinical-Grade CD19-Specific T Cells Stably Expressing Chimeric Antigen Receptor Using Sleeping Beauty System and Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harjeet; Figliola, Matthew J.; Dawson, Margaret J.; Olivares, Simon; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Ge; Maiti, Sourindra; Manuri, Pallavi; Senyukov, Vladimir; Jena, Bipulendu; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard E.; Huls, Helen; Cooper, Laurence J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is being evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Our current approach to adoptive immunotherapy is based on a second generation CAR (designated CD19RCD28) that signals through a CD28 and CD3-? endodomain. T cells are electroporated with DNA plasmids from the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system to express this CAR. Stable integrants of genetically modified T cells can then be retrieved when co-cultured with designer artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2 and 21. Here, we reveal how the platform technologies of SB-mediated transposition and CAR-dependent propagation on aAPC were adapted for human application. Indeed, we have initiated clinical trials in patients with high-risk B-lineage malignancies undergoing autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We describe the process to manufacture clinical grade CD19-specific T cells derived from healthy donors. Three validation runs were completed in compliance with current good manufacturing practice for Phase I/II trials demonstrating that by 28 days of co-culture on ?-irradiated aAPC ?1010 T cells were produced of which >95% expressed CAR. These genetically modified and propagated T cells met all quality control testing and release criteria in support of infusion. PMID:23741305

  10. Manufacture of clinical-grade CD19-specific T cells stably expressing chimeric antigen receptor using Sleeping Beauty system and artificial antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harjeet; Figliola, Matthew J; Dawson, Margaret J; Olivares, Simon; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Ge; Maiti, Sourindra; Manuri, Pallavi; Senyukov, Vladimir; Jena, Bipulendu; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard E; Huls, Helen; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is being evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Our current approach to adoptive immunotherapy is based on a second generation CAR (designated CD19RCD28) that signals through a CD28 and CD3-? endodomain. T cells are electroporated with DNA plasmids from the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system to express this CAR. Stable integrants of genetically modified T cells can then be retrieved when co-cultured with designer artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2 and 21. Here, we reveal how the platform technologies of SB-mediated transposition and CAR-dependent propagation on aAPC were adapted for human application. Indeed, we have initiated clinical trials in patients with high-risk B-lineage malignancies undergoing autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We describe the process to manufacture clinical grade CD19-specific T cells derived from healthy donors. Three validation runs were completed in compliance with current good manufacturing practice for Phase I/II trials demonstrating that by 28 days of co-culture on ?-irradiated aAPC ?10(10) T cells were produced of which >95% expressed CAR. These genetically modified and propagated T cells met all quality control testing and release criteria in support of infusion. PMID:23741305

  11. Grades and Grading Practices: Obstacles to Improving Education and to Helping At-Risk Student. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargis, Charles H.

    This second edition contains updated and refreshed material on the problems caused by the current grading system and contains new information on assessment, standards, and social promotion. The chapters are: (1) Overview; (2) History of Grades; (3) Myths about Grades; (4) Normal Variation in Academic Ability; (5) The Lock-Step Curriculum; (6) The…

  12. The Role of End-of-Course Exams and Minimum Competency Exams in Standards-Based Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John H.; Mane, Ferran; Bishop, Michael; Moriarty, Joan Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors looked at the effects of one old-style educational reform--higher course graduation requirements--and five standard-based reforms--(1) school report cards; (2) rewards for school improvement; (3) sanctions for failing schools; (4) minimum competency examinations; and (5) hybrid minimum competency exam…

  13. Teachers' Perspectives of Improvement of Instruction When Engaging in Self-Assessment in a Standards-Based Appraisal Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Amanda L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to existing research on teacher supervision, instructional leadership, and teacher reflectivity and teacher reflexivity by examining: teachers' personal perceptions and reflections about improving instructional effectiveness through observations of their own lessons when using a standards-based appraisal…

  14. 40 CFR 1036.620 - Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines. 1036.620 Section 1036.620 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HEAVY-DUTY HIGHWAY ENGINES Special...

  15. Standards-Based Accountability under No Child Left Behind: Experiences of Teachers and Administrators in Three States. MG-589-NSF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Laura S.; Stecher, Brian M.; Marsh, Julie A.; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Robyn, Abby; Russell, Jennifer; Naftel, Scott; Barney, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001-2002, standards-based accountability (SBA) provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) have shaped the work of public school teachers and administrators in the United States. NCLB requires each state to develop content and achievement standards in several subjects, administer tests to measure students' progress toward…

  16. Cultivating Common Ground: Integrating Standards-Based Visual Arts, Math and Literacy in High-Poverty Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunnington, Marisol; Kantrowitz, Andrea; Harnett, Susanne; Hill-Ries, Aline

    2014-01-01

    The "Framing Student Success: Connecting Rigorous Visual Arts, Math and Literacy Learning" experimental demonstration project was designed to develop and test an instructional program integrating high-quality, standards-based instruction in the visual arts, math, and literacy. Developed and implemented by arts-in-education organization…

  17. Nebraska Science Standards: Grades K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication presents the Nebraska Science Standards for Grades K-12. The standards are presented according to the following grades: (1) Grades K-2; (2) Grades 3-5; (3) Grades 6-8; and (4) Grades 9-12.

  18. Functionally graded boron carbide

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.; Kise, C.D.; Hoover, R.C.; Scarborough, W.K.

    1998-12-31

    Lightweight body armor is important for the protection of US soldiers in the field. Here, fabrication techniques were developed for producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C, and for producing aluminum-B{sub 4}C and epoxy-B{sub 4}C functionally graded materials. The key fabrication aspect was obtaining the graded porosity B{sub 4}C. The feasibility of producing graded porosity B{sub 4}C using a grading of carbon densification aid produced from a gradient of furfuryl alcohol carbon precursor was demonstrated. This approach is quite promising, but it was not optimized in the present investigation. Graded porosity B{sub 4}C materials were produced by a layering approach using different size distributions of B{sub 4}C powders in the green state, and then densifying the layered assembly by hot pressing at 1,900 C. The hardness of uninfiltrated graded B{sub 4}C, aluminum infiltrated B{sub 4}C, and epoxy infiltrated B{sub 4}C was observed to be similar.

  19. Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Moksin, Mohd Maarof; Nang, Harrison Lau Lik; Norozi, Monir; Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat; Zakaria, Azmi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C16:0 content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel. PMID:21731429

  20. Physical properties of normal grade biodiesel and winter grade biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Moksin, Mohd Maarof; Nang, Harrison Lau Lik; Norozi, Monir; Yunus, W Mahmood Mat; Zakaria, Azmi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C(16:0) content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel. PMID:21731429