Sample records for standards-based grading system

  1. Standards-Based Grading and Reporting Will Improve Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Marco A.; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    Grading and reporting are foundational elements in nearly every educational system. Grading represents teachers' evaluations, formative or summative, of students' performance. Reporting is how the results of those evaluations are communicated to students, parents, or others. Because of their fundamental nature, educators must ensure that grading

  2. Grading as a Reform Effort: Do Standards-Based Grades Converge with Test Scores?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Kaniskan, Burcu

    2013-01-01

    Standards-based progress reports (SBPRs) require teachers to grade students using the performance levels reported by state tests and are an increasingly popular report card format. They may help to increase teacher familiarity with state standards, encourage teachers to exclude nonacademic factors from grades, and/or improve communication with…

  3. Ideas: NCTM Standards-Based Instruction, Grades K-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Michael C., Ed.

    This document is a collection of activity-based mathematics lessons for grades K-4 from the "Ideas" department in "Arithmetic Teacher: Mathematics Education through the Middle Grades." Each lesson includes background information, objectives, directions, extensions, and student worksheets. A matrix is included which correlates the titles of the…

  4. Implementing Standards-Based Grading: Elementary Teachers' Beliefs, Practices and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Carrie Ann

    2012-01-01

    In this age of standards-based education, students are being taught the concepts and skills deemed important and necessary according to state standards. Students are being assessed on their understanding of these concepts and skills through high-stakes testing. Standards-based grading is assessing students on their understanding of these same…

  5. Using Standards-Based Grading to Address Students' Strengths and Weaknesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaack, Susan; Kreuz, Allie; Zawlocki, Erin

    2012-01-01

    This action research project report uses standard-based grading to address the problem of traditional grades not adequately assessing student content mastery and students' lack of awareness regarding their strengths and weaknesses. Research was conducted by one elementary and two middle school teachers with 158 students between the dates of…

  6. Assessing the Impact of Standards-Based Middle Grades Mathematics Curriculum Materials on Student Achievement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Reys; Barbara Reys; Richard Lapan; Gregory Holliday

    2003-01-01

    This study compared the mathematics achievement of eighth graders in the first three school districts in Missouri to adopt NSF-funded Standards-based middle grades mathematics curriculum materials (MATH Thematics or Connected Mathematics Project) with students who had similar prior mathematics achievement and family income levels from other districts. Achievement was measured using the mathematics portion of the Missouri Assessment Program (MAP)

  7. "Standards"-Based Mathematics Curricula and Middle-Grades Students' Performance on Standardized Achievement Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Thomas R.; Harwell, Michael R.; Davis, Jon D.; Maeda, Yukiko; Cutler, Arnie; Andersen, Edwin; Kahan, Jeremy A.; Norman, Ke Wu

    2008-01-01

    This study examined achievement patterns of middle school students enrolled in Standards-based curricula, in particular those curricula that were funded from a solicitation of proposals through the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the early 1990s (NSF RFP 91-100). Approximately 1400 middle-grades students who had used either the Connected…

  8. Standards-Based Assessment, Grading, and Reporting in Classrooms: Can District Training and Support Change Teacher Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMunn, Nancy; Schenck, Patricia; McColskey, Wendy

    Whether school district support and training in standards-based assessment, grading, and reporting in classrooms can change teacher practice in these areas was studied in a Florida school district. This district, Bay District Schools of Panama City, has been working with the SERVE Regional Educational Laboratory on a project that involves teachers…

  9. HOW FIFTH GRADE TEACHERS USED INVESTIGATIONS IN NUMBER, DATA, AND SPACE: A STANDARDS-BASED CURRICULUM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penina Kamina

    2006-01-01

    Achieving the vision of standards-based curriculum is problematic for elementary school practicing teachers in urban school districts. This study explored the salient instruction features of what goes on in classrooms that use a standards-based curriculum. This include lesson plan, activity sequence, questioning, classroom management, discipline, class environment, discussion, small group work, reflection, journaling, modeling, respect, humor, etc. This study found

  10. Determining Fair Grades for Students with Special Needs: A Standards-Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Lee Ann; Guskey, Thomas R.

    2007-01-01

    Grades, report cards, and other progress reports are important vehicles for communicating with families about their children's strengths, areas to target, and interventions that can be used at home. For families of children with disabilities, accurate information on learning progress is essential for understanding intervention effectiveness and…

  11. Fourth-grade Elementary Students' Conceptions of Standards-based Lunar Concepts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathy Cabe Trundle; Ronald K. Atwood; John E. Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Fourth?grade students’ knowledge of observable moon phases and patterns of change, as well as conceptual understanding of the cause of moon phases, was investigated before and after special instruction. Pretest and post?test data for 48 students were used to address the research question related to observable moon phases and patterns of change. Interviews were conducted with 10 students on a

  12. 7th-12th Grade English/Language Arts Teachers and Their Classroom Grading Practices: Investigating the Use of Standards-Based Grading in Nebraska's Rural Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Summer Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    A problem exists in grading practices accurately measuring student achievement. Both students' academic achievements and nonacademic factors, such as effort, homework completion, and behaviors continue to factor into grades. This combination can lead to inaccurate representation of true academic ability, rendering a grade useless. While…

  13. Curriculum-Based Measurement and Standards-Based Mathematics: Monitoring the Arithmetic Word Problem-Solving Performance of Third-Grade Students at Risk for Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Zaslofsky, Anne F.

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of a curriculum-based measure of word problem solving (CBM-WPS) as an indicator of performance and progress in a sample of 136 third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MDs) instructed in a standards-based mathematics curriculum. Students completed the CBM-WPS…

  14. Does Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation Improve Schools: An Investigation of Teacher Perceptions of Appraisal Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Joseph Albert

    2008-01-01

    Three years after implementing a standards-based teacher evaluation system in a private K-12 school, research was conducted to determine what attitudes and perceptions teachers had on the effectiveness of the system. The survey includes questions about the teacher evaluation process and the goals of the test school in implementing the process. The…

  15. Examining Teacher Evaluation Validity and Leadership Decision Making within a Standards-Based Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Steven M.; Milanowski, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The article reports on a study of school leader decision making that examined variation in the validity of teacher evaluation ratings in a school district that has implemented a standards-based teacher evaluation system. Research Methods: Applying mixed methods, the study used teacher evaluation ratings and value-added student achievement…

  16. Convergent Validity Evidence regarding the Validity of the Chilean Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Taut, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes convergent validity evidence regarding the mandatory, standards-based Chilean national teacher evaluation system (NTES). The study examined whether NTES identifies--and thereby rewards or punishes--the "right" teachers as high- or low-performing. We collected in-depth teaching performance data on a sample of 58 teachers who…

  17. Implementing an integrated standards-based management system to ensure compliance at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hjeresen; S. Roybal; P. Bertino; C. Gherman; B. Hosteny

    1995-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory) is developing and implementing a comprehensive, Integrated Standards-Based Management System (ISBMS) to enhance environmental, safety, and health (ESH) compliance efforts and streamline management of ESH throughout the Laboratory. The Laboratory recognizes that to be competitive in today`s business environment and attractive to potential Partnerships, Laboratory operations must be efficient and cost-effective. The

  18. Design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent self-management system (PICS).

    PubMed

    von Bargen, Tobias; Gietzelt, Matthias; Britten, Matthias; Song, Bianying; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Kohlmann, Martin; Marschollek, Michael; Haux, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of demographic change and a diminishing care workforce there is a growing need for personalized decision support. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and implementation of the standards-based personal intelligent care systems (PICS). PICS makes consistent use of internationally accepted standards such as the Health Level 7 (HL7) Arden syntax for the representation of the decision logic, HL7 Clinical Document Architecture for information representation and is based on a open-source service-oriented architecture framework and a business process management system. Its functionality is exemplified for the application scenario of a patient suffering from congestive heart failure. Several vital signs sensors provide data for the decision support system, and a number of flexible communication channels are available for interaction with patient or caregiver. PICS is a standards-based, open and flexible system enabling personalized decision support. Further development will include the implementation of components on small computers and sensor nodes. PMID:23542984

  19. Title Grading System and Grade Records Category Exams and Grades

    E-print Network

    Zhuang, Yu

    grade and will be calculated into the student=s average with a grade of "F." Computation of Grade Point). Calculating a student's semester average requires totaling the grade points and dividing them by the total Average. A grade is weighted by the number of credits for the course in order to calculate the grade

  20. Discover, Visualize, and Deliver Geospatial Data through OGC Standards-based WebGIS System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Yaxing [ORNL; SanthanaVannan, Suresh K [ORNL; Cook, Robert B [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Geospatial data are important to understand the Earth - ecosystem dynamics, land cover changes, resource management, and human interactions with the Earth to name a few. One of the biggest difficulties users face is to discover, access, and assemble distributed, large volume, heterogeneous geospatial data to conduct geo-analysis. Traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery lack the capabilities of resource sharing and automation across systems or organizational boundaries. They require users to download the data ldquoas-isrdquo in their original file format, projection, and extent. Also, discovering data served by traditional methods requires prior knowledge of data location, and processing requires specialized expertise. These drawbacks of traditional methods create additional burden to users, introduce too much overhead to research, and also reduce the potential usage of the data. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), researchers working on NASA-sponsored projects: Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) and Modeling and Synthesis Thematic Data Center (MAST-DC) have tapped into the benefits of Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards to overcome the drawbacks of traditional methods of geospatial data discovery, visualization, and delivery. The OGC standards-based approach facilitates data sharing and interoperability across network, organizational, and geopolitical boundaries. Tools and services based on OGC standards deliver the data in many user defined formats and allow users to visualize the data prior to download. This paper introduces an approach taken to visualize and deliver ORNL DAAC, MAST-DC, and other relevant geospatial data through OGC standards-based Web Services, including Web Map Service (WMS), Web Coverage Service (WCS), and Web Feature Service (WFS). It also introduces a WebGIS system built on top of OGC services that helps users discover, visualize, and access geospatial data.

  1. The standard-based open workflow system in GeoBrain (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L.; Yu, G.; Zhao, P.; Deng, M.

    2013-12-01

    GeoBrain is an Earth science Web-service system developed and operated by the Center for Spatial Information Science and Systems, George Mason University. In GeoBrain, a standard-based open workflow system has been implemented to accommodate the automated processing of geospatial data through a set of complex geo-processing functions for advanced production generation. The GeoBrain models the complex geoprocessing at two levels, the conceptual and concrete. At the conceptual level, the workflows exist in the form of data and service types defined by ontologies. The workflows at conceptual level are called geo-processing models and cataloged in GeoBrain as virtual product types. A conceptual workflow is instantiated into a concrete, executable workflow when a user requests a product that matches a virtual product type. Both conceptual and concrete workflows are encoded in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL). A BPEL workflow engine, called BPELPower, has been implemented to execute the workflow for the product generation. A provenance capturing service has been implemented to generate the ISO 19115-compliant complete product provenance metadata before and after the workflow execution. The generation of provenance metadata before the workflow execution allows users to examine the usability of the final product before the lengthy and expensive execution takes place. The three modes of workflow executions defined in the ISO 19119, transparent, translucent, and opaque, are available in GeoBrain. A geoprocessing modeling portal has been developed to allow domain experts to develop geoprocessing models at the type level with the support of both data and service/processing ontologies. The geoprocessing models capture the knowledge of the domain experts and are become the operational offering of the products after a proper peer review of models is conducted. An automated workflow composition has been experimented successfully based on ontologies and artificial intelligence technology. The GeoBrain workflow system has been used in multiple Earth science applications, including the monitoring of global agricultural drought, the assessment of flood damage, the derivation of national crop condition and progress information, and the detection of nuclear proliferation facilities and events.

  2. Building Standards based Science Information Systems: A Survey of ISO and other standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Todd; Walker, Raymond

    Science Information systems began with individual researchers maintaining personal collec-tions of data and managing them by using ad hoc, specialized approaches. Today information systems are an enterprise consisting of federated systems that manage and distribute both historical and contemporary data from distributed sources. Information systems have many components. Among these are metadata models, metadata registries, controlled vocabularies and ontologies which are used to describe entities and resources. Other components include services to exchange information and data; tools to populate the system and tools to utilize available resources. When constructing information systems today a variety of standards can be useful. The benefit of adopting standards is clear; it can shorten the design cycle, enhance software reuse and enable interoperability. We look at standards from the International Stan-dards Organization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), American National Standards Institute (ANSI) which have influenced the develop-ment of information systems in the Heliophysics and Planetary sciences. No standard can solve the needs of every community. Individual disciplines often must fill the gap between general purpose standards and the unique needs of the discipline. To this end individual science dis-ciplines are developing standards, Examples include the International Virtual Observatory Al-liance (IVOA), Planetary Data System (PDS)/ International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), Dublin-Core Science, and the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract (SPASE) consortium. This broad survey of ISO and other standards provides some guidance for the development information systems. The development of the SPASE data model is reviewed and provides some insights into the value of applying appropriate standards and is used to illustrate how quasi-standards efforts can effectively evolve towards robust standards compliance. New efforts may benefit from the lessons learned.

  3. IEEE 1451.0 standard based smart readout for multi-rate control of system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kamala; B. Umamaheswari

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel architecture for multi-rate control system with disturbance estimation and rejection using FPGA connected with sensors and actuators through IEEE 1451 standard. A signum function is used for estimation error correction. Estimated states are used to provide the control input at a rate higher or lower than the sample rate thus providing multi-rate control. An architecture

  4. Open Source and Open Standard based decision support system: the example of lake Verbano floods management.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Antonovic, Milan; Pozzoni, Maurizio; Graf, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The Locarno area (Switzerland, Canton Ticino) is exposed to lacual floods with a return period of about 7-8 years. The risk is of particular concern because the area is located in a floodplain that registered in the last decades a great increase in settlement and values of the real estates. Moreover small differences in lake altitude may produce a significant increase in flooded area due to the very low average slope of the terrain. While fatalities are not generally registered, several important economic costs are associated, e.g.: damages to real estates, interruption of activities, evacuation and relocation and environmental damages. While important events were registered in 1978, 1993, 2000, 2002 and 2014 the local stakeholder invested time and money in the set-up of an up-to-date decision support system that allows for the reduction of risks. Thanks to impressive technological advances the visionary concept of the Digital Earth (Gore 1992, 1998) is being realizing: geospatial coverages and monitoring systems data are increasingly available on the Web, and more importantly, in a standard format. As a result, today is possible to develop innovative decision support systems (Molinari et al. 2013) which mesh-up several information sources and offers special features for risk scenarios evaluation. In agreement with the exposed view, the authors have recently developed a new Web system whose design is based on the Service Oriented Architecture pattern. Open source software (e.g.: Geoserver, PostGIS, OpenLayers) has been used throughout the whole system and geospatial Open Standards (e.g.: SOS, WMS, WFS) are the pillars it rely on. SITGAP 2.0, implemented in collaboration with the Civil protection of Locarno e Vallemaggia, combines a number of data sources such as the Federal Register of Buildings and Dwellings, the Cantonal Register of residents, the Cadastral Surveying, the Cantonal Hydro-meteorological monitoring observations, the Meteoswiss weather forecasts, and others. As a result of this orchestration of data, SITGAP 2.0 serves features that allows, for example, to be informed on active alarms, to visualize lake level forecasts and associated flooding areas, to evaluate and map exposed elements and people, to plan and manage evacuation by searching for people living in particular areas or buildings, by registering evacuation actions and by searching for evacuated people. System architecture and functionalities, and consideration on the integration and accessibility of the beneath information together with the lesson learnt during the usage of the system during the last floods of November 2014, provides interesting discussion points for the identification of current and future needs.

  5. Teachers' Belief Systems and Grading Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Harry; Brown, Clarence

    This report investigated two hypotheses: 1) junior high school teachers with concrete belief systems would assign more unsatisfactory citizenship grades and lower academic grades than more abstract teachers; and 2) the correlation between citizenship and academic grades would be higher for concrete than abstract teachers. Ten teachers from…

  6. ACSYNT - A standards-based system for parametric, computer aided conceptual design of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayaram, S.; Myklebust, A.; Gelhausen, P.

    1992-01-01

    A group of eight US aerospace companies together with several NASA and NAVY centers, led by NASA Ames Systems Analysis Branch, and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory agreed, through the assistance of Americal Technology Initiative, in 1990 to form the ACSYNT (Aircraft Synthesis) Institute. The Institute is supported by a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement to continue the research and development in computer aided conceptual design of aircraft initiated by NASA Ames Research Center and Virginia Tech's CAD Laboratory. The result of this collaboration, a feature-based, parametric computer aided aircraft conceptual design code called ACSYNT, is described. The code is based on analysis routines begun at NASA Ames in the early 1970's. ACSYNT's CAD system is based entirely on the ISO standard Programmer's Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System and is graphics-device independent. The code includes a highly interactive graphical user interface, automatically generated Hermite and B-Spline surface models, and shaded image displays. Numerous features to enhance aircraft conceptual design are described.

  7. On a grading system for beef marbling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fumito Yoshikawa; Kazuo Toraichi; Koichi Wada; Nobuyuki Ostu; Hisroyasu Nakai; Mitsuru Mitsumoto; Kazuki Katagishi

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an automatic grading system for beef marbling which is composed of discriminant threshold selection method and run length processing. From the experimental results, it has been confirmed that the proposed system enables high quality grading of beef marbling, and robust region segmentation of the actual beef rib-eye image into lean and fat regions.

  8. Automated fruit grading system using image processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Njoroge; Kazunori Ninomiya; Naoshi Kondo; H. Toita

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the operations and performance of an automated quality verification system for agricultural products and its main features. The system utilizes improved engineering designs and image-processing techniques to convey and grade products. Basically two inspection stages of the system can be identified: external fruit inspection and internal fruit inspection. Surface inspection is accomplished through processing of color CCD

  9. Utility Grade Compressed Air Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry C. Eaton; LaMonte L. Wilder; Richard D. Feustel

    2008-01-01

    Industrial companies are continually faced with increasing competition, rising costs, and tighter margins. As manufacturers identify ways to reduce costs and improve their bottom line, one significant opportunity that is often overlooked is the compressed air system. Compressed air systems are typically the largest users of electricity in a manufacturing facility and need to be managed accordingly. Companies converting to

  10. Grading System & GPA Calculation UMass Credit Hour

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    , or IF if taken thereafter. To Calculate Your Grade Point Average for a Semester 1. Compute the grade points.800 / 11 = 2.2545... So rounded to the third decimal point, 2.255 would be your Grade Point Average for the semester. To Calculate Your Cumulative Grade Point Average Add your grade point total for ALL semesters you

  11. Maximal physical work performance with European standard based fire-protective clothing system and equipment in relation to individual characteristics.

    PubMed

    Louhevaara, V; Ilmarinen, R; Griefahn, B; Künemund, C; Mäkinen, H

    1995-01-01

    Every fire fighter needs to wear fire-protective clothing and a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) several times a year while carrying out various fire-fighting and rescue operations in hazardous work environments. The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of a multilayer turnout suit designed to fulfil European standard EN 469 used over standardized (Nordic) clothing and with SCBA (total mass 25.9 kg) on maximal physical work performance, and to evaluate the relationship between individual characteristics and power output with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. The subjects were 12 healthy firemen aged 26-46 years. The range of their body mass, body fat and maximal oxygen consumption was 69-101 kg, 10-20% and 2.70-5.86 l.min-1, respectively. The maximal tests without (control) and with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA were carried out on a treadmill in a thermoneutral environment. When compared to the control test, the decrease in the maximal power output in terms of maximal working time and walking speed averaged 25% (P < 0.001) varying from 18% to 34% with the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. At maximum, no significant differences were found in pulmonary ventilation, absolute oxygen consumption, the respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, the rate-pressure product, mechanical efficiency, and the rating of perceived exertion between the tests with and without the fire-protective clothing system and SCBA. The reduction of the power output was related to the extra mass of the fire protective clothing and SCBA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7588692

  12. Perceptions of Standards-based Electronic Prescribing Systems as Implemented in Outpatient Primary Care: A Physician Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C. Jason; Patel, Mihir H.; Schueth, Anthony J.; Bradley, Melissa; Wu, Shinyi; Crosson, Jesse C.; Glassman, Peter A.; Bell, Douglas S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the experiences of e-prescribing users and nonusers regarding prescription safety and workload and to assess the use of information from two e-prescribing standards (for medication history and formulary and benefit information), as they are implemented. Design Cross-sectional survey of physicians who either had installed or were awaiting installation of one of two commercial e-prescribing systems. Measurements Perceptions about medication history and formulary and benefit information among all respondents, and among e-prescribing users, experiences with system usability, job performance impact, and amount of e-prescribing. Results Of 395 eligible physicians, 228 (58%) completed the survey. E-prescribers (n = 139) were more likely than non-e-prescribers (n = 89) to perceive that they could identify clinically important drug–drug interactions (83 versus 67%, p = 0.004) but not that they could identify prescriptions from other providers (65 versus 60%, p = 0.49). They also perceived no significant difference in calls about drug coverage problems (76 versus 71% reported getting 10 or fewer such calls per week; p = 0.43). Most e-prescribers reported high satisfaction with their systems, but 17% had stopped using the system and another 46% said they sometimes reverted to handwriting for prescriptions that they could write electronically. The volume of e-prescribing was correlated with perceptions that it enhanced job performance, whereas quitting was associated with perceptions of poor usability. Conclusions E-prescribing users reported patient safety benefits but they did not perceive the enhanced benefits expected from using standardized medication history or formulary and benefit information. Additional work is needed for these standards to have the desired effects. PMID:19390106

  13. Concepts for a standard based cross-organisational information security management system in the context of a nationwide EHR.

    PubMed

    Mense, Alexander; Hoheiser-Pförtner, Franz; Schmid, Martin; Wahl, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Working with health related data necessitates appropriate levels of security and privacy. Information security, meaning ensuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability, is more organizational, than technical in nature. It includes many organizational and management measures, is based on well-defined security roles, processes, and documents, and needs permanent adaption of security policies, continuously monitoring, and measures assessment. This big challenge for any organization leads to implementation of an information security management system (ISMS). In the context of establishing a regional or national electronic health record for integrated care (ICEHR), the situation is worse. Changing the medical information exchange from on-demand peer-to-peer connections to health information networks requires all organizations participating in the EHR system to have consistent security levels and to follow the same security guidelines and rules. Also, the implementation must be monitored and audited, establishing cross-organizational information security management systems (ISMS) based on international standards. This paper evaluates requirements and defines basic concepts for an ISO 27000 series-based cross-organizational ISMS in the healthcare domain and especially for the implementation of the nationwide electronic health record in Austria (ELGA). PMID:23920615

  14. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A MACHINE VISION SYSTEM FOR SHIITAKE GRADING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HO-HSIEN CHEN; CHING-HUA TING

    2004-01-01

    A grading system was developed to classify shiitake automatically into various grades of quality in terms of size, shape and color. A shiitake is scanned with a color charge-coupled-device camera and then various geometrical and color characteristics are determined by image processing. The online grading procedure includes the following sequences in processing dried shiitake: (a) color abnormality is eliminated by

  15. An Effective Standards-Based K-12 Science and Technology/Engineering Classroom

    E-print Network

    Rosenberg, Steven

    An Effective Standards-Based K-12 Science and Technology/Engineering Classroom The MADOE's Science characteristics of an effective standards-based science and technology/engineering classroom, applicable to grades is to support activities that advance standards-based educational practice and enhance classroom instruction

  16. Achieving Standards-Based Curriculum Alignment through Mindful Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebling, Cheryl Rappaport

    In this paper, standards-based curriculum alignment is represented as an inquiry strategy for creating a district's coherent curriculum for kindergarten through grade 12. A coherent curriculum is one in which the district's written curriculum is externally congruent with state and/or national academic content and performance standards, and the…

  17. Alignment of Two Grading Systems: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohner, Margaret; Tsigaris, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    For the past number of years, a Canadian university has been offering its business degree program in universities located in Tianjin and Shanghai, China. This paper examines the alignment of the two grading systems and its implications on the grade distribution of graduates from the programs. An attempt is made to find an exchange rate of the two…

  18. A tablet-based paper exam grading system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Bloomfield; James F. Groves

    2008-01-01

    We present the design and implementation of a system which allows a standard paper-based exam to be graded via tablet computers. The paper exam is given normally in a course, with a specialized footer that allows for automated recognition of each exam page. The exam pages are then scanned in via a high-speed scanner, graded by one or more people

  19. Social Studies, Grade 3. Teaching Systems II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary Curriculum Development.

    The overall social studies recommended program is described in SO 000 675; the nature of this guide, and the emphasis and organization of the units are described in SO 000 679. The three units in this part of the third grade course are: Tropical Rainforest, Mountain Communities, and Grassland Communities involving the typical climatic conditions,…

  20. British athletics muscle injury classification: a new grading system.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Noel; James, Steven L J; Lee, Justin C; Chakraverty, Robin

    2014-09-01

    The commonly used muscle injury grading systems based on three grades of injury, representing minor, moderate and complete injuries to the muscle, are lacking in diagnostic accuracy and provide limited prognostic information to the clinician. In recent years, there have been a number of proposals for alternative grading systems. While there is recent evidence regarding the prognostic features of muscle injuries, this evidence has not often been incorporated into the grading proposals. The British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification proposes a new system, based on the available evidence, which should provide a sound diagnostic base for therapeutic decision-making and prognostication. Injuries are graded 0-4 based on MRI features, with Grades 1-4 including an additional suffix 'a', 'b' or 'c' if the injury is 'myofascial', 'musculo-tendinous' or 'intratendinous'. Retrospective and prospective studies in elite track and field athletes are underway to validate the classification for use in hamstring muscle injury management. It is intended that this grading system can provide a suitable diagnostic framework for enhanced clinical decision-making in the management of muscle injuries and assist with future research to inform the development of improved prevention and management strategies. PMID:25031367

  1. The Solar System Presentation for SRS 5th Grade

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    The Solar System Presentation for SRS 5th Grade Prof. David Cohen, Swarthmore College #12;What astronomers try to answer: ·What are the things in the solar system like? Planets, moons, comets, asteroids, the Sun... ·Are there good conditions for life anywhere in the solar system? ·How did the solar system

  2. Grading NASA's Solar System Exploration Program: A Midterm Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Committee on Assessing the Solar System Exploration Program has reviewed NASA's progress to date in implementing the recommendations made in the National Research Council's (NRC's) solar system exploration decadal survey covering the period 2003-2013, New Frontiers in the Solar System, and in its Mars Architecture report, Assessment of NASA s Mars Architecture 2007-2016. The committee assessed NASA's progress with respect to each individual recommendation in these two reports, assigning an academic-style grade, explaining the rationale for the grade and trend, and offering recommendations for improvement. The committee generally sought to develop recommendations in cases where it determined that the grade, the trend, or both were worrisome and that the achievement of a decadal survey recommendation would require some kind of corrective action on NASA's part. This usually meant that the committee sought to offer a recommendation when the grade was a "C" or lower. However, the committee did offer recommendations in connection with some higher grades when it believed that minor corrective action was possible and desirable. More importantly, the committee did not offer recommendations for some of the activities given lower grades, particularly in the enabling technologies area (Chapter 6), because the committee determined that only the restoration of funding and the development of a strategic technology development program would solve these problems.

  3. Evolution of a digital paper exam grading system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron Bloomfield

    2010-01-01

    We describe the evolution of a system designed to allow digital grading, by a human, of traditional paper-based exams or homework assignments. We present a number of new features that build upon the system described in a paper previously published in ITiCSE 2008. In particular, our system now has the ability to monitor an enormous range of data, from individual

  4. A probe into the modeling method for GIS-based urban land grading information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanzhong Liu; Zuo Zhang; Jiangfeng Li; Fengjuan Wei

    2010-01-01

    Determination of the grading method, sizing of the grading unit and generation of the weight values of the grading factors are the key links of the construction of the GIS-based urban land grading information system, and there are different methods to determine these links. Selection of the modeling methods will determine whether the system building is reasonable or not. Based

  5. The Buddy System: A Step toward More Reliable Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polanski, Virginia G.

    Designed to help teachers in writing programs collaborate to reach a consensus on grading standards for freshman essays, the "Buddy System" was instituted on a voluntary basis at a Pennsylvania college with an English department with a traditional literature orientation. To participate, the instructors were required: (1) to choose at least one…

  6. Groups graded by root systems and property (T)

    PubMed Central

    Ershov, Mikhail; Jaikin-Zapirain, Andrei; Kassabov, Martin; Zhang, Zezhou

    2014-01-01

    We establish property (T) for a large class of groups graded by root systems, including elementary Chevalley groups and Steinberg groups of rank at least 2 over finitely generated commutative rings with 1. We also construct a group with property (T) which surjects onto all finite simple groups of Lie type and rank at least two. PMID:25425669

  7. Continuous-Flow System Produces Medical-Grade Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-flow system utilizes microwave heating to sterilize water and to thermally inactivate endotoxins produced in the sterilization process. The system is designed for use in converting potable water to medical-grade water. Systems like this one could be used for efficient, small-scale production of medical- grade water in laboratories, clinics, and hospitals. This system could be adapted to use in selective sterilization of connections in ultra-pure-water-producing equipment and other equipment into which intrusion by microorganisms cannot be tolerated. Lightweight, port - able systems based on the design of this system could be rapidly deployed to remote locations (e.g., military field hospitals) or in response to emergencies in which the normal infrastructure for providing medical-grade water is disrupted. Larger systems based on the design of this system could be useful for industrial production of medical-grade water. The basic microwave-heating principle of this system is the same as that of a microwave oven: An item to be heated, made of a lossy dielectric material (in this case, flowing water) is irradiated with microwaves in a multimode microwave cavity. The heating is rapid and efficient because it results from absorption of microwave power throughout the volume of the lossy dielectric material. In this system, a copper tube having a length of 49.5 cm and a diameter of 2.25 cm serves as both the microwave cavity and the sterilization chamber. Microwave power is fed via a coaxial cable to an antenna mounted inside the tube at mid-length (see figure). Efficient power transfer occurs due to the shift in wavelength associated with the high permittivity of water combined with the strong coupling of 2.45-GHz microwaves with rotational-vibrational transitions of the dipolar water molecule.

  8. Thermal residual stresses in a functionally graded material system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. S. Ravichandran

    1995-01-01

    A one-dimensional calculation of thermal residual stresses, arising from the fabrication of a Functionally Graded Material (FGM) system, is presented. As a first step, calculations have been limited to the linear elastic case. The FGM system consists of ceramic (Al2O3) and metal (Ni) phases varying with distance in one direction. Several functional forms of gradation of constituents were examined to

  9. Developing a Statewide, Standards-Based Student Report Card: A Review of the Kentucky Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.; Swan, Gerry M.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a major initiative in the Commonwealth of Kentucky to develop a statewide, standards-based, student report card for reporting the learning progress of individual students at all grade levels (K-12). Led by a team of researchers with expertise in grading and reporting, 36 educators from three diverse school districts created…

  10. UP-GRADED RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    HAHN,H.FISCHER,W.SEMERTZIDIS,Y.K.WARBURTON,D.S.

    2003-05-12

    The design of the RHIC injection systems anticipated the possibility of filling and operating the rings with a 120 bunch pattern, corresponding to 110 bunches after allowing for the abort gap. Beam measurements during the 2002 run confirmed the possibility, although at the expense of severe transverse emittance growth and thus not on an operational basis. An improvement program was initiated with the goal of reducing the kicker rise time from 110 to {approx}95 ns and of minimizing pulse timing jitter and drift. The major components of the injection system are 4 kicker magnets and Blmlein pulsers using thyratron switches. The kicker terminating resistor and operating voltage was increased to reduce the rise time. Timing has been stabilized by using commercial trigger units and extremely stable dc supplies for the thyratron reservoir. A fiber optical connection between control room and the thyratron trigger unit has been provided, thereby allowing the operator to adjust timing individually for each kicker unit. The changes were successfully implemented for use in the RHIC operation.

  11. The Case against Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohn, Alfie

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research shows that grades diminish students' interest in whatever they're learning, discourage students from taking academic risks, and reduce the quality of students' thinking, writes Kohn. Contrary to what many people assume, grades are not necessary to promote achievement. Attempts to "improve" grading--such as standards-based

  12. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Comparing grades under different pay systems... General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay systems... (b) Geographic conversion. When comparing positions under paragraph...

  13. 5 CFR 536.105 - Comparing grades under different pay systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Comparing grades under different pay systems... General Provisions § 536.105 Comparing grades under different pay systems... (b) Geographic conversion. When comparing positions under paragraph...

  14. 49 CFR 234.9 - Grade crossing signal system failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Grade crossing signal system failure reports. 234.9 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS...and Plans § 234.9 Grade crossing signal system failure reports. Each...

  15. 49 CFR 234.9 - Grade crossing signal system failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Grade crossing signal system failure reports. 234.9 Section...TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY...and Plans § 234.9 Grade crossing signal system failure reports. Each...

  16. 49 CFR 234.9 - Grade crossing signal system failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Grade crossing signal system failure reports. 234.9 Section...TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY...and Plans § 234.9 Grade crossing signal system failure reports. Each...

  17. 49 CFR 234.9 - Grade crossing signal system failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Grade crossing signal system failure reports. 234.9 Section...TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY...and Plans § 234.9 Grade crossing signal system failure reports. Each...

  18. 49 CFR 234.9 - Grade crossing signal system failure reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Grade crossing signal system failure reports. 234.9 Section...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS...and Plans § 234.9 Grade crossing signal system failure reports. Each...

  19. GROUPS GRADED BY ROOT SYSTEMS AND PROPERTY (T) Mikhail Ershov 1

    E-print Network

    Ershov, Mikhail

    GROUPS GRADED BY ROOT SYSTEMS AND PROPERTY (T) Mikhail Ershov 1 , Andrei Jaikin-Zapirain 2 , Martin, USA 1 #12;2 GROUPS GRADED BY ROOT SYSTEMS AND PROPERTY (T) Abstract. We establish property (T) for a large class of groups graded by root systems, including elementary Chevalley groups and Steinberg groups

  20. Standard Bases of Differential Ideals (1) Francois Ollivier

    E-print Network

    Ollivier, François

    ­ dard bases of D­modules introduced by Castro [Cas]. We will deal with commutative differential rings, not rings of differential operators. Effective---or almost effective---methods for solving systems1 Standard Bases of Differential Ideals (1) Fran¸cois Ollivier Laboratoire d'Informatique de l'X (L

  1. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOEpatents

    Kuznetsov, S.B.

    1986-04-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel. 4 figs.

  2. Graded pitch electromagnetic pump for thin strip metal casting systems

    DOEpatents

    Kuznetsov, Stephen B. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A metal strip casing system is provided with an electromagnetic pump which includes a pair of primary blocks having a graded pole pitch, polyphase ac winding and being arranged on opposite sides of a movable heat sink. A nozzle is provided for depositing liquid metal on the heat sink such that the resulting metal strip and heat sink combination is subjected to a longitudinal electromagnetic field which increases in wavelength in the direction of travel of the heat sink, thereby subjecting the metal and heat sink to a longitudinal force having a magnitude which increases in the direction of travel.

  3. A Qualitative Case Study on the Effects of Online Grading Systems on Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, C. Mark, II

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored perceptions of teachers and educational administrators regarding differences between online grading systems and traditional written grade books. The purpose was to gain knowledge of online grade books in relation to parental involvement in the educational process and student academic performance, when compared…

  4. A proposed grading system for endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: Buffalo score

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Travis M.; Kan, Peter; Snyder, Kenneth V.; Hopkins, L. Nelson; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Levy, Elad I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Spetzler–Martin arteriovenous malformation (AVM) grading system has proven to be useful in guiding treatment of cerebral AVMs with craniotomy. It is based on anatomical characteristics each of which makes surgical resection of an AVM more difficult, namely, deep venous drainage, eloquence of surrounding tissue, and large nidus size. A higher score correlates with more complications after treatment. Although this grading system has proven reliable over time, it does not reflect the major determinants of risk associated with endovascular treatment. The authors developed a grading system unique to endovascular treatment of cerebral AVMs. Methods: The proposed grading system accounts for the principal AVM anatomical and physiological features that make endovascular embolization more difficult and, thus, the likelihood of complications greater. These include number of arterial pedicles, diameter of arterial pedicles, and eloquent location of AVM nidus. The proposed grading system was retrospectively applied to 50 patients undergoing endovascular AVM embolization, and its ability to predict complications was compared to the Spetzler–Martin grading system. Results: Perioperative complications among the 50 patients included 4 major and 9 minor complications. The proposed grading system was predictive of complication risk, with an increasing rate of perioperative complications associated with an increasing AVM grade. An improved correlation of perioperative complication incidence was noted with the proposed system (P = 0.002), when compared with the Spetzler–Martin grading system (P = 0.33). Conclusion: This grading system for the endovascular treatment of AVMs is simple, easily reproduced, and clinically valuable. PMID:25657856

  5. Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses.

    PubMed

    Vanhoutte, Els Karla; Faber, Catharina Gerritdina; van Nes, Sonja Ingrid; Jacobs, Bart Casper; van Doorn, Pieter Antoon; van Koningsveld, Rinske; Cornblath, David Reid; van der Kooi, Anneke Jelly; Cats, Elisabeth Aviva; van den Berg, Leonard Hendrik; Notermans, Nicolette Claudia; van der Pol, Willem Lodewijk; Hermans, Mieke Catharina Elisabeth; van der Beek, Nadine Anna Maria Elisabeth; Gorson, Kenneth Craig; Eurelings, Marijke; Engelsman, Jeroen; Boot, Hendrik; Meijer, Ronaldus Jacobus; Lauria, Giuseppe; Tennant, Alan; Merkies, Ingemar Sergio José

    2012-05-01

    The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal width of its response options. No study has systematically examined, through modern psychometric approach, whether physicians are able to properly use the Medical Research Council grades. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate physicians' ability to discriminate among the Medical Research Council categories in patients with different neuromuscular disorders and with various degrees of weakness through thresholds examination using Rasch analysis as a modern psychometric method; (ii) to examine possible factors influencing physicians' ability to apply the Medical Research Council categories through differential item function analyses; and (iii) to examine whether the widely used Medical Research Council 12 muscles sum score in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy would meet Rasch model's expectations. A total of 1065 patients were included from nine cohorts with the following diseases: Guillain-Barré syndrome (n?=?480); myotonic dystrophy type-1 (n?=?169); chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n?=?139); limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (n?=?105); multifocal motor neuropathy (n?=?102); Pompe's disease (n?=?62) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined related polyneuropathy (n?=?8). Medical Research Council data of 72 muscles were collected. Rasch analyses were performed on Medical Research Council data for each cohort separately and after pooling data at the muscle level to increase category frequencies, and on the Medical Research Council sum score in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Disordered thresholds were demonstrated in 74-79% of the muscles examined, indicating physicians' inability to discriminate between most Medical Research Council categories. Factors such as physicians' experience or illness type did not influence these findings. Thresholds were restored after rescoring the Medical Research Council grades from six to four options (0, paralysis; 1, severe weakness; 2, slight weakness; 3, normal strength). The Medical Research Council sum score acceptably fulfilled Rasch model expectations after rescoring the response options and creating subsets to resolve local dependency and item bias on diagnosis. In conclusion, a modified, Rasch-built four response category Medical Research Council grading system is proposed, resolving clinicians' inability to differentiate among its original response categories and improving clinical applicability. A modified Medical Research Council sum score at the interval level is presented and is recommended for future studies in Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. PMID:22189568

  6. Grading System, University Final grades are available on the campus Pipeline web service (http://pipeline.wayne.edu).

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    ,' and `NNC' grades are not reflected in the grade point average. `NR' -- No grade reported by the instructor point averages, but undergraduate courses completed with grade of `P' may count toward a degree. `S,' `M Grades `A' -- Excellent: 4.00 grade points per credit `A-minus' -- Excellent: 3.67 grade points per

  7. Reliability analysis of safety grade decay heat removal system of Indian prototype fast breeder reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. John Arul; C. Senthil Kumar; S. Athmalingam; Om Pal Singh; K. Suryaprakasa Rao

    2006-01-01

    The 500MW Indian pool type Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), is provided with two independent and diverse Decay Heat Removal (DHR) systems viz., Operating Grade Decay Heat Removal System (OGDHRS) and Safety Grade Decay Heat Removal System (SGDHRS). OGDHRS utilizes the secondary sodium loops and Steam–Water System with special decay heat removal condensers for DHR function. The unreliability of this

  8. Standards-based Instruction in Rehearsal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallis, Todd L.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of standards-based instruction in large ensemble rehearsals and the implementation of the National Standards for Music Education. Provides a sample lesson using "The Ash Grove," a piece arranged for band with notes on lesson preparation and rehearsal strategy. (CMK)

  9. Teaching in the Standards-Based Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorson, Annette, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "ENC Focus" focuses on teaching in the standards-based classroom. Contents include: (1) "Creating Ideals and Making Them Real" (Annette Thorson); (2) "ENC Partners: Eisenhower National Clearinghouse Sites" (Juyong Pae); (3) "Innovators' Forum"; (4) "Using the Internet: Connecting Students through Collaborative Projects" (Kimberly S.…

  10. School-Based Communities of Practice as Mechanisms for Standards-Based Mathematics Curriculum Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Thomas E.; Jong, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    The authors drew upon Remillard and Bryans' categorization of curriculum use in observating two middle-grade teachers' integration of Standards-based curriculum materials produced by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Each teacher participated in a two-year professional development program focused on increasing content knowledge and…

  11. GROUPS GRADED BY ROOT SYSTEMS AND PROPERTY (T) Mikhail Ershov 1

    E-print Network

    Ershov, Mikhail

    GROUPS GRADED BY ROOT SYSTEMS AND PROPERTY (T) Mikhail Ershov 1 , Andrei Jaikin-Zapirain 2 , Martin by root systems, including elementary Chevalley groups and Steinberg groups of rank at least two over is devoted to the class of groups graded by root systems which can be thought of as natural generalizations

  12. Problems with Standards-based Mathematics Tests

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alan Tucker, an Applied Math professor at Stony Brook University took it upon himself to analyze the reliability of the scoring of the Math A test, New York's standards-based exam. Tucker was part of the New York Board of Regents special panel which investigated the high failure rates on the June 2003 exam. He reports here on his findings regarding "flaws in annual math tests mandated by the No Child Left Behind Act." In particular, he is concerned about the likelihood that students scores on standards-based test can be compared over time at the level of precision needed to make decisions that come with high-stakes consequences. A short report and a full report are available from this website, explaining his model and statistical analysis.

  13. Tragedy on grade crossing: driver failure or systemic fragility?

    PubMed

    Lopes, Manoela Gomes Reis; de Gouveia Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade; de Almeida, Ildeberto Muniz; Mioto, Odilamar Lopes; Takahashi, Mara Alice Batista Conti; Perin, Fernanda Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, an accident occurred in Americana-SP, Brazil, involving two trains and one bus on a Grade Crossing, when 10 people died and 17 were injured including workers. This paper aims to analyze the accident using the Model of Analysis and Prevention of Work Accidents (MAPA). The method provides observation of work, interviews and analysis of documents to understand precedents of the event in the following stages: to understand the usual work from the involved people, the changes occurred in the system, the operation of barriers, managerial and organizational aspects. By the end, measures are suggested to avoid new occurrences. The accident took place at night in a site with insufficient lighting. The working conditions of bus drivers, train operators and watchmen are inadequate. There were only symbolic barriers (visual and acoustic signals) triggered manually by watchman upon train operator radio communication. The fragility of the barrier system associated to poor lighting and short time to trigger the signaling seem to play a critical role in the event. Contrary to the official report which resulted in guilt of the bus driver, the conclusion of the paper emphasizes the fragility of the safety system and the need of level crossing reproject. PMID:22317197

  14. Tumor Grade

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a pathologist’s report about the visual and microscopic examination of tissue removed during a biopsy or other surgery. How are tumor grades classified? Grading systems differ depending on the type of cancer. In ...

  15. The Impact of Framing Effect on Student Preferences for University Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.

    2009-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979, 2000; Tversky & Kahneman, 1981) work in decision-making was applied to student preferences for grading practices. Undergraduate psychology students (n = 240) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 framing conditions related to how a university course might be graded: a 100 point system, a percentage system, and an open…

  16. Securing Offshore Infrastructures Through a Global Alert and Graded Response System

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of each oil platform is still a matter for oil & gas industry responsibility. Offshore platforms1 « SARGOS » Securing Offshore Infrastructures Through a Global Alert and Graded Response System and graded response system to answer the recent but strong need for securing critical civilian offshore

  17. Standards-Based Wireless Sensor Networking Protocols for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the capacity to revolutionize data gathering in both spaceflight and terrestrial applications. WSNs provide a huge advantage over traditional, wired instrumentation since they do not require wiring trunks to connect sensors to a central hub. This allows for easy sensor installation in hard to reach locations, easy expansion of the number of sensors or sensing modalities, and reduction in both system cost and weight. While this technology offers unprecedented flexibility and adaptability, implementing it in practice is not without its difficulties. Recent advances in standards-based WSN protocols for industrial control applications have come a long way to solving many of the challenges facing practical WSN deployments. In this paper, we will overview two of the more promising candidates - WirelessHART from the HART Communication Foundation and ISA100.11a from the International Society of Automation - and present the architecture for a new standards-based sensor node for networking and applications research.

  18. Ceramic/polymer functionally graded material (FGM) lightweight armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Petrovic, J.J.; McClellan, K.J.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Functionally graded material is an enabling technology for lightweight body armor improvements. The objective was to demonstrate the ability to produce functionally graded ceramic-polymer and ceramic-metal lightweight armor materials. This objective involved two aspects. The first and key aspect was the development of graded-porosity boron-carbide ceramic microstructures. The second aspect was the development of techniques for liquid infiltration of lightweight metals and polymers into the graded-porosity ceramic. The authors were successful in synthesizing boron-carbide ceramic microstructures with graded porosity. These graded-porosity boron-carbide hot-pressed pieces were then successfully liquid-infiltrated in vacuum with molten aluminum at 1,300 C, and with liquid polymers at room temperature. Thus, they were able to demonstrate the feasibility of producing boron carbide-aluminum and boron carbide-polymer functionally graded materials.

  19. Optical system components for navigation grade fiber optic gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Marcus; Liesegang, Maximilian; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning; Lang, Klaus-Dieter

    2013-10-01

    Interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes belong to the class of inertial sensors. Due to their high accuracy they are used for absolute position and rotation measurement in manned/unmanned vehicles, e.g. submarines, ground vehicles, aircraft or satellites. The important system components are the light source, the electro optical phase modulator, the optical fiber coil and the photodetector. This paper is focused on approaches to realize a stable light source and fiber coil. Superluminescent diode and erbium doped fiber laser were studied to realize an accurate and stable light source. Therefor the influence of the polarization grade of the source and the effects due to back reflections to the source were studied. During operation thermal working conditions severely affect accuracy and stability of the optical fiber coil, which is the sensor element. Thermal gradients that are applied to the fiber coil have large negative effects on the achievable system accuracy of the optic gyroscope. Therefore a way of calculating and compensating the rotation rate error of a fiber coil due to thermal change is introduced. A simplified 3 dimensional FEM of a quadrupole wound fiber coil is used to determine the build-up of thermal fields in the polarization maintaining fiber due to outside heating sources. The rotation rate error due to these sources is then calculated and compared to measurement data. A simple regression model is used to compensate the rotation rate error with temperature measurement at the outside of the fiber coil. To realize a compact and robust optical package for some of the relevant optical system components an approach based on ion exchanged waveguides in thin glass was developed. This waveguides are used to realize 1x2 and 1x4 splitter with fiber coupling interface or direct photodiode coupling.

  20. Traffic Control Devices and Barrier Systems at Grade Crossings: Literature Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Yeh; Jordan Multer

    2007-01-01

    Accidents at grade crossings are a significant concern to the railroad industry, and a large proportion of these accidents are the result of driver error. To understand drivers’ decisions and actions, FRA sponsored the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center in the conduct of a literature review of research from 1990 to 2006 examining driver behavior at grade crossings. This review

  1. Facilitating Conceptual Change in Ninth Grade Students' Understanding of Human Circulatory System Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Salem A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the conceptual change text oriented instruction over traditionally designed instruction on ninth grade students' understanding of the human circulatory system concepts, and their retention of this understanding. The subjects of this study consist of 73 ninth grade female students…

  2. A Standards-Based Thematic Unit: "Crictor"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coblin, Mary Payne; Huss, Dorothy; Kirk, Bonnie; Lonneman, Melissa; Melville, Claire

    1998-01-01

    This unit was created as a result of a summer institute sponsored by the National K-12 Foreign Language Resource Center at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. The Center's goal is to improve student learning of foreign languages in kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). To this end, the Center provides professional support for foreign language…

  3. Connections: Water, Systems, and Resources. Unit Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Catherine R.

    Natural Resources for Grade 3 is a "hands-on" environmental activities unit designed for teachers to use with their students. Activities are chosen from natural resource programs such as Project Learning Tree, Project WILD, Aquatic Wild, and Project WET. The activities address natural resource themes and meet the Virginia Standards of Learning for…

  4. 14. Site D57C, Improved NIKEHercules System, Grading Plan, U.S. Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Site D-57-C, Improved NIKE-Hercules System, Grading Plan, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 18 January 1962. - Newport NIKE Missile Battery D-57/58, Integrated Fire Control Area, Newport Road, Carleton, Monroe County, MI

  5. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy

    E-print Network

    Yang, Yuan

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the ...

  6. An electrochemical system for efficiently harvesting low-grade heat energy

    E-print Network

    Lee, Seok Woo

    Efficient and low-cost thermal energy-harvesting systems are needed to utilize the tremendous low-grade heat sources. Although thermoelectric devices are attractive, its efficiency is limited by the relatively low ...

  7. Positional accuracy of the Wide Area Augmentation System in consumer-grade GPS units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa L. Arnold; Paul A. Zandbergen

    2011-01-01

    Global Positioning System devices are increasingly being used for data collection in many fields. Consumer-grade GPS units without differential correction have a published horizontal positional accuracy of approximately 10–15m (average positional accuracy). An attractive option for differential correction for these GPS units is the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Most consumer-grade GPS units on the market are WAAS capable. According

  8. An evaluation of a standards based portfolio.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, P

    2001-07-01

    In undergraduate and postgraduate nursing studies, the essay type assignment is commonly used to assess student learning. The literature suggests that of the alternatives for the assessment of learning, the use of portfolios may be an effective tool. A portfolio is generally conceptualized as a collection of the students best work or a collection of work that evidences incremental development. For a particular unit of learning, 'Nursing Business', second year undergraduate students in the Bachelor of Nursing programme were required to complete a portfolio. The assessment directed the students to meet specific criteria which in turn reflected the learning outcomes. Therefore the portfolio in this study is more appropriately described as a standards based portfolio (SBP). A SBP is a series of student work that seeks to address pre-determined learning outcomes. This study is an evaluation of student perceptions of a SPB and of interest to the study was the relationship between theory and practice, the availability of resources to complete the assignment and the contribution the portfolio made to the process of learning. PMID:11403588

  9. An evaluation of a standards based portfolio.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, P

    2001-04-01

    In undergraduate and postgraduate nursing studies, the essay type assignment is commonly used to assess student learning. The literature suggests that of the alternatives for the assessment of learning, the use of portfolios may be an effective tool. A portfolio is generally conceptualized as a collection of the students best work or a collection of work that evidences incremental development. For a particular unit of learning, 'Nursing Business', second year undergraduate students in the Bachelor of Nursing programme were required to complete a portfolio. The assessment directed the students to meet specific criteria which in turn reflected the learning outcomes. Therefore the portfolio in this study is more appropriately described as a standards based portfolio (SBP). A SBP is a series of student work that seeks to address pre-determined learning outcomes. This study is an evaluation of student perceptions of a SPB and of interest to the study was the relationship between theory and practice, the availability of resources to complete the assignment and the contribution the portfolio made to the process of learning. PMID:11322810

  10. Grading system for blood vessel tumor emboli of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Michiko; Hasebe, Takahiro; Shimada, Hiroko; Takeuchi, Hideki; Shimizu, Kyoko; Shimizu, Michio; Yasuda, Masanori; Ueda, Shigeto; Shigekawa, Takashi; Osaki, Akihiko; Saeki, Toshiaki

    2015-06-01

    We previously reported that the number of mitotic and apoptotic figures in tumor cells in blood vessel tumor emboli had the greatest significant power for the accurate prediction of the outcome of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. The purpose of the present study was to devise a grading system for blood vessel tumor emboli based on the mitotic and apoptotic figures of tumor cells in blood vessel tumor emboli, enabling accurate prediction of the outcome of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. We classified 263 invasive ductal carcinomas into the following 3 grades according to the numbers of mitotic and apoptotic figures in tumor cells located in blood vessels within 1 high-power field: grade 0, no blood vessel invasion; grade 1, absence of mitotic figures and presence of any number of apoptotic figures, or 1 mitotic figure and 0 to 2 apoptotic figures; and grade 2, 1 mitotic figure and 3 or more apoptotic figures, or 2 or more mitotic figures and 1 or more apoptotic figures. Multivariate analyses with well-known prognostic factors demonstrated that grade 2 blood vessel tumor emboli significantly increased the hazard ratios for tumor recurrence independent of the nodal status, pathological TNM stage, hormone receptor status, or HER2 status. The presently reported grading system for blood vessel tumor emboli is the strongest histologic factor for accurate prediction of the outcome of patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast. PMID:25890786

  11. Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Grading System Using Red, Green and Blue Digital Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfatni, Meftah Salem M.; Shariff, Abdul Rashid Mohamed; Zulhaidi Mohd Shafri, Helmi; Ben Saaed, Osama M.; Eshanta, Omar M.

    This research deals with the ripeness grading of oil palm fruit bunches. The current practice in the oil palm mills is to grade the oil palm bunches manually using human graders. This method is subjective and subject to disputes. In this research, we developed an automated grading system for oil palm bunches using the RGB color model. This grading system was developed to distinguish between the three different categories of oil palm fruit bunches. The maturity or color ripening index was based on different color intensity. Our grading system employs a computer and camera to analyze and interpret images equivalent to the human eye and brain. The colors namely Red, Green and Blue (RGB) of the palm oil fruit bunch were investigated using this grading system. The computer program developed and used the mean color intensity to differentiate between the different color and ripeness of the fruits such as oil palm FFB. The program results showed that the ripeness of fruit bunch could be differentiated between different categories of fruit bunches based on RGB intensity.

  12. Prognostic validation of the WHO 2010 grading system in pancreatic insulinoma patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Yang, M; Zhang, Y; Xu, S; Tian, B L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic potential of the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 grading system in patients with pancreatic insulinomas. This was a retrospective study that analyzed the overall survival of 85 pancreatic insulinoma patients treated at our Institute between May 2002 and March 2013. The mean age of our patient cohort was 44.26 ± 13.82 years, with the gender split at 30 males and 55 females. Median survival time of the cohort, post-surgery, was 100.23 ± 18.18 months. Among the 85 patients, histopathological analyses revealed 52 Low Grade (G1) neuroendocrine tumors (NET), 23 Intermediate Grade (G2) NET, and 10 High Grade (G3) Neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC) according to the WHO 2010 grading classification. Significant difference for overall survival was observed between the NET G1 and NEC G3 groups (P<0.01), and the NET G2 and NEC G3 groups (P<0.019). In addition, our data showed that overall survival was significantly correlated with the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) staging system, and in multivariate analysis, the diameter of tumor was found to be significantly correlated with survival (P=0.038). These findings provide additional validation for the prognostic value of using the WHO 2010 grading system, specifically with regard to pancreatic insulinomas. PMID:25866230

  13. Analysis of an innovative water desalination system using low-grade solar heat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Al-Kharabsheh

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis and preliminary experimental results for an innovative water desalination system using low-grade solar heat. The system utilizes natural means (gravity and atmospheric pressure) to create a vacuum under which water can be rapidly evaporated at much lower temperatures and with less energy than conventional techniques. The system consists of an evaporator connected to a

  14. Developing Seventh Grade Students’ Systems Thinking Skills in the Context of the Human Circulatory System

    PubMed Central

    Raved, Lena; Yarden, Anat

    2014-01-01

    Developing systems thinking skills in school can provide useful tools to deal with a vast amount of medical and health information that may help learners in decision making in their future lives as citizen. Thus, there is a need to develop effective tools that will allow learners to analyze biological systems and organize their knowledge. Here, we examine junior high school students’ systems thinking skills in the context of the human circulatory system. A model was formulated for developing teaching and learning materials and for characterizing students’ systems thinking skills. Specifically, we asked whether seventh grade students, who studied about the human circulatory system, acquired systems thinking skills, and what are the characteristics of those skills? Concept maps were used to characterize students’ systems thinking components and examine possible changes in the students’ knowledge structure. These maps were composed by the students before and following the learning process. The study findings indicate a significant improvement in the students’ ability to recognize the system components and the processes that occur within the system, as well as the relationships between different levels of organization of the system, following the learning process. Thus, following learning students were able to organize the systems’ components and its processes within a framework of relationships, namely the students’ systems thinking skills were improved in the course of learning using the teaching and learning materials. PMID:25520948

  15. The Utility of Curriculum-Based Measurement within a Multitiered Framework: Establishing Cut Scores as Predictors of Student Performance on the Alaska Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legg, David E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between student performance on Reading Curriculum-based Measures (R-CBM) and student performance on the Alaska's standards based assessment (SBA) administered to students in Studied School District (SSD) Grade 3 through Grade 5 students in the Studied School District as required by…

  16. [GRADE system: classification of quality of evidence and strength of recommendation].

    PubMed

    Aguayo-Albasini, José Luis; Flores-Pastor, Benito; Soria-Aledo, Víctor

    2014-02-01

    The acquisition and classification of scientific evidence, and subsequent formulation of recommendations constitute the basis for the development of clinical practice guidelines. There are several systems for the classification of evidence and strength of recommendations; the most commonly used nowadays is the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system (GRADE). The GRADE system initially classifies the evidence into high or low, coming from experimental or observational studies; subsequently and following a series of considerations, the evidence is classified into high, moderate, low or very low. The strength of recommendations is based not only on the quality of the evidence, but also on a series of factors such as the risk/benefit balance, values and preferences of the patients and professionals, and the use of resources or costs. PMID:24361098

  17. Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions

    E-print Network

    Optical frequency standards based on mercury and aluminum ions W. M. Itano, J. C. Bergquist, A-16 . Keywords: aluminum, atomic clocks, frequency standards, ion traps, mercury 1. INTRODUCTION Optical frequency standards based on the mercury ion and, more recently, the aluminum ion are under devel- opment

  18. Proposal of a 2-tier histologic grading system for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors to more accurately predict biological behavior.

    PubMed

    Kiupel, M; Webster, J D; Bailey, K L; Best, S; DeLay, J; Detrisac, C J; Fitzgerald, S D; Gamble, D; Ginn, P E; Goldschmidt, M H; Hendrick, M J; Howerth, E W; Janovitz, E B; Langohr, I; Lenz, S D; Lipscomb, T P; Miller, M A; Misdorp, W; Moroff, S; Mullaney, T P; Neyens, I; O'Toole, D; Ramos-Vara, J; Scase, T J; Schulman, F Y; Sledge, D; Smedley, R C; Smith, K; W Snyder, P; Southorn, E; Stedman, N L; Steficek, B A; Stromberg, P C; Valli, V E; Weisbrode, S E; Yager, J; Heller, J; Miller, R

    2011-01-01

    Currently, prognostic and therapeutic determinations for canine cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs) are primarily based on histologic grade. However, the use of different grading systems by veterinary pathologists and institutional modifications make the prognostic value of histologic grading highly questionable. To evaluate the consistency of microscopic grading among veterinary pathologists and the prognostic significance of the Patnaik grading system, 95 cutaneous MCTs from 95 dogs were graded in a blinded study by 28 veterinary pathologists from 16 institutions. Concordance among veterinary pathologists was 75% for the diagnosis of grade 3 MCTs and less than 64% for the diagnosis of grade 1 and 2 MCTs. To improve concordance among pathologists and to provide better prognostic significance, a 2-tier histologic grading system was devised. The diagnosis of high-grade MCTs is based on the presence of any one of the following criteria: at least 7 mitotic figures in 10 high-power fields (hpf); at least 3 multinucleated (3 or more nuclei) cells in 10 hpf; at least 3 bizarre nuclei in 10 hpf; karyomegaly (ie, nuclear diameters of at least 10% of neoplastic cells vary by at least two-fold). Fields with the highest mitotic activity or with the highest degree of anisokaryosis were selected to assess the different parameters. According to the novel grading system, high-grade MCTs were significantly associated with shorter time to metastasis or new tumor development, and with shorter survival time. The median survival time was less than 4 months for high-grade MCTs but more than 2 years for low-grade MCTs. PMID:21062911

  19. Ore Grade Estimation with Modular Neural Network Systems - A Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I K Kapageridis; B Denby

    This paper introduces a neural network approach to the problem of ore grade estimation. The system under consideration consists of three neural network modules each responsible for a different area of the deposit, depending on the sampling density. Octant and quadrant search is used as a way of presenting input patterns to the modules. Both radial basis function networks and

  20. Predicting Student Grades in Learning Management Systems with Multiple Instance Genetic Programming

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Thomas

    Predicting Student Grades in Learning Management Systems with Multiple Instance Genetic Programming guided genetic programming algorithm, G3P-MI, has been applied to predict if the student will fail Department, University of Cordoba Abstract. The ability to predict a student's performance could be useful

  1. Ultrasound grading of hydronephrosis: Introduction to the system used by the society for fetal urology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Fernbach; M. Maizels; J. J. Conway

    1993-01-01

    The Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) was founded in 1988 to study the postnatal evolution of prenatally detected anomalies of the urinary tract by following those neonates whose prenatal studies have brought them to medical attention while asymptomatic. The SFU has attempted to standardize methods of performing and grading the ultrasound and radionuclide examinations in this population. A system to

  2. First Grade and Forward: A Seven-Year Examination within the Baltimore City Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Stephen B.; Durham, Rachel E.; Farley-Ripple, Elizabeth; Norman, Obed

    2008-01-01

    This report describes a cohort of first-grade students from the Baltimore City Public School System (BCPSS). Specifically, we follow the 9,176 students who were first-graders in the district in 1999-00 for seven years. We learn much about patterns of promotion and retention, mobility within BCPSS, transfer out of BCPSS, attendance, and…

  3. A Robust Visual Odometry and Precipice Detection System Using Consumer-grade Monocular Vision

    E-print Network

    Guestrin, Carlos

    A Robust Visual Odometry and Precipice Detection System Using Consumer-grade Monocular Vision Jason robot platforms. Index Terms - mobile robotics, mobile robot vision, optical flow, odometry I visual odometry ­ that is, the incremental, online estimation of robot motion from a video sequence shot

  4. The Persistence of Misconceptions about the Human Blood Circulatory System among Students in Different Grade Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgur, Sami

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to investigate the persistence of misconceptions in the topic of the human blood circulatory system among students in different grade levels. For this reason, after discussions with biology educators, two tests consisting of open-ended questions were developed by the researcher and administered to students in four…

  5. The Development of the Harper & Row Grade Three Learning Mastery System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Masahito; And Others

    The rationale, procedures, and specifications employed in the development of the Harper & Row grade-three reading program Learning Mastery System (LMS) are described in this document. The LMS is a set of materials and procedures prepared by the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) as an objectives-based framework to assist in managing the learning…

  6. The Development and Tryout of a Learning Mastery System for Harper and Row Grade-Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okada, Masahito; And Others

    The procedures employed in the development of the various components of the Harper & Row grade two reading program Learning Mastery System (LMS) are outlined in this document. The Spring 1971 tryout of the LMS is also described. The LMS is a set of materials and procedures prepared by the Southwest Regional Laboratory (SWRL) as an objectives-based…

  7. Grading systems in head and neck dysplasia: their prognostic value, weaknesses and utility

    PubMed Central

    Fleskens, Stijn; Slootweg, Piet

    2009-01-01

    Background Grading of dysplasia, including head and neck lesions, continues to be a hotly debated subject. It is subjective and lacks intra- and inter-observer reproducibility due to the insufficiency of validated morphological criteria and the biological nature of dysplasia. Moreover, due to the absence of a consensus, several systems are currently employed. Objectives The aims of this review are to: 1) Highlight the significance of dysplasia and the importance of a valid method for assessing precursor lesions of the head and neck. 2) Review the different histopathological classification systems for grading intraepithelial lesions of the head and neck. 3) Discuss and review quality requirements for these grading systems. Conclusion Regarding the different classification systems, data concerning the WHO classification system are the most available in current literature. There is no simple relationship or overlapping between the classification systems. Further studies should be done to see whether other systems have advantages above the current WHO system and to discover indications that could lead to an universal classification system for intraepithelial lesions of the head and neck. PMID:19432960

  8. Strategies for standards-based assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Stage, E.K.

    1994-12-31

    New Standards is a multi-faceted partnership working together to develop a system of assessment that allows partners to judge students` work against national content standards. The central metaphor for New Standards is the best version of the science fair, where the student has investigated a question of interest; was coached by teachers and the community scientists, but takes responsibility for the project; interacts with experts who probe for understanding and capacity to elaborate the findings; and is publicly recognized. New Standards is committed to quality science education for all students. The science fair experience will have to be transformed from its extracurricular status to a central place in the curriculum, from participation by a few to all, from a system of ranking to one of certifying.

  9. Portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Fan; Yang, Renfu; Nian, Feng; Zhang, Zhenwei; Cui, Yongshun; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Nuanrang; Feng, Keming

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping is designed and demonstrated. To achieve a portable prototype, in the system, a single transverse mode 795nm VCSEL modulated by a 3.4GHz RF source is used as a pump laser which generates coherent light fields. The pump beams pass through a vapor cell containing atom gas and buffer gas. This vapor cell is surrounded by a magnetic shield and placed inside a solenoid which applies a longitudinal magnetic field to lift the Zeeman energy levels' degeneracy and to separate the resonance signal, which has no first-order magnetic field dependence, from the field-dependent resonances. The electrical control system comprises two control loops. The first one locks the laser wavelength to the minimum of the absorption spectrum; the second one locks the modulation frequency and output standard frequency. Furthermore, we designed the micro physical package and realized the locking of a coherent population trapping atomic frequency standard portable prototype successfully. The short-term frequency stability of the whole system is measured to be 6×10-11 for averaging times of 1s, and reaches 5×10-12 at an averaging time of 1000s.

  10. Optimal manpower recruitment by stochastic programming in graded manpower systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Tirupathi Rao; P. R. S. Reddy; A. V. S. Suhasini

    2010-01-01

    Human resource is one of the most effective resources in the development of any organization or a Nation. Optimal utilization\\u000a of manpower is a pivotal challenge to a manager of a dynamic management system. Achieving the objectives by meeting the constraints\\u000a on various feasibilities is the core problem before statisticians, model developers and OR scientists. In this paper we develop

  11. Standard-Based Teaching: Overcoming the Side Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, David Alan; Gilman, Ruth Ann

    2003-01-01

    Identifies several problems associated with standards-based teaching and provides solutions for overcoming them. Problems include curricular limitations, ineffective remediation, alternative choices, questionable tests, unfair labeling, educator morale, negative perceptions, reallocation of resources, and incompatible expectations. (PKP)

  12. Effect of adopting a new histological grading system of acute rejection after heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Balk, A.; Zondervan, P.; van der Meer, P.; van Gelder, T.; Mochtar, B.; Simoons, M.; Weimar, W.

    1997-01-01

    Background—Treatment policy of acute rejection after heart transplantation has been changed after adopting the ISHLT endomyocardial biopsy grading system in 1991.?Objective—To determine the effect of this policy change on clinical outcome after transplantation.?Methods—The outcome of 147 patients who had a transplant before (early group, median follow up 96 months) and 114 patients who had a transplant after (late group, median follow up 41 months) the introduction of the ISHLT biopsy grading system was studied retrospectively. Initially "moderate rejection" according to Billingham's conventional criteria was treated. From January 1991 grade 3A and higher was considered to require intensification of immunosuppression.?Results—There were some differences between the two groups: recipients (50 v 44 years) as well as donors (28 v 24 years) were older in the "late group" and more patients of this group received early anti-T cell prophylaxis (92% v 56%). Despite more extensive use of early prophylaxis more rejection episodes were diagnosed (2.4 v 1.4) and considerably more courses of rejection treatment were instituted in the late compared with the early group (3.2 v 1.5). There were no deaths because of rejection in the late group, however, more infections occurred within the first year (mean 1.8 v 1.4) and more non-skin malignancies within the first 41 months were diagnosed (8 of 57 v 6 of 147, 95% CIs of difference includes 0). The incidence of graft vascular disease in the late group has been comparable to the early group until now. ?Conclusion—The interpretation of the ISHLT grading system resulted in lowering of the threshold for the diagnosis of rejection thereby increasing the number of rejections and subsequently the immunosuppressive load and its complications.?? Keywords: transplantation;  biopsy grading system;  rejection PMID:9470880

  13. Citizen Observatories: A Standards Based Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    A number of large-scale research projects are currently under way exploring the various components of citizen observatories, e.g. CITI-SENSE (http://www.citi-sense.eu), Citclops (http://citclops.eu), COBWEB (http://cobwebproject.eu), OMNISCIENTIS (http://www.omniscientis.eu), and WeSenseIt (http://www.wesenseit.eu). Common to all projects is the motivation to develop a platform enabling effective participation by citizens in environmental projects, while considering important aspects such as security, privacy, long-term storage and availability, accessibility of raw and processed data and its proper integration into catalogues and international exchange and collaboration systems such as GEOSS or INSPIRE. This paper describes the software architecture implemented for setting up crowdsourcing campaigns using standardized components, interfaces, security features, and distribution capabilities. It illustrates the Citizen Observatory Toolkit, a software suite that allows defining crowdsourcing campaigns, to invite registered and unregistered participants to participate in crowdsourcing campaigns, and to analyze, process, and visualize raw and quality enhanced crowd sourcing data and derived products. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is not a single software product. Instead, it is a framework of components that are built using internationally adopted standards wherever possible (e.g. OGC standards from Sensor Web Enablement, GeoPackage, and Web Mapping and Processing Services, as well as security and metadata/cataloguing standards), defines profiles of those standards where necessary (e.g. SWE O&M profile, SensorML profile), and implements design decisions based on the motivation to maximize interoperability and reusability of all components. The toolkit contains tools to set up, manage and maintain crowdsourcing campaigns, allows building on-demand apps optimized for the specific sampling focus, supports offline and online sampling modes using modern cell phones with built-in sensing technologies, automates the upload of the raw data, and handles conflation services to match quality requirements and analysis challenges. The strict implementation of all components using internationally adopted standards ensures maximal interoperability and reusability of all components. The Citizen Observatory Toolkit is currently developed as part of the COBWEB research project. COBWEB is partially funded by the European Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement n° 308513; part of the topic ENV.2012.6.5-1 "Developing community based environmental monitoring and information systems using innovative and novel earth observation applications.

  14. A Simple Alternative to Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates whether an alternative grading system (contract grading) would yield the same final grades as traditional grading (letter grading), and whether or not it would be accepted by students. The author states that this study demonstrated that contract grading was widely, and for the most part, enthusiastically…

  15. A Radio Based Intelligent Railway Grade Crossing System to Avoid Collision

    E-print Network

    Mostafa, Sheikh Shanawaz; Reza, Khondker Jahid; Rashid, Gazi Maniur

    2011-01-01

    Railway grade crossing is become the major headache for the transportation system. This paper describes an intelligent railway crossing control system for multiple tracks that features a controller which receives messages from incoming and outgoing trains by sensors. These messages contain detail information including the direction and identity of a train. Depending on those messages the controller device decides whenever the railroad crossing gate will close or open.

  16. Providing privacy and contextual information to a web-based communication system of marks and grades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberto F. Arroyo; Miguel J. Hornos; Pilar Fernández Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a web-based system for communicating exam marks privately, which has been re- cently incorporated into Tutor, a web-based educational support platform for university-related teaching, learning and academic data management. This system allows students to know their grades at any moment and in any place with access to Internet, avoiding the need for them to go to their

  17. Redefining Stage I Endometrial Cancer: Incorporating Histology, a Binary Grading System, Myometrial Invasion, and Lymph Node Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Barlin, Joyce N.; Soslow, Robert A.; Lutz, Megan; Zhou, Qin C.; St Clair, Caryn M.; Leitao, Mario M.; Iasonos, Alexia; Hensley, Martee L.; Barakat, Richard R.; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We propose a new staging system for stage I endometrial cancer and compare its performance to the 1988 and 2009 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) systems. Methods We analyzed patients with 1988 FIGO stage I endometrial cancer from January 1993 to August 2011. Low-grade carcinoma consisted of endometrioid grade 1 to grade 2 lesions. High-grade carcinoma consisted of endometrioid grade 3 or nonendometrioid carcinomas (serous, clear cell, and carcinosarcoma). The proposed system is as follows: IA Low-grade carcinoma with less than half myometrial invasion IA1 Negative nodes IA2 No nodes removed IB High-grade carcinoma with no myometrial invasion IB1 Negative nodes IB2 No nodes removed IC Low-grade carcinoma with half or greater myometrial invasion IC1 Negative nodes IC2 No nodes removed ID High-grade carcinoma with any myometrial invasion ID1 Negative nodes ID2 No nodes removed Results Data from 1843 patients were analyzed. When patients were restaged with our proposed system, the 5-year overall survival significantly differed (P < 0.001): IA1, 96.7%; IA2, 92.2%; IB1, 92.2%; IB2, 76.4%; IC1, 83.9%; IC2, 78.6%; ID1, 81.1%; and ID2, 68.8%. The bootstrap-corrected concordance probability estimate for the proposed system was 0.627 (95% confidence interval, 0.590–0.664) and was superior to the concordance probability estimate of 0.530 (95% confidence interval, 0.516–0.544) for the 2009 FIGO system. Conclusions By incorporating histological subtype, grade, myometrial invasion, and whether lymph nodes were removed, our proposed system for stage I endometrial cancer has a superior predictive ability over the 2009 FIGO staging system and provides a novel binary grading system (low-grade including endometrioid grade 1–2 lesions; high-grade carcinoma consisting of endometrioid grade 3 carcinomas and nonendometrioid carcinomas). PMID:24126219

  18. Characterizations of Mg-W System Graded-Density Impactors for Complex Loading Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Guoqiang; Bai, Jinsong; Tan, Hua; Shen, Qiang; Hu, Jianbo; Wang, Qingsong; Dai, Chengda; Wu, Qiang; Zhang, Lianmeng

    2010-09-01

    We designed an Mg-W functionally graded-density materials system with two different sequences of density-thickness distributions and fabricated disk-like pellets with the graded-density materials by elaborate stacking of different metal powder layers, followed by a one-step hot-pressure sintering process. The microstructures of the sintered pellets were characterized using a scanning electronic microscope and a scanning acoustic microscope. The pellets were used as graded-density impactors (GDIs) to test their capabilities to produce complex particle-velocity wave profiles along a specified thermodynamic path. The wave profile was obtained from reverse-impact experiments using a two-stage light gas gun in which the GDI flyer impacted a lithium fluoride window. The particle-velocity history at the impact surface of the LiF window was deduced from the interference fringe numbers of the distance interferometer system for any reflector records. For GDIs consisting of nine composition layers of graded-density materials, the particle velocity profiles displayed combined shock loading and quasi-isentropic compressing and release processes. The impactor, consisting of 12 composition layers, produced wave profiles that contained shock loading, quasi-isentropic reloading, controlled releasing, and recompressing and released processes. The wave profiles simulated using a hydrodynamic computer model developed in house agree well with the experimental results as well as other theoretical results.

  19. MRC: Overview of the Solar System Grades 3-5

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about the size and scale of planets in the solar system. Learners will kinesthetically model the order of the planets outward from the sun. Then they will use a string and beads to create a model to represent the relative distances between the planets. Finally they will explore another model (using a beach ball for the sun) to discuss relative size of the planets to the sun. The lesson uses the 5E instructional model and includes teacher training, pacing guides, essential questions, a black-line master science notebook, a student presentation booklet, supplemental materials, and vocabulary for both students and teachers. This is lesson 1 as part of the Mars Rover Celebration Unit, a six week long curriculum.

  20. California teachers' perceptions of standards-based reform in middle school science: A mixed-methods study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leggett, Allison Gail Wilson

    The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001 presented one of the most significant and comprehensive literacy reforms in many years (McDonnell, 2005; U.S. Department of Education, 2006). The era of school accountability and standards based reform has brought many challenges and changes to public schools. Increasingly, public officials and educational administrators are asked to use standards based assessments to make high-stakes decisions, such as whether a student will move on to the next grade level or receive a diploma (American Psychological Association, 2005). It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' perceptions and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement standards-based reform. This mixed-methods study was designed to assess teachers' perceptions of changes related to standards-based reform as supported by Fullan's (2001) change theory and transformational leadership theory. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated standards-based reform and began focusing on preparing students for the California Standards Test in Science (CSTS). Using descriptive statistical analysis and in-depth interviews, results show favorable insight towards standards-based reform. The survey was distributed to 30 middle school science teachers from 10 low-performing schools in Los Angeles, California. Results were analyzed using Spearman rank-ordered correlations. Interviews were conducted on middle school teachers represented by each grade level. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the CSTS as measured in this study. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

  1. The Impact of Two Standards-Based Mathematics Curricula on Student Achievement in Massachusetts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie E. Riordan; Pendred E. Noyce

    Since the passage of the Education Reform Act in 1993, Massachusetts has developed curriculum frameworks and a new statewide testing system. As school districts align curriculum and teaching practices with the frameworks, standards-based mathematics programs are beginning to replace more traditional curricula. This paper presents a quasi-experimental study using matched comparison groups to investigate the impact of one elementary and

  2. Standards-Based Evaluation and Teacher Career Satisfaction: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Conley; Donna E. Muncey; Sukkyung You

    2005-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of a conceptual model specifying hypothesized linkages among perceptions of characteristics of standards-based evaluation, work environment mediators, and career satisfaction and other outcomes. Four comprehensive high schools located in two neighboring counties in southern California provided the data for this study. The schools’ districts had recently developed and implemented evaluation systems

  3. The Impact of Standards-Based Reform in Duval County, Florida: 1999-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan A.; Taylor, Brooke Snyder

    2003-01-01

    The major challenge that school districts face is to improve the learning of all students, not just in individual schools, but across the entire system of schools. Duval County, Florida has embarked on a remarkable journey to implement standards-based reform in schools throughout the district with the intent to systematically improve teaching and…

  4. Thermal Energy Storage System Using a Technical Grade Paraffin Wax as Latent Heat Energy Storage Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kamil Kaygusuz; Ahmet Sari

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to experimentally establish thermal energy storage (TES) performance using a technical grade paraffin wax as a phase change material (PCM) in a vertical concentric pipe-in-pipe latent heat storage system. The melting and solidification temperature range of the paraffin was found as 38°C–43°C and 36°C–42°C, respectively. These values were well in agreement with the values

  5. Neurofibromatosis type 1 and high-grade tumors of the central nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Rosenfeld; Robert Listernick; Joel Charrow; Stewart Goldman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common genetic disorder, predisposes patients to the development of both benign and malignant\\u000a tumors. Although the most common central nervous system (CNS) tumor is a low-grade pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic pathway,\\u000a there have been sporadic reports of NF1 patients with more aggressive CNS lesions. We investigated the incidence of aggressive\\u000a CNS lesions in NF1

  6. A Robust Visual Odometry and Precipice Detection System Using Consumer-grade Monocular Vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Campbell; Rahul Sukthankar; Illah R. Nourbakhsh; Aroon Pahwa

    2005-01-01

    We describe a monocular robot vision system which accomplishes accurate 3-DOF dead-reckoning, closed- loop motion control, and precipice and obstacle detection, all in dynamic environments, using a single, consumer-grade web- cam and typical laptop computer hardware. Simultaneous translation and rotation are accurately measured, and the camera need not be placed at the robot's center of rotation. The algorithm is straightforward

  7. Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaafar, Hussain F.; Nandi, Asoke K.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

  8. CTCAE v3.0: development of a comprehensive grading system for the adverse effects of cancer treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andy Trotti; A. Dimitrios Colevas; Ann Setser; Valerie Rusch; David Jaques; Volker Budach; Corey Langer; Barbara Murphy; Richard Cumberlin; C. Norman Coleman; Philip Rubin

    2003-01-01

    Multiple systems have been developed for grading the adverse effects (AEs) of cancer treatment. The National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) system has substantially evolved since its inception in 1983. The most recent version, CTCAE v3.0 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) represents the first comprehensive, multimodality grading system for reporting the acute and late effects of

  9. Road grade quantification based on global positioning system data obtained from real-world vehicle fuel use and emissions measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani Boroujeni, Behdad; Frey, H. Christopher

    2014-03-01

    Real-world vehicle fuel use and emission rates depend on engine load, which is quantified in terms of Vehicle Specific Power (VSP). VSP depends on vehicle speed, acceleration, and road grade. There is not a standard method for measuring road grade from a moving vehicle. A method for quantifying grade is evaluated based on statistical analysis of multiple runs using low cost consumer grade Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers with in-built Barometric Altimeter (GPS/BA). The average grade precision is ±0.71, ±0.46, and ±0.31 percentage points, for sample sizes of 9, 18, and 36 GPS/BA runs, respectively, among 2213 individual 0.08 km road segments. In addition, 4 sets of repeated measurements were performed on the same routes using a high cost, high accuracy Differential GPS (DGPS). Both sets of GPS-based grade estimates compared well with those derived from LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) data. GPS/BA and DGPS grade estimates were similar, except for high magnitude grades of 8-10 percent for which DGPS estimates are more accurate. DGPS is more sensitive to loss of signal; thus, a hybrid approach for substituting GPS/BA data for missing DGPS data at specific locations along a route is demonstrated. The local and overall effects of road grade on fuel use and emission rates are investigated for an example light duty gasoline vehicle.

  10. Evaluation of symptomatic slow-acting drugs in osteoarthritis using the GRADE system

    PubMed Central

    Bruyère, Olivier; Burlet, Nansa; Delmas, Pierre D; Rizzoli, René; Cooper, Cyrus; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Background Symptomatic slow-acting drugs (SYSADOA) have been largely studied over the last decade. The objective of this study is to prepare a document providing recommendations for the use of SYSADOA in osteoarthritis (OA). Methods The following interventions were taken into consideration: avocado/soybean unsaponifiables, chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, hyaluronic acid, oral calcitonin, risedronate, strontium ranelate. Recommendations were based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) system. The GRADE system is based on a sequential assessment of the quality of evidence, followed by assessment of the balance between benefits versus downsides and subsequent judgment about the strength of recommendations. Results Chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid have demonstrated pain reduction and physical function improvement with very low toxicity, with moderate to high quality evidence. Even if pre-clinical data and some preliminary in vivo studies have suggested that oral calcitonin and strontium ranelate could be of potential interest in OA, additional well-designed studies are needed. Conclusion In the benefit/risk ratio, the use of chondroitin sulfate, diacereine, glucosamine sulfate, avocado/soybean unsaponifiables and hyaluronic acid could be of potential interest for the symptomatic management of OA. PMID:19087296

  11. Neuroanatomical correlation of the House-Brackmann grading system in the microsurgical treatment of vestibular schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Matthew Z; Oh, Michael C; Safaee, Michael; Kaur, Gurvinder; Parsa, Andrew T

    2012-09-01

    Avoidance of facial nerve injury is one of the major goals of vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery because functional deficits of the facial nerve can lead to physical, cosmetic, and psychological consequences for patients. Clinically, facial nerve function is assessed using the House-Brackmann grading scale, which also allows physicians to track the progress of a patient's facial nerve recovery. Because the facial nerve is a peripheral nerve, it has the ability to regenerate, and the extent of its functional recovery depends largely on the location and nature of its injury. In this report, the authors first describe the facial nerve anatomy, the House-Brackmann grading system, and factors known to be predictors of postoperative facial nerve outcome. The mechanisms and pathophysiology of facial nerve injury during VS surgery are then discussed, as well as factors affecting facial nerve regeneration after surgery. PMID:22937858

  12. Positional accuracy of the Wide Area Augmentation System in consumer-grade GPS units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Lisa L.; Zandbergen, Paul A.

    2011-07-01

    Global Positioning System devices are increasingly being used for data collection in many fields. Consumer-grade GPS units without differential correction have a published horizontal positional accuracy of approximately 10-15 m (average positional accuracy). An attractive option for differential correction for these GPS units is the Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). Most consumer-grade GPS units on the market are WAAS capable. According to the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA), the WAAS broadcast message provides integrity information about the GPS signal as well as accuracy improvements, which are reported to improve accuracy to 3-5 m. Limited empirical evidence has been published on the accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS compared to autonomous GPS. An empirical study was conducted comparing the horizontal and vertical accuracy of WAAS-corrected GPS and autonomous GPS under ideal conditions using consumer-grade receivers. Data were collected for 30-min time spans over accurately surveyed control points. Metrics of median, 68th and 95th percentile, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), and average positional accuracy in the horizontal and vertical dimensions were computed and statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was found between WAAS and autonomous position fixes when using two different consumer-grade units. When using WAAS, a third unit type exhibited a statistically significant improvement in positional accuracy. Analysis of data collected for a 27-h time span indicates that while WAAS is altering the estimated position of a point compared to an autonomous position estimate, WAAS augmentation actually appears to decrease the positional accuracy.

  13. Effect of the Iranian hospital grading system on patients' and general practitioners' behaviour: an examination of awareness, belief and choice.

    PubMed

    Aryankhesal, Aidin; Sheldon, Trevor

    2010-08-01

    There is considerable international interest in the use of performance measurement and their public release in order to improve the quality of care. However, few studies have assessed stakeholders' awareness and use of performance data. Iranian hospitals have been graded annually since 1998 and hospital hotel charges vary by grade, but this system has never been evaluated. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 104 outpatients at eight Teheran hospitals and 103 general practitioners (GPs) to assess the awareness of and attitudes towards hospital grading system. Only 5.8% of patients (95% CI: 1.3-10.3%) and 11.7% of GPs (95% CI: 5.5-17.9%) were aware of grading results. Patients' awareness was positively associated with their education level (P = 0.016). No patient used the grading results for choosing a hospital and only one GP (1%, 95% CI: 0-2%) reported using hospital grade to influence referral decisions. Patients were more influenced by hospitals' public reputation and that of their specialists. GPs believed that the grading system did not reflect the quality of care in hospitals. When developing performance measurement systems, public release of data should be accompanied by evaluation of its impact on awareness and health-care choices. PMID:20702891

  14. An evaluation on the life cycle of photovoltaic energy system considering production energy of off-grade silicon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Kato; Akinobu Murata; Koichi Sakuta

    1997-01-01

    In this study, single-crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) cells and residential PV systems using off-grade silicon supplied from semiconductor industries were evaluated from a life cycle point of view. Energy payback time (EPT) of the residential PV system with the c-Si PV cells made of the off-grade silicon was estimated at 15.5 years and indirect CO2 emission per unit electrical

  15. Instructional Leadership in a Standards-Based Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Supovitz, Jonathan A.; Poglinco, Susan M.

    This document is an external evaluation report on the America's Choice School Design. The design is a K-12 comprehensive school-reform model focusing on raising academic achievement by providing a rigorous standards-based curriculum and safety net for all students. Its essential principles and tools include high expectations for student…

  16. Teacher and Administrator Responses to Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desimone, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background: Since the onset of standards-based reform and its continuation in the form of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and now Race to the Top, debates have continued about whether such policies foster desirable change in states, districts, schools and classrooms. Research Question: The study asks: How do state and district administrators,…

  17. Standards Gaps: Unintended Consequences of Local Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Ogawa, Rodney T.; Scribner, Samantha Paredes

    2004-01-01

    In response to the establishment of standards by states and professional organizations, many local school districts have adopted a standards-based curriculum. The expressed purpose of standards is to improve student academic performance by providing teachers with a common sequence of targets at which to aim instruction. In this study, we examine…

  18. Charging-free electrochemical system for harvesting low-grade thermal energy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Lee, Seok Woo; Ghasemi, Hadi; Loomis, James; Li, Xiaobo; Kraemer, Daniel; Zheng, Guangyuan; Cui, Yi; Chen, Gang

    2014-01-01

    Efficient and low-cost systems are needed to harvest the tremendous amount of energy stored in low-grade heat sources (<100 °C). Thermally regenerative electrochemical cycle (TREC) is an attractive approach which uses the temperature dependence of electrochemical cell voltage to construct a thermodynamic cycle for direct heat-to-electricity conversion. By varying temperature, an electrochemical cell is charged at a lower voltage than discharge, converting thermal energy to electricity. Most TREC systems still require external electricity for charging, which complicates system designs and limits their applications. Here, we demonstrate a charging-free TREC consisting of an inexpensive soluble Fe(CN)63?/4? redox pair and solid Prussian blue particles as active materials for the two electrodes. In this system, the spontaneous directions of the full-cell reaction are opposite at low and high temperatures. Therefore, the two electrochemical processes at both low and high temperatures in a cycle are discharge. Heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency of 2.0% can be reached for the TREC operating between 20 and 60 °C. This charging-free TREC system may have potential application for harvesting low-grade heat from the environment, especially in remote areas. PMID:25404325

  19. Putting Classroom Grading on the Table: A Reform in Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Keni Brayton

    2011-01-01

    In a standards-based instructional program, what does a course grade convey? What should it convey? What is the role of homework in assigning grades? What is the role of common assessments? This case study examined the responses of two groups of high school teachers during a district wide reform of grading practices. The first was a focus group of…

  20. New generation of a mobile primary frequency standard based on cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, S. T.; Júnior, J. de Martin; Pechoneri, R. D.; Santa Catharina, P.; Bagnato, V. S.; Magalhães, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    We have constructed a mobile primary frequency standard using intra-cavity cold cesium atoms and the results have shown the advantages of using this kind of system compared to cesium beam standards. Based on the first setup with an expanding cloud of atoms, we can plan the construction of a clock more compact since it has no strict size limitations. In order to assemble the new system even smaller, the development of a system containing lasers, microwave source and cavity in a single box has already begun. The mobile atomic standard based on cold atoms is a possible strategic product with a broad range of applications and an important contribution to a primary standard of high relevance.

  1. High-speed potato grading and quality inspection based on a color vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordam, Jacco C.; Otten, Gerwoud W.; Timmermans, Toine J. M.; van Zwol, Bauke H.

    2000-03-01

    A high-speed machine vision system for the quality inspection and grading of potatoes has been developed. The vision system grades potatoes on size, shape and external defects such as greening, mechanical damages, rhizoctonia, silver scab, common scab, cracks and growth cracks. A 3-CCD line-scan camera inspects the potatoes in flight as they pass under the camera. The use of mirrors to obtain a 360-degree view of the potato and the lack of product holders guarantee a full view of the potato. To achieve the required capacity of 12 tons/hour, 11 SHARC Digital Signal Processors perform the image processing and classification tasks. The total capacity of the system is about 50 potatoes/sec. The color segmentation procedure uses Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) in combination with a Mahalanobis distance classifier to classify the pixels. The procedure for the detection of misshapen potatoes uses a Fourier based shape classification technique. Features such as area, eccentricity and central moments are used to discriminate between similar colored defects. Experiments with red and yellow skin-colored potatoes have shown that the system is robust and consistent in its classification.

  2. Exemplary Science in Grades 9-12: Standards-Based Success Stories (e-book)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-05-18

    In this collection of 15 essays, educators describe successful programs they've developed to fulfill the National Science Education Standards' vision for the reform of teaching, assessment, professional development, and content at the high school level. All the visions correspond with the Less Emphasis and More Emphasis conditions that conclude each section of the Standards, characterizing what most teachers and programs should do less of as well as describing the changes needed if real reform is to occur. Essay titles reveal the range of programs--and creativity--this book encompasses. Among the titles are "Technology and Cooperative Learning: The IIT Model for Teaching Authentic Chemistry Curriculum," "Modeling: Changes in Traditional Physics Instruction," "Guided by the Standards: Inquiry and Assessment in Two Rural and Urban Schools," and even "Sing and Dance Your Way to Science Success." The book ends with a summary chapter by editor Robert Yager on successes and continuing challenges in meeting the Standards' visions for improving high school science. As Yager notes, "The exemplary programs described in this monograph give inspiration while also providing evidence that the new directions are feasible and worth the energy and effort needed for others to implement changes.

  3. Canonical Nlrp3 inflammasome links systemic low grade inflammation to functional decline in aging

    PubMed Central

    Youm, Yun-Hee; Grant, Ryan W.; McCabe, Laura R.; Albarado, Diana C.; Nguyen, Kim Yen; Ravussin, Anthony; Pistell, Paul; Newman, Susan; Carter, Renee; Laque, Amanda; Münzberg, Heike; Rosen, Clifford J.; Ingram, Donald K.; Salbaum, J. Michael; Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a wealth of clinical data showing an association between inflammation and degenerative disorders in elderly, the immune sensors that causally link systemic inflammation to aging remain unclear. Here we detail a mechanism that the Nlrp3 inflammasome controls systemic low grade age-related ‘sterile’ inflammation in both periphery and brain independently of the non-canonical caspase-11 inflammasome. Ablation of Nlrp3 inflammasome protected mice from age-related increases in the innate immune activation, alterations in CNS transcriptome and astrogliosis. Consistent with the hypothesis that systemic low grade inflammation promotes age-related degenerative changes, the deficient Nlrp3 inflammasome mediated caspase-1 activity improved glycemic control and attenuated bone loss and thymic demise. Notably, IL-1 mediated only Nlrp3 inflammasome dependent improvement in cognitive function and motor performance in aged mice. These studies reveal Nlrp3 inflammasome as an upstream target that controls age-related inflammation and offer innovative therapeutic strategy to lower Nlrp3 activity to delay multiple age-related chronic diseases. PMID:24093676

  4. Rituximab monoclonal antibody as initial systemic therapy for patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Hainsworth; Howard A. Burris; Lisa H. Morrissey; Sharlene Litchy; Daniel C. Scullin Jr; James D. Bearden; Paul Richards; F. Anthony Greco

    1 B cells, produces a 48% response rate in patients with refractory low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In this phase II trial, patients with low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma who had previ- ously received no systemic therapy were treated with rituximab, 375 mg\\/m2, admin- istered by IV infusion for 4 consecutive weeks. Patients with objective response or stable disease received repeat 4-week courses of

  5. Optical Frequency Standards Based on Neutral Atoms and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Fritz; Helmcke, Juergen

    The current status and prospects of optical frequency standards based on neutral atomic and molecular absorbers are reviewed. Special attention is given to an optical frequency standard based on cold Ca atoms which are interrogated with a pulsed excitation scheme leading to resolved line structures with a quality factor Q > 10^12. The optical frequency was measured by comparison with PTB's primary clock to be ?Ca = 455 986 240 494.13 kHz with a total relative uncertainty of 2.5 x10^-13. After a recent recommendation of the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM), this frequency standard now represents one of the most accurate realizations of the length unit.

  6. Transportation Systems. Grades 9-10. Course #8126 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide is intended for use in teaching a course in transportation systems. The course, which has been designed for students in grades 9 and 10, is intended to provide a basic understanding of transportation systems and the role of energy systems in transportation. The first two sections discuss the guide's development within the framework of…

  7. Distributed Road Grade Estimation

    E-print Network

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles PER SAH LHOLM Doctoral Thesis in Automatic Control Stockholm, Sweden 2011 #12;Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles PER. These control systems can benefit significantly from preview road grade information. This information

  8. Standards-Based Job Management in Grid Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Andreetto; Sergio Andreozzi; Antonia Ghiselli; Moreno Marzolla; Valerio Venturi; Luigi Zangrando

    2010-01-01

    The Grid paradigm of accessing heterogeneous distributed resources proved to be ex- tremely effective, as many organizations are relying on Grid middlewares for their com- putational needs. Many of such middlewares exist, the result being a proliferation of self- contained, non-interoperable \\

  9. Graded photonic quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Dyachenko, Pavel N; Pavelyev, Vladimir S; Soifer, Victor A

    2012-06-15

    We introduce graded photonic quasicrystals and investigate properties of such structures on the example of a Luneburg lens based on a dodecagonal photonic quasicrystal. It is shown that the graded photonic quasicrystal lens has better focusing properties as compared with the graded photonic crystal lens in a frequency range suitable for experimental realization. The proposed graded photonic quasicrystals can be used in optical systems where compact and powerful focusing elements are required. PMID:22739847

  10. ${\\mathbb{Z}}_N$ graded discrete Lax pairs and discrete integrable systems

    E-print Network

    Allan P. Fordy; Pavlos Xenitidis

    2014-11-22

    We introduce a class of ${\\mathbb{Z}}_N$ graded discrete Lax pairs, with $N\\times N$ matrices, linear in the spectral parameter. We give a classification scheme for such Lax pairs and the associated discrete integrable systems. We present two potential forms and completely classify the generic case. Many well known examples belong to our scheme for $N=2$, so many of our systems may be regarded as generalisations of these. Even at $N=3$, several new integrable systems arise. Many of our equations are mutually compatible, so can be used together to form "coloured" lattices. We also present continuous isospectral deformations of our Lax pairs, giving compatible differential-difference systems, which play the role of continuous symmetries of our discrete systems. We present master symmetries and a recursive formulae for their respective hierarchies, for the generic case. We present two nonlocal symmetries of our discrete systems, which have a natural representation in terms of the potential forms. These give rise to the two-dimensional Toda lattice, with our nonlinear symmetries being the B\\"acklund transformations and our discrete system being the nonlinear superposition formula (for the generic case).

  11. A new coronary artery disease grading system correlates with numerous routine parameters that were associated with atherosclerosis: a grading system for coronary artery disease severity

    PubMed Central

    Sponder, Michael; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Marculescu, Rodrig; Litschauer, Brigitte; Strametz-Juranek, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    Background Several scoring systems have tried to determine the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) to investigate the connection between CAD severity and laboratory parameters. Methods In total, 189 male (mean age: 61.86±10.77 years) and 75 female CAD patients (mean age: 67.84±7.70 years) were recruited and underwent angiography, which determined stenosis grade, of 17 coronary segments: no points for each nonstenosed segment or only calcified segments, one point for each stenosis from <30% to <50%, two points for each stenosis from 50% to <70%, and three points for each stenosis >70%. The points were added and should represent the severity of patients’ CAD. Results The coronary score correlated positively with systolic blood pressure, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lipase, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen Clauss, and leukocytes, and correlated negatively with Cl?, iron, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Stepwise multiple regression analysis with backward elimination revealed diabetes status, sex, and fibrinogen Clauss as significant predictors of coronary score. Conclusion The coronary score delivers a quite simple but very precise tool for the quantification of CAD severity. These results show plainly the connection between CAD severity and the lipid, glucose, coagulation, and immunologic status of CAD patients, and substantiate the importance of sufficient treatment in this group of patients – in particular, CAD patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus. The coronary score would offer a suitable tool for the investigation of the connection between CAD and new biomarkers. Further studies are needed to investigate the correlation of the coronary score with outcome parameters (eg, death). PMID:25404859

  12. A collection of mathematics and reading activities for Grades 7-9 that explore the Sun-Earth System.

    E-print Network

    A collection of mathematics and reading activities for Grades 7-9 that explore the Sun-Earth System of mathematics in the study of the Sun and Earth as a system. Through math and reading activities, students x Equations and substitution x x x Positive & negative numbers x Decimal math. x Time calculations x

  13. A DHT Key-Value Storage System with Carrier Grade Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guangyu; Chen, Jian; Gong, Hao; Fan, Lingyuan; Xue, Haiqiang; Lu, Qingming; Liang, Liang

    The Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technology being widely adopted in today’s both academic research and practical service providing, has many potential advantages and achieves a great success in Information Technology scope. Recently some researchers have proposed that P2P inspired architecture also might be one choice for the telecom network evolution. Most of such works adopted structured P2P (DHT) as the basic solutions, but they seldom discussed how to eliminate the huge gap between the telecom underlay performance requirement and the performance of existed DHT which mainly originated from the Internet applications. This paper presents the design and implementation of SandStone, a DHT based key-value storage system with carrier grade performance, such as good scalability, strong consistency and high reliability, which could be deployed as the cornerstone in such new P2P inspired networking architectures.

  14. TNM staging of foregut (neuro)endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system

    PubMed Central

    Klöppel, G.; Alhman, H.; Caplin, M.; Couvelard, A.; de Herder, W. W.; Erikssson, B.; Falchetti, A.; Falconi, M.; Komminoth, P.; Körner, M.; Lopes, J. M.; McNicol, A-M.; Nilsson, O.; Perren, A.; Scarpa, A.; Scoazec, J-Y.; Wiedenmann, B.

    2006-01-01

    The need for standards in the management of patients with endocrine tumors of the digestive system prompted the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) to organize a first Consensus Conference, which was held in Frascati (Rome) and was based on the recently published ENETS guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of digestive neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Here, we report the tumor–node–metastasis proposal for foregut NETs of the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas that was designed, discussed, and consensually approved at this conference. In addition, we report the proposal for a working formulation for the grading of digestive NETs based on mitotic count and Ki-67 index. This proposal, which needs to be validated, is meant to help clinicians in the stratification, treatment, and follow-up of patients. PMID:16967267

  15. TNM staging of foregut (neuro)endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system.

    PubMed

    Rindi, G; Klöppel, G; Alhman, H; Caplin, M; Couvelard, A; de Herder, W W; Erikssson, B; Falchetti, A; Falconi, M; Komminoth, P; Körner, M; Lopes, J M; McNicol, A-M; Nilsson, O; Perren, A; Scarpa, A; Scoazec, J-Y; Wiedenmann, B

    2006-10-01

    The need for standards in the management of patients with endocrine tumors of the digestive system prompted the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) to organize a first Consensus Conference, which was held in Frascati (Rome) and was based on the recently published ENETS guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of digestive neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Here, we report the tumor-node-metastasis proposal for foregut NETs of the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas that was designed, discussed, and consensually approved at this conference. In addition, we report the proposal for a working formulation for the grading of digestive NETs based on mitotic count and Ki-67 index. This proposal, which needs to be validated, is meant to help clinicians in the stratification, treatment, and follow-up of patients. PMID:16967267

  16. Leaching kinetics of low grade zinc oxide ore in NH 3 NH 4 Cl-H 2 O system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rui-xiang Wang; Mo-tang Tang; Sheng-hai Yang; Wen-hai Zhagn; Chao-bo Tang; Jing He; Jian-guang Yang

    2008-01-01

    The leaching kinetics of low grade zinc oxide ore in NH3-NH4Cl-H2O system was studied. The effects of ore particle size, reaction temperature and the sum concentration of ammonium ion and\\u000a ammonia on the leaching efficiency of zinc were examined. The leaching kinetics of low-grade zinc oxide ore in NH3-NY4Cl-H2O system follows the kinetic law of shrinking-core model. The results show

  17. Historical Grading For historical grading information, go to url

    E-print Network

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    on a quarter system; three quarter hours are equivalent to two semester hours. Grade Point Average The grade to the University of Vermont are not included in the University of Vermont grade point average, unless they are part academic record and all are included in computing the cumulative grade point average. GRADUATE STUDENTS may

  18. High-Grade Gliomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Mueller; Daphne Haas-Kogan

    \\u000a Astrocytomas are the most common childhood tumor of the central nervous system (CNS), representing approximately 40–50% of\\u000a all pediatric tumors. The World Health Organization (WHO) clas-sifi es these tumors into low-grade (WHO grade I and II) and\\u000a high-grade (WHO grade III and IV) astrocy-tomas (Kleihues et al. 2002). In contrast to the adult population, high-grade gliomas\\u000a in children are relatively

  19. A field evaluation of experimental passive railroad-highway grade crossing warning systems

    E-print Network

    Beitler, Michael Morgan

    1993-01-01

    to actively controlled crossings (1). Although the accident rate is decreasing at railroad-highway grade crossings, both daily vehicle trip miles and train traffic are growing (3), increasing exposure at grade crossings and, therefore, increasing... of Houston; B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Daniel B. Fambro Railroad-highway grade crossing safety remains a concern even though accident rates have declined in the last decade. Most of the reduction in accident rates can...

  20. The O'Neill grading system for evaluation of the tympanic membrane: A practical approach for clinical hyperbaric patients.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Owen J; Weitzner, Erica D

    2015-01-01

    Eustachian tube dysfunction (ETD) and middle ear barotrauma (MEB) are the two most common complications of clinical hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) treatment. The current grading system, the Teed's Classification, was first described in 1944 with modifications to this system over the years, but none are specific for the evaluation and treatment of patients undergoing clinical HBO2 therapy. Currently, the standard of care is a baseline otoscopic examination performed prior to starting HBO2 therapy. Repeat otoscopy is required for patients having ETD, pain or other symptoms during the compression and/or decompression phase of the treatment. Results from these examinations are used to determine the proper course of treatment for the ETD or MEB. The Teed's classification was not intended to correlate with the consistency of diagnosis, the clinical approach to relieving symptoms or the treatment of the inflicted trauma. It is not a practical tool for the modern hyperbaric team. We describe a newer grading system, the O'Neill Grading System (OGS), which allows simple, practical and consistent classification of ETD and MEB by all members of the clinical hyperbaric medicine team. Based on the O'Neill Grade assigned, evidence supported suggestions for appropriate actions and medical interventions are offered. PMID:26152108

  1. Neurobehavioral Evaluation System (NES): Comparative performance of 2nd-, 4th-, and 8th-grade Czech children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Otto; I. Skalik; Dennis E. House; H. Kenneth Hudnell

    1996-01-01

    The Neurobehavioral Evaluation System was designed for field studies of workers, but many NES tests can be performed satisfactorily by children as young as 7 or 8 years old and a few tests, such as simple reaction time, can be performed by preschool children. However, little comparative data from children of different ages or grade levels are available. Studies of

  2. Graphical Design of Parallel Programs with Control Based on Global Application States Using an Extended P-Grade System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Tudruj; J. Borkowski; D. Kopanski

    An extension of the graphical parallel program design system P-GRADE towards specification of program execution control based on global application state monitoring is presented. De-coupled structured specifications of computational and control elements of parallel programs are assumed. Special synchronizer processes collect process state messages supplied with time interval timestamps and construct strongly consistent application states. Control predicates are evaluated on

  3. Learning at the Beginning of a New Millennium: Establishing Outcomes for the Early Childhood Services to Grade 12 Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    As a way of obtaining information from the citizenry of the Canadian province of Alberta regarding their expectations from the educational system serving early childhood services (ECS) through grade 12 to advise educational reform, the Review Committee on Outcomes developed this workbook seeking opinions on goals in six areas. Respondents are…

  4. A Case Study of Systemic Reform to Improve Ninth Grade Advancement toward Graduation in a Multi-High School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Too many freshmen students remain mired in the ninth grade, presenting a growing problem for America's secondary schools as they struggle to improve high school completion rates. In an effort to stem the tide of high school dropouts, a southeast Texas suburban school district with five comprehensive high schools engaged in a systemic reform effort…

  5. Evaluating the Effects of a Systemic Intervention on First-Grade Teachers' Explicit Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Fien, Hank; Kosty, Derek B.; Smolkowski, Keith; Smith, Jean Louise M.; Baker, Scott K.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the efficacy of a multitiered systemic reading intervention for increasing the intensity and quality of explicit literacy instruction that teachers provide in first-grade classrooms. Schools ("j" = 16) were randomly assigned to the treatment or comparison condition. In both conditions, teachers ("i" = 42)…

  6. Teacher Survey of Standards-Based Instruction: Addressing Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Judy

    This study estimated the amount of time required to teach standards at four grade levels (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12) as compared to the time available for instruction. Teachers from four districts in Wyoming, Colorado, and North Dakota made three types of judgments regarding each benchmark within a standard: amount of time needed to teach a given…

  7. The Uncomplicated Elementary Career Education System for the "Real" Classroom. Grades K-6 Factivities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield. Div. of Adult Vocational and Technical Education.

    Prepared by classroom teachers for the infusion of career education into existing curriculum, these teacher materials are designed to accompany the "Career Capers" for grades 4-6 (CE 023 598). Monthly distribution to the classroom teacher by an administrator is suggested for these supplemental materials. Factivities for grades K-3 emphasize career…

  8. Traditional Grade-Based Writing Evaluation and the Process Approach: Systems in Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meikle, Robert J.

    A total of 47 twelfth grade students from five different English classes and the six teachers in the English department at a secondary school in Canada took part in a study to determine what effects traditional grade-based writing evaluation procedures had upon the process of writing. There were three distinct yet related components to the…

  9. New Jersey Statewide Testing System: 1986-87 High School Proficiency Test. State Summary, Grade 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report summarizes test results statewide for tenth-grade students who took the New Jersey High School Proficiency Test (HSPT) in April, 1987. The HSPT consists of reading, writing, and mathematics sections, and must be passed as one of the requirements for a high school diploma. The tenth-grade students who were tested consisted of students…

  10. Effects of a holistic rapid-learning system on the success rate of third grade at risk math students 

    E-print Network

    Baumann, Susan Marie

    1990-01-01

    EFFECTS OF A HOLISTIC' RAPID-LEARNING SYSTEM ON THE SUCCESS RATE OF THIRD GRADE AT RISK MATH STUDENTS A Thesis by SUSAN MARIE BAUNANN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&N University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1990 Najor Subject: Curriculum and Instruction EFFECTS OF A HOLISTIC' RAPID-LEARNING STSTEM ON THE SUCCESS RATE OF THIRD GRADE AT RISK MATH STUDENTS A Thesis by SUSAN MARI E BAUMANN Approved...

  11. Friction Spinning—New Innovative Tool Systems For The Production of Complex Functionally Graded Workpieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homberg, Werner; Hornjak, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Friction spinning is a new innovative and promising incremental forming technology implying high potential regarding the manufacturing of complex functionally graded workpieces and enhancing existing forming limits of conventional metal spinning processes. The friction spinning process is based on the integration of thermo-mechanical friction subprocesses in this incremental forming process. By choosing the appropriate process parameters, e.g. axial feed rate or relative motion, the contact conditions between tool and workpiece can be influenced in a defined way and, thus, a required temperature profile can be obtained. Friction spinning allows the extension of forming limits compared to conventional metal spinning in order to produce multifunctional components with locally varying properties and the manufacturing of e.g. complex hollow parts made of tubes, profiles, or sheet metals. In this way, it meets the demands regarding efficiency and the manufacturing of functionally graded lightweight components. There is e.g. the possibility of locally increasing the wall thickness in joining zones and, as a consequence, achieving higher quality of the joint at decreased expense. These products are not or only hardly producible by conventional processes so far. In order to benefit from the advantages and potentials of this new innovative process new tooling systems and concepts are indispensable which fulfill the special requirements of this thermo-mechanical process concerning thermal and tribological loads and which allow simultaneous and defined forming and friction operations. An important goal of the corresponding research work at the Chair of Forming and Machining Technology at the University of Paderborn is the development of tool systems that allow the manufacturing of such complex parts by simple uniaxial or sequential biaxial linear tool paths. In the paper, promising tool systems and geometries as well as results of theoretical and experimental research work (e.g. regarding the influence and interaction of process parameters on the workpiece quality) will be discussed. Furthermore, possibilities regarding the manufacturing of geometries (demonstrator workpieces) which are not or only hardly producible with conventional processes will be presented.

  12. 40 CFR 268.46 - Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. 268.46 Section...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.46 Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. For the...

  13. 40 CFR 268.46 - Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. 268.46 Section...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.46 Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. For the...

  14. 40 CFR 268.46 - Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. 268.46 Section...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.46 Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. For the...

  15. 40 CFR 268.46 - Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. 268.46 Section...CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Treatment Standards § 268.46 Alternative treatment standards based on HTMR. For the...

  16. Apprenticeship Training in Ireland: From Time-Served to Standards Based; Potential and Limitations for the Construction Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Len; Harvey, Noel

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with construction industry personnel (15 employers, 14 instructors) in Ireland found satisfaction with a new standards-based apprenticeship system that focused on competence rather than length of apprenticeship. Criticisms were related to problems in gaining access to training courses. (SK)

  17. Multilevel Linkages between State Standards, Teacher Standards, and Student Achievement: Testing External versus Internal Standards-Based Education Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jaekyung; Liu, Xiaoyan; Amo, Laura Casey; Wang, Weichun Leilani

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on national and state assessment datasets in reading and math, this study tested "external" versus "internal" standards-based education models. The goal was to understand whether and how student performance standards work in multilayered school systems under No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Under the…

  18. Contract Grading in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassencahl, Fran

    1979-01-01

    A system for grading student work based on contracts is examined. Types of contracts, methods for controlling quality as well as quantity of work, advantages of the contract grading system, and the results of research into the use of grade contracts--including student reaction to the system--are some of the topics discussed. (JMP)

  19. Development and characterization of food-grade tracers for the global grain tracing and recall system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Armstrong, Paul R; Thomasson, J Alex; Sui, Ruixiu; Casada, Mark; Herrman, Timothy J

    2010-10-27

    Tracing grain from the farm to its final processing destination as it moves through multiple grain-handling systems, storage bins, and bulk carriers presents numerous challenges to existing record-keeping systems. This study examines the suitability of coded caplets to trace grain, in particular, to evaluate methodology to test tracers' ability to withstand the rigors of a commercial grain handling and storage systems as defined by physical properties using measurement technology commonly applied to assess grain hardness and end-use properties. Three types of tracers to dispense into bulk grains for tracing the grain back to its field of origin were developed using three food-grade substances [processed sugar, pregelatinized starch, and silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC)] as a major component in formulations. Due to a different functionality of formulations, the manufacturing process conditions varied for each tracer type, resulting in unique variations in surface roughness, weight, dimensions, and physical and spectroscopic properties before and after coating. The applied two types of coating [pregelatinized starch and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC)] using an aqueous coating system containing appropriate plasticizers showed uniform coverage and clear coating. Coating appeared to act as a barrier against moisture penetration, to protect against mechanical damage of the surface of the tracers, and to improve the mechanical strength of tracers. The results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests showed the type of tracer, coating material, conditioning time, and a theoretical weight gain significantly influenced the morphological and physical properties of tracers. Optimization of these factors needs to be pursued to produce desirable tracers with consistent quality and performance when they flow with bulk grains throughout the grain marketing channels. PMID:20883029

  20. Monitoring cerebral venous blood oxygenation in neonates with a medical-grade optoacoustic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Irene Y.; Fonseca, Rafael A.; Richardson, C. J.; Petrov, Yuriy; Prough, Donald S.; Petrov, Andrey; Wynne, Karon E.; Westermann, Stephan; Esenaliev, Rinat O.

    2015-03-01

    Premature, very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; <=1500 g) and low-birth-weight (LBW; 1500-2499 g) infants are at increased risk for severe neurological disability. 25-50% of the 63,000 VLBW infants born annually in the USA have major longterm cognitive or neurobehavioral deficits in which cerebral hypoxia plays an important role. At present, no technology is capable of noninvasive, accurate monitoring of cerebral oxygenation in newborns. We proposed to use an optoacoustic technique for noninvasive cerebral hypoxia monitoring by probing the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). Recently, we developed and built a medical grade, multi-wavelength, near-infrared optoacoustic system suitable for neonatal applications. We designed and built an adjustable patient interface for neonates with VLBW, LBW, and normal weight (NBW) that provides single or continuous measurements of the SSS blood oxygenation in both the reflection and transmission modes. We performed pilot clinical tests of the system in VLBW, LBW, and NBW hemodynamically stable infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. The system was capable of detecting SSS signals through the open anterior and posterior fontanelles and through the skull and allowed for monitoring of the SSS blood oxygenation in both modes. To the best of our knowledge this paper reports for the first time detection of optoacoustic signals from human cerebral blood vessels in both the transmission mode and the reflection mode. Analysis of the signals allows for noninvasive measurement of cerebral venous blood oxygenation in newborns in both modes. The transmission mode can be used for accurate measurement of the total hemoglobin concentration as well. The method and system proposed in this study can be used for optoacoustic human brain imaging, tomography, and mapping.

  1. A food-grade system for inducible gene expression in Lactobacillus plantarum using an alanine racemase-encoding selection marker.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tien-Thanh; Mathiesen, Geir; Fredriksen, Lasse; Kittl, Roman; Nguyen, Thu-Ha; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens K

    2011-05-25

    Food-grade gene expression systems for lactic acid bacteria are useful for applications in the food industry. We describe a new food-grade host/vector system for Lactobacillus plantarum based on pSIP expression vectors and the use of the homologous alanine racemase gene (alr) as selection marker. A new series of expression vectors were constructed by exchanging the erythromycin resistance gene (erm) in pSIP vectors by the L. plantarum WCFS1 alr gene. The vectors were applied for the overexpression of ?-galactosidase genes from L. reuteri L103 and L. plantarum WCFS1 in an alr deletion mutant of L. plantarum WCFS1. The expression levels obtained in this way, i.e. without the use of antibiotics, were comparable to the levels obtained with the conventional system based on selection for erythromycin resistance. The new system is suitable for the production of ingredients and additives for the food industry. PMID:21504147

  2. International Society Of Neuropathology--Haarlem consensus guidelines for nervous system tumor classification and grading.

    PubMed

    Louis, David N; Perry, Arie; Burger, Peter; Ellison, David W; Reifenberger, Guido; von Deimling, Andreas; Aldape, Kenneth; Brat, Daniel; Collins, V Peter; Eberhart, Charles; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Fuller, Gregory N; Giangaspero, Felice; Giannini, Caterina; Hawkins, Cynthia; Kleihues, Paul; Korshunov, Andrey; Kros, Johan M; Beatriz Lopes, M; Ng, Ho-Keung; Ohgaki, Hiroko; Paulus, Werner; Pietsch, Torsten; Rosenblum, Marc; Rushing, Elisabeth; Soylemezoglu, Figen; Wiestler, Otmar; Wesseling, Pieter

    2014-09-01

    Major discoveries in the biology of nervous system tumors have raised the question of how non-histological data such as molecular information can be incorporated into the next World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system tumors. To address this question, a meeting of neuropathologists with expertise in molecular diagnosis was held in Haarlem, the Netherlands, under the sponsorship of the International Society of Neuropathology (ISN). Prior to the meeting, participants solicited input from clinical colleagues in diverse neuro-oncological specialties. The present "white paper" catalogs the recommendations of the meeting, at which a consensus was reached that incorporation of molecular information into the next WHO classification should follow a set of provided "ISN-Haarlem" guidelines. Salient recommendations include that (i) diagnostic entities should be defined as narrowly as possible to optimize interobserver reproducibility, clinicopathological predictions and therapeutic planning; (ii) diagnoses should be "layered" with histologic classification, WHO grade and molecular information listed below an "integrated diagnosis"; (iii) determinations should be made for each tumor entity as to whether molecular information is required, suggested or not needed for its definition; (iv) some pediatric entities should be separated from their adult counterparts; (v) input for guiding decisions regarding tumor classification should be solicited from experts in complementary disciplines of neuro-oncology; and (iv) entity-specific molecular testing and reporting formats should be followed in diagnostic reports. It is hoped that these guidelines will facilitate the forthcoming update of the fourth edition of the WHO classification of central nervous system tumors. PMID:24990071

  3. Leprosy and lymphatic filariasis comorbidity: the case for an integrated functional limitation grading system.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Timothy Miles; Rao, P V Ranganadha

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide, both lymphatic filariasis (LF) and leprosy are major causes of morbidity and functional limitation. Despite an abundance of data on the impairment caused by these infections in isolation, there is little data on disability in patients unfortunate enough to be affected by both infections. We present two cases of patients with LF and leprosy comorbidity. Both cases suffer from Grade 2 disability and chronic lymphedema in the same limb (left and right leg, respectively). These morbidities cause significant functional limitation in the patients' activities of daily living. Both LF and leprosy are endemic in India and their comorbid conditions contribute to functional limitation. However, there is still currently no integrated scale for assessment of interventions for functional limitation in these patients. Investigating and managing impairment and functional limitations individually is the least cost effective and sustainable strategy. Considering the similarities of caring for functional limitations in both diseases and assuming its efficacy, augmentation of LF care services with leprosy referral centres may be beneficial. Integrated approaches have been pilot tested at district level in states in India under the title 'Integrated Prevention of Deformity project' (IPoD). Further work is required to identify a reliable, holistic, functional impairment scoring system, which allows for comparison between diseases. This may help promote greater understanding of impairments and functional limitations these cause and allow effective monitoring and evaluation of all aspects, activities and stages of similar programmes. PMID:24974445

  4. Investment-Grade Compressed Air System Audit, Analysis, and Upgrade in a Pulp and Paper Mill

    E-print Network

    Parekh, P. S.

    An investment-grade compressed air audit, analysis, design, and upgrade in an industrial facility requires a thorough understudying of original design basis, current problem definition, goal settings, load assessment, base case model development...

  5. Analysis of improvements in system efficiency and safety at highway-railroad-pedestrian grade crossings 

    E-print Network

    Tydlacka, Jonathan Michael

    2013-02-22

    The purpose of this project was to perform micro-simulation analyses on intersections near Highway-Railroad Grade Crossings to determine if controlling mean train speed and train speed variability would improve safety and reduce delays. The first...

  6. Investment-Grade Compressed Air System Audit, Analysis, and Upgrade in a Pulp and Paper Mill 

    E-print Network

    Parekh, P. S.

    2000-01-01

    An investment-grade compressed air audit, analysis, design, and upgrade in an industrial facility requires a thorough understudying of original design basis, current problem definition, goal settings, load assessment, base case model development...

  7. Standard-based integration profiles for clinical research and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Christel; Erturkmen, Gokce Banu Laleci; Sinaci, Ali Anil; Delaney, Brendan C; Curcin, Vasa; Bain, Landen

    EHRs can now be adapted to integrate seamlessly with existing research platforms. However, key challenges need to be overcome in order to provide a platform that functions across many EHR systems. The IHE Quality, Research and Public Health (QRPH) domain addresses the information exchange standards necessary to share information relevant to quality improvement in patient care and clinical research. In collaboration with CDISC’s Healthcare Link initiative, IHE QRPH has developed a set of integration profiles that specifically address EHR-enabled research. The panel participants from three European projects will present how subsets of existing IHE QRPH profiles can be pulled together (and extended when necessary) to form a super profile which will standardize and automate the clinical trial process flow. The EHR4CR project is providing adaptable, reusable and scalable tools and services for reusing data from hospital EHRs for Clinical Research. TRANSFoRm is developing an informatics infrastructure to support the learning healthcare system in European Primary Care. SALUS project is providing scalable, standard based interoperability framework for sustainable proactive post market safety studies. Overall, the panel will discuss the key steps towards realizing a joint EHR4CR/TRANSFoRm/SALUS European projectathon demonstrating EHR-enabled clinical research across Europe using standard-based integration and content profiles. PMID:24303234

  8. Preparation, Placement, Proficiency: Improving Middle Grades Math Performance. Policy and Practice Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trish; Haertel, Edward; Kirst, Michael W.; Rosin, Matthew; Perry, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Early in 2010, EdSource released a landmark study on middle grades education in California. "Gaining Ground in the Middle Grades" looked at the critical 6th- to 8th-grade years in the context of standards-based education. The analysis identified a comprehensive set of practices that differentiated higher from lower schoolwide academic achievement…

  9. Classroom: Efficient Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David D.; Pease, Leonard F., III.

    2014-01-01

    Grading can be accelerated to make time for more effective instruction. This article presents specific time management strategies selected to decrease administrative time required of faculty and teaching assistants, including a multiple answer multiple choice interface for exams, a three-tier grading system for open ended problem solving, and a…

  10. Effectiveness of the computer enhanced visual learning method in teaching the society for fetal urology hydronephrosis grading system for urology trainees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Marks; Max Maizels; Jennie Mickelson; Elizabeth Yerkes; C. D. Anthony Herndon; Tamar Ben-Ami; Evelyn Maizels; Rachel Stork Stoltz; Scott Dixon; Dennis Liu; Tony Chaviano; Jennifer Hagerty; William Kaplan

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveA novel educational tool, Computer Enhanced Visual Learning (CEVL), has been used to improve resident performance of routine orchiopexy. Our objective was to assess the effect of a CEVL teaching module on the diagnostic accuracy of medical trainees in grading neonatal hydronephrosis on ultrasound using the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) grading system.

  11. Reproducibility and Prognostic Value of WHO1973 and WHO2004 Grading Systems in TaT1 Urothelial Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mangrud, Ok Målfrid; Waalen, Rune; Gudlaugsson, Einar; Dalen, Ingvild; Tasdemir, Ilker; Janssen, Emiel A. M.; Baak, Jan P. A.

    2014-01-01

    Background European treatment guidelines of TaT1 urinary bladder urothelial carcinomas depend highly on stage and WHO1973-grade but grading reproducibility is wanting. The newer WHO2004 grading system is still debated and both systems are currently used. Aims To compare reproducibility and prognostic value (of stage progression) of the WHO1973 and WHO2004. Methods One hundred and ninety-three primary urothelial carcinomas were reviewed. Follow-up data were retrieved from the patient records. Kappa statistics and Harrell's C-index were used. Results Median follow-up was 75 months (range 1–127). 17 patients (9%) progressed, 82% of these within and 18% after 60 months. The distribution of WHO73-grades 1, 2 and 3 was 23%, 51% and 26%, interobserver agreement for each individual grade was 66% (kappa?=?0.68), while for grades 1&2 versus 3 89% (kappa?=?0.68). Intraobserver reproducibility was 68–63% for WHO73 and 88–89% for WHO73 as 1&2 vs.3. Progression free survival rates at 5 years were 95% (grade 1), 98% (grade 2) and 82% (grade 3) and 96% and 82% for grades 1&2 versus 3 (Hazard Ratio, HR, 5.4, p?=?0.003). Using WHO2004, 62% were low grade and 38% high grade, inter-observer agreement 87% (kappa?=?0.70), intraobserver reproducibility 93%, and progression free 5-year survival rates 97% and 85% (HR 6.6, p?=?0.004). Positive and negative predictive values for stage progression within 5 years for the WHO73 (1&2 vs. 3) were 18% and 96%, and 15% and 97% for the WHO04. Using Harrell's C-index, none of the grading systems was prognostically superior. Conclusion None of the grading systems is prognostically stronger than the others. Most importantly, inter-observer reproducibility and sensitivities for stage progression of both systems are low and need improvement for optimal treatment. PMID:24409280

  12. Student achievement outcomes in a scaling urban standards-based science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Robert R.

    This work examines the effects on achievement of a multifaceted reform supporting standards based science teaching in urban middle schools. Several project-based inquiry science curriculum units were introduced to the Detroit public schools, supported by aligned professional development, learning technologies, and administrative policy. The units scaled to over 20,000 students in 26 schools over 6 years, producing unique large-scale longitudinal achievement data on curriculum reform. Chapters include a review of achievement studies on scaling reforms, an examination of the impact of the inquiry curriculum units on state standardized test results, and an investigation of the effect of scaling and teacher experience on student learning. Two cohorts of 7th and 8th graders that participated in the curricula are compared with the remainder of the district population using state standardized test results. Both the initial (n = 760) and scaled up (n = 1,043) cohorts show higher science content understanding and process skills, and significantly higher pass rates. The effect does not attenuate with scaling, is greater for students who experience an inquiry curriculum in both 7th and 8th grade, and reduces the gender gap in achievement for urban African-American boys. Scaling effects as the curriculum innovation matured over 4--6 years are examined using pretest/posttest assessments for two curricula involving 6,396 and 5,043 students respectively. There is no attenuation in student achievement as the innovation scales and outside support fades. Student achievement shows significant gains in the first two years of curriculum enactment, before reaching a stable plateau. By contrast, individual teachers show yearly improvement in student achievement on average as they gain experience with curricula. The absence of a plateau suggests that stability of teacher staffing and administrative support for reform are important for maintaining and improving achievement. Together, the findings demonstrate that standards-based, inquiry science curriculum embedded in a multifaceted, aligned reform can lead to substantive achievement gains in historically underserved urban students, and that the gains can be sustained when scaled to large populations.

  13. Goal: A Grading System That Demands Excellence on the Playing Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the vast array of educational practices that are present in today's society, grading is one practice that has established a historical foundation and one that will continue to be an important aspect to the profession of education. This small scale study determined that both undergraduate and graduate learners, in one college instructor's…

  14. New Jersey Statewide Testing System: 1986-87 High School Proficiency Test. State Summary, Grade 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    This report presents tables summarizing test results statewide for ninth-grade students who took the New Jersey High School Proficiency Test (HSPT) in April, 1987. The HSPT consists of reading, writing, and mathematics sections, and must be passed as one of the requirements for a high school diploma. Data include percent passing, mean score, and…

  15. Inspection and grading of agricultural and food products by computer vision systems—a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadhg Brosnan; Da-Wen Sun

    2002-01-01

    Computer vision is a rapid, economic, consistent and objective inspection technique, which has expanded into many diverse industries. Its speed and accuracy satisfy ever-increasing production and quality requirements, hence aiding in the development of totally automated processes. This non-destructive method of inspection has found applications in the agricultural and food industry, including the inspection and grading of fruit and vegetable.

  16. Evaluation of modal noise in graded-index silica and plastic optical fiber links for radio over multimode fiber systems.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Motoharu; Furukawa, Rei; Matsumoto, Yuki; Inoue, Azusa; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2014-03-24

    We have evaluated and compared modal noise induced in a graded-index silica multimode fiber (GI-MMF) link and a graded-index plastic optical fiber (GI-POF) link with the misaligned fiber connections. In radio over fiber (RoF) systems using these optical fibers, modal noise appears as unwanted amplitude modulation in the received signal, and results in degradation of the RoF transmission performance. In this work, we have evaluated the modal noise induced in GI-MMFs and GI-POFs with its same core diameter of 50 ?m. Our results show that GI-POFs have an inherently higher tolerance to misaligned connection and less modal noise than GI-MMFs in terms of both the error-vector magnitude and the speckle pattern of the transmitted signals. PMID:24664004

  17. The Dinosaur Education Project: A Curriculum Model for Standards-Based Education

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jo Wixom

    This curriculum model represents an entire school district's attempt to use paleontology to implement standards-based education reforms. While most colleges do not have a dinosaur available for student and teacher use, the project provides a template for partnerships between colleges and local school districts. The curriculum can be adopted by teachers to institute standards-based classroom practice and by education professors to model standards-based pedagogy for pre-service teachers. Examples of curriculum activities are included.

  18. Evidence for low-grade systemic proinflammatory activity in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    von Känel, Roland; Hepp, Urs; Kraemer, Bernd; Traber, Rafael; Keel, Marius; Mica, Ladislav; Schnyder, Ulrich

    2007-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may increase cardiovascular risk but the psychophysiological mechanisms involved are elusive. We hypothesized that proinflammatory activity is elevated in patients with PTSD as diagnosed by the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) interview. Plasma levels of proinflammatory C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and of anti-inflammatory IL-4 and IL-10 were measured in 14 otherwise healthy PTSD patients and in 14 age- and gender-matched healthy non-PTSD controls. Levels of TNF-alpha (p=0.038; effect size Cohen's d=0.58) and of IL-1beta (p=0.075, d=0.68) were higher in patients than in controls. CRP (d=0.10), IL-6 (d=0.18), IL-4 (d=0.42), and IL-10 (d=0.37) were not significantly different between groups. Controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors, mood, and time since trauma revealed lower IL-4 in patients than in controls (p=0.029) and rendered group differences in TNF-alpha and IL-1beta insignificant. In all subjects, TNF-alpha correlated with total (frequency and intensity) PTSD symptom cluster of re-experiencing (r=0.49, p=0.008), avoidance (r=0.37, p=0.050), and hyperarousal (r=0.42, p=0.026), and with PTSD total symptom score (r=0.37, p=0.054). Controlling for time since trauma attenuated these associations. The correlation between IL-1beta and total avoidance symptoms (r=0.42, p=0.028) became insignificant when controlling for anxiety and depression. IL-4 correlated with total hyperarousal symptoms (r=-0.38, p=0.047), and after controlling for systolic blood pressure and smoking status, with PTSD total symptom score (r=-0.41, p=0.035). PTSD patients showed a low-grade systemic proinflammatory state, which, moreover, was related to PTSD symptom levels suggesting one mechanism by which PTSD could contribute to atherosclerotic disease. PMID:16901505

  19. Apprenticeship training in Ireland: from time-served to standards based; potential and limitations for the construction industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Len O’Connor; Noel Harvey

    2001-01-01

    Craft apprenticeship in Ireland has been traditionally of the time-served type, in which the attainment of pre-determined standards of competence and knowledge was not mandatory. However, in 1991 a new standards-based apprenticeship system was introduced and that in future, to be recognised as a crafts worker, a person would have to have the National Craft Certificate as a compulsory requirement.

  20. TNM staging of midgut and hindgut (neuro) endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Rindi; G. Klöppel; A. Couvelard; P. Komminoth; M. Körner; J. M. Lopes; A.-M. McNicol; O. Nilsson; A. Perren; A. Scarpa; J.-Y. Scoazec; B. Wiedenmann

    2007-01-01

    Criteria for the staging and grading of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of midgut and hindgut origin were established at the\\u000a second Consensus Conference in Frascati (Rome) organized by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS). The proposed\\u000a tumor–node–metastasis (TNM) classifications are based on the recently published ENETS Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment\\u000a of gastroenteropancreatic NETs and follow our previous proposal for

  1. Grading Symbols and GPA Help How To Calculate Your Grade Point Average (GPA)

    E-print Network

    Grading Symbols and GPA Help How To Calculate Your Grade Point Average (GPA) Princeton does not officially compute Grade Point Average or maintain a system of Class Ranking. However, because students converting letters to numeric equivalents: Letter Grade Grade Point Conversion A+ 4.0 (4.3 prior to 2000

  2. Successfully using optical components and systems in novel ways during educational outreach programs for K-12 grades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silberman, Donn

    2006-08-01

    Much work has been done in efforts to reach students in the K-12 grades to encourage them to learn about optics and related sciences and technologies. One goal of these efforts is to develop the future optical scientists and engineers to carry on the work of this and related societies. One main obstacle is to create low costs novel and effective hands-on optical components and systems for these students to use and from which to get excited. Students at different grade levels and abilities are receptive to different kinds of components and systems and this must be taken into account when preparing for outreach programs. There are, however, some guiding principles which can be used throughout the various levels, including making sure the components and systems are good examples and not marginal. Small telescopes or microscopes that use poor quality optics which provide poor quality images do more to discourage young students from going into the sciences than if they never had the experience at all. Some examples of both poor and good quality optical components and systems that will be described and demonstrated include: lenses, telescopes, microscopes, diffraction gratings, Kaleidoscopes, Fresnel Lenses, polarization filters and liquid crystals. The figures in this paper are in color and best viewed on-line or printed with a good color printer.

  3. Parents' and Teachers' Perceptions of Standards-Based and Traditional Report Cards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Gerry M.; Guskey, Thomas R.; Jung, Lee Ann

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine parents' and teachers' perceptions of standards-based and traditional report cards. Participants included 115 parents/guardians of students from a single, midsize school district that had implemented a standards-based report card. During the first two marking periods, all parents/guardians…

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of the Efficacy of Standards-Based IEP Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Traci Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Although standards-based IEP goals have been mandated in many states for almost a decade, their effectiveness is unknown. Standards-based IEP goals were first created to meet the requirements of No Child Left Behind and Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, which increased accountability for all students as well as those with…

  5. Partnership, Accountability, and Standards-Based Reform: Reflections on the Baltimore City-State Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Day, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the educational reform context that gave rise to the Baltimore City-State Partnership, noting how the Partnership can inform standards-based reform efforts in other jurisdictions. Reviews the central components of standards based-reform and makes informal observations concerning the impact of the Baltimore City-State Partnership. (SM)

  6. Dynamic Bilingualism as the Norm: Envisioning a Heteroglossic Approach to Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Nelson; Schissel, Jamie L.

    2014-01-01

    Standards-based reforms in many Anglophone nations have been informed by "monoglossic language ideologies" that marginalize the dynamic bilingualism of emergent bilinguals. Recent developments in applied linguistics that advocate for "heteroglossic language ideologies" offer an alternative for standards-based reform. This…

  7. Transformative Shifts in Art History Teaching: The Impact of Standards-Based Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormond, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article examines pedagogical shifts in art history teaching that have developed as a response to the implementation of a standards-based assessment regime. The specific characteristics of art history standards-based assessment in the context of New Zealand secondary schools are explained to demonstrate how an exacting form of assessment has…

  8. Subarachnoid hemorrhage grading scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S. Rosen; R. Loch MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    Numerous systems are reported for grading the clinical condition of patients following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The\\u000a literature was reviewed for articles pertaining to the grading of such patients, including publications on the Hunt and Hess\\u000a Scale, Fisher Scale, Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), and World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Scale. This article reviews the\\u000a advantages and limitations of these scales as

  9. The Exicor DUV birefringence measurement system and its application to measuring lithography-grade CaF2 lens blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoliang; Griffiths, C. O.; Rockwell, Rick R.; List, Jennifer; Mark, Doug

    2003-11-01

    Optical lithography continues its transition to shorter wavelengths to support the semiconductor industry"s production of faster microchips to meet evolving market demands. The next step for optical lithography is likely to use the F2 excimer laser at 157.63 nm (157 nm,according to the industry" s naming convention).At 157 nm, among the limited number of fluoride crystals with acceptable optical properties calcium fluoride is the only practical lens material for step and scan systems due to its readiness for mass production. Since the discovery of intrinsic birefringence in CaF2 at deep ultraviolet (DUV)wavelengths,the optical lithography industry has developed a critical interest in measuring birefringence at 157 nm. In response to this need, we have developed a DUV birefringence measurement system. In this article,we describe the working principle, system construction, technical performance and selected applications for measuring lithography grade calcium fluoride lens blanks at DUV wavelengths.

  10. Managing Marginal School Employees: Applying Standards-Based Performance Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lynette; Reck, Brianne; Egley, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This book contains a collection of case studies that provide a variety of situations in managing or working with marginal employees in a school system. Managing Marginal School Employees will serve as a primary or companion text for administrator candidates or current administrators that include dilemmas for the student to think about, discuss,…

  11. Conceptualizing Teaching to the Test under Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; Eastwood, Melissa; D'Agostino, Jerome V.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and school accountability systems based on high-stakes tests are ubiquitous throughout the United States and appear to be growing as a catalyst for reform. As a result, educators have increased the proportion of instructional time devoted to test preparation. Although guidelines for what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate test…

  12. School Organization: Grade Span. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    This paper examines grade spans (grade configurations) and their importance in community school systems. Research has shown that geographic location often dictates the kind of grade configuration districts use. Furthermore, every grade configuration has strengths and weaknesses, and school officials must focus on developing the positive potential…

  13. Minus Grades Implementation Minus Grades Policy

    E-print Network

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    Definition Policy A grade point deficit is defined as the number of grade points below a C average on hours attempted at the University of Florida. If the grade point average is less than 2.0, there is a grade point the definition of a grade point deficit. A C average will remain a 2.00. #12;Minus Grade Implementation Result

  14. IEEE 1451.5 Standard-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene Y. Song; Kang B. Lee

    \\u000a Recent advances in wireless communications, networking, electronics, and microprocessors have enabled the development of low-cost,\\u000a low-power wireless sensor nodes. Wireless sensor networks have become more widely used to monitor the condition of the environment,\\u000a machining systems, and other applications. Sensor data exchange, sharing, and interoperability are major challenges when using\\u000a wireless sensor networks for condition monitoring. Standardized sensor data formats

  15. The Nature of Grading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses grading in elementary and secondary schools, focusing on the following topics: combining and weighting data, grading criteria, absolute grade standards, relative grade standards, contracting for grades, mastery and continuous progress grading, grading for effort or improvement, report cards, and procedures for grading students. (SR)

  16. Standards-Based Education and Its Implications for Mathematics Faculty

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Latiolais, P. (Paul)

    The Mathematical Association of America offers a collection of articles on standardizing secondary education. This specific article, written by Robby Robson and Paul Latiolais of Oregon State and Portland State Universities, discusses creating a system of comparable standards for higher education. As the authors point out, there are annual standards met for primary education, from standardized tests like the ACT and SAT to year-end examinations. However, once students reach the university level, such methods of comparison disappear among college-level mathematics. Robson and Latiolais propose a series of changes that could be made across the level of nationally accredited universities to ensure an established set of standards for college degrees, credits, and skill sets. While not all of their suggestions could be adopted immediately, Robson and Latiolais make great strides in beginning a national dialogue on holding our universities accountable for the education they provide.

  17. Motion Imagery and Robotics Application (MIRA): Standards-Based Robotics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Lindolfo; Rich, Thomas; Lucord, Steven; Diegelman, Thomas; Mireles, James; Gonzalez, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This technology development originated from the need to assess the debris threat resulting from soil material erosion induced by landing spacecraft rocket plume impingement on extraterrestrial planetary surfaces. The impact of soil debris was observed to be highly detrimental during NASA s Apollo lunar missions and will pose a threat for any future landings on the Moon, Mars, and other exploration targets. The innovation developed under this program provides a simulation tool that combines modeling of the diverse disciplines of rocket plume impingement gas dynamics, granular soil material liberation, and soil debris particle kinetics into one unified simulation system. The Unified Flow Solver (UFS) developed by CFDRC enabled the efficient, seamless simulation of mixed continuum and rarefied rocket plume flow utilizing a novel direct numerical simulation technique of the Boltzmann gas dynamics equation. The characteristics of the soil granular material response and modeling of the erosion and liberation processes were enabled through novel first principle-based granular mechanics models developed by the University of Florida specifically for the highly irregularly shaped and cohesive lunar regolith material. These tools were integrated into a unique simulation system that accounts for all relevant physics aspects: (1) Modeling of spacecraft rocket plume impingement flow under lunar vacuum environment resulting in a mixed continuum and rarefied flow; (2) Modeling of lunar soil characteristics to capture soil-specific effects of particle size and shape composition, soil layer cohesion and granular flow physics; and (3) Accurate tracking of soil-borne debris particles beginning with aerodynamically driven motion inside the plume to purely ballistic motion in lunar far field conditions.

  18. Can Dynamic Spectral Imaging System colposcopy replace conventional colposcopy in the detection of high-grade cervical lesions?

    PubMed

    Roensbo, Mette T; Hammer, Anne; Blaakaer, Jan

    2015-07-01

    The sensitivity of conventional colposcopy for the detection of high-grade cervical lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage 2 or above; CIN2+) is poor. We aimed to investigate if a Dynamic Spectral Imaging System (DySIS) can enhance or replace conventional colposcopy in clinical practice. From 3 December 2013 to 29 January 2014 a total of 239 women were included. All women were referred to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus, Denmark because of an abnormal cytology result. Every woman had three to five cervical punch biopsies taken; two biopsies were taken following DySIS recommendations. Subsequent biopsies were taken following the clinician's assessment or randomly. DySIS allowed detection of five CIN2+ cases (7.4%) that would not have been detected otherwise, but it failed to detect 46 of CIN2+ cases (67.6%). The sensitivity and specificity of DySIS for detecting CIN2+ was 32.4 and 83.0%, respectively. DySIS colposcopy seemed inferior to conventional colposcopy in detecting high-grade lesions and cannot replace conventional colposcopy with random biopsies. PMID:25845907

  19. 77 FR 43018 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ...Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice...

  20. 77 FR 42988 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ...Administration 29 CFR Part 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Direct...

  1. 77 FR 68684 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...1915, 1917, 1918, and 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Final rule;...

  2. 77 FR 68717 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ...OSH-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal...SUMMARY: With this notice, OSHA is withdrawing the proposed rule that...

  3. 78 FR 66642 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Signage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ...Administration 29 CFR Parts 1910 and 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2013-0005] RIN 1218-AC77 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Final...

  4. Towards a quantum resistance standard based on epitaxial graphene.

    PubMed

    Tzalenchuk, Alexander; Lara-Avila, Samuel; Kalaboukhov, Alexei; Paolillo, Sara; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Yakimova, Rositza; Kazakova, Olga; Janssen, T J B M; Fal'ko, Vladimir; Kubatkin, Sergey

    2010-03-01

    The quantum Hall effect allows the international standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the electron charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of R(K) = h/e(2) = 25,812.807557(18) Omega, the resistance quantum. Despite 30 years of research into the quantum Hall effect, the level of precision necessary for metrology--a few parts per billion--has been achieved only in silicon and iii-v heterostructure devices. Graphene should, in principle, be an ideal material for a quantum resistance standard, because it is inherently two-dimensional and its discrete electron energy levels in a magnetic field (the Landau levels) are widely spaced. However, the precisions demonstrated so far have been lower than one part per million. Here, we report a quantum Hall resistance quantization accuracy of three parts per billion in monolayer epitaxial graphene at 300 mK, four orders of magnitude better than previously reported. Moreover, by demonstrating the structural integrity and uniformity of graphene over hundreds of micrometres, as well as reproducible mobility and carrier concentrations across a half-centimetre wafer, these results boost the prospects of using epitaxial graphene in applications beyond quantum metrology. PMID:20081845

  5. The relationship of aptitude, course grades, and program length, to performance on a standards based test (NCLEX-RN)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lenora Yates

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: first, to investigate variables associated with learning, and performance as measured by the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). The second purpose was to validate the predictive value of the Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) achievement exit exam, and lastly, to provide a model that could be used to predict performance on

  6. The Nature of Feedback Provided to Elementary Students by Teachers in Schools where Grading and Reporting Are Standards-Based

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souter, Dawn H.

    2009-01-01

    Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement. Hattie (2002) found that the giving of quality feedback to students is one of the top five strategies teachers can use to improve student achievement. Research has confirmed that the right kind of feedback is essential for effective teaching and learning (McMillan, 2007).…

  7. Effectiveness of an ESAA Funded Information Feedback System on the Reading and Arithmetic Achievement of Black and White Fifth Grade Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tokar, Edward; Ford, Valeria

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Multi-Ethnic Information Feedback System (MIFS) on the reading and arithmetic achievement of fifth grade pupils. Consisting of an objective referenced test-item and a computer feedback system MIFS enabled teachers to continually measure student performance and evaluate the…

  8. Impact of Writing Interventions Informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics with a Focus on Tenor, on Sixth, Seventh and Eighth Grade English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmgren, Katherine Hayes

    2012-01-01

    This action research study examines the impact instruction informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) with a particular focus on tenor and socio-cultural theory has on sixth, seventh and eighth grade English language learners in an urban school. Over the course of seven and 1/2 months I used Systemic Functional Linguistics with a focus on…

  9. [Synovialitis score: histopathological grading system for chronic rheumatic and non-rheumatic synovialitis].

    PubMed

    Krenn, V; Morawietz, L; Burmester, G-R; Häupl, T

    2005-06-01

    Standardization of the histopathological assessment of synovial membrane specimens might facilitate the diagnosis of chronic rheumatic and non-rheumatic joint diseases. We would like to propose a histological graduation scheme ("synovialitis score"), which is applicable to all forms of synovitis, irrespective of its etiology. This score evaluates the three compartments of chronic synovialitis [enlargement of lining cell layer, activation of synovial stroma (i. e. resident cells), leukocytic infiltrate] semiquantitatively (from 0=absent to 3=strong). Each compartment is graded separately, and the sum resembles the synovialitis score, which is interpreted as follows: 0-1: no synovialitis, 2- 3: slight synovialitis, 4-6: moderate synovialitis, 7-9: strong synovialitis (for sample photos see also www.charite.de/ch/patho/Webpage/pages/forschung/arbeitsgruppen/ag-krenn/index.htm). A total of 483 synovial specimens (resections n=462, biopsies n=21) were graded by two independent observers. Clinical diagnoses were osteoarthrosis (OA; n=153), posttraumatic arthritis (PtA; n=31), rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n=239), psoriatic arthritis (PsA; n=32), reactive arthritis (ReA; n=7), and controls (Co, n=21) from necropsies of patients without joint damage. The correlation between two observers was high (p<0.001). The correlation coefficient between the different samples from the same joint in n=112 cases was between 0.86 and 0.95. Median synovialitis scores when correlated with clinical diagnoses were: Co 0.5, OA 2, PtA 3, PsA 3, ReA 4, RA 5. The differences in scores between Co and all other groups were highly significant (p<0.001). A synovialitis score of 4 points and more was strongly associated with rheumatic joint diseases (sensitivity 73%, specificity 86%). Validation of the synovialitis score by gene expression data showed good correlations for the lining cell enlargement with MMP1 (0.685), for the leukocytic infiltrate with CD3 (0.754) and CD138 (0.744) and for the stroma activation with CD14 (0.744). The proposed synovialitis score is based on well definable histopathologic criteria and contributes to the diagnosis of rheumatic and non-rheumatic joint diseases. PMID:15965818

  10. A case study of primary teachers' personal theories and understandings of standards-based science education reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieseman, Katherine Claire

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was: (1) to contribute to current understandings of teachers' perspectives of standards-based science education reform, and (2) to describe and document the relationships between the personal theories about science teaching and learning held by three "unique" experienced primary teachers and the teachers' understandings of a state-level standards-based vision of school science. These teachers were unique because they had been members of a two year-long district-level standards-based science curriculum reform initiative. This study was framed by the conception of personal theories as a representation of teacher beliefs. This qualitative case study extended from the summer of 1996 through the spring of 1998. Methods of data collection were: interviewing and informal conversations, participant observation, video and audio taping, generation of field notes, and examination of documents and artifacts. Data analysis involved constant comparison of data, generation of categories, description of properties of and relationships between categories, and theorizing about the data. The results of this qualitative case study revealed that, overall, direct involvement in the science curriculum reform effort was a positive and meaningful professional development experience providing opportunities for personal and professional growth. For two of the teachers, the experience signified a turning point in the history of their personal theories about science teaching and learning. Although the reform effort was philosophically grounded in a state-level standards-based vision of school science, implementing the new hands-on science program, adopted as a dimension of the work of the reform effort, was in the forefront of teachers' thoughts. A standards vision played a secondary role as a referrent for thinking about the teaching of science. The findings suggest that teachers' personal theories could act as mediating forces in teachers' endeavors to understand contemporary science education reform. Generally, the teachers felt that a standards vision complimented their personal theories. They agreed with reform ideas like coherent K-12 curriculum development based on a depth over breadth approach, emphasis of science as both a knowledge base and as inquiry, the teacher role as facilitator, and learners' active engagement in learning. The teachers also noted challenges for the future of standards-based science education reform, including: commitment by local and state authorities to systemic reform for a hands-on/minds-on science program, the practical feasibility of some reform ideas, and multiple interpretations of standards language.

  11. The Role of System Alignment in Care and Education of Children from Birth to Grade 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.; Yuan, Jing; Hu, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    The emerging concept of system alignment refers to how different systems in care and education of young children can be integrated to work together as a whole system that is more effective, efficient, and equitable to produce excellent outcomes in children. The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the existing literature on system

  12. 40 CFR 1036.620 - Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines...620 Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines. For model years 2014 through 2016, you may...

  13. Grading Congestion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students construct a model roadway with congestion and apply their knowledge of level of service (LOS) to assign a grade to the road conditions. The roadway is simply a track outlined with cones or ropes with a few students walking around it to mimic congestion. The remaining students employ both techniques of density and flow to classify the LOS of the track.

  14. USC VALID GRADE LEGEND Grade Description Value

    E-print Network

    Almor, Amit

    (Grade Point Average) Computed by dividing quality points by GPA hours Incomplete becomes "F" or "U GPA Hours Course hours used to compute GPA Quality Points Grade Hours multiplied by value of grade GPAUSC VALID GRADE LEGEND Grade Description Value NOTES ON GPA & GPD CALCULATIONS Attempted Hours

  15. Outcome of acute supratentorial cerebral infarction in patients under 60. Development of a prognostic grading system.

    PubMed

    Steiger, H J

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-five patients under the age of 60 were admitted to the Neurosurgical Department of the Inselspital with acute supratentorial ischaemic strokes between February 1985 and June 1990. The mean delay from the onset of the symptoms until emergency room admission was 10 hours. CT scan, Doppler sonography, and angiography were done routinely at the time of admission and CT was repeated 24 hours later. Initial treatment consisted of mannitol, low-molecular dextran and prednisolone. Intravenous nimodipine was added to the protocol in 1987. Intensive care including hyperventilation and intracranial pressure monitoring was instituted in cases of deteriorating level of consciousness and considerable oedema as visualized on the primary or repeat CT scan. Eight patients developing severe intracranial hypertension and/or unilateral mydriasis despite hyperventilation and osmotherapy underwent decompressive craniectomy. A total of 9 patients died in the acute stage, all but one due to a cerebral cause. At 6 months, only 6 patients were without significant neurological or neuropsychological deficits. Fourteen patients were moderately disabled and 6 were severely disabled. There were no vegetative survivors. A number of demographic, clinical and radiological variables were investigated for a possible prognostic significance. A grading scale was developed for each variable. Of the initial neurological deficits, degree of motor paralysis, gaze deviation, and decreased level of consciousness correlated with an unfavourable result. While the prognostic significance of each of these individual variables was only moderate, the combined score of these 3 variables correlated better with outcome (r = 0.62). More advanced age was found to correlate with a less favourable prognosis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1950691

  16. Grading the Systems: The Guide to State Standards, Tests, and Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Richard W., Ed.; Rebarber, Theodor, Ed.; Torres, Justin, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This project evaluated 30 state accountability systems, including each state's academic standards, assessments (in both reading and math and for elementary, middle, and high school), and the accountability policies that define success and failure and provide both positive and negative incentives for success. The 30 accountability systems evaluated…

  17. System Dynamics and Learner-Centered-Learning in Kindergarten through 12th Grade Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay W. Forrester

    1992-01-01

    Pre-college education is under attack for poorly serving the needs of society. Unless a superior concept for improving education emerges, public displeasure is apt to result in still more of what is already not working. But now, a fundamentally new and more effective approach to education is emerging from advances in system dynamics. System dynamics offers a framework for giving

  18. Using multiple edit distances to automatically grade outputs from Machine translation systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuhiro Akiba; Kenji Imamura; Eiichiro Sumita; Hiromi Nakaiwa; Shun'ichi Yamamoto; Hiroshi G. Okuno

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenging problem of automatically evaluating output from machine translation (MT) systems that are subsystems of speech-to-speech MT (SSMT) systems. Conventional automatic MT evaluation methods include BLEU, which MT researchers have frequently used. However, BLEU has two drawbacks in SSMT evaluation. First, BLEU assesses errors lightly at the beginning of translations and heavily in the middle, even

  19. Flat-plate solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The engineering design, fabrication, assembly, operation, economic analysis, and process support research and development for an Experimental Process System Development Unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using the slane-to-silicon process are reported. The design activity was completed. About 95% of purchased equipment was received. The draft of the operations manual was about 50% complete and the design of the free-space system continued. The system using silicon power transfer, melting, and shotting on a psuedocontinuous basis was demonstrated.

  20. Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Education 101: Exploration Begins Here [Grades 9-12

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    Presentation to inform the non-NASA general public and school children of ground systems development and operations activities at Kennedy Space Center, particularly on what GSDO is and does, in a high level overview.

  1. A Failing Grade for the German End-of-Life Vehicles Take-Back System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakajima, Nina; Vanderburg, Willem H.

    2005-01-01

    The German end-of-life vehicle take-back system is described and analyzed in terms of its impact on the environment and the car companies involved. It is concluded that although this system is often cited as an example of a successful take-back scheme, it is not one that maximizes the value recovered from end-of-life vehicles. As a result,…

  2. Removal of iron from industrial grade aluminum sulfate by primary amine extraction system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingyu Li; Zhimei He; Li Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The removal of iron from industrial aluminum sulfate by the primary amine extraction system composed of primary amine N-1923 as the extractant, n-octanol as the modifier and kerosene as the diluent was studied. The mechanism of removing iron by primary amine system was determined through slope analysis method and IR spectra. Also investigated were effects such as pH in aqueous

  3. Metastatic Potential Prediction by a Visual Grading System of Cell Motility: Prospective Validation in the Dunning R-3327 Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Model1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Mohler; Alan W. Partin; John T. Isaacs; Donald S. Coffey

    A method for accurate predictionof prognosis in individualpatients with prostatic carcinomadoes not exist. The limitations of pathological grading systems may result from the failure of standard pathological examinationof fixed dead tissue to accuratelyassess the biological and metastatic behavior of live tumor cells. Many of the sublines of the DunningR-3327 rat prostatic adenocarcinomaare histologically similar yet differ in metastatic potential. Cells

  4. The Impact of Birth Month, within Grade Levels, on Student Performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speziale, Kerry Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether chronological age differences among students in the same grade level affected their respective levels of academic performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics assessment. The study analyzed the additional independent variables of gender, socioeconomic status, and special education…

  5. Preparing Fifth Grade Student Media Volunteers To Correctly Reshelve Non-Fiction Books According to the Dewey Decimal System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stofsky, Irma Sue

    An excessive number of non-fiction books were shelved incorrectly in an elementary school media center where, due to budget cuts, the media specialist depended on fifth grade student volunteers for book shelving assistance. A 12-week training program was developed for the fifth grade media volunteers, who met once a week for 40 minutes. The…

  6. Design and Numerical Simulation of a Symbiotic Thermoelectric Power Generation System Fed by a Low-Grade Heat Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2014-06-01

    All liquid heating systems, including solar thermal collectors and fossil-fueled heaters, are designed to convert low-temperature liquid to high-temperature liquid. In the presence of low- and high-temperature fluids, temperature differences can be created across thermoelectric devices to produce electricity so that the heat dissipated from the hot side of a thermoelectric device will be absorbed by the cold liquid and this preheated liquid enters the heating cycle and increases the efficiency of the heater. Consequently, because of the avoidance of waste heat on the thermoelectric hot side, the efficiency of heat-to-electricity conversion with this configuration is better than that of conventional thermoelectric power generation systems. This research aims to design and analyze a thermoelectric power generation system based on the concept described above and using a low-grade heat source. This system may be used to generate electricity either in direct conjunction with any renewable energy source which produces hot water (solar thermal collectors) or using waste hot water from industry. The concept of this system is designated "ELEGANT," an acronym from "Efficient Liquid-based Electricity Generation Apparatus iNside Thermoelectrics." The first design of ELEGANT comprised three rectangular aluminum channels, used to conduct warm and cold fluids over the surfaces of several commercially available thermoelectric generator (TEG) modules sandwiched between the channels. In this study, an ELEGANT with 24 TEG modules, referred to as ELEGANT-24, has been designed. Twenty-four modules was the best match to the specific geometry of the proposed ELEGANT. The thermoelectric modules in ELEGANT-24 were electrically connected in series, and the maximum output power was modeled. A numerical model has been developed, which provides steady-state forecasts of the electrical output of ELEGANT-24 for different inlet fluid temperatures.

  7. Dimensions of Norm-Referenced Compulsory School Grades and Their Relative Importance for the Prediction of Upper Secondary School Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorsen, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Irrespective of the grading system, grades are the most valid instrument for predicting educational success. Previous studies have shown that criterion-referenced compulsory school grades are multidimensional, reflecting subject-specific dimensions and a common grade dimension, both of which contribute to the predictive validity of grades. This…

  8. SURLAS: a new clinical grade ultrasound system for sequential or concomitant thermoradiotherapy of superficial tumors: applicator description.

    PubMed

    Novák, Petr; Moros, Eduardo G; Straube, William L; Myerson, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    A new ultrasound applicator with three-dimensional power distribution control was developed for simultaneous thermoradiotherapy. The system was named SURLAS for Scanning Ultrasound Reflector Linear Arrays System. In this paper, the hardware of the first clinical grade SURLAS applicator is described with emphasis on clinically important static acoustic characteristics and on construction aspects not reported before. Functionally, the SURLAS applicator consists of two parallel opposed ultrasound linear arrays aiming their acoustic beams to a V-shape scanning ultrasound reflector, which deflects the beams coming from opposite directions toward the treatment area. The reciprocating motion of the reflector in-between the arrays spreads the ultrasonic energy over the target area scanned. Control of power deposition over the 16 cm by 16 cm treatment window area is achieved by adjusting the power input into the transducer elements of the arrays as a function of the position of the scanning reflector. Furthermore, the arrays operate at significantly different frequencies (1.9 and 4.9 MHz) so that intensity modulation of beams of different frequencies can be exploited to adjust the depth of energy penetration. With this design, external electron or photon beams can be concurrently delivered with hyperthermia by irradiating through the applicator's body. Safety features were implemented into the applicator's design to monitor its performance during operation. A detailed description of the applicator including impedance matching circuits/filters, radiation force balance power measurements, hydrophone pressure field distribution measurements, as well as safety test results are reported. PMID:15719974

  9. Applying open source data visualization tools to standard based medical data.

    PubMed

    Kopanitsa, Georgy; Taranik, Maxim

    2014-01-01

    Presentation of medical data in personal health records (PHRs) requires flexible platform independent tools to ensure easy access to the information. Different backgrounds of the patients, especially elder people require simple graphical presentation of the data. Data in PHRs can be collected from heterogeneous sources. Application of standard based medical data allows development of generic visualization methods. Focusing on the deployment of Open Source Tools, in this paper we applied Java Script libraries to create data presentations for standard based medical data. PMID:24851981

  10. System design considerations for a production-grade, ESR-based x-ray lithography beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Stephen; Melore, Dan; Cerrina, Franco; Cole, Richard K.

    1991-08-01

    As electron storage ring (ESR) based x-ray lithography technology moves closer to becoming an industrial reality, more and more attention has been devoted to studying problem areas related to its application in the production environment. A principle component is the x-ray lithography beamline (XLBL) and its associated design requirements. XLBL, an x-ray radiation transport system, is one of the three major subunits in the ESR-based x-ray lithography system (XLS) and has a pivotal role in defining performance characteristics of the entire XLS. Its major functions are to transport the synchrotron orbital radiation (SOR) to the lithography target area with defined efficiency and to modify SOR into the spectral distribution defined by the lithography process window. These functions must be performed reliably in order to satisfy the required high production rate and ensure 0.25 micron resolution lithography conditions. In this paper the authors attempt to answer some specific questions that arise during the formulation of an XLBL system design. Three principle issues that are essential to formulating a design are (1) Radiation transport efficiency, (2) X-ray optical configurations in the beamline, (3) Beamline system configurations. Some practical solutions to thee problem areas are presented, and the effects of these parameters on lithography production rate are examined.

  11. Integrative Food-Grade Expression System Based on the Lactose Regulon of Lactobacillus casei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Gosalbes; CARLOS DAVID ESTEBAN; JOSELUIS GALAN; GASPAR PEREZ-MARTINEZ

    2000-01-01

    The lactose operon from Lactobacillus casei is regulated by very tight glucose repression and substrate induction mechanisms, which made it a tempting candidate system for the expression of foreign genes or metabolic engineering. An integrative vector was constructed, allowing stable gene insertion in the chromo- somal lactose operon of L. casei. This vector was based on the nonreplicative plasmid pRV300

  12. THE FOOD INTAKE RECORDING SOFTWARE SYSTEM (FIRSST) IS VALID AMONG 4TH GRADE CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to assess how accurately the Food Intake Recording Software System (FIRSSt) enabled children to report what they ate the previous day as compared to a dietitian conducted diet recall; and to test the effects of several procedures on accuracy of dietary report. We u...

  13. Optical mode group division multiplexing (MGDM) system over graded index-multimode fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. S.; van den Boom, H. P. A.; Koonen, A. M. J.

    2010-12-01

    This paper experimentally demonstrates the feasibility of a 2 x 2 MIMO optical communication system based on mode group diversion multiplexing in the presence of strong mode crosstalk over 250m GI-MMF. The parallel signal detection and processing are realized through the use of PD array.

  14. Mechanisms & Other Systems. Stuff That Works! A Technology Curriculum for the Elementary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benenson, Gary

    This book focuses on devices and systems that transform motion or convert energy. Contents are divided into six chapters: (1) "Appetizers" includes activities that can be done individually to become familiar with the topic of machines and mechanisms; (2) "Concepts" provides a basis for machine and mechanism development; (3) "Activities" features…

  15. Using Case-Based Reasoning to Improve the Quality of Feedback Provided by Automated Grading Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrilov, Angelo; Noelle, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Information technology is now ubiquitous in higher education institutions worldwide. More than 85% of American universities use e-learning systems to supplement traditional classroom activities while some have started offering Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs), which are completely online. An obvious benefit of these online tools is their…

  16. TNM staging of foregut (neuro)endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Rindi; G. Klöppel; H. Alhman; M. Caplin; A. Couvelard; W. W. de Herder; B. Erikssson; A. Falchetti; M. Falconi; P. Komminoth; M. Körner; J. M. Lopes; A. M. McNicol; O. Nilsson; A. Perren; A. Scarpa; J. Y. Scoazec; B. Wiedenmann

    2006-01-01

    The need for standards in the management of patients with endocrine tumors of the digestive system prompted the European Neuroendocrine\\u000a Tumor Society (ENETS) to organize a first Consensus Conference, which was held in Frascati (Rome) and was based on the recently\\u000a published ENETS guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of digestive neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Here, we report the tumor–node–metastasis\\u000a proposal

  17. Improving Grading Consistency through Grade Lift Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millet, Ido

    2010-01-01

    We define Grade Lift as the difference between average class grade and average cumulative class GPA. This metric provides an assessment of how lenient the grading was for a given course. In 2006, we started providing faculty members individualized Grade Lift reports reflecting their position relative to an anonymously plotted school-wide…

  18. EconoGrid: A detailed Simulation Model of a Standards-based Grid Compute Economy

    E-print Network

    EconoGrid: A detailed Simulation Model of a Standards-based Grid Compute Economy EconoGrid is a detailed simulation model, implemented in SLX1 , of a grid compute economy that implements selected of users. In a grid compute economy, computing resources are sold to users in a market where price

  19. Successful Strategies for Implementation of a High School Standards-Based Integrated Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Math achievement for students in the United States is not as high as in other countries. In response, one state implemented a new standards-based, integrated math curriculum that combines traditional high school math courses and emphasizes student centered instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of a standards…

  20. Geography for Life and Standards-Based Education in the Commonwealth of Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howarth, David A.; Mountain, Keith R.

    2004-01-01

    Public education in Kentucky schools was fundamentally changed in 1990 with the passage of the Kentucky Education Reform Act (KERA). This educational reform--mandated by the Kentucky Supreme Court ruling that funding for Kentucky public school districts was neither adequate nor equitably distributed--established a platform on which standards-based

  1. The Social Organization of School Counseling in the Era of Standards-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorsey, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    The reform policies of standards-based accountability, as outlined in NCLB, impede the functioning of school counseling programs and the delivery of services to students. Although recent studies have focused on the transformation of the school counseling profession, a gap exists in the literature with regard to how the experiences of school…

  2. Towards Standards-based Interoperability across Volumetric Data Resources in the Virtual Physiological Human

    E-print Network

    Riera, Jesús Bisbal

    Towards Standards-based Interoperability across Volumetric Data Resources in the Virtual The Virtual Physiological Human [1] aims to provide a systematic framework for understanding physiological coordinate frame. These are overlaid with anatomy ontology markup (delineated anatomy) and can be navigated

  3. Validity and Fairness of State Standards-Based Assessments for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, John W.; Cho, Yeonsuk; Ling, Guangming; Cline, Fred; Steinberg, Jonathan; Stone, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    English language learners (ELLs) constitute one of the fastest growing subpopulations of students in the United States. It is important to determine whether the assessments used by states in determining students' proficiencies are valid and fair for ELLs. This study focused on several standards-based assessments in mathematics and science…

  4. Standards-Based Reforms in the United States of America: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Michael G.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to introduce readers to the main aspects of standards-based reforms in the United States of America. Content analyses of policy documents, reports of studies on education reforms, standards' documents and curriculum frameworks, and verbal communications from officials of education agencies provided the main sources of…

  5. The Substantive and Symbolic Consequences of a District's Standards-Based Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Rodney T.; Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Martinez-Flores, Marilyn; Scribner, Samantha Paredes

    2003-01-01

    Examined one school district's efforts to develop and implement a standards-based curriculum using rational and institutional perspectives. Findings show that the district took an expressly rationalistic approach in using standards, but lacking a clear instructional philosophy, the district also took an institutional approach. (SLD)

  6. 78 FR 65932 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Signage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ...OSH-2013-0005] RIN No. 1218-AC77 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards...Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Proposed...SUMMARY: With this notice, OSHA is withdrawing the proposed rule that...

  7. Tech-Know: Integrating Engaging Activities through Standards-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Taylor, Jerianne S.; Peterson, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    In August 2001, North Carolina State University received a four-year grant from the National Science Foundation to develop standards-based instructional materials for 20 Technology Student Association (TSA) activities. The TECH-know Project represents a significant collaboration between selected state departments, universities, businesses, and…

  8. Hyperleptinemia is associated with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obese human beings.

    PubMed

    Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Solís-Lozano, Lourdes; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; González-Chávez, Antonio; Béjar, Yadira L; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Escobedo, Galileo

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-?, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r = 0.4173), central obesity (r = 0.4678), and body fat percentage (r = 0.3583). Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-? (r = 0.6989), IL-12 (r = 0.3093), and IL-10 (r = -0.5691). Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r = 0.5227) and insulin (r = 0.2229), as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r = 0.3611) and circulating triglyceride (r = 0.4135). These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings. PMID:23986664

  9. Hyperleptinemia is associated with parameters of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obese human beings

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Solís-Lozano, Lourdes; Suárez-Álvarez, Karina; González-Chávez, Antonio; Béjar, Yadira L.; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Escobedo, Galileo

    2013-01-01

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone that has been involved in hypothalamic and systemic inflammation, altered food-intake patterns, and metabolic dysfunction in obese mice. However, it remains unclear whether leptin has a relationship with parameters of systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in humans. We thus evaluated in a cross-sectional study the circulating levels of leptin in 40 non-obese and 41 obese Mexican individuals, examining their relationship with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL) 12, IL-10, central obesity, serum glucose and insulin levels, and serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. Circulating levels of leptin, TNF-?, IL-12, IL-10, and insulin were measured by ELISA, while concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol were determined by enzymatic assays. As expected, serum levels of leptin exhibited a significant elevation in obese individuals as compared to non-obese subjects, showing a clear association with increased body mass index (r = 0.4173), central obesity (r = 0.4678), and body fat percentage (r = 0.3583). Furthermore, leptin also showed a strong relationship with serum TNF-? (r = 0.6989), IL-12 (r = 0.3093), and IL-10 (r = ?0.5691). Interestingly, leptin was also significantly related with high concentrations of fasting glucose (r = 0.5227) and insulin (r = 0.2229), as well as elevated levels of insulin resistance (r = 0.3611) and circulating triglyceride (r = 0.4135). These results suggest that hyperleptinemia is strongly associated with the occurrence of low-grade systemic inflammation and metabolic alteration in obese subjects. Further clinical research is still needed to determine whether hyperleptinemia may be a potential marker for recognizing the advent of obesity-related metabolic disorders in human beings. PMID:23986664

  10. Comprehensive review of post-liver resection surgical complications and a new universal classification and grading system

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Masayuki; Mizuguchi, Toru; Harada, Kohei; Ota, Shigenori; Meguro, Makoto; Ueki, Tomomi; Nishidate, Toshihiko; Okita, Kenji; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    Liver resection is the gold standard treatment for certain liver tumors such as hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic liver tumors. Some patients with such tumors already have reduced liver function due to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, or chemotherapy-associated steatohepatitis before surgery. Therefore, complications due to poor liver function are inevitable after liver resection. Although the mortality rate of liver resection has been reduced to a few percent in recent case series, its overall morbidity rate is reported to range from 4.1% to 47.7%. The large degree of variation in the post-liver resection morbidity rates reported in previous studies might be due to the lack of consensus regarding the definitions and classification of post-liver resection complications. The Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification of post-operative complications is widely accepted internationally. However, it is hard to apply to some major post-liver resection complications because the consensus definitions and grading systems for post-hepatectomy liver failure and bile leakage established by the International Study Group of Liver Surgery are incompatible with the CD classification. Therefore, a unified classification of post-liver resection complications has to be established to allow comparisons between academic reports. PMID:25349645

  11. Crosstalk between intestinal microbiota, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as an early event in systemic low-grade inflammation and the development of obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bleau, Christian; Karelis, Antony D; St-Pierre, David H; Lamontagne, Lucie

    2014-10-28

    Obesity is associated with a systemic chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to the development of metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. However, the etiology of this obesity-related pro-inflammatory process remains unclear. Most studies have focused on adipose tissue dysfunctions and/or insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells as well as changes in adipokine profile and macrophage recruitment as potential sources of inflammation. However, low-grade systemic inflammation probably involves a complex network of signals interconnecting several organs. Recent evidences have suggested that disturbances in the composition of the gut microbial flora and alterations in levels of gut peptides following the ingestion of a high-fat diet may be a cause of low-grade systemic inflammation that may even precede and predispose to obesity, metabolic disorders or type 2 diabetes. This hypothesis is appealing because the gastrointestinal system is first exposed to nutrients and may thereby represent the first link in the chain of events leading to the development of obesity-associated systemic inflammation. Therefore, the present review will summarize the latest advances interconnecting intestinal mucosal bacteria-mediated inflammation, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in a coordinated circuitry favouring the onset of a high-fat diet-related systemic low-grade inflammation preceding obesity and predisposing to metabolic disorders and/or type 2 diabetes. A particular emphasis will be given to high-fat diet-induced alterations of gut homeostasis as an early initiator event of mucosal inflammation and adverse consequences contributing to the promotion of extended systemic inflammation, especially in adipose and muscular tissues. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25352002

  12. The backwash effect on SQL skills grading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Coleman Prior; Raymond Lister

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of grading approaches for SQL query formulation on students' learning strategies. The way that students are graded in a subject has a significant impact on their learning approach, and it is crucial that graded tasks are carefully designed and implemented to inculcate a deep learning experience. An online examination system is described and evaluated.

  13. Educational Product Educators Grades 58

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Educational Product Educators Grades 5­8 WEATHER Investigating the Climate System WEATHER Global. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Global Awareness Tour: Plan a Concert Tour Daily Weather WEATHERWEATHERGlobal Awareness Tour Authored by: Dr. Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Arlington,Virginia John

  14. Institution Credits Grade

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    Institution Foreign Credits ECTS Credits US Credits Grade Grade Conversion University of Neveda - Reno US credits and grades Study Abroad Conversion USAC #12;(Agrentina) Institution Foreign Credits ECTS Credits US Credits Grade Grade Conversion Universidad Catolica Agrentina 4 4.2 10 - Sobresaliente

  15. 78 FR 33146 - Importance of Clear Safety Procedures for Temporary Removal From Service of Highway-Rail Grade...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ...Grade Crossing Warning Systems and Wayside Signal Systems AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...grade crossing warning systems and wayside signal systems are temporarily removed from service...grade crossing warning systems and wayside signal systems in Safety Advisory...

  16. Low cost solar array project: Experimental process system development unit for producing semiconductor-grade silicon using silane-to-silicon process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and installation of an experimental process system development unit (EPSDU) were analyzed. Supporting research and development were performed to provide an information data base usable for the EPSDU and for technological design and economical analysis for potential scale-up of the process. Iterative economic analyses were conducted for the estimated product cost for the production of semiconductor grade silicon in a facility capable of producing 1000-MT/Yr.

  17. Increasing On-Task Behavior in Every Student in a Second-Grade Classroom during Transitions: Validating the Color Wheel System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fudge, Daniel L.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Williams, Jacqueline L.; Cowden, Dan; Clark, Janice; Bliss, Stacy L.

    2008-01-01

    A single-case (B-C-B-C) experimental design was used to evaluate the effects of the Color Wheel classroom management system (CWS) on on-task (OT) behavior in an intact, general-education, 2nd-grade classroom during transitions. The CWS included three sets of rules, posted cues to indicate the rules students are expected to be following at that…

  18. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to- air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Kamachi Mudali; H. S. Khatak; R. K. Dayal; J. B. Gnanamoorthy

    1993-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800,9Cr-lMo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated

  19. IEEE 802.22: the first worldwide wireless standard based on cognitive radios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Cordeiro; Kiran Challapali; Dagnachew Birru; N. Sai Shankar

    2005-01-01

    In November\\/2004, we witnessed the formation of the first worldwide effort to define a novel wireless air interface standard based on cognitive radios (CRs): the IEEE 802.22 working group (WG). The IEEE 802.22 WG is chartered with the development of a CR-based wireless regional area network (WRAN) physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers for use by license-exempt devices

  20. IEEE 802.22: An Introduction to the First Wireless Standard based on Cognitive Radios

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos De M. Cordeiro; Kiran S. Challapali; Dagnachew Birru

    2006-01-01

    In November\\/2004, we witnessed the formation of the first worldwide effort to define a novel wireless air interface (i.e., MAC and PHY) standard based on Cognitive Radios (CRs): the IEEE 802.22 Working Group (WG). The IEEE 802.22 WG is chartered with the development of a CR-based Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) Physical (PHY) and Medium Access Control (MAC) layers for

  1. An IEEE 1451.5–802.11 standard-based wireless sensor network with embedded WTIM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene Y. Song; Kang B. Lee; Steven E. Fick; Alkan M. Donmez

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a reference implementation of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1451.5-802.11 standard-based wireless sensor network (WSN) developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The WSN consists of a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP) and two Wireless Transducer Interface Modules (WTIM). The NCAP, a gateway node of the WSN, was developed on a

  2. Big Isn't Always Bad: School District Size, Poverty, and Standards-Based Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannaway, Jane; Kimball, Kristi

    This paper reports results of the first systematic analysis of the progress of standards-based reform in U.S. school districts. Using data from a recent national survey of school districts (n=2,700) and a companion national survey of schools (n=1,177), it is found that not only do districts appear to play an important role, bigger districts appear…

  3. Deciding Who Decides Questions at the Intersection of School Finance Reform Litigation and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael

    2009-01-01

    Courts hearing school finance reform cases have recently begun to consider several issues related to standards-based accountability policies. This convergence of school finance reform litigation and standards-based accountability policies represents a chance for the courts to reallocate decision-making authority for each type of reform across the…

  4. 40 CFR 1036.620 - Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...1036.620 Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...to all applicable emission standards in model year 2011. If the...

  5. 40 CFR 1036.620 - Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...1036.620 Alternate CO2 standards based on model year 2011 compression-ignition...to all applicable emission standards in model year 2011. If the...

  6. Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Patients with Hunt and Hess Grade 4 or 5: Treatment Using the Guglielmi Detachable Coil System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond U. Weir; Mary L. Marcellus; Huy M. Do; Gary K. Steinberg; Michael P. Marks

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients in poor clinical condition (Hunt and Hess grade 4 or 5) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have historically fared poorly and many often were excluded from aggressive treatment. Early aggressive surgical treatment of SAH can produce good-quality survival for a higher percentage of patients than previously reported. We assessed the outcome of patients with Hunt and Hess

  7. A Study of Two Approaches to the Teaching of Spelling in the Seventh Grade of a Bicultural School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemm, James F.

    This study attempted to determine the relative effectiveness of the conventional teacher-directed approach to spelling instruction when compared to a self-directed student-centered approach for 7th-grade students, many of whom spoke Spanish. Spelling achievement was measured by two forms of the same test, while language I. Q., non-language I. Q.,…

  8. Class-Size Effects in School Systems around the World: Evidence from Between-Grade Variation in TIMSS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger; West, Martin R.

    Using the international database of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), this study estimated the effect of class size on student performance in 18 countries, combining school fixed effects and instrumental variables to identify random class-size variation between 2 adjacent grades within individual schools. Conventional…

  9. Method and system using power modulation for maskless vapor deposition of spatially graded thin film and multilayer coatings with atomic-level precision and accuracy

    DOEpatents

    Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA); Folta, James Allen (Livermore, CA); Tan, Swie-In (San Jose, CA); Reiss, Ira (New City, NY)

    2002-07-30

    A method and system for producing a film (preferably a thin film with highly uniform or highly accurate custom graded thickness) on a flat or graded substrate (such as concave or convex optics), by sweeping the substrate across a vapor deposition source operated with time-varying flux distribution. In preferred embodiments, the source is operated with time-varying power applied thereto during each sweep of the substrate to achieve the time-varying flux distribution as a function of time. A user selects a source flux modulation recipe for achieving a predetermined desired thickness profile of the deposited film. The method relies on precise modulation of the deposition flux to which a substrate is exposed to provide a desired coating thickness distribution.

  10. Third Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for third grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, third grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  11. Fifth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fifth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fifth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  12. Second Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for second grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, second grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  13. Fourth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for fourth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, fourth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  14. First Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for first grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, first grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  15. Sixth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for sixth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, sixth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  16. Seventh Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for seventh grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, seventh grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  17. Eighth Grade Level Science Sample Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents a sample of the Arkansas science curriculum and identifies the content standards for physical science systems, life science systems, and Earth science/space science systems for eighth grade students. Each content standard is explained and includes student learning expectations, eighth grade benchmarks, assessments, and…

  18. Is the Sky Falling? Grade Inflation and the Signaling Power of Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pattison, Evangeleen; Grodsky, Eric; Muller, Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Grades are the fundamental currency of our educational system; they signal academic achievement and noncognitive skills to parents, employers, postsecondary gatekeepers, and students themselves. Grade inflation compromises the signaling value of grades and undermines their capacity to achieve the functions for which they are intended. We challenge…

  19. The Effect of Pressure on the Combustion Synthesis of a Functionally-Graded Material: TiB 2 Al 2 O 3 Al Ceramic Metal Composite System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Feng; J. J. Moore

    1993-01-01

    This article describes some recent research on the synthesis of functionally-graded materials (FGM using combustion synthesis\\u000a or self- propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). A model ceramic-metal SHS system was investigated based on the reaction\\u000a system: 3TiO2 + 3B2O3 + (10 + x)Al = 3TiB2 + 5Al2O2 + xAl in which x was varied between 0 and 17 to achieve the required

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

    2005-02-01

    This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length and depth could be determined for deep enough cracks. Defect shadow and short length effects were apparent but may be taken into account. The SH0 scan was done with the mule prototype circuits and permanent magnet EMATs. These gave good enough results that this hardware and the processing techniques are very encouraging for use in a practical ILI tool.

  1. 7 CFR 810.105 - Grades and grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements. 810.105 Section 810.105 Agriculture...UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations §...

  2. 7 CFR 810.105 - Grades and grade requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements. 810.105 Section 810.105 Agriculture...UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations §...

  3. Analysis of a grading system to assess the quality of small-bowel preparation for capsule endoscopy: in search of the Holy Grail

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Jatinder; Goel, Anshum; McGwin, Gerald; Weber, Frederick

    2014-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy is vulnerable to inadequate visualization related to residual bile or chyme remaining in the lumen despite intestinal lavage. It has been challenging to determine the optimal lavage preparation of the bowel and patient diet before capsule endoscopy, as well as the timing of the procedure, because no well-accepted, validated grading system for assessing the quality of intestinal lavage before capsule endoscopy is available. There remains no consensus on the reliability of qualitative, quantitative, or computer-derived assessments of the quality of preparation for capsule endoscopy. This study evaluates intra-observer and interobserver agreement for a previously validated scale. Materials and methods: The digital images of 34 patients who underwent capsule endoscopy were independently reviewed by two blinded physicians according to a previously validated grading scale. One of the physicians reviewed and graded the patients a second time. The quality of the bowel luminal preparation was assessed with a qualitative parameter (fluid transparency) and a more quantitative parameter (mucosal invisibility) for each of three small-intestinal segments, and an overall small-bowel score for each parameter was assigned as well. A weighted kappa coefficient was used to calculate intra-observer (observer 1A and 1B) and interobserver (observer 1A and observer 2) agreement. A kappa value of 0.60 or more suggests strong agreement, 0.40 to 0.60 moderate agreement, and less than 0.40 poor agreement. Results: The intra-observer weighted kappa index for both fluid transparency and mucosal visibility was 0.52, which is consistent with moderate agreement. The interobserver weighted kappa indices for fluid transparency and mucosal invisibility were 0.29 and 0.42, respectively, demonstrating suboptimal interobserver agreement. The individual segment interobserver kappa indices were better for mucosal visibility (0.52, 0.39, and 0.47 for small-bowel segments 1, 2, and 3, respectively) than for fluid transparency (0.18, 0.38, and 0.31). Conclusions: The proposed grading scale for assessing the quality of preparation for capsule endoscopy has inadequate interobserver and intra-observer agreement. Capsule endoscopy preparation grading scales that focus more on quantitative than on qualitative assessment may demonstrate more reliable performance characteristics. Optimizing the quality of preparation and diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy will first require the development of a well-validated grading scale.

  4. Performance investigation of a hospital-grade x-ray tube-based differential phase-contrast cone beam CT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Ning, Ruola; Cai, Weixing; Liu, Jiangkun; Conover, David

    2012-03-01

    Differential phase contrast technique could be the next breakthrough in the field of CT imaging. While traditional absorption-based X-ray CT imaging is inefficient at differentiating soft tissues, phase-contrast technique offers great advantage as being able to produce higher contrast images utilizing the phase information of objects. Our long term goal is to develop a gantry-based hospital-grade X-ray tube differential phase contrast cone-beam CT (DPC-CBCT) technology which is able to achieve higher contrast noise ratio (CNR) in soft tissue imaging without increasing the dose level. Based on the micro-focus system built last year, a bench-top hospital-grade X-ray tube DPC-CBCT system is designed and constructed. The DPC-CBCT system consists of an X-ray source, i.e. a hospital-grade X-ray tube and a source grating, a high-resolution detector, a rotating phantom holder, a phase grating and an analyzer grating. Threedimensional (3-D) phase-coefficients are reconstructed, providing us with images enjoying higher CNR than, yet equivalent dose level to, a conventional CBCT scan. Three important aspects of the system are investigated: a) The The system's performance in term of CNR of the reconstruction image with regard to dose levels, b) the impacts of different phase stepping schemes, i.e. 5 steps to 8 steps, in term of CNR on the reconstruction images, and c) the influence of magnification or position of the phantom on image quality, chiefly CNR. The investigations are accomplished via phantom study.

  5. Graded zooming

    DOEpatents

    Coffland, Douglas R. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-04-25

    A system for increasing the resolution in the far field resolution of video or still frame images, while maintaining full coverage in the near field. The system includes a camera connected to a computer. The computer applies a specific zooming scale factor to each of line of pixels and continuously increases the scale factor of the line of pixels from the bottom to the top to capture the scene in the near field, yet maintain resolution in the scene in the far field.

  6. The formation of high-grade ignimbrites, I: Experiments on high- and low-concentration transport systems containing sticky particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin Freundt

    1998-01-01

    High-grade ignimbrites are thought to be deposited by pyroclastic flows at temperatures exceeding minimum welding temperature\\u000a or even solidus temperature. Corresponding pyroclastic-flow particles range from plastic to partially liquid and are able\\u000a to aggregate or coalesce. This contrasts with particles in pyroclastic flows producing unwelded ignimbrite, which are capable\\u000a of elastic grain interactions. The low aspect ratio and great areal

  7. Standards-based publication and sharing of time series information in the DRIHM project: a EU-US collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, Richard; Zaslavsky, Ilya; Parodi, Antonio; Gochis, David; Jha, Shantenu; Whitenack, Thomas; Valentine, David; Caumont, Olivier; Dekic, Ljiljana; Ivkovic, Marija; Molini, Luca; Bedrina, Tatiana; Gijsbers, Peter J. A.; de Rooij, Erik; Rebora, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    To enable a plug-and-play infrastructure, the European DRIHM (Distributed Research Infrastructure for Hydro-Meteorology) project aims to develop a comprehensive data publication and sharing system presenting uniform standards-based data discovery and access interfaces for hydrometeorological data collected by DRIHM partners in several European countries. This is a challenging task due to heterogeneity in types of data being collected and organized for modeling, and different semantic and structural conventions adopted by different data publishers. To meet this goal, the DRIHM project, and its DRIHM2US extension, collaborates with the recently funded US SCIHM (Standards-based Cyberinfrastructure for HydroMeteorology) project to develop a data sharing infrastructure for time series information. We report initial results of the application of the data integrating technologies developed by the NSF-funded CUAHSI HIS (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Data, Inc., Hydrologic Information System) project, to information collected within DRIHM. The CUAHSI HIS system has been widely used in the US; it provides access to about a hundred water data collections that can be queried via uniform web services. The DRIHM partners initially implementing the system, include the CIMA Research Foundation (Italy), the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and the Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. The collected time series information was ingested into CUAHSI Observations Data Model databases, and water data services were created for each of the partners. At the time of writing, the water data services include SOAP and REST endpoints that provide access to the time series in WaterML 1 and WaterML 2.0 formats. The former encoding, developed by CUAHSI HIS, has been adopted by a number of federal agencies and research groups in the US, while the latter, created by an international group of experts under the aegis of the Hydrology Domain Working Group of the Open Geospatial Consortium and the World Meteorological Organization, has been recently adopted as an international standard for exchanging hydrologic data. The services are registered at the central catalog, which supports discovery of time series based on their spatio-temporal characteristics and on variable semantics. The semantics of the measurements is aligned , in the process of publication and service registration, with a set of centrally managed controlled vocabularies and a parameter vocabulary. Data from multiple collections can be discovered, accessed, visualized and analyzed using CUAHSI HydroDesktop software, or other clients that support water data service interfaces. While HydroDesktop relies on WaterML 1 format, the Delft FEWS system, maintained by a DRIHM partner Deltares, is already capable of ingesting WaterML 2.0 services, which enables interfacing WaterML 2.0-formatted streams with forecast models. Development of a consistent data sharing system is one of the first steps in realizing DRIHM objectives. Next steps include further integration of water data services with simulation models, WRF and WRF-Hydro in particular, and integrating point time series with gridded information to be used as model input. We discuss these additional steps and associated challenges, and demonstrate the complementarity and benefits of US-EU collaboration in the development of global standards-based infrastructure for hydrometeorological data.

  8. Terahertz frequency standard based on three-photon coherent population trapping

    E-print Network

    Caroline Champenois; Gaetan Hagel; Marie Houssin; Martina Knoop; Cedric Zumsteg; Fernande Vedel

    2007-05-24

    A scheme for a THz frequency standard based on three-photon coherent population trapping in stored ions is proposed. Assuming the propagation directions of the three lasers obey the phase matching condition, we show that stability of few 10$^{-14}$ at one second can be reached with a precision limited by power broadening to $10^{-11}$ in the less favorable case. The referenced THz signal can be propagated over long distances, the useful information being carried by the relative frequency of the three optical photons.

  9. aDORe: A Modular, Standards-Based Digital Object Repository

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Van De Sompel; Jeroen Bekaert; Xiaoming Liu; Lyudmila Balakireva; Thorsten Schwander

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the aDORe repository architecture, designed and\\u000aimplemented for ingesting, storing, and accessing a vast collection of Digital\\u000aObjects at the Research Library of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The\\u000aaDORe architecture is highly modular and standards-based. In the architecture,\\u000athe MPEG-21 Digital Item Declaration Language is used as the XML-based format\\u000ato represent Digital Objects that can

  10. Automatic Grading of Spreadsheet and Database Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacic, Zlatko J.; Green, John Steven

    2012-01-01

    Growing enrollment in distance education has increased student-to-lecturer ratios and, therefore, increased the workload of the lecturer. This growing enrollment has resulted in mounting efforts to develop automatic grading systems in an effort to reduce this workload. While research in the design and development of automatic grading systems has a…

  11. Economics of Grade Reduction

    E-print Network

    Neff, Paul J.

    1914-02-10

    of locomotives changed so rapidly after 1035 that a design was almost obsolete before it could be turned out of the shop. The development was so rapid that a suddent reversion from the level grade line rail- road was the result, 'or it was found... of the engineer in 1906, and prescribed the manner in which rail- road accounting should be done. It is true however, and a credit to the earlier investigators, that they had been able to arrive very closely at the cost of operation, even though the system...

  12. Effect of Digital Game Based Learning on Ninth Grade Students' Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swearingen, Dixie K.

    2011-01-01

    This experimental study examined the effect of an educational massive multiplayer online game (MMOG) on achievement on a standards-based mathematics exam. It also examined the interaction of student characteristics (gender and socioeconomic status) with digital game play on mathematics achievement. Two hundred eighty ninth grade students from a…

  13. Should Grade Retention Decisions Be Indicators-Based or Model-Driven? CSE Technical Report 716

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jia; Wang, Haiwen

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates a large urban district's standards-based promotion policy decisions against a model-driven classification. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to explore factors related to grade retention at both the student and school level. Statistical results indicate that using students' next year achievement test scores as…

  14. The impact of classroom organization in grade 4 on student achievement in science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Francis Duncanson

    2003-01-01

    While qualitative studies of teacher perceptions of classroom organization have been performed, quantitative studies linked to standards-based assessments are noticeably absent. Two questions guided the research: What is the impact of classroom layout in grade 4 on student achievement in science? How does space use change in a classroom when the furniture is reorganized? The study was conducted in five

  15. Grading in soft tissue tumors: principles and problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andre M. Oliveira; Antonio G. Nascimento

    2001-01-01

    . Histologic grading has been considered the most important prognostic factor for soft tissue sarcomas. Several grading systems have been proposed based on the assessment of morphologic features in heterogeneous groups of sarcomas. Currently, the French Federation of Cancer Centers (FNCLCC) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) grading systems are the most commonly used. These systems are based on a

  16. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to- air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Kamachi Mudali; H. S. Khatak; R. K. Dayal; J. B. Gnanamoorthy

    1993-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction\\u000a of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800,9Cr-lMo\\u000a steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion\\u000a cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated

  17. Localized corrosion studies on materials proposed for a safety-grade sodium-to- air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamachi Mudali, U.; Khatak, H. S.; Dayal, R. K.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.

    1993-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to assess the localized corrosion resistance of materials proposed for the construction of the safety-grade sodium-to-air decay-heat removal system for fast breeder reactors. The materials, such as Alloy 800,9Cr-lMo steel, and type 316LN stainless steel, in different microstructural conditions were assessed for pitting and stress-corrosion cracking resistances in a chloride medium. The results indicated that 9Cr-lMo steel in the normalized and tempered condition can be considered for the above application from the standpoint of corrosion resistance.

  18. Department and Grade Level Chairs Grade Level Chairs

    E-print Network

    Scherer, Norbert F.

    Johnson 2nd grade: Kathy Piane 3rd grade: Jessica Palumbo 4th grade: Sandy Cortez Middle School 5th grade7/25/2011 Department and Grade Level Chairs 2011­2012 Grade Level Chairs Nursery & Kindergarten Blaine: Elizabeth Roche Woodlawn: Maureen Campbell Kindergarten: Delores Rita Lower School 1st grade: Eli

  19. Faculty/Staff Perceptions of a Standards-Based Exit Portfolio System for Graduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tena L.; Bailey, Rita L.

    2006-01-01

    New standards for certification were recently developed for speech-language pathology graduate training programs by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. The new standards are outcomes-based rather than process-based. Using a collective case study approach, this article highlights the perceptions of faculty and staff regarding use of a…

  20. Implementation of a standards-based management system at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Sandstrom; D. Harbur

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has issued numerous regulations, directives, and notices that affect the operation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) site. In addition, LANL must comply with regulations and requirements from other federal, state, and local agencies. The number of requirements and the receipt of these requirements from many sources have caused fragmented, incomplete, and in

  1. Building standards based COTS multiprocessor computer systems for space around a high speed serial bus network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Marshall

    1998-01-01

    Discusses higher performance processing requirements where as many as a dozen RAD6000s would work together to perform payload processing and other onboard processing tasks on a satellite. This work led to an alternate subsystem architecture to the common parallel bus used to interconnect elements in a typical subsystem. After an comprehensive trade study, a multiplexed set of serial busses based

  2. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  3. High-level expression of Lactobacillus beta-galactosidases in Lactococcus lactis using the food-grade, nisin-controlled expression system NICE.

    PubMed

    Maischberger, Thomas; Mierau, Igor; Peterbauer, Clemens K; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Haltrich, Dietmar

    2010-02-24

    In this work the overlapping genes (lacL and lacM) encoding heterodimeric beta-galactosidases from Lactobacillus reuteri , Lb. acidophilus , Lb. sakei , and Lb. plantarum were cloned into two different nisin-controlled expression (NICE) vectors and expressed using Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 and NZ3900 as hosts. The lacL gene, encoding the large subunit of the beta-galactosidases, was fused translationally downstream of the nisin-inducible promoter nisA. Chloramphenicol was employed as selection marker for the standard system using L. lactis NZ9000, whereas lactose utilization based on the complementation of the lacF gene was used as a dominant selection marker for the food-grade system employing L. lactis NZ3900. Comparison of the standard and the food-grade expression system, differing only in their selection markers, gave considerable differences in volumetric beta-galactosidase activity, ranging from 1.17 to 14 kU/L of fermentation broth, depending on both the origin of the lacLM genes and the selection marker used. The occurrence of codons less frequently used by L. lactis especially at the beginning of the lacL gene could be an explanation for the significant differences between the expression levels of lacLM from different origins, while plasmid stability might cause the difference obtained when employing the different selection markers. PMID:20092320

  4. Changes in the aromatic profile of espresso coffee as a function of the grinding grade and extraction time: a study by the electronic nose system.

    PubMed

    Severini, C; Ricci, I; Marone, M; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2015-03-01

    The changes in chemical attributes and aromatic profile of espresso coffee (EC) were studied taking into account the extraction time and grinding level as independent variables. Particularly, using an electronic nose system, the changes of the global aromatic profile of EC were highlighted. The results shown as the major amounts of organic acids, solids, and caffeine were extracted in the first 8 s of percolation. The grinding grade significantly affected the quality of EC probably as an effect of the particle size distribution and the percolation pathways of water through the coffee cake. The use of an electronic nose system allowed us to discriminate the fractions of the brew as a function of the percolation time and also the regular coffee obtained from different grinding grades. Particularly, the aromatic profile of a regular coffee (25 mL) was significantly affected by the grinding level of the coffee grounds and percolation time, which are two variables under the control of the bar operator. PMID:25665600

  5. Grading and Student Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, David S.

    In the Spring of 1968, a joint study group called an Ad Hoc Committee on Grades and Evaluation was created to examine current methods of student evaluation. Several members of the group believed that letter grading on the undergraduate and graduate levels was counterproductive, because grades do not accurately reflect either student performance or…

  6. My Math Grade (percents)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-01

    Students work to calculate their own grades in the class. Students will want to keep all of their returned work so that they have access to the grades they received on tests, homework, etc (a study skill they should likely develop anyway), or if grades are on blackboard they can quickly retrieve their scores.

  7. General Graded Response Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samejima, Fumiko

    This paper describes the graded response model. The graded response model represents a family of mathematical models that deal with ordered polytomous categories, such as: (1) letter grading; (2) an attitude survey with "strongly disagree, disagree, agree, and strongly agree" choices; (3) partial credit given in accord with an individual's degree…

  8. Making the Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgren, Sally

    2000-01-01

    Explains the importance of choosing wood flooring for athletic facilities and why the grade of wood specified can significantly impact sports-facility aesthetics. The three types of wood grades are explained along with thoughts on why choosing the priciest grade may not be satisfactory. (GR)

  9. Bias in Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John

    2008-01-01

    Bias in grading can be conscious or unconscious. The author describes different types of bias, such as those based on student attractiveness or performance in prior courses, and a variety of methods of reducing bias, including keeping students anonymous during grading and using detailed criteria for subjective grading.

  10. The Effects of Framing Grades on Student Learning and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bies-Hernandez, Nicole J.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments examined whether framing effects, in terms of losses and gains, can be extended to student learning and grading preferences. In Experiment 1, participants rated psychology course syllabi to investigate preferences for differently framed grading systems: a loss versus gain grading system. The results showed a clear framing effect…

  11. The Effect of Pressure on the Combustion Synthesis of a Functionally-Graded Material: TiB2-Al2O3-Al Ceramic- Metal Composite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, H. J.; Moore, J. J.

    1993-10-01

    This article describes some recent research on the synthesis of functionally-graded materials (FGM using combustion synthesis or self- propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). A model ceramic-metal SHS system was investigated based on the reaction system: 3TiO2 + 3B2O3 + (10 + x)Al = 3TiB2 + 5Al2O2 + xAl in which x was varied between 0 and 17 to achieve the required composition and phase gradients in the FGM. The effects of combustion mode, reactant stoichiometry (xAl), green density, and applied loads on the stability of the SHS reaction and density of the FGM product are described.

  12. Passive atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping in {sup 87}Rb using injection-locked lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Han Seb; Park, Sang Eon; Park, Young-Ho; Lee, Lim; Kim, Jung Bog [Department of Physics, National University, 30 Jangjun-Dong, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics Education, Korea National University of Education, Chung-buk, 363-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-11-15

    We present a microwave frequency standard based on coherent population trapping (CPT) in the {sup 87}Rb D{sub 1} line. The CPT spectrum is obtained using two Raman lasers with a 6.8 GHz frequency offset by injection locking of a master laser to a slave laser. We have constructed an atomic clock employing a 5 cm long Rb vapor cell confined with 6.67 kPa neon buffer gas at 70 degree sign C. Using this system, we improve the CPT contrast through the elimination of undesired off-resonant fields created by the direct modulation method. We measured the frequency shift of the CPT signal as a function of the temperature of the Rb cell and estimated it to be approximately 1.3x10{sup -9}/K. The frequency of a 10 MHz crystal oscillator has been stabilized to the CPT spectrum between the two ground states in {sup 87}Rb. The relative frequency stability is approximately 2.3x10{sup -12} for an average time of 68 s.

  13. Grading meat quality by image processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhiko Shiranita; Kenichiro Hayashi; Akifumi Otsubo; Tsuneharu Miyajima; Ryuzo Takiyama

    2000-01-01

    We study the implementation of a meat-quality grading system, using the concept of the “marbling score”, as well as image processing, neural network techniques and multiple regression analysis. The marbling score is a measure of the distribution density of fat in the rib-eye region. We identify five features used for grading meat images. For the evaluation of the five features,

  14. Title Specialized Grading Policies Category Exams and Grades

    E-print Network

    Zhuang, Yu

    and may be awarded a grade of "WF," which will affect their grade point averages. "W" Grades. Students fails a course, the grade received is calculated into the student's average in the usual manner will not be computed into the student's final cumulative grade average, but the grade will be used to compute

  15. Student and Faculty Perceptions of Plus/Minus Grading and Its Effect on Course Grade Point Averages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, Leslie D.; Johnson, Donald M.; Graham, Donna L.; Dixon, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    In fall 2005, the Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences at the University of Arkansas authorized the optional use of a plus/minus grading system. Since 2005, approximately one-half of courses have been graded using plus/minus and one-half using the straight letter grade system. This study examined student (n = 338) and…

  16. Evaluation and improvement of optical-grade LiTaO3 single crystals by the LFB ultrasonic material characterization system.

    PubMed

    Kushibiki, Jun-ichi; Ohashi, Yuji; Ono, Yuu; Sasamata, Takeji

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the first demonstration for feeding back the results obtained by the line-focus-beam ultrasonic material characterization (LFB-UMC) system to the crystal growth conditions for optical-grade LiTaO3 crystals and for achieving much improved homogeneity of chemical composition. We evaluated a commercially available optical-grade LiTaO3 single crystal with a nominally congruent composition in detail, by measuring distributions of the velocities of leaky surface acoustic waves (LSAW) along the Y-axis direction for a Z-cut specimen plate prepared from the crystal grown in the Y-axis direction. We detected an increment of 0.66 m/s in LSAW velocity along the pulling axis direction corresponding to 0.024 mol% in Li2O content, and the compositional gradient was +0.346 x 10(-3) (Li2O-mol%)/mm. By experimentally obtaining the starting material composition dependence of the gradients, we developed a method of estimating the proper composition ratio that would lead to a more homogeneous crystal. We grew a new crystal with a Li2O content of 48.47 mol%, resulting in a very small compositional gradient of +0.046 x 10(-3) (Li2O-mol%)/mm and a compositional homogeneity of less than 0.012 Li2O-mol% in a Z-cut area of 50 mm x 50 mm used for device substrates. PMID:12152944

  17. Aggressive local therapy combined with systemic chemotherapy provides long-term control in grade II stage 2 canine mast cell tumour: 21 cases (1999-2012)(*)

    PubMed

    Lejeune, A; Skorupski, K; Frazier, S; Vanhaezebrouck, I; Rebhun, R B; Reilly, C M; Rodriguez, C O

    2013-05-31

    This retrospective case series evaluates the outcome of 21 dogs with grade II stage 2 mast cell tumour (MCT) treated with adequate local therapy and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy (prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU). The median survival for all dogs was 1359?days (range, 188-2340). Median disease-free interval was 2120?days (149-2325?days). Dogs treated with surgery and chemotherapy had shorter survival (median, 1103?days; 188-2010?days) than those that underwent surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy as part of their treatment (median, 2056?days; 300-2340?days). Two patients had local recurrence in the radiation field and four patients had de novo MCT. Distant metastasis was not observed in any dogs. The results of this study suggest that, in the presence of loco-regional lymph node metastasis in grade II MCT, the use of prednisone, vinblastine and CCNU after adequate local-regional therapy can provide a median survival in excess of 40?months. PMID:23721492

  18. Establishing an appropriate mode of comparison for measuring the performance of marbling score output from video image analysis beef carcass grading systems.

    PubMed

    Moore, C B; Bass, P D; Green, M D; Chapman, P L; O'Connor, M E; Yates, L D; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C; Belk, K E

    2010-07-01

    A beef carcass instrument grading system that improves accuracy and consistency of marbling score (MS) evaluation would have the potential to advance value-based marketing efforts and reduce disparity in quality grading among USDA graders, shifts, and plants. The objectives of this study were to use output data from the Video Image Analysis-Computer Vision System (VIA-CVS, Research Management Systems Inc., Fort Collins, CO) to develop an appropriate method by which performance of video image analysis MS output could be evaluated for accuracy, precision, and repeatability for purposes of seeking official USDA approval for using an instrument in commerce to augment assessment of quality grade, and to use the developed standards to gain approval for VIA-CVS to assist USDA personnel in assigning official beef carcass MS. An initial MS output algorithm was developed (phase I) for the VIA-CVS before 2 separate preliminary instrument evaluation trials (phases II and III) were conducted. During phases II and III, a 3-member panel of USDA expert graders independently assigned MS to 1,068 and 1,242 stationary carcasses, respectively. Mean expert MS was calculated for each carcass. Additionally, a separate 3-member USDA expert panel developed a consensus MS for each carcass in phase III. In phase II, VIA-CVS stationary triple-placement and triple-trigger instrument repeatability values (n = 262 and 260, respectively), measured as the percentage of total variance explained by carcasses, were 99.9 and 99.8%, respectively. In phases II and III, 95% of carcasses were assigned expert MS for which differences between individual expert MS, and for which the consensus MS in phase III only, was < or = 96 MS units. Two differing approaches to simple regression analysis, as well as a separate method-comparability analysis that accommodates error in both dependent and independent variables, were used to assess accuracy and precision of instrument MS predictions vs. mean expert MS. Method-comparability analysis was more appropriate in assessing the bias and precision of instrument MS predictions. Ether-extractable fat percentages (n = 257; phase II) differed among MS (P < 0.05) but were not suitable to predict or validate assigned MS. The performance and reproducibility of expert MS assignment in future evaluations was considered, and an official USDA performance standard was established, to which an instrument must conform to be approved for official on-line MS assessment. The VIA-CVS subsequently was approved to assign MS to carcasses on-line after completion of a 2006 USDA instrument approval trial conducted according to methods developed during completion of this study. PMID:20348376

  19. Power Conversion and Transmission Systems: A 9th and/or 10th Grade Industrial Education Curriculum Designed To Fulfill the Kansas State Department of Vocational Education's Level 2 Course Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Harvey R., Ed.

    The document is a guide to a 9th and 10th grade industrial education course investigating the total system of power--how man controls, converts, transmits, and uses energy; the rationale is that if one is to learn of the total system of industry, the subsystem of power must be investigated. The guide provides a "body of knowledge" chart…

  20. Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ga.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system

    DOEpatents

    Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1980-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5 .mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photolvoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of growing layer.

  1. Lattice constant grading in the Al.sub.y Ca.sub.1-y As.sub.1-x Sb.sub.x alloy system

    DOEpatents

    Moon, Ronald L. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Liquid phase epitaxy is employed to grow a lattice matched layer of GaAsSb on GaAs substrates through the compositional intermediary of the III-V alloy system AlGaAsSb which acts as a grading layer. The Al constituent reaches a peak atomic concentration of about 6% within the first 2.5.mu.m of the transition layer, then decreases smoothly to about 1% to obtain a lattice constant of 5.74 A. In the same interval the equilibrium concentration of Sb smoothly increases from 0 to about 9 atomic percent to form a surface on which a GaAsSb layer having the desired energy bandgap of 1.1 ev for one junction of an optimized dual junction photovoltaic device. The liquid phase epitaxy is accomplished with a step cooling procedure whereby dislocation defects are more uniformly distributed over the surface of the growing layer.

  2. Perceptions and attitudes of clinicians in Spain toward clinical practice guidelines and grading systems: a protocol for a qualitative study and a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have become a very popular tool for decision making in healthcare. While there is some evidence that CPGs improve outcomes, there are numerous factors that influence their acceptability and use by healthcare providers. While evidence of clinicians' knowledge, perceptions and attitudes toward CPGs is extensive, results are still disperse and not conclusive. Our study will evaluate these issues in a large and representative sample of clinicians in Spain. Methods/Design A mixed-method design combining qualitative and quantitative research techniques will evaluate general practitioners (GPs) and hospital-based specialists in Spain with the objective of exploring attitudes and perceptions about CPGs and evidence grading systems. The project will consist of two phases: during the first phase, group discussions will be carried out to gain insight into perceptions and attitudes of the participants, and during the second phase, this information will be completed by means of a survey, reaching a greater number of clinicians. We will explore these issues in GPs and hospital-based practitioners, with or without previous experience in guideline development. Discussion Our study will identify and gain insight into the perceived problems and barriers of Spanish practitioners in relation to guideline knowledge and use. The study will also explore beliefs and attitudes of clinicians towards CPGs and evidence grading systems used to rate the quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations. Our results will provide guidance to healthcare researchers and healthcare decision makers to improve the use of guidelines in Spain and elsewhere. PMID:21129195

  3. Packing Up for the Moon: Human Exploration Project Engineering Design Challenge. Design, Build and Evaluate. A Standards-Based Middle School Unit Guide. Engineering By Design: Advancing Technological Literacy--A Standards-Based Program Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASA Educator Resource Center at Marshall Space Flight Center, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Human Exploration Project (HEP) units have several common characteristics. All units: (1) Are based upon the Technological Literacy standards (ITEA, 2000/2002); (2) Coordinate with Science (AAAS, 1993) and Mathematics standards (NCTM, 2000); (3) Utilize a standards-based development approach (ITEA, 2005); (4) Stand alone and coordinate with…

  4. The Arguments and Data in Favor of Minimum Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James; Carey, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The arguments and for and against minimum grading systems have grown increasingly more intense and acrimonious in the past decade. However, there has been an absence of empirical data, theory and clear comparative analyses of conflicting points of view. Critics of minimum grading contend that the practice will produce grade inflation and social…

  5. Optical properties of graded colloidal nanocrystallines with tunable structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Xiao; Joseph T. A. Kwok; K. W. Yu

    2007-01-01

    We propose a class of graded colloidal crystalline materials which consist of polydisperse metallodielectric nanoshells stacked in layers. We take the Lekner–Lishchuk summation method to treat the graded systems which are not tractable by conventional approach such as Ewald–Kornfeld methods. It is demonstrated that this kind of graded materials exhibit a series of sharp peaks, which merge in a broadened

  6. Optical properties of graded colloidal nanocrystallines with tunable structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Xiao; Joseph T. A. Kwok; K. W. Yu

    2007-01-01

    We propose a class of graded colloidal crystalline materials which consist of polydisperse metallodielectric nanoshells stacked in layers. We take the Lekner Lishchuk summation method to treat the graded systems which are not tractable by conventional approach such as Ewald Kornfeld methods. It is demonstrated that this kind of graded materials exhibit a series of sharp peaks, which merge in

  7. Indicators of Grade Inflation. AIR 1995 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Robert

    The first-year performance of freshmen between 1987 and 1992 was investigated for evidence of grade inflation. Grade inflation is defined as "when a grade is viewed as being less rigorous than it ought to be". Performance data were analyzed for fall semester admissions of full-time, first-time freshmen at the University of Missouri System for the…

  8. Grade Inflation: A Leadership Opportunity for Schools of Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1999-01-01

    Grade inflation pervades U.S. schools at all levels, and it is particularly pronounced in the humanities fields and in departments, schools, and colleges of education (DSCEs). This problem presents a leadership opportunity for DSCEs to develop and implement a credible and meaningful grade distribution system to combat pervasive grade inflation.…

  9. Job Grading Standard for Wood Worker, WG-4604.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    A job grading standard for Wood Worker WG-4604 is given for grading jobs under the Federal Wage System. The standard covers physical requirements, tools, job task, skills, and knowledge at three grade levels, and the limits placed on the requirements at each level. In general the wood worker makes and repairs such supply shipping, and storage…

  10. Plus/Minus Grading: If Given a Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Chip

    2004-01-01

    After implementation of plus/minus grading, in a series of classes, students were given a choice as to which grading system they individually wanted. Students overwhelmingly chose the straight letter option by a two-to-one ratio. The difference in actual grades earned was minimal, but the preference was clear.

  11. The Math We Need to Know and Do in Grades 6-9: Concepts, Skills, Standards, and Assessments. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Pearl Gold

    2007-01-01

    In a new edition of her standards-based math workbook, author Pearl Gold Solomon covers essential concepts and skills as defined by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics for learners in middle schools. Designed as a comprehensive resource for planning curriculum, instruction, and assessment, The Math We Need to Know and Do in Grades 6-9,…

  12. The Effects of a Teacher In-Service on Low-Achieving Grade 7 and 8 Mathematics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Xu, YunMei; Ford, John

    2008-01-01

    Previous research (e.g., Woodward & Baxter, 1997) found that Standards-based mathematics teaching provides marginal or no benefits for low achievers, in contrast with positive effects for middle and high ability students. A randomized quasi-experiment in 52 Canadian schools found that low achieving grade 7 and 8 students who received support…

  13. Teacher Implementation of Reform-Based Mathematics and Implications for Algebra Readiness: A Qualitative Study of 4th Grade Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Stephen Korb

    2011-01-01

    This study looked at 4th grade classrooms to see "how" teachers implement NCTM standards-based or reform-based mathematics instruction and then analyzed it for the capacity to improve students' "algebra readiness." The qualitative study was based on classroom observations, teacher and administrator interviews, and teacher surveys. The study took…

  14. GRADING Effective September 1980 Dentistry Graduate Under-Grade Numerical

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    , Dentistry prior to 1987) is available at www.mcgill.ca/student-records. Grade Point Average (GPA) All credits attempted are used in the calculation of the Grade Point Average, including courses with a grade When reported, the Class Grade Point Average (converted to the most representative letter grade

  15. Grade points: (per unit) Attempted Passed Grade Points

    E-print Network

    Rose, Michael R.

    if at the end of any quarter their grade point average for that quarter, or their cumulative University of California grade point average, is less than 2.0. Lower Division courses Upper Division coursesGRADING Grade points: (per unit) Attempted Passed Grade Points A+, A, A- ...excellent 4.0, 4.0, 3

  16. Hybrid pressure retarded osmosis-membrane distillation system for power generation from low-grade heat: thermodynamic analysis and energy efficiency.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shihong; Yip, Ngai Yin; Cath, Tzahi Y; Osuji, Chinedum O; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 °C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 °C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance optimization. PMID:24724732

  17. Second-Generation Automatic Problem Grading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Greene

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen widespread adoption of automatic grading of physics homework problems. Although first-generation homework management systems1-3 provide feedback and assign scores based only on the answers, problem-solving performance on exams seems to be no worse for students using these systems than for those who receive detailed comments from manually graded homework. Apparently immediate feedback, which encourages students to

  18. Red Light-Green Light: A Classwide Management System for Students with Behavior Disorders in Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbetta, Patricia M.

    1990-01-01

    Red Light-Green Light is a levels system providing immediate behavior modification feedback and varying privilege levels throughout the school day for primary students with behavior disorders. This article presents guidelines for implementation, covering development of classroom rules, classroom expectations, and system maintenance. Tips for…

  19. Algebraic Reasoning in the Middle Grades: A View of Student Strategies in Pictorial and Algebraic System of Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcon, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Teachers use action research in order to improve their teaching and student learning. This action research will analyze students' algebraic reasoning in finding values of variables in systems of equations pictorially and algebraically. This research will look at students solving linear systems of equations without knowing the algebraic algorithms.…

  20. Cultivating Common Ground: Integrating Standards-Based Visual Arts, Math and Literacy in High-Poverty Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunnington, Marisol; Kantrowitz, Andrea; Harnett, Susanne; Hill-Ries, Aline

    2014-01-01

    The "Framing Student Success: Connecting Rigorous Visual Arts, Math and Literacy Learning" experimental demonstration project was designed to develop and test an instructional program integrating high-quality, standards-based instruction in the visual arts, math, and literacy. Developed and implemented by arts-in-education organization…

  1. PWB warpage analysis and verification using an AP210 standards-based engineering framework and shadow moire

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Zwemer; M. Bajaj; R. Peak; T. Thurman; K. Brady; S. McCarron; A. Spradling; M. Dickerson; L. Klein; G. Liutkus; J. Messina

    2004-01-01

    Thermally induced warpage of printed wiring boards (PWB) and printed wiring assemblies (PWAs) is an increasingly important issue in managing the manufacturing yield and reliability of electronic devices. In this paper, we introduce complementary simulation and experimental verification procedures capable of investigating warpage at the local feature level as well as the global PWB level. Simulation within a standards-based engineering

  2. Double Standards: Using Teachers' Perceptions to Develop a Standards-Based Technology Integration Method for Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hineman, John M.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative collective case study with an action research design identified teachers' perceptions of the use of technology in standards-based social studies education. Data were collected from semi-structured, one-on-one interviews conducted with a purposive sample of ten in-service social studies teachers from southwestern Pennsylvania.…

  3. How Can ESOL and Mainstream Teachers Make the Best of a Standards-Based Curriculum in Order to Collaborate?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Beltran, Melinda; Peercy, Megan Madigan

    2012-01-01

    In this era of high-stakes testing, teachers are often required to follow a standards-based, standardized curriculum, which can be constraining for English to speakers of other languages (ESOL) and mainstream teachers who are trying to meet the needs of English language learners. Despite the challenges presented by such curricula, this study found…

  4. Probability Park A Database-backed On-line Professional Development Environment Targeting Standards-based School Reform1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robby Robson; John Whitesitt

    1999-01-01

    The State of Oregon is undergoing massive standards-based school reform. This has created immediate and wide spread professional development demands. We have piloted an on- line professional development environment that targets probability and statistics standards and is designed to meet these demands in a scalable and cost effective fashion. The environment is called probability park and consists of four parts:

  5. An Australian Perspective on Standards-Based Education, Teacher Knowledge, and Students of English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an Australian perspective on the issue of standards-based education and the place of students of English as an additional language (EAL) who are working within mainstream schools. Beginning with an overview of the various standards documents that impact the lives of teachers and their students in mainstream Australian…

  6. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  7. Skill Schemes: Sixth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempf, Jerry

    The sixth grade instructional unit, part of a field-tested grade school level career education series, is designed to assist learners in understanding how present experiences relate to past and future ones. Before the main body of the lessons is described, field testing results are reported and key items are presented: the concepts, the estimated…

  8. The Grades Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleenor, Andy; Lamb, Sarah; Anton, Jennifer; Stinson, Todd; Donen, Tony

    2011-01-01

    It can be quite alarming (and eye-opening) to see exactly how many of the grades students receive are based on their behaviors rather than their learning. Students should be assessed on what they know and can use rather than on their behavior. The reality, unfortunately, is that the opposite is often the case. Grades for students who work hard are…

  9. Teaching Middle Grades Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia State Dept. of Education, Atlanta. Office of Instructional Services.

    Background information and exemplary units for teaching science in Georgia's middle school grades are provided. Discussed in the first section are: (1) the rationale for including science in middle school grades, focusing on science/society/technology, science/social issues, scientific reasoning, and scientific literacy; (2) role of science…

  10. Earth Science, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buffalo Public Schools, NY.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grade 7. SUBJECT MATTER: Earth science. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The introductory material suggests a time schedule for the major units and gives details of the reference materials referred to in the text. The main text is presented in four columns: topical outline, basic understandings, suggested activities and…

  11. Grades out, Badges in

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    Grades are broken. Students grub for them, pick classes where good ones come easily, and otherwise hustle to win the highest scores for the least learning. As a result, college grades are inflated to the point of meaninglessness--especially to employers who want to know which diploma-holder is best qualified for their jobs. An alternative is to…

  12. Third Grade Reading Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 14 states passed legislation geared toward improving 3rd-grade literacy through identification, intervention, and/or retention initiatives. Today, a total of 32 states and the District of Columbia have policies in statute aimed at improving 3rd-grade reading proficiency. The majority of these states require early assessment and…

  13. Impact of Toxicity Grade and Scoring System on the Relationship Between Mean Lung Dose and Risk of Radiation Pneumonitis in a Large Cohort of Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Susan L., E-mail: sltucker@mdanderson.or [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jin Hekun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hunan Tumor Hospital and Institution, Hunan (China); Department of Oncology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Xiangya Medical School, Changsha (China); Wei Xiong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To compute the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) as a function of mean lung dose (MLD), with RP scored using three grading systems and analyzed at four threshold levels of toxicity in a large cohort of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: On the basis of medical records and radiographic images, RP was scored retrospectively in 442 patients with NSCLC who had {>=}6 months of follow-up after the end of RT. The severity of RP was scored for each patient using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Toxicity Criteria, version 2.0 (CTC2.0); the NCI Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0 (CTCAE3.0); and the grading system of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG). For each grading system and for each of four levels of toxicity (Grade {>=}1, {>=}2, {>=}3, {>=}4), the Lyman, logistic, and log-logistic normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were fitted to the data as functions of MLD. The parameter estimates from the model fits are listed in table form, and the RP risk estimates are presented graphically for the Lyman and log-logistic NTCP models. Results: The results presented here illustrate the impact of scoring system and level of toxicity on the relationship between MLD and RP risk. Conclusions: These results facilitate quantitative comparisons between our data and studies of RP risk reported by others, and several examples of such comparisons are provided.

  14. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  15. Listening Comprehension, Oral Expression, Reading Comprehension, and Written Expression: Related yet Unique Language Systems in Grades 1, 3, 5, and 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Abbott, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    Age-normed tests of listening comprehension, oral expression, reading comprehension, and written expression were administered in Grades 1 (n = 128), 3, and 5, or 3 (n = 113), 5, and 7. Confirmatory factor analyses compared 1- and 4-factor models at each grade level and supported a 4-factor model of language by ear, mouth, eye, and hand. Multiple…

  16. What Successful Math Teachers Do, Grades PreK-5: 47 Research-Based Strategies for the Standards-Based Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Edward S.; Posamentier, Alfred S.

    2006-01-01

    This easy-to-navigate guide offers research-based teaching strategies for introducing prekindergarten and elementary school students to the content and skills recommended by the NCTM principles and standards for mathematics. Using the popular format of the "What Successful Teachers Do" books, the authors present 47 dynamic learning activities,…

  17. The Impact of Sustained, Standards-Based Professional Learning on Second and Third Grade Teachers' Content and Pedagogical Knowledge in Integrated Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Lora B.

    2010-01-01

    This 3 year longitudinal study reports the feasibility of an "Improving Teacher Quality: No Child Left Behind" project for impacting teachers' content and pedagogical knowledge in mathematics in nine Title I elementary schools in the southeastern United States. Data were collected for 3 years to determine the impact of standards and research-based…

  18. An assessment of standards-based reform in Florida's middle school science programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart Hammer, Kathryn Elizabeth

    The era of school accountability and standards based reform (SBR) has brought many challenges and changes to Florida's public schools. It is important to understand any shifts in teachers' attitudes and to identify the changes teachers are making as they implement SBR. The study was designed to assess teachers' attitudes and perceptions of changes related to SBR and the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) in middle school science programs in Florida. Survey questions sought to identify teacher perceptions of changes in curriculum, instruction and daily practice as schools documented and incorporated the Sunshine State Standards (SSS) for science and began focusing on preparing students for the science FCAT. The survey was distributed to 265 randomly selected middle school science teachers throughout the State of Florida. Seventy-six and ninety-two percent of teachers reported increased levels of stress as a result of SBR and the science FCAT, respectively. Eighty-six percent of teachers reported loss of autonomy and control over what goes on in their classrooms, and fifty-four percent of teachers reported loss of freedom and creativity regarding curriculum and lessons. Eighty-three percent of teachers believe that increased time spent on test preparation has come at the expense of other important curricular items. By contrast, only nineteen percent of teachers believe that the science FCAT has brought about improvement in curriculum, instruction and student learning in science. Yet, twenty-five percent of teachers believe that reform efforts will improve their school. An important finding is that teachers' attitudes toward reform efforts are strongly influenced by their attitudes toward the administration at their school. Teachers who receive more support from administrators have more positive attitudes toward all aspects of SBR and the science FCAT measured in this study. Although the majority of teachers reported negative attitudes toward the reform process, a small minority that report working under supportive administrators believe that reform efforts are working well or will soon show positive effects. No school should overlook the potential of a supportive administration in its effort to improve school programs.

  19. Physical Properties of Normal Grade Biodiesel and Winter Grade Biodiesel

    PubMed Central

    Sadrolhosseini, Amir Reza; Moksin, Mohd Maarof; Nang, Harrison Lau Lik; Norozi, Monir; Yunus, W. Mahmood Mat; Zakaria, Azmi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, optical and thermal properties of normal grade and winter grade palm oil biodiesel were investigated. Surface Plasmon Resonance and Photopyroelectric technique were used to evaluate the samples. The dispersion curve and thermal diffusivity were obtained. Consequently, the variation of refractive index, as a function of wavelength in normal grade biodiesel is faster than winter grade palm oil biodiesel, and the thermal diffusivity of winter grade biodiesel is higher than the thermal diffusivity of normal grade biodiesel. This is attributed to the higher palmitic acid C16:0 content in normal grade than in winter grade palm oil biodiesel. PMID:21731429

  20. Electronic Communications Systems. Grade 11-12. Course #8136 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide is intended for use in teaching a course in electronic communications systems. Class activities during the course examine the processes of creating electronic signals and transmitting various coded messages to other locations. Methods of changing the form of electric current are emphasized, and the latest techniques in data processing…

  1. A Study of a Collaborative Instructional Project Informed by Systemic Functional Linguistic Theory: Report Writing in Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisk, Maria Estela; Hodgson-Drysdale, Tracy; O'Connor, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the teaching of report writing in PreK-5 through the lens of systemic functional linguistics theory. Teachers were part of a university-public school collaboration that included professional development on teaching genres, text organization, and language features. Grounded in this knowledge, teachers explicitly taught report…

  2. Manufacturing Systems. Grades 9-10. Course #8115 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The course materials included in this guide are intended to introduce students to the manufacturing industry and its relationships with society, individuals, and the environment. The following topics are covered in the nine learning modules: manufacturing and society and manufacturing systems; manufacturing materials and processes (types of…

  3. Human & Product Transportation Systems. Grade 11-12. Course #8186 (Semester). Technology Education Course Guide. Industrial Arts/Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide is intended for use in teaching a course in human and product transportation systems. The purpose of the course is twofold. First, students are introduced to the design process and the steps used to analyze various solutions to basic problems. Second, the course focuses on the application of the design and evaluation process to review a…

  4. Learning about Body Systems. Superific Science Book IX. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    This document offers an explanation and drawings of each of the major systems of the human body and of the five senses. It provides teachers with classroom activities, demonstrations, and experiments which are intended to involve students in the acquisition of knowledge concerning the structure and function of their bodies. The drawings of the…

  5. Low-Grade Gliomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan H. Sherman; David Weintraub; M. Beatriz S. Lopes; David Schiff

    \\u000a Low-grade gliomas (LGGs) comprise approximately 10–20% of all primary brain tumors and include a compilation of WHO grade\\u000a I and II tumors [1]. Such tumors as pilocytic astrocytomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytomas\\u000a are included in this category. However, this chapter will be limited to a discussion on diffuse astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas,\\u000a and oligoastrocytomas. Approximately 2,000–3,000 low-grade gliomas are

  6. Noninvasive Grading of Musculoskeletal Tumors Using PET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee P. Adler; F. Blair; Ronald P. Williams; Michael J; Greg Leisure; Floro Miraldi

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with mass lesions involving the muscu- toskeletat system were studied with positron emission tomog- raphy (PET) in order to determine if a relationship exists between histologic grade and tumor uptake of (fluorine-18} 2- deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG). There were 6 benign lesions and 19 malignant lesions of various grades. A high correlation (Rho = 0.83) was found between the normalized

  7. Developing a Standard Based Advanced Lab Course that Fulfills COM3 Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, Rudi

    2015-03-01

    An advanced physics lab has been developed into a course that fulfills the requirements for a university studies program `COM3' course using Standard Teaching (ST) methods. The COM3 course is a capstone course under the new USP2015 study requirements for all majors. It replaces the WC writing requirement, typically filled in the English Dept., and adds the teaching of oral and digital communication skills. ST is a method that replaces typical assessments (homework / exam grades) with new assessments that measure certain specified learning outcomes. In combination with oral assessments and an oral final exam, the ST proves an efficient tool to implement the USP Learning Outcomes into a physics course. COM3 requires an unprecedented seven learning outcomes in a single course. Variety of learning outcomes: interdisciplinary goals, levels of writing (with drafting steps), organizational structure, standard language metrics, research and presentation deliverance skills, appropriate addressing of a variety of audiences, etc. With other assessment approaches than ST this variety would be difficult to meet in a physics course. An extended ST rubric has been developed for this course and will be presented and discussed in some detail.

  8. Lesson Plans for the Busy Librarian: A Standards Based Approach for the Elementary Library Media Center, Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    The author designed this book, like Volume I of the set, to give elementary school librarians a quick, enjoyable way to coordinate with teachers to teach information literacy and literacy skills aligned with national standards. The chapters in the book include: (1) Kindergarten Lesson Plans; (2) First-Grade Lesson Plans; (3) Second-Grade Lesson…

  9. Manufacture of clinical-grade CD19-specific T cells stably expressing chimeric antigen receptor using Sleeping Beauty system and artificial antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harjeet; Figliola, Matthew J; Dawson, Margaret J; Olivares, Simon; Zhang, Ling; Yang, Ge; Maiti, Sourindra; Manuri, Pallavi; Senyukov, Vladimir; Jena, Bipulendu; Kebriaei, Partow; Champlin, Richard E; Huls, Helen; Cooper, Laurence J N

    2013-01-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) is being evaluated in multiple clinical trials. Our current approach to adoptive immunotherapy is based on a second generation CAR (designated CD19RCD28) that signals through a CD28 and CD3-? endodomain. T cells are electroporated with DNA plasmids from the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system to express this CAR. Stable integrants of genetically modified T cells can then be retrieved when co-cultured with designer artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) in the presence of interleukin (IL)-2 and 21. Here, we reveal how the platform technologies of SB-mediated transposition and CAR-dependent propagation on aAPC were adapted for human application. Indeed, we have initiated clinical trials in patients with high-risk B-lineage malignancies undergoing autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT). We describe the process to manufacture clinical grade CD19-specific T cells derived from healthy donors. Three validation runs were completed in compliance with current good manufacturing practice for Phase I/II trials demonstrating that by 28 days of co-culture on ?-irradiated aAPC ?10(10) T cells were produced of which >95% expressed CAR. These genetically modified and propagated T cells met all quality control testing and release criteria in support of infusion. PMID:23741305

  10. Cardiac troponin testing in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and systemic sclerosis-spectrum disorders: biomarkers to distinguish between primary cardiac involvement and low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Michael; Lilleker, James B; Herrick, Ariane L; Chinoy, Hector

    2015-05-01

    Primary cardiac involvement, an under-recognised manifestation of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and systemic sclerosis (SSc)-spectrum disorders, is associated with significant mortality. Within these two conditions, traditional skeletal muscle enzyme testing may not effectively distinguish between skeletal and cardiac muscle involvement, especially in patients with subclinical cardiac disease. Accurate biomarkers are thus required to screen for cardiac disease, to better inform both therapeutic decision-making and treatment response. The widespread uptake of cardiac troponin testing has revolutionised the management of acute coronary syndromes. While cardiac troponin I (cTnI) appears specific to the myocardium, cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is also expressed by skeletal muscle, including regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There is increasing interest about the role of cardiac troponins as a putative biomarker of primary cardiac involvement in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders. Herewith we discuss subclinical cardiac disease in IIM and SSc-spectrum disorders, the respective roles of cTnI and cTnT testing, and the re-expression of cTnT within regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. There remains wide variation in access to cardiac troponin testing nationally and internationally. We propose two pragmatic clinical pathways using cardiac troponins, preferably measuring concomitant cTnT followed by confirmatory (cardiac) cTnI to screen patients for subclinical cardiac disease and/or low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity, and also an agenda for future research. PMID:25732174

  11. Histologic grading of canine mast cell tumor: is 2 better than 3?

    PubMed

    Sabattini, S; Scarpa, F; Berlato, D; Bettini, G

    2015-01-01

    Mast cell tumor (MCT) is a common canine cutaneous neoplasm with variable biological behavior. A 2-tier histologic grading system was recently proposed by Kiupel et al to reduce interobserver variation and eliminate prognostic uncertainty of the Patnaik system. This study compared the ability of these 2 grading systems to predict survival in a cohort of dogs with MCTs. However, surgical margins were unknown, and the risk of developing new/metastatic MCTs was not studied. Histologic grade was assessed according to both systems for 137 surgically resected cutaneous MCTs. The relationship between grade and survival was evaluated. According to the Patnaik system, 18 MCTs (13.1%) were classified as grade I, 83 (60.6%) as grade II, and 36 (26.3%) as grade III. Grade III was associated with a poorer prognosis (P < .001), but no significant difference between grades I and II was detected. Grading according to the Patnaik system was based on consensus grading among 3 pathologists, and interobserver variability was not considered. All grade I MCTs were low grade in the Kiupel system, and all grade III were high grade. Among grade II, 71 (85.6%) were low grade, and 12 (14.4%) were high grade, with a 1-year survival probability of 94% and 46%, respectively (P < .001). The 2-tier system had a high prognostic value and was able to correctly predict the negative outcomes of some grade II MCTs. Data also confirm that histologic grading cannot predict biological behavior of each MCT and should be supplemented with molecular methods for more accurate prognostication. PMID:24513799

  12. Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM) and Teacher Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G.; Schmidt, C.; Metzger, E. P.; Cordero, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA-funded project, Improving 6th Grade Climate Literacy using New Media (CLINM), is designed to improve the climate literacy of California's 450,000 6th-grade students through teacher professional development that presents climate change as an engaging context for teaching earth science standards. The project fosters experience-based interaction among learners and encourages expressive creativity and idea-exchange via the web and social media. The heart of the CLINM project is the development of an online educator-friendly experience that provides content expert-reviewed, teacher-tested, standards-based educational resources, classroom activities and lessons that make meaningful connections to NASA data and images as well as new media tools (videos, web, and phone applications) based on the Green Ninja, a climate-action superhero who fights global warming by inspiring personal action (www.greenninja.info). In this session, we will discuss this approach to professional development and share a collection of teacher-tested CLINM resources. CLINM resources are grounded in earth system science; classroom activities and lessons engage students in exploration of connections between natural systems and human systems with a particular focus on how climate change relates to everyone's need for food, water, and energy. CLINM uses a team-based approach to resource development, and partners faculty in San José State University's (SJSU) colleges of Science, Education, and Humanities and the Arts with 6th-grade teachers from local school districts, a scientist from NASA Ames Research Center and climate change education projects at Stanford University, the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, and the University of Idaho. Climate scientists and other content experts identify relevant concepts and work with science educators to develop and/or refine classroom activities to elucidate those concepts; activities are piloted in pre-service science methods courses at SJSU and in teacher professional development workshops offered through the Bay Area Earth Science Institute (BAESI); workshop attendees frame the activities as lessons appropriate for their 6th grade students; participants who use the lessons and resources in their classrooms provide iterative feedback, which is used to improve the resources for other teachers involved in the project.

  13. How Consistent Are Course Grades? An Examination of Differential Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenberg, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Differential grading occurs when students in courses with the same content and curriculum receive inconsistent grades across teachers, schools, or districts. It may be due to many factors, including differences in teacher grading standards, district grading policies, student behavior, teacher stereotypes, teacher quality, and curriculum adherence.…

  14. Provide Faculty Grade Centre Support Request Faculty Grade

    E-print Network

    Provide Faculty Grade Centre Support Request Faculty Grade Centre Support Unit Coordinator Log and be responsible for: · Ensuring that all units have a Blackboard presence. · Ensuring that Grade Centre is initially set up correctly · Undertaking Grade Centre routine maintenance and troubleshooting · Ensuring

  15. Using Free and Open Source GIS to Automatically Create Standards-Based Spatial Metadata in Academia Using Free and Open Source GIS to

    E-print Network

    Köbben, Barend

    Using Free and Open Source GIS to Automatically Create Standards-Based Spatial Metadata in Academia Using Free and Open Source GIS to Automatically Create Standards-Based Spatial Metadata in Academia.ellul@ucl.ac.uk Abstract The importance of understanding the quality of data used in any GIS operation has increased

  16. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  17. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 2. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 2; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 1-3); (4)…

  18. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document contains the Arizona academic standards for Grade 7. The following 11 standards are reviewed: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 7; (2) Comprehensive Health Education Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4) Reading Standard Articulated by…

  19. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 6. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 6; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  20. Arizona Academic Standards, Grade 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 5. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 5; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8);(3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Foundations (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  1. Arizona Academic Standards: Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This publication contains Arizona public schools' academic standards for grade 4. The contents of this document include the following: (1) The Arts Standard 2006--Grade 4; (2) Comprehensive Health Education/Physical Activity Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (3) Foreign and Native Language Standards 1997--Essentials (Grades 4-8); (4)…

  2. W Grade Definitions Official Withdrawal.

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    but before the published withdrawal period (usually, the 2nd and 3rd week of classes). The course and gradeW Grade Definitions W Official Withdrawal. A non-punitive grade initiated by a student when a class-punitive grade assigned to students who had registered for classes at the be- ginning of the term but did

  3. In-vitro investigation to evaluate the flexural bond strengths of three commercially available ultra low fusing ceramic systems to Grade II Titanium

    PubMed Central

    Mabrurkar, Vijay; Habbu, Nitin; Hashmi, Sayed Wahhiuddin; Musani, Smita; Joshi, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    Background: This in-vitro investigation was designed to compare the flexural bond strengths of three commercially available ultra low fusing ceramic systems to Grade II Titanium and evaluate the type of bond failure through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersion X ray Spectrum (EDS). Materials & Methods: Sixty patterns of auto polymerizing resin of dimensions 25.1 mm X 3.1mm X 0.6mm each were fabricated from a stainless steel die. Titanium casting for all the samples was done in a Titanium casting machine. Ten samples were allotted to each of three groups randomly. Ceramic build up was done step by step using the manufacturers' instructions. Flexural Bond strength tests for the samples were performed by using a 3-point bending test on a Universal testing machine in compliance with Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) 13.927 draft. After the tests were completed, three samples, one from each group were selected randomly for the subsequent Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) studies to characterize the type and morphology of the fracture in representative specimens. Results: The maximum load to fracture the porcelain was recorded for each specimen. All the means of the three groups were compared by one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and it was found that Group I & Group III had significantly higher bond strength values as compared with the Group II (P< 0.001). All the 10 samples of Group I & III gave bond strength values above the standard values of 25 MPa. There was statistically significant difference in the bond strengths between Group I & Group III (t = 2.76 and P< 0.05), between Group I & II (t = 5.09 and P< 0.001) and between Group II & Group III (t = 13.28 and P< 0.001). SEM studies revealed occurrence of cohesive type fractures in the ceramic body of samples belonging to Groups I & III, while there was adhesive failure at ceramo-metal junction of samples belonging to Group II. EDS Analysis supported the findings of SEM studies. Conclusion: All the three ceramic systems fared better than the minimal recommended values stated by ISO 9693:1999 of 25MPa of which Orotig TiKrom was rated the best with values of 54.69 MPa. Vita TitanKeramik ranked second with values of 45.12MPa and the least values were obtained with Noritake Ti-22 with values of 27.76. The bond failure was predominantly cohesive in nature in case of Vita TitanKeramik and Orotig TiKrom; whereas adhesive failure was noticed in case of Noritake Ti-22. How to cite this article: Mabrurkar V, Habbu N, Hashmi SW, Musani S, Joshi N. In-vitro investigation to evaluate the flexural bond strengths of three commercially available ultra low fusing ceramic systems to Grade II Titanium. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(5):101-7. PMID:24324312

  4. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204 Section 810.2204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application...2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  5. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204 Section 810.2204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application...2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  6. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204 Section 810.2204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application...2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  7. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204 Section 810.2204 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application...2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  8. The effect of pressure on the combustion synthesis of a functionally-graded material: TiB[sub 2]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]-Al ceramic-metal composite system

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, H.J.; Moore, J.J. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    This article describes some recent research on the synthesis of functionally-graded materials (FGM) using combustion synthesis or self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). A model ceramic-metal SHS system was investigated. The effects of combustion mode, reactant stoichiometry (xAl), green density, and applied loads on the stability of the SHS reaction and density of the FGM product are described.

  9. The effect of pressure on the combustion synthesis of a functionally-graded material: TiB[sub 2]Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]Al ceramic-metal composite system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Feng; J. J. Moore

    1993-01-01

    This article describes some recent research on the synthesis of functionally-graded materials (FGM) using combustion synthesis or self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). A model ceramic-metal SHS system was investigated. The effects of combustion mode, reactant stoichiometry (xAl), green density, and applied loads on the stability of the SHS reaction and density of the FGM product are described.

  10. Effects of low-fat dairy consumption on markers of low-grade systemic inflammation and endothelial function in overweight and obese subjects: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    van Meijl, Leonie E C; Mensink, Ronald P

    2010-11-01

    Although increased concentrations of plasma inflammatory markers are not one of the criteria to diagnose the metabolic syndrome, low-grade systemic inflammation is receiving large attention as a metabolic syndrome component and cardiovascular risk factor. As several epidemiological studies have suggested a negative relationship between low-fat dairy consumption and the metabolic syndrome, we decided to investigate the effects of low-fat dairy consumption on inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules in overweight and obese subjects in an intervention study. Thirty-five healthy subjects (BMI>27 kg/m²) consumed, in a random order, low-fat dairy products (500 ml low-fat milk and 150 g low-fat yogurt) or carbohydrate-rich control products (600 ml fruit juice and three fruit biscuits) daily for 8 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TNF-? were decreased by 0.16 (SD 0.50) pg/ml (P = 0.070), and soluble TNF-? receptor-1 (s-TNFR-1) was increased by 110.0 (SD 338.4) pg/ml (P = 0.062) after the low-fat dairy period than after the control period. s-TNFR-2 was increased by 227.0 (SD 449.0) pg/ml (P = 0.020) by the dairy intervention. As a result, the TNF-? index, defined as the TNF-?:s-TNFR-2 ratio, was decreased by 0.000053 (SD 0.00012) (P = 0.015) after the dairy diet consumption. Low-fat dairy consumption had no effect on IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations. The present results indicate that in overweight and obese subjects, low-fat dairy consumption for 8 weeks may increase concentrations of s-TNFR compared with carbohydrate-rich product consumption, but that it has no effects on other markers of chronic inflammation and endothelial function. PMID:20579405

  11. An Automated Grade Prediction System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Chris; Van Staveren, Arie

    2004-01-01

    At the end of a lecturing period examinations are used to take a snapshot of the level of knowledge of a student. It is essential that this snapshot be taken at the right moment. Particularly when a student fails, it is important to make sure that it is because his level of knowledge is not adequate, not because, for example, he had a severe…

  12. Interoperability Test of IEEE 1451.5 Standard-Based Wireless

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene Y. Song; Kang B. Lee

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1451 standard provides plug-and-play capability of smart transducers (sensors and actuators). Plug-and-play is an important aspect of interoperability, which is the ability of two or more systems to easily communicate each other. Interoperability testing verifies if these systems will communicate together based on a standard or specification in an operational environment. This

  13. Plus/Minus Grading: Solution or Problem? Research into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Surprisingly, the debate over +/- grade systems seems to occur, largely, at the college and university level. Few middle and high schools seem to have taken on the issue, at least in any way that appears in the public literature. Other opinions suggest that it is the discriminating quality of plus/minus grading systems that make them useful. A…

  14. A Call to Action: Transforming Grading Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    At a very early age, students learn the point system and how school can be about the accumulation of points, not the accumulation of knowledge and skills. Grading systems are pervasive in districts across the nation, with questionable results. For example, a southern school district was highlighted in a 2009 Associated Press story for selling test…

  15. Supratentorial High-Grade Gliomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phiroz E. Tarapore; Anu Banerjee; Nalin Gupta

    \\u000a Central nervous system (CNS) tumors account for 20–25% of all childhood neoplasms, and their incidence is second only to hematologic\\u000a malignancies [45]. In addition, they are the third leading cause of death in children less than 16 years of age. The majority\\u000a of supratentorial primary brain tumors in children are gliomas.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Fortunately, low-grade gliomas account for 60–80% of supratentorial hemispheric

  16. Marketing eggs on grade 

    E-print Network

    Wischkaemper, Theodore Frederick Paul

    1947-01-01

    eggs than if he heal sold thea as current rsceiptsi That would be the equivalent of about 3i3 cents psr docent 2 Graded Earketing as a gethod of Increasing ths Quality of Eggs Produced It should be borne in mind Chat grading alone will not necssesr...~~@gggpOM p~l. OZ *QRI ECONOh QQlo~gy EGE GK STATIO IARKETXHG EGGS OH GRARE Ey 'Theodore FrederLch Paul Wisohkaenyex' I August 1947 Ayyroval as to style and content reconmendeds Head of the Qeyartaent of kgrieiLtoral Econoados Theodore...

  17. Narrowing the Achievement Gap in Second-Grade Social Studies and Content Area Literacy: The Promise of a Project-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Duke, Nell K.; Brugar, Kristy A.; Block, Meghan K.; Strachan, Stephanie L.; Berka, Meghan B.; Brown, Jason M.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the question: Do second-grade students from low- socioeconomic-status (SES) schools taught with an iteratively designed project-based approach to social studies and content literacy instruction: (a) make statistically significant gains on standards-based social studies and content area literacy assessments, and (b) reach a…

  18. Narrowing the Achievement Gap in Second-Grade Social Studies and Content Area Literacy: The Promise of a Project-Based Approach. Working Paper #26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Duke, Nell K.; Brugar, Kristy; Block, Meghan; Strachan, Stephanie; Berka, Meghan; Brown, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This design experiment addresses the question: How can second-grade students from low-SES schools attain the same levels of achievement as students from high-SES schools on standards-based social studies and content area literacy assessments? Students from two high-SES school districts were assessed in order to establish target levels of…

  19. Impact of Small-Group Tutoring Interventions on the Mathematical Problem Solving and Achievement of Third-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Rodriguez, Michael; Kanive, Rebecca; Huang, Ju-Ping; Church, Chris; Corroy, Kelly A.; Zaslofsky, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This intervention study compared the efficacy of small-group tutoring on the mathematics learning of third-grade students at risk for mathematics difficulty using either a school-provided standards-based curriculum (SBC) or a schema-based instruction (SBI) curriculum. The SBI curriculum placed particular emphasis on the underlying mathematical…

  20. Clicking for Grades? Really? Investigating the Use of Clickers for Awarding Grade-Points in Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Peter; Syncox, David; Alters, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Using classroom response systems (clickers) to accumulate grade-points has become a controversial practice as response systems have become more widely used in the last decade. Although some instructors opt to use clickers on a non-grades basis, it has become quite common to reward students for (a) correct answers, (b) participating in clicker…

  1. Unfinished Business: More Measured Approaches in Standards-Based Reform. Policy Information Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to help in the evolution of these systems by examining the measures used, including, but not limited to, tests. The author asks: Are these the best measures? Are they used right? Are there other measures that should be employed? It is the model of reform itself that is examined, and the report does not address…

  2. Second-Grade "Professors"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zhonghe; An, Shuhua; King, Joyce; Ramirez, Melissa; Evans, Stacee

    2009-01-01

    Finding ways to help primary-grade students overcome difficulties in solving mathematical word problems can be a daunting task for teachers in a regular classroom setting. Student challenges may include: (1) difficulty with vocabulary; (2) lack of confidence when solving problems; (3) confusion on the proper operation to use when solving a…

  3. Grading Cooperative Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Karl A.

    1998-01-01

    College faculty can minimize problems in grading students' cooperative projects by carefully structuring the five basic elements of formal cooperative learning groups: positive interdependence; individual and group accountability; face-to-face promotive interaction; teamwork skills; and group processing. There must also be sufficient reason for…

  4. Hungarian Graded Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihalyfy, Ilona; Koski, Augustus A.

    This graded reader is intended to supplement a beginning course in Hungarian after the student has "developed control of about 700 lexical items and can manipulate with fluency much of the basic structure of Hungarian." (It may also be used in an intermediate course.) The 56 reading selections are varied in content and sequenced to develop reading…

  5. Finnish Graded Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Aili Rytkonen; Koski, Augustus A.

    This audiolingual text is designed to serve as supplementary material for a beginning course in Finnish, to be introduced "when the student has mastered much of the basic structure of Finnish and about 700 lexical items." The authors suggest that it may also be used as an intermediate course. The text comprises 57 graded reading selections…

  6. Flower gardens (grade 3)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This is a sample PARCC assessment task based on CCSS grade 3 fraction standards. In this interactive three-part task students reason about fractions used to represent area or a location on a number line. Included are the alignments to the CCSS, a scoring rubric, and background on the task itself.

  7. Elementary Science: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 5 science curriculum guide contains four activity units: (1) mineral identification; (2) earth science; (3) soil analysis; and (4) small friends community. Each unit contains a letter to the parents to introduce the unit, lesson plans, and word searches. The lesson plans list the science processes involved, content objectives,…

  8. Pay for Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Howard

    2008-01-01

    The practice of paying students to earn good grades either in class or on standardized achievement tests has touched off a storm of controversy. Praised by some educators as a way of linking economic rewards to school performance, it is being tested in a number of large cities, such as New York, Baltimore and Chicago, as well as some smaller…

  9. HIGH MOISTURE PEANUT GRADING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown that the farmer stock grade, lot weight, and value could be accurately determined at kernel moisture contents greater that 10.5% without negative impact on either the producer or purchaser. In the 1998 and 1999 crop years, 686 farmer stock lots consisting of runner, virg...

  10. Middle Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presented are six activities suitable for middle grades. They include programs for voting, creating Logo patterns, and for selecting a writing topic. Other activities focus on use of the colon and FOR/NEXT loop in BASIC and evaluating programs. (JN)

  11. World Cultures Grade 3

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Shunn-Mitchell

    2008-11-25

    Grade 3 Standard2 Objective 1 Objective: Students will learn to identify elements of cultures in the seven different continents. Assignment: You have just been hired to be a travel agent. Your first customer wants to take a trip around a continent. To be a good travel agent ...

  12. Third Grade Math Routines

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-08-25

    This six-minute video, the first in a series displaying the math teaching techniques of third grade teacher Jen Saul, is an overview of her routines for energizing students, teaching facts and mental math, solving problems and giving individual attention. Other films are cataloged separately.

  13. Career Awareness: Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade two, performance…

  14. Graded SPSS Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Mary J.

    The attached materials have been developed for use on the CSU CYBER Computer's Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSSONL). The assignments are graded in difficulty and gradually introduce new commands and require the practice of previously learned commands. The handouts begin with basic instructions for logging on; then XEDIT is taught…

  15. Early Grades Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Computer Learning, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents computer-oriented teaching suggestions suitable for early grades. They include creating houses and stained glass ornaments using Logo, recording class activities with a database management program, making mazes with graphics programs, making drawings with a KoalaPad, and using a program to introduce computers to non-English speaking…

  16. Social Studies: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This Manitoba (Canada) curriculum guide for eighth grade social studies students contains suggested teaching strategies and learning activities in four units covering: (1) life during prehistoric and early historic times; (2) ancient civilizations; (3) life in early modern Europe; and (4) life in the modern world. Each unit includes an overview,…

  17. Health, Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bui Van Bao; And Others

    This is the third in a series of health primers for elementary education in Vietnam. It is written for Vietnamese children at the third grade level. The fifty-three lessons are integrated into one story. Each lesson is illustrated and briefly summarized. The eight chapters are: (1) Hygiene, at home, in school and in public places; (2) Food and…

  18. Using MMS with the OWL Grade Book

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    Using MMS with the OWL Grade Book #12;Notes Overview While MMS provides you with an easy way of distributing these grades to your students. This manualette will discuss how you can transfer grades from MMS into the OWL Grade Book, as well as export grades from the OWL Grade Book into MMS. Page 2 Transfer Grades from

  19. Advanced Use of the OWL Grade Book

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    Advanced Use of the OWL Grade Book #12;Notes Overview The Grade Book has many features to help you organize, release, and compile grades. This manualette will discuss the following advanced Grade Book the Grade Book, creating columns or adding and releasing grades, please see the Basic Use of the OWL Grade

  20. Code-Switching and Symbolic Power in a Second-Grade Two-Way Classroom: A Teacher's Motivation System Gone Awry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Deborah K.

    2009-01-01

    Code-switching is a natural part of being bilingual. Yet two-way immersion programs are known to insist upon separation of languages, discouraging both teachers and students from drawing on both linguistic codes at once. Drawing on Bourdieu's concept of symbolic power, I examine one second-grade classroom in which the teacher instituted a…

  1. Achieving mask order processing automation, interoperability and standardization based on P10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, B.; Filies, O.; Sadran, D.; Tissier, Michel; Albin, D.; Stavroulakis, S.; Voyiatzis, E.

    2007-02-01

    Last year the MUSCLE (Masks through User's Supply Chain: Leadership by Excellence) project was presented. Here is the project advancement. A key process in mask supply chain management is the exchange of technical information for ordering masks. This process is large, complex, company specific and error prone, and leads to longer cycle times and higher costs due to missing or wrong inputs. Its automation and standardization could produce significant benefits. We need to agree on the standard for mandatory and optional parameters, and also a common way to describe parameters when ordering. A system was created to improve the performance in terms of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) such as cycle time and cost of production. This tool allows us to evaluate and measure the effect of factors, as well as the effect of implementing the improvements of the complete project. Next, a benchmark study and a gap analysis were performed. These studies show the feasibility of standardization, as there is a large overlap in requirements. We see that the SEMI P10 standard needs enhancements. A format supporting the standard is required, and XML offers the ability to describe P10 in a flexible way. Beyond using XML for P10, the semantics of the mask order should also be addressed. A system design and requirements for a reference implementation for a P10 based management system are presented, covering a mechanism for the evolution and for version management and a design for P10 editing and data validation.

  2. Graded Readers: How the Publishers Make the Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claridge, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Publishing graded readers is big business, but there is evidence that the texts themselves are not being read in sufficient quantity to improve language proficiency. This article reports on a study of graded readers, focusing on interviews with some major publishers of graded readers, to investigate their production rationales. The findings…

  3. Running WRF on various distributed computing infrastructures through a standard-based Science Gateway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbera, Roberto; Bruno, Riccardo; La Rocca, Giuseppe; Markussen Lunde, Torleif; Pehrson, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modelling system is a widely used meso-scale numerical weather prediction system designed to serve both atmospheric research and operational forecasting needs. WRF has a large worldwide community counting more than 20,000 users in 130 countries and it has been specifically designed to be the state-of-the-art atmospheric simulation system being portable and running efficiently on available parallel computing platforms. Although WRF can be executed in many different environments ranging form the single core inside a stand-alone machine up to the most sophisticated HPC platforms, there are no solutions yet to match the e-Science paradigm where software, data and users are "linked" together by the network as components of distributed computing infrastructures. The topmost component of the typical e-Science model consists of Science Gateways, defined as community-developed sets of tools, applications, and data collections that normally are integrated via a portal to get access to a distributed infrastructure. One of the many available Science Gateway solutions is the Catania Science Gateway Framework (CSGF - www.catania-science-gateways.it) whose most descriptive keywords are: standard adoption, interoperability and standard adoption. The support of standards such as SAGA and SAML allows any CSGF user to seamlessly access and use both Grid and Cloud-based resources. In this work we present the CSGF and how it has been used in the context of the eI4frica project (www.ei4africa.eu) to implement the Africa Grid Science Gateway (http://sgw.africa-grid.org), which allows to execute WRF simulations on various kinds of distributed computing infrastructures at the same time, including the EGI Federated Cloud.

  4. ili G d C l i h hFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizerGrade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate Recovery Phillip Barak, PhDAmanda Boyce, MSc Phillip Barak, PhDAmanda Boyce, MSc

    E-print Network

    Barak, Phillip

    ili G d C l i h hFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizerGrade Calcium Phosphate RecoveryFertilizer Grade Calcium Phosphate Recovery Phillip Barak, PhDAmanda Boyce, MSc F W T Pl Phillip endeavored to improve on this recovery system by producing calcium phosphates from p p y fl idi d b d t i d

  5. Grade Inflation: Metaphor and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamber, Richard; Biggs, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Grade inflation has become a general term for teachers and administrators in recent times and is an ambiguous denomination which needs to be identified. The allegory and reality of grade inflation is discussed.

  6. Patterns of dietary intake and serum carotenoid and tocopherol status are associated with biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Wood, Adrian D; Strachan, Anna A; Thies, Frank; Aucott, Lorna S; Reid, David M; Hardcastle, Antonia C; Mavroeidi, Alexandra; Simpson, William G; Duthie, Garry G; Macdonald, Helen M

    2014-10-28

    Dietary modification may affect inflammatory processes and protect against chronic disease. In the present study, we examined the relationship between dietary patterns, circulating carotenoid and tocopherol concentrations, and biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation in a 10-year longitudinal study of Scottish postmenopausal women. Diet was assessed by FFQ during 1997-2000 (n 3237, mean age 54·8 (SD 2·2) years). Participants (n 2130, mean age 66·0 (SD 2·2) years) returned during 2007-11 for follow-up. Diet was assessed by FFQ (n 1682) and blood was collected for the analysis of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), IL-6, serum amyloid A, E-selectin, lipid profile and dietary biomarkers (carotenoids, tocopherols and retinol). Dietary pattern and dietary biomarker (serum carotenoid) components were generated by principal components analysis. A past 'prudent' dietary pattern predicted serum concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 (which decreased across the quintiles of the dietary pattern; P= 0·002 and P= 0·001, respectively; ANCOVA). Contemporary dietary patterns were also associated with inflammatory biomarkers. The concentrations of hs-CRP and IL-6 decreased across the quintiles of the 'prudent' dietary pattern (P= 0·030 and P= 0·006, respectively). hs-CRP concentration increased across the quintiles of a 'meat-dominated' dietary pattern (P= 0·001). Inflammatory biomarker concentrations decreased markedly across the quintiles of carotenoid component score (P< 0·001 for hs-CRP and IL-6, and P= 0·016 for E-selectin; ANCOVA). Prudent dietary pattern and carotenoid component scores were negatively associated with serum hs-CRP concentration (unstandardised ? for prudent component: -0·053, 95% CI -0·102, -0·003; carotenoid component: -0·183, 95% CI -0·233, -0·134) independent of study covariates. A prudent dietary pattern (which reflects a diet high in the intakes of fish, yogurt, pulses, rice, pasta and wine, in addition to fruit and vegetable consumption) and a serum carotenoid profile characteristic of a fruit and vegetable-rich diet are associated with lower concentrations of intermediary markers that are indicative of CVD risk reduction. PMID:25313576

  7. A Summary of Models and Standards-Based Applications for Grade-to-Grade Growth on Statewide Assessments and Implications for Students with Disabilities. Research Report. ETS RR-10-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzick, Heather M.; Laitusis, Cara Cahalan

    2010-01-01

    Recently growth-based approaches to accountability have received considerable attention because they have the potential to reward schools and teachers for improving student performance over time by measuring the progress of students at all levels of the performance spectrum (including those who have not yet reached proficiency on state…

  8. Lunar Plant Growth Chamber: Human Exploration Project STS-118 Design Challenge. A Standards-Based High School Unit Guide. Engineering by Design: Advancing Technological Literacy. A Standards-Based Program Series. EP-2007-08-94-MSFC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Daniel W.; Fuller, Jeremy; Watson, Janice; St. Hilaire, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    In May 2005, the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) was funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop curricular units for Grades K-12 on Space Exploration. The units focus on aspects of the themes that NASA Engineers and Scientists--as well as future generations of explorers--must consider, such…

  9. Optical Response of Graded Films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph T. A. Kwok

    2005-01-01

    Graded materials have quite different physical properties from the homogeneous materials. Recently, it has been found that graded thin films may have better dielectric properties than a single-layer film. The materials properties of graded films can vary continuously in space. These materials have attracted much interest in various engineering applications. However, the traditional theories fail to deal with the composites

  10. The Timing of Grade Skipping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Yi-Lung; Lohman, David F.

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the following: (a) the impact of sex, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and family income on the likelihood of whole-grade skipping between kindergarten and Grade 7 and (b) the effects of grade skipping during elementary or middle school on students' academic achievement in high school. The authors…

  11. Taking the Grading Conversation Public

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    To manage effective grading reform, education leaders must engage teachers, parents, communities, and policymakers in a rational discussion about grading. Doug Reeves suggests that leaders start the conversation with a discussion of the principles on which all stakeholders can agree; make clear what will not change under the new grading policy; be…

  12. Field grading in capacitor margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, T. E.; Sarjeant, W. J.; Nunnally, W. C.

    1981-06-01

    Some of the results of modeling electric fields in the margin of a bogey plastic film liquid impregnant capacitor are presented where effects of foil edge shape, different impregnants, and grading wires are examined. It is concluded that placement tolerance and connection problems make grading wires impractical and that folded foil edges are still the best solution to field grading.

  13. Standards-based approaches to 3D and multiview video coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Gary J.

    2009-08-01

    The extension of video applications to enable 3D perception, which typically is considered to include a stereo viewing experience, is emerging as a mass market phenomenon, as is evident from the recent prevalence of 3D major cinema title releases. For high quality 3D video to become a commonplace user experience beyond limited cinema distribution, adoption of an interoperable coded 3D digital video format will be needed. Stereo-view video can also be studied as a special case of the more general technologies of multiview and "free-viewpoint" video systems. The history of standardization work on this topic is actually richer than people may typically realize. The ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG), in particular, has been developing interoperability standards to specify various such coding schemes since the advent of digital video as we know it. More recently, the ITU-T Visual Coding Experts Group (VCEG) has been involved as well in the Joint Video Team (JVT) work on development of 3D features for H.264/14496-10 Advanced Video Coding, including Multiview Video Coding (MVC) extensions. This paper surveys the prior, ongoing, and anticipated future standardization efforts on this subject to provide an overview and historical perspective on feasible approaches to 3D and multiview video coding.

  14. Polystyrene microsphere spray standards based on CFC-free inhaler technology.

    PubMed

    Vervaet, C; Byron, P R

    2000-01-01

    Metered pressurized sprays were formulated containing polystyrene microspheres (PSM) suspended in 5% w/w ethanol in 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFA 134a). Suspensions with defined number concentrations, packaged in pressure-resistant glass containers, and fitted with specified 50-microL metering values and actuators were sonicated and fired (as if they were metered dose inhalers or MDIs). Following propellant evaporation, PSM dispersions in air containing > 98% singlets resulted from actuation of 3, 5, and 8 microns PSM suspensions containing 0.00125% w/w 3 microns, 0.05% w/w 5 microns or 0.3% w/w 8 microns PSMs, respectively. Spray characteristics from these systems depended on PSM concentration, PSM size, PSM source, and actuator dimensions. Adhesion of suspended PSMs to the internal glass surfaces of the containers were easily reversed by sonication but not prevented by a wide range of surfactants. Over a period of 6 months storage, these formulations produced reproducible PSM aerosols with known aerodynamic properties useful for calibration purposes. PMID:11010591

  15. Tissue characterization for beef grading using texture analysis of ultrasonic images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viren R. Amin; Doyle E. Wilson; Ron Roberts; Gene Rouse

    1993-01-01

    The primary factors in determining beef quality grades are the amount and distribution (or marbling) of intramuscular fat. Under the current USDA Grading system, the quality is subjectively graded by certified inspectors. There is a growing demand in the meat industry for an objective system of evaluating the quality of beef carcasses as well as live animals. A real-time ultrasound

  16. National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank: A standard based biospecimen and clinical data resource to enhance translational research

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Waqas; Parwani, Anil V; Schmandt, Linda; Mohanty, Sambit K; Farhat, Ghada; Pople, Andrew K; Winters, Sharon B; Whelan, Nancy B; Schneider, Althea M; Milnes, John T; Valdivieso, Federico A; Feldman, Michael; Pass, Harvey I; Dhir, Rajiv; Melamed, Jonathan; Becich, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Background Advances in translational research have led to the need for well characterized biospecimens for research. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank is an initiative which collects annotated datasets relevant to human mesothelioma to develop an enterprising biospecimen resource to fulfill researchers' need. Methods The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank architecture is based on three major components: (a) common data elements (based on College of American Pathologists protocol and National North American Association of Central Cancer Registries standards), (b) clinical and epidemiologic data annotation, and (c) data query tools. These tools work interoperably to standardize the entire process of annotation. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank tool is based upon the caTISSUE Clinical Annotation Engine, developed by the University of Pittsburgh in cooperation with the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ (caBIG™, see ). This application provides a web-based system for annotating, importing and searching mesothelioma cases. The underlying information model is constructed utilizing Unified Modeling Language class diagrams, hierarchical relationships and Enterprise Architect software. Result The database provides researchers real-time access to richly annotated specimens and integral information related to mesothelioma. The data disclosed is tightly regulated depending upon users' authorization and depending on the participating institute that is amenable to the local Institutional Review Board and regulation committee reviews. Conclusion The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank currently has over 600 annotated cases available for researchers that include paraffin embedded tissues, tissue microarrays, serum and genomic DNA. The National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank is a virtual biospecimen registry with robust translational biomedical informatics support to facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. Furthermore, it protects patient privacy by disclosing only de-identified datasets to assure that biospecimens can be made accessible to researchers. PMID:18700971

  17. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY...automobile, bus, truck, motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, or pedestrian at a highway-rail grade crossing involving an...

  18. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Reports and Plans § 234.7 Accidents...automobile, bus, truck, motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, or pedestrian at a highway-rail grade crossing involving an...

  19. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE ACTION PLANS Reports and Plans § 234.7 Accidents...automobile, bus, truck, motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, or pedestrian at a highway-rail grade crossing involving an...

  20. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY...automobile, bus, truck, motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, or pedestrian at a highway-rail grade crossing involving an...

  1. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SAFETY, INCLUDING SIGNAL SYSTEMS, STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY...automobile, bus, truck, motorcycle, bicycle, farm vehicle, or pedestrian at a highway-rail grade crossing involving an...

  2. 234. Formale Entstehung und Behandlung der Dupuytrenschen Kontraktur 4. Grades

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Lösch; M. Schrader

    1975-01-01

    Summary The results of micropreparations of freshly amputated fingers with 4th-grade contracture are presented in drawings. Two preparations confirm the theories published hitherto, while the 3rd preparation displays a different system with a different, up to now unconsidered, mode of development of the 4th-grade contracture. The results obtained in three cases subjected to reconstructive treatment are presented.

  3. A SENSOR AND DATA FUSION ALGORITHM FOR ROAD GRADE ESTIMATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Per Sahlholm; Henrik Jansson; Ermin Kozica; Karl Henrik Johansson

    Emerging driver assistance systems, such as look-ahead cruise controllers for heavy duty vehicles, require high precision digital maps. This contribution presents a road grade estimation algorithm for fusion of GPS and vehicle real-time sensor data, with measurements from previous runs over the same road segment. The resulting road grade estimate is thus enhanced using measurements from additional traversals of known

  4. New functionally graded thermal barrier coating system based on LaMgAl 11O 19\\/YSZ prepared by air plasma spraying

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaolong Chen; Lijian Gu; Binglin Zou; Ying Wang; Xueqiang Cao

    A new functionally graded thermal barrier coating (FG-TBC) based on LaMgAl11O19 (LaMA)\\/YSZ has been designed and prepared via air plasma spraying. The microstructure and phase stability are investigated by X-ray diffraction, SEM and high-temperature DSC analysis. Results indicate that all the LaMA and LaMA-containing intermediate composite coatings suffer irreversible phase transformations induced by the recrystallization of amorphous LaMA coating and

  5. Public Service Occupations: Grade 8. Cluster I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Public Service Occupations." It is divided into six units: education, public utilities, community social and health services, law enforcement agencies, fire departments, and the postal system. Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  6. 7 CFR 810.804 - Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for mixed grain. 810.804 Section...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Mixed Grain Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.804 Grades and...

  7. 7 CFR 810.604 - Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed. 810.604 Section 810...STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Flaxseed Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.604 Grades and...

  8. 7 CFR 810.604 - Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for flaxseed. 810.604 Section 810...STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Flaxseed Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.604 Grades and...

  9. 7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304 Section 810...United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.304 Grades and...

  10. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum >grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades...

  11. 7 CFR 810.304 - Grades and grade requirements for canola.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for canola. 810.304 Section 810...United States Standards for Canola-Terms Defined Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.304 Grades and...

  12. 7 CFR 810.1404 - Grades and grade requirements for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for sorghum. 810.1404 Section 810...STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Grades and Grade Requirements § 810.1404 Grades...

  13. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206 Section 810.206 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  14. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206 Section 810.206 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  15. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206 Section 810.206 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  16. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810.1804 Section 810.1804 Agriculture... United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  17. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810.1804 Section 810.1804 Agriculture... United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  18. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810.1804 Section 810.1804 Agriculture... United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  19. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810.1804 Section 810.1804 Agriculture... United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  20. 7 CFR 810.1804 - Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. 810.1804 Section 810.1804 Agriculture... United States Standards for Sunflower Seed Principles Governing the Application...Grades and grade requirements for sunflower seed. Grade Minimum test weight per...

  1. 7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004 Section 810.1004 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application...1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test...

  2. 7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004 Section 810.1004 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application...1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test...

  3. 7 CFR 810.1004 - Grades and grade requirements for oats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for oats. 810.1004 Section 810.1004 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Oats Principles Governing the Application...1004 Grades and grade requirements for oats. Grade Minimum limits— Test...

  4. The GeoDataPortal: A Standards-based Environmental Modeling Data Access and Manipulation Toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodgett, D. L.; Kunicki, T.; Booth, N.; Suftin, I.; Zoerb, R.; Walker, J.

    2010-12-01

    Environmental modelers from fields of study such as climatology, hydrology, geology, and ecology rely on many data sources and processing methods that are common across these disciplines. Interest in inter-disciplinary, loosely coupled modeling and data sharing is increasing among scientists from the USGS, other agencies, and academia. For example, hydrologic modelers need downscaled climate change scenarios and land cover data summarized for the watersheds they are modeling. Subsequently, ecological modelers are interested in soil moisture information for a particular habitat type as predicted by the hydrologic modeler. The USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics Geo Data Portal (GDP) project seeks to facilitate this loose model coupling data sharing through broadly applicable open-source web processing services. These services simplify and streamline the time consuming and resource intensive tasks that are barriers to inter-disciplinary collaboration. The GDP framework includes a catalog describing projects, models, data, processes, and how they relate. Using newly introduced data, or sources already known to the catalog, the GDP facilitates access to sub-sets and common derivatives of data in numerous formats on disparate web servers. The GDP performs many of the critical functions needed to summarize data sources into modeling units regardless of scale or volume. A user can specify their analysis zones or modeling units as an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standard Web Feature Service (WFS). Utilities to cache Shapefiles and other common GIS input formats have been developed to aid in making the geometry available for processing via WFS. Dataset access in the GDP relies primarily on the Unidata NetCDF-Java library’s common data model. Data transfer relies on methods provided by Unidata’s Thematic Real-time Environmental Data Distribution System Data Server (TDS). TDS services of interest include the Open-source Project for a Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP) standard for gridded time series, the OGC’s Web Coverage Service for high-density static gridded data, and Unidata’s CDM-remote for point time series. OGC WFS and Sensor Observation Service (SOS) are being explored as mechanisms to serve and access static or time series data attributed to vector geometry. A set of standardized XML-based output formats allows easy transformation into a wide variety of “model-ready” formats. Interested users will have the option of submitting custom transformations to the GDP or transforming the XML output as a post-process. The GDP project aims to support simple, rapid development of thin user interfaces (like web portals) to commonly needed environmental modeling-related data access and manipulation tools. Standalone, service-oriented components of the GDP framework provide the metadata cataloging, data subset access, and spatial-statistics calculations needed to support interdisciplinary environmental modeling.

  5. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grade designations. 810.106 Section 810.106 Agriculture...UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.106...

  6. 7 CFR 810.106 - Grade designations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grade designations. 810.106 Section 810.106 Agriculture...UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN General Provisions Grades, Grade Requirements, and Grade Designations § 810.106...

  7. Crafting Coherence from Complex Policy Messages: Educators' Perceptions of Special Education and Standards-Based Accountability Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jennifer Lin; Bray, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Federal special education and accountability policies requires that educators individualize instruction for students with disabilities, while simultaneously ensuring that the vast majority of these students meet age-based grade-level standards and assessment targets. In this paper, we examine this dynamic interplay between policies through…

  8. Computerized grading of anatomy laboratory practical examinations.

    PubMed

    Krippendorf, Beth B; Bolender, David L; Kolesari, Gary L

    2008-01-01

    At the Medical College of Wisconsin, a procedure was developed to allow computerized grading and grade reporting of laboratory practical examinations in the Clinical Human Anatomy course. At the start of the course, first year medical students were given four Lists of Structures. On these lists, numbered items were arranged alphabetically; the items were anatomical structures that could be tagged on a given lab practical examination. Each lab exam featured an anatomy laboratory component and a computer laboratory component. For the anatomy lab component, students moved from one question station to another at timed intervals and identified tagged anatomical structures. As students identified a tagged structure, they referred to a copy of the list (provided with their answer sheet) and wrote the number corresponding to the structure on their answer sheet. Immediately after the anatomy lab component, students were escorted to a computer instruction laboratory where they typed their answer numbers into a secured testing component of a learning management system that recorded their answers for automatic grading. After a brief review of examination scores and item analysis by faculty, exam scores were reported to students electronically. Adding this brief computer component to each lab exam greatly reduced faculty grading time, reduced grading errors and provided faster performance feedback for students without changing overall student performance. PMID:19177415

  9. Economic impact of log grade on the production of plywood and lumber 

    E-print Network

    Ledford, Donald Wayne

    1986-01-01

    was determined for logs by diameter and grade, utilizing a simplified smooth/rough two grade system. Computer programs were written to aid in the assessment of the economic impact of log grade on the production of plywood and lumber. The results indicate... that logs segregated by the simplified grading system have distinctly different values. Rough logs produced a larger volume of lumber than smooth logs, but the value of the smooth log production generally exceeded that of the rough log production. Smooth...

  10. Liver trauma grading and biochemistry tests.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Gozde; Gemici, Aysegul Akdogan; Yirgin, Inci Kizildag; Gulsen, Esma; Inci, Ercan

    2013-10-01

    Among solid organ blunt traumas, the liver and spleen are mostly subject to injury. In addition, the liver is also commonly injured in penetrating traumas because of its size, location, and the ease of injury to the "Glisson Capsule". Several enzymes are known to be elevated following trauma. In our study, we evaluated the correlation between the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase in 57 patients with blunt trauma to the liver and compared these values to the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma trauma grading system. Additionally, we compared the enzyme level elevations in these patients to the enzyme levels of 29 healthy subjects. As expected, we found significant elevations in enzyme levels of trauma patients compared to the control group. The calculated point estimates were not significantly different between grades 1 and 2 trauma. However, grade 3 trauma group showed a significant increase in enzyme levels. PMID:23793528

  11. Complex permittivity scaling of functionally graded composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongdamnern, Natthapong; Maurya, Deepam; Zhou, Yuan; Sanghadasa, Mohan; Yimnirun, Rattikorn; Priya, Shashank

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we provide a fundamental understanding of dielectric loss behavior as a function of applied electric field and frequency in functionally graded composites with varying numbers of layers and compositions. A new power-law scaling relation in the form of \\epsilon \\prime\\prime \\propto {{f}^{p}}E_{o}^{q} was derived based upon the ferroelectric hysteresis. The magnitude of the imaginary component of the dielectric permittivity \\left( \\epsilon \\prime\\prime \\right) was estimated from the polarization-electric field hysteresis loop. The changes in exponents of the scaling relation were correlated with the mechanism controlling the dielectric loss and interfacial coupling in graded structures. Building upon the scaling analysis, we investigated the effect of E-field on the domain mobility (?) for various functionally graded systems. These results were correlated with the experimental investigation on ferroelectric domains using transmission electron microscopy and piezoresponse force microscopy.

  12. Maximal physical work performance with European standard based fire-protective clothing system and equipment in relation to individual characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Louhevaara; R. Ilmarinen; B. Griefahn; C. Künemund; H. Mäkinen

    1995-01-01

    Every fire fighter needs to wear fire-protective clothing and a self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) several times a year while carrying out various fire-fighting and rescue operations in hazardous work environments. The aim of the present study was to quantify the effects of a multilayer turnout suit designed to fulfil European standard EN 469 used over standardized (Nordic) clothing and with

  13. Grading the Functional Movement Screen™: A Comparison of Manual (Real-Time) and Objective Methods.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, David; Deneweth, Jessica M; Pohorence, Melissa A; Sandoval, Bo; Russell, Jason R; McLean, Scott G; Zernicke, Ronald F; Goulet, Grant C

    2014-08-26

    Although inter-and intra-tester reliability has been a common theme in Functional Movement Screen (FMS) research, the criterion validity of manual grading is yet to be comprehensively examined. This study aimed to compare the FMS scores assigned by a certified FMS tester to those measured by an objective inertial-based motion capture system (IMU). Eleven female Division I collegiate athletes performed six FMS exercises and were manually graded by a tester. Explicit kinematic thresholds were formulated to correspond to each of the grading criteria for each FMS exercise and then used to grade athletes objectively using the IMU data. The levels of agreement between the two grading methods were poor in all six FMS exercises. It appears that manual grading of the FMS is confounded by vague grading criteria. More explicit grading guidelines would likely improve the uniformity and accuracy of manual FMS grading and also facilitate the use of objective measurement systems in the grading process. Contrary to the approach that has been employed in several previous studies, the potential for subjective and/or inaccurate FMS grading insinuates that it may be inappropriate to assume that manual FMS grading provides a valid measurement tool. Consequently, the development and criterion validation of uniform grading procedures must precede research attempting to link FMS performance and injury rates. With manual grading methods seemingly susceptible to error, the FMS should be used cautiously to direct strength and/or conditioning programs. PMID:25162646

  14. Basic Use of the OWL Grade Book

    E-print Network

    Lennard, William N.

    Basic Use of the OWL Grade Book #12;Notes Overview The Grade Book tool provides an easy and convenient way for instructors to manage grades and distribute them to students. Using the Grade Book. This handout will show you how to: · Access the Grade Book · Create a column in the Grade Book · Add

  15. Computer-Aided Grading of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) using HRCT

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianhua; Avila, Nilo; Dwyer, Andrew; Taveira-DaSilva, Angelo M.; Hathaway, Olanda M.; Moss, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a multisystem disorder associated with proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells, which leads to destruction of lung parenchyma. Subjective grading of LAM on HRCT is imprecise and can be arduous especially in cases with severe involvement. We propose a computer-aided evaluation system that grades LAM involvement based on analysis of lung texture patterns. A committee of support vector machines is employed for classification. The system was tested on 36 patients. The computer grade demonstrates good correlation with subjective radiologist grade (R=0.91, p<0.0001) and pulmonary functional tests (R=0.85, p<0.0001). The grade also provides precise progression assessment of disease over time. PMID:21625320

  16. Grading the teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Clifford E.

    2000-04-01

    Several fads ago there was a movement to grade teachers in terms of their competency — competency-based testing. Everyone knows that there are good teachers and there are bad teachers. The trouble is, it's hard to define the categories. It's like the Supreme Court justice who couldn't define pornography, but knew it when he saw it. In New York State, prospective teachers must take tests in both pedagogy and subject material. That seems reasonable. There ought to be some minimum standards, so I thought that I would try my hand at setting up such requirements.

  17. Neural network approaches to grade adult depression.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Subhagata; Kaur, Preetisha; Rabhi, Fethi; Acharya, U Rajendra

    2012-10-01

    Depression is a common but worrying psychological disorder that adversely affects one's quality of life. It is more ominous to note that its incidence is increasing. On the other hand, screening and grading of depression is still a manual and time consuming process that might be biased. In addition, grades of depression are often determined in continuous ranges, e.g., 'mild to moderate' and 'moderate to severe' instead of making them more discrete as 'mild', 'moderate', and 'severe'. Grading as a continuous range is confusing to the doctors and thus affecting the management plan at large. Given this practical issue, the present paper attempts to differentiate depression grades more accurately using two neural net learning approaches-'supervised', i.e., classification with Back propagation neural network (BPNN) and Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) classifiers, and 'unsupervised', i.e., 'clustering' technique with Self-organizing map (SOM), built in MATLAB 7. The reason for using the supervised and unsupervised learning approaches is that, supervised learning depends exclusively on domain knowledge. Supervision may induce biasness and subjectivities related to the decision-making. Finally, the performance of BPNN and ANFIS are compared and discussed. It was observed that ANFIS, being a hybrid system, performed much better compared to the BPNN classifier. On the other hand, SOM-based clustering technique is also found useful in constructing three distinct clusters. It also assists visualizing the multidimensional data clusters into 2-D. PMID:21833604

  18. Low-grade glioma.

    PubMed

    Kumthekar, Priya; Raizer, Jeffrey; Singh, Simran

    2015-01-01

    Low-grade gliomas are slower growing than their high-grade counterparts. They account for 10-20 % of all primary brain tumors. Median survival is between 4.7 and 9.8 years. The goal of treatment is to prolong overall survival while maintaining good quality of life (QOL). Recent data favors early surgical resection. EOR is associated with delayed tumor recurrence and improved survival. Additional therapy with chemotherapy or radiation is indicated in patients with high-risk features. Lower doses (between 45 and 50.4 Gy) have been shown to be as effective without adverse effects compared to higher doses. Recent trials have shown benefit in combining chemotherapy with radiation compared to radiation alone. The optimal chemotherapeutic regimen (PCV or temozolomide (TMZ)) remains unknown, although TMZ is easier to administer and better tolerated by patients. Novel molecular markers including 1p/19q chromosomal codeletion and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation have been correlated with treatment response and survival. PMID:25468226

  19. Grading ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast using an automated proliferation index.

    PubMed

    Stasik, Christopher J; Davis, Marilyn; Kimler, Bruce F; Fan, Fang; Damjanov, Ivan; Thomas, Patricia; Tawfik, Ossama W

    2011-01-01

    Tumor grade, size and margin status are the most significant factors in predicting the behavior of ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS). The inclusion of necrosis and nuclear grade in the grading of DCIS has demonstrated a fair but suboptimal agreement between pathologists. The grading of DCIS was studied and compared to the Van Nuys (VN) system, by using our newly proposed unifying "nuclear grade + proliferation index (N+P) grading system for invasive carcinomas. 162 DCIS tumors were studied including 49 VN I, 31 VN II, and 82 VN III cases. The VN and N+P systems were compared with each other and correlated with tumor size, ER, PR, p53, Her-2, EGFR, Bcl-2, p27 and p21 status. The two systems demonstrated similar frequencies for the different grades and an agreement with each other for all of the biomarkers studied. The greatest difference between the two systems was observed for those tumors initially classified as VN II (94% being down-graded to N+P I) and VN III (80% being down-graded to N+P II). These results suggest that the N+P system, combining nuclear grade with automated MIB-1 count, is a potentially valid and reproducible grading system for both non-invasive and invasive mammary carcinomas. It is automated, less subjective in assessing mitotic activity and necrosis and correlates with other prognostic biomarkers. PMID:21844569

  20. 49 CFR 234.11 - State highway-rail grade crossing action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false State highway-rail grade crossing action plans. 234.11 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GRADE CROSSING SIGNAL SYSTEM SAFETY AND STATE...Plans § 234.11 State highway-rail grade crossing action plans. (a)...