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Sample records for star released osteoporosis

  1. Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    Osteoporosis makes your bones weak and more likely to break. Anyone can develop osteoporosis, but it is common in older women. As ... than 50 will break a bone due to osteoporosis. Risk factors include Getting older Being small and ...

  2. Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > ePublications > Our ePublications > Osteoporosis fact sheet ePublications Osteoporosis fact sheet This information in Spanish (en español) Print this fact sheet Osteoporosis fact sheet (PDF, 412 KB) Related information Menopause ...

  3. Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... IT? HIV AND OSTEOPOROSIS ANTACIDS AND BONE MINERAL DENSITY HOW DO I KNOW IF I HAVE OSTEOPOROSIS? ... have unusually high rates of low bone mineral density and broken bones. This may be because of ...

  4. Osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Riggs, B.L. Melton III, L.J. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 20 chapters. Some of the titles are: Radiology of asteoporosis; Quantitative computed tomography in assessment of osteoporosis; Nuclear medicine and densitometry; Assessment of bone turnover by histormorphometry in osteoporosis; and The biochemistry of bone.

  5. Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Osteoporosis is a condition that leads to loss of bone mass. From the outside, osteoporotic bone is shaped like normal bone. However, the inside of ... aware of the presence of the disease. Prevention is the best measure for treating osteoporosis by eating ...

  6. Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Having a family history of osteoporosis Taking certain medicines Being a white or Asian woman Having osteopenia, which is low bone density Osteoporosis is a silent disease. You might not know you have it until you break a ... medicines can also help. NIH: National Institute of Arthritis ...

  7. Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    Osteoporosis is a condition that leads to loss of bone mass. From the outside, osteoporotic bone is shaped like normal bone. ... routine activities, like walking, standing, or bathing. Often, a person will sustain a fracture before becoming aware ...

  8. [Osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Uebelhart, Brigitte; Rizzoli, René

    2015-01-14

    Bone events related to bariatric surgery remain controversial. Denosumab, used in osteoporosis treatment, is safe and efficient. Romosozumab, an antibody raised against sclerostin, is a promising bone anabolic agent. Odanacatib, a cathepsin-K inhibitor, decreases bone resorption and reduces osteoporotic fracture risk. Denosumab, as bone resorption inhibitor, and Teriparatide, as anabolic agent, have been tested together in patients with osteoporosis. Calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk are still debated. Drug holiday, after long-term treatment with bisphosphonates, is not associated with an increased fracture rate in patients with moderate risk. PMID:25799662

  9. [Osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Hintze, Gerhard; Graf, Dieter

    2016-06-01

    Osteoporosis is among the main causes for bone fractures. In this overview we report on the prevalence of the disease, the diagnostic procedures, and the therapeutic options. The prevalence increases with age and women are more often affected than men. The diagnosis usually is made on the basis of dual X-ray absorptiometry. Prophylactic measures include a sufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D. Bisphosphonates play a central role in the pharmacotherapy of this disease. PMID:27439255

  10. [Osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Al-Khawajah, F F

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that people, especially white people, are getting osteoporosis more often than previously thought. Until now, no direct causative factor has been determined, but genetic factors are very likely to be involved. Usually, affected individuals are initially asymptomatic while the disease process is going on, and they come to the attention of the medical profession only late when their bones are fractured as a result of a simple trauma. Also it is vital to let people know that heavy sports, at times, can be harmful. PMID:15339135

  11. Clinical utility of risedronate in postmenopausal osteoporosis: patient considerations with delayed-release formulation

    PubMed Central

    Kinov, Plamen; Boyanov, Mihail

    2012-01-01

    Bisphosphonates are the most widely prescribed treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis, secondary osteoporosis, and male osteoporosis. Notwithstanding their high effectiveness and favorable safety profile, the adherence to bisphosphonate treatment remains low. Different treatment strategies aim to improve the clinical effectiveness of bisphosphonate therapy. This review paper assesses the clinical utility of oral intermittent risedronate in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. The new delayed-release risedronate formulation is a safer and easy to use alternative to other risedronate therapy. Oral risedronate, a potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, has been extensively studied using daily regimens. A new intermittent (weekly) dosing regimen confirmed its clinical effectiveness in relation to vertebral and nonvertebral fracture prevention. The absence of significant differences in the incidence of adverse effects confirmed the favorable tolerability of the weekly dosage. In efforts to improve patient adherence to treatment, an innovative, delayed-release formulation of risedronate, which ensures adequate bioavailability of the active compound when taken with food, was introduced. The once-weekly delayed-release formulation of risedronate proved to be noninferior to the daily dosage of risedronate in terms of bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover. In addition, the incidence of new morphometric vertebral fractures was comparable in both treatment regimens. The new delayed-release formulation of risedronate showed a favorable safety profile. Delayed-release risedronate is a promising, new, effective, and convenient alternative to current bisphosphonate treatments. It appears to allow better patient adherence to antiresorptive treatment. PMID:22532780

  12. Osteoporosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by progressive loss of bone density, thinning of bone tissue and increased vulnerability to fractures. Osteoporosis may result from disease, dietary or hormonal deficiency ...

  13. Secondary osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-06-01

    Secondary osteoporosis is less common than primary osteoporosis. It may be suspected in patients who present with a fragility fracture despite having no risk factors for osteoporosis. In addition, secondary osteoporosis should be considered if the bone density Z-score is -2.5 or less. Consider the fracture site and presence of other clinical clues to guide investigations for an underlying cause. The tests to use are those that are indicated for the suspected cause. Baseline investigations include tests for bone and mineral metabolism (calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), liver and kidney function, full blood count and thyroid-stimulating hormone. More detailed testing may be required in patients with severe osteoporosis. PMID:27346916

  14. Treating osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Akhil; March, Lyn

    2016-01-01

    summary Osteoporotic fractures are common resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Exercise can help prevent osteoporosis. It can also benefit patients with osteoporosis, but the exercises must be tailored to the patient. Most Australians should be able to obtain adequate calcium in their diet and vitamin D from the sun. Supplements may be needed in some patients and they are recommended for use with other drugs for osteoporosis. Bisphosphonates, and in some patients denosumab, are first-line drugs for osteoporosis. Raloxifene and strontium ranelate can be considered in patients who cannot take bisphosphonates or denosumab. Teriparatide is reserved for patients with severe osteoporosis and the use of strontium ranelate is declining because of cardiovascular safety concerns. PMID:27340321

  15. Secondary osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Secondary osteoporosis is less common than primary osteoporosis. It may be suspected in patients who present with a fragility fracture despite having no risk factors for osteoporosis. In addition, secondary osteoporosis should be considered if the bone density Z-score is –2.5 or less. Consider the fracture site and presence of other clinical clues to guide investigations for an underlying cause. The tests to use are those that are indicated for the suspected cause. Baseline investigations include tests for bone and mineral metabolism (calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone), liver and kidney function, full blood count and thyroid-stimulating hormone. More detailed testing may be required in patients with severe osteoporosis. PMID:27346916

  16. MALE OSTEOPOROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Lindomar Guimarães; Guimarães, Mara Lucia Rassi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Population aging is a reality that is being faced worldwide, and Brazil is no different. Osteoporosis was considered to be a postmenopausal women's disease for many years. Men have many development and hormonal factors that differentiate their skeletal maturation, which affects the incidence of osteoporosis and fractures. An up-to-date review of the specific literature within the Medline system is presented. PMID:27022584

  17. GOSSS-DR1: The First Data Release of the Galactic O-star Spectroscopic Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sota, Alfredo; Maíz Apellániz, Jesús; Barbá, Rodolfo H.; Walborn, Nolan R.; Alfaro, Emilio J.; Gamen, Roberto C.; Morrell, Nidia I.; Arias, Julia I.; Gallego Calvente, A. T.

    2013-06-01

    Coinciding with this meeting, we are publishing the first data release of GOSSS. This release contains [a] revised spectral classifications and [b] blue-violet R~2500 spectra in FITS format for ~400 Galactic O stars, including all brighter than B=8. DR1 (and future releases) will take place through GOSC, the Galactic O-Star Catalog (http://gosc.iaa.es), which will be updated for the occasion. Since 2011 GOSC runs on a MySQL database and allows for queries based on coordinates, spectral class, photometry, and other parameters. Future data releases will include the rest of the stars observed in GOSSS (currently 1521 with ~1000 more planned in the next two years).

  18. New white dwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, I.; Koester, D.; Ourique, G.; Kleinman, S. J.; Romero, A. D.; Nitta, A.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Costa, J. E. S.; Külebi, B.; Jordan, S.; Dufour, P.; Giommi, Paolo; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    We report the discovery of 9088 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs and subdwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), and estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon-dominated spectra DQs. We found 1 central star of a planetary nebula, 2 new oxygen spectra on helium atmosphere white dwarfs, 71 DQs, 42 hot DO/PG1159s, 171 white dwarf+main-sequence star binaries, 206 magnetic DAHs, 327 continuum-dominated DCs, 397 metal-polluted white dwarfs, 450 helium-dominated white dwarfs, 647 subdwarfs and 6887 new hydrogen-dominated white dwarf stars.

  19. Male Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Matthew T.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Osteoporosis is now recognized as a major threat to health in aging men. Morbidity and mortality, particularly following hip fracture, are substantial. Whereas trabecular bone loss starts in early adulthood, loss of cortical bone only appears to occur from mid-life onwards. Declining bioavailable estradiol levels play an integral role in male age-associated bone loss. Both pharmacologic and supportive care interventions are important for optimal care in men at increased fracture risk. PMID:22877433

  20. New white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, I.; Koester, D.; Ourique, G.; Romero, A. D.; Reindl, N.; Kleinman, S. J.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Valois, A. D. M.; Amaral, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of 6576 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon-dominated spectra (DQs). We found one central star of a planetary nebula, one ultracompact helium binary (AM CVn), one oxygen line-dominated white dwarf, 15 hot DO/PG1159s, 12 new cataclysmic variables, 36 magnetic white dwarf stars, 54 DQs, 115 helium-dominated white dwarfs, 148 white dwarf + main-sequence star binaries, 236 metal-polluted white dwarfs, 300 continuum spectra DCs, 230 hot subdwarfs, 2936 new hydrogen-dominated white dwarf stars, and 2675 cool hydrogen-dominated subdwarf stars. We calculate the mass distribution of all 5883 DAs with S/N ≥ 15 in DR12, including the ones in DR7 and DR10, with an average S/N = 26, corrected to the 3D convection scale, and also the distribution after correcting for the observed volume, using 1/Vmax.

  1. Understanding osteoporosis.

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, R.

    1991-01-01

    Considerable progress has been achieved recently in our understanding of the normal process by which bone mass is regulated. Age-related trabecular bone loss is characterized not simply by a global loss of bone but also by cortical porosity and loss of trabecular connections. Because bone strength depends on architectural as well as material properties, bone quantity alone cannot define fracture risk with precision. Traditional therapies for osteoporosis increase bone mass, and estrogen therapy, in particular, profoundly decreases fracture risk. The pharmacologic restoration of bone quantity and quality, however, remains elusive. Modern biotechnology offers the hope that progress may come about through the development of growth factors and other osteotropic compounds for clinical use. Images PMID:1877231

  2. FastStats: Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Osteoporosis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... men 50 years of age and over with osteoporosis of the femur neck or lumbar spine: 4% ...

  3. Osteoporosis: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, C. Conrad; Slemenda, Charles

    1987-01-01

    An overview of osteoporosis, its types, causes, diagnosis, and treatment is presented. Risk factors and bone mass measurement are also discussed. This article serves as an introduction to a symposium on osteoporosis containing five other articles in this issue. (MT)

  4. Osteoporosis: Preventing Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Preventing Falls Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... next to your bed Free NIH Videos About Osteoporosis The NIHSeniorHealth Web site features five brief, informative ...

  5. International Osteoporosis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Websites IOF International IOF Latin America IOF Asia-Pacific IOF Microsites Capture the Fracture Osteoporosis Essentials course ... on FRAX CME accreditation confirmed for 6th Asia-Pacific Osteoporosis Meeting in Singapore Milk and other dairy ...

  6. Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the elderly, visit: NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center Website: http://www.bones.nih. ... Pub. No. 15-7924 NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center 2 AMS Circle Bethesda, MD ...

  7. Exercise and Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Exercise and Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is a disease that weakens ... calcium and vitamin D. Include regular weight-bearing exercise in your lifestyle. Stop smoking. Limit how much ...

  8. Osteoporosis and Your Spine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Movement › Osteoporosis and Your Spine Osteoporosis and Your Spine Your spine is made up of small bones ... called kyphosis. Kyphosis and Bone Breaks in the Spine The bones in the spine are called vertebrae. ...

  9. Medicines for osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Raloxifene (Evista); Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... to fracture (break). With osteoporosis, the bones lose density. Bone density measures the amount of bone tissue ...

  10. Characterizing the Variability of Stars with Early-release Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciardi, David R.; von Braun, Kaspar; Bryden, Geoff; van Eyken, Julian; Howell, Steve B.; Kane, Stephen R.; Plavchan, Peter; Ramírez, Solange V.; Stauffer, John R.

    2011-04-01

    We present a variability analysis of the early-release first quarter of data publicly released by the Kepler project. Using the stellar parameters from the Kepler Input Catalog, we have separated the sample into 129,000 dwarfs and 17,000 giants and further sub-divided the luminosity classes into temperature bins corresponding approximately to the spectral classes A, F, G, K, and M. Utilizing the inherent sampling and time baseline of the public data set (30 minute sampling and 33.5 day baseline), we have explored the variability of the stellar sample. The overall variability rate of the dwarfs is 25% for the entire sample, but can reach 100% for the brightest groups of stars in the sample. G dwarfs are found to be the most stable with a dispersion floor of σ ~ 0.04 mmag. At the precision of Kepler, >95% of the giant stars are variable with a noise floor of ~0.1 mmag, 0.3 mmag, and 10 mmag for the G giants, K giants, and M giants, respectively. The photometric dispersion of the giants is consistent with acoustic variations of the photosphere; the photometrically derived predicted radial velocity distribution for the K giants is in agreement with the measured radial velocity distribution. We have also briefly explored the variability fraction as a function of data set baseline (1-33 days), at the native 30 minute sampling of the public Kepler data. To within the limitations of the data, we find that the overall variability fractions increase as the data set baseline is increased from 1 day to 33 days, in particular for the most variable stars. The lower mass M dwarf, K dwarf, and G dwarf stars increase their variability more significantly than the higher mass F dwarf and A dwarf stars as the time baseline is increased, indicating that the variability of the lower mass stars is mostly characterized by timescales of weeks while the variability of the higher mass stars is mostly characterized by timescales of days. A study of the distribution of the variability as a

  11. CHARACTERIZING THE VARIABILITY OF STARS WITH EARLY-RELEASE KEPLER DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Ciardi, David R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Van Eyken, Julian; Kane, Stephen R.; Plavchan, Peter; RamIrez, Solange V.; Stauffer, John R.

    2011-04-15

    We present a variability analysis of the early-release first quarter of data publicly released by the Kepler project. Using the stellar parameters from the Kepler Input Catalog, we have separated the sample into 129,000 dwarfs and 17,000 giants and further sub-divided the luminosity classes into temperature bins corresponding approximately to the spectral classes A, F, G, K, and M. Utilizing the inherent sampling and time baseline of the public data set (30 minute sampling and 33.5 day baseline), we have explored the variability of the stellar sample. The overall variability rate of the dwarfs is 25% for the entire sample, but can reach 100% for the brightest groups of stars in the sample. G dwarfs are found to be the most stable with a dispersion floor of {sigma} {approx} 0.04 mmag. At the precision of Kepler, >95% of the giant stars are variable with a noise floor of {approx}0.1 mmag, 0.3 mmag, and 10 mmag for the G giants, K giants, and M giants, respectively. The photometric dispersion of the giants is consistent with acoustic variations of the photosphere; the photometrically derived predicted radial velocity distribution for the K giants is in agreement with the measured radial velocity distribution. We have also briefly explored the variability fraction as a function of data set baseline (1-33 days), at the native 30 minute sampling of the public Kepler data. To within the limitations of the data, we find that the overall variability fractions increase as the data set baseline is increased from 1 day to 33 days, in particular for the most variable stars. The lower mass M dwarf, K dwarf, and G dwarf stars increase their variability more significantly than the higher mass F dwarf and A dwarf stars as the time baseline is increased, indicating that the variability of the lower mass stars is mostly characterized by timescales of weeks while the variability of the higher mass stars is mostly characterized by timescales of days. A study of the distribution of the

  12. Osteoporosis: Therapeutic Options.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Stefka; Vasileva, Liliya; Ivanova, Stanislava; Peikova, Lily; Obreshkova, Danka

    2016-01-01

    The definition of osteoporosis was originally formulated at a conference of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1993 as 'a systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and altered micro-architecture of bone tissue, leading to enhanced bone fragility and risk of fractures'. Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and loss of the structural and bio-mechanical properties that are required to maintain bone homeostasis. This review aims to address the currently available options in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Management of osteoporosis includes non-pharmacological treatment - diet rich of calcium and vitamin D, healthy lifestyle, proper exercise plan, and pharmacological therapy. Combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options have to be considered for prevention of osteoporosis and minimization of the risk of fractures. Given the heterogeneity of osteoporosis syndrome and lack of significant number of comparative studies, the choice of a pharmacological agents should be individualized. PMID:27180344

  13. Comparing Osteoporosis Drugs: The Bisphosphonates

    MedlinePlus

    Drugs to Treat Low Bone Density Comparing Osteoporosis Drugs: The Bisphosphonates What is osteoporosis (low bone density)? Osteoporosis is a condition in which the body does not build enough new bone. ...

  14. Osteoporosis: Build Up Your Bones!

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Build Up Your Bones! Past Issues / Winter 2011 ... special needs of people with osteoporosis. A Complete Osteoporosis Program Remember, exercise is only one part of ...

  15. Exercise, Eating, Estrogen, and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jim

    1986-01-01

    Osteoporosis affects millions of people, especially women. Three methods for preventing or managing osteoporosis are recommended: (1) exercise; (2) increased calcium intake; and (3) estrogen replacement therapy. (CB)

  16. Osteoporosis in Men

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Sundeep; Amin, Shreyasee; Orwoll, Eric

    2008-01-01

    With the aging of the population, there is a growing recognition that osteoporosis and fractures in men are a significant public health problem, and both hip and vertebral fractures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in men. Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous clinical entity: whereas most men experience bone loss with aging, some men develop osteoporosis at a relatively young age, often for unexplained reasons (idiopathic osteoporosis). Declining sex steroid levels and other hormonal changes likely contribute to age-related bone loss, as do impairments in osteoblast number and/or activity. Secondary causes of osteoporosis also play a significant role in pathogenesis. Although there is ongoing controversy regarding whether osteoporosis in men should be diagnosed based on female- or male-specific reference ranges (because some evidence indicates that the risk of fracture is similar in women and men for a given level of bone mineral density), a diagnosis of osteoporosis in men is generally made based on male-specific reference ranges. Treatment consists both of nonpharmacological (lifestyle factors, calcium and vitamin D supplementation) and pharmacological (most commonly bisphosphonates or PTH) approaches, with efficacy similar to that seen in women. Increasing awareness of osteoporosis in men among physicians and the lay public is critical for the prevention of fractures in our aging male population. PMID:18451258

  17. Osteoporosis in women.

    PubMed

    Bowman, M A; Spangler, J G

    1997-03-01

    Many preventive and treatment strategies are now available for osteoporosis, offering many women the opportunity to forego its many complications. Exercise with calcium and vitamin D supplements is recommended for most patients. Estrogens are a preferred treatment but not acceptable to many women. Alendronate, a bisphosphonate, recently became available to treat osteoporosis. Calcitonin, subcutaneous or intranasal, also can be useful. PMID:9016728

  18. Osteoporosis in Gastrointestinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Krela-Kaźmierczak, Iwona; Szymczak, Aleksandra; Łykowska-Szuber, Liliana; Eder, Piotr; Linke, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Secondary osteoporosis occurs as an isolated pathology or co-exists with types I and II osteoporosis. The gastroenterologist may come across osteoporosis or osteopenia in a patient with a gastrointestinal disease. This is often a young patient in whom investigations should be carried out and appropriate treatment initiated, aimed at preventing bone fractures and the formation of the best peak bone mass. Osteoporosis occurs in patients with the following conditions: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, celiac disease, post gastrectomy patients, patients with short bowel syndrome, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, treated with steroids (steroid-induced osteoporosis) and patients using proton pump inhibitors chronically (state of achlorhydria). It is therefore necessary to approve a list of risk factors of secondary osteoporosis, the presence of which would be an indication for screening for osteoporosis, including a DXA study and the development of a separate algorithm for the therapeutic management of secondary osteoporosis accompanying gastrointestinal diseases, especially in premenopausal young women and young men, because there are currently no registered drugs with proven antifracture activity for this group of patients. PMID:26935513

  19. Pituitary Disorders and Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Jawiarczyk-Przybyłowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Various hormonal disorders can influence bone metabolism and cause secondary osteoporosis. The consequence of this is a significant increase of fracture risk. Among pituitary disorders such effects are observed in patients with Cushing's disease, hyperprolactinemia, acromegaly, and hypopituitarism. Severe osteoporosis is the result of the coexistence of some of these disorders and hypogonadism at the same time, which is quite often. PMID:25873948

  20. [Epidemiology of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Scheidt-Nave, C; Ziegler, R; Raspe, H

    1998-03-15

    Epidemiological studies have identified osteoporosis as a disease of significant public health impact and have delineated numerous potential risk factors. Nevertheless, it has proven difficult to establish preventive strategies for several reasons. First, there has been no final agreement on the definition of osteoporosis, which has hampered efforts to characterize the magnitude of the problem as a whole. Secondly, as osteoporosis is a multifactorial chronic disorder, effective programs for risk assessment and intervention depend on the development of complex disease models. In summarizing the contributions of epidemiological studies to the current understanding of osteoporosis this review intends to outline the scientific background for the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) and its successors. PMID:9564151

  1. [Osteoporosis: a clinical perspective].

    PubMed

    Matikainen, Niina

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is defined by decreased bone density and microarchitectural deterioration that predispose to fragility fractures. The WHO diagnostic criteria of osteoporosis require bone densitometry but treatment is possible on the basis of high clinical fracture risk and can be assessed by the FRAX risk algorithm. All those subject to fracture risk should be advised about proper basic treatment of osteoporosis, including exercise, prevention of falls, smoking cessation, avoidance of alcohol intake, and dietary or supplemental abundance of calcium and vitamin D. Underlying diseases must be studied after diagnosis of osteoporosis even if treatment is initiated without densitometry. When indicated, specific osteoporosis therapy includes bisphosphonates, denosumab, teriparatide, strontium ranelate or SERMs. In hypogonadism, gonadal steroids may be indicated alone or in addition to a specific treatment. Treatment effect and continuation are assessed after 2 to 5 years. PMID:27400591

  2. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS. II. 2165 ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE SECOND DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Prsa, Andrej; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Coughlin, Jared; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Gregg, Trevor A.; Fetherolf, Tara; Short, Donald R.; Windmiller, Gur; Rucker, Michael; Batalha, Natalie; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Mullally, F.; Seader, Shawn E.

    2011-11-15

    The Kepler Mission provides nearly continuous monitoring of {approx}156,000 objects with unprecedented photometric precision. Coincident with the first data release, we presented a catalog of 1879 eclipsing binary systems identified within the 115 deg{sup 2} Kepler field of view (FOV). Here, we provide an updated catalog augmented with the second Kepler data release which increases the baseline nearly fourfold to 125 days. Three hundred and eighty-six new systems have been added, ephemerides and principal parameters have been recomputed. We have removed 42 previously cataloged systems that are now clearly recognized as short-period pulsating variables and another 58 blended systems where we have determined that the Kepler target object is not itself the eclipsing binary. A number of interesting objects are identified. We present several exemplary cases: four eclipsing binaries that exhibit extra (tertiary) eclipse events; and eight systems that show clear eclipse timing variations indicative of the presence of additional bodies bound in the system. We have updated the period and galactic latitude distribution diagrams. With these changes, the total number of identified eclipsing binary systems in the Kepler FOV has increased to 2165, 1.4% of the Kepler target stars. An online version of this catalog is maintained at http://keplerEBs.villanova.edu.

  3. OSTEOPOROSIS DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Márcio Passini Gonçalves

    2015-01-01

    Articles that update the state of knowledge regarding osteoporosis run the risk of quickly becoming obsolete because research and studies on osteoporosis today are arousing great interest among researchers, the pharmaceutical and medical equipment industries, governments and even WHO. All orthopedists know about osteoporosis because of its most deleterious effect: osteoporotic fracture. Osteoporosis without fractures does not arouse suspicion because this is a pathological condition with a nonspecific clinical profile. Osteoporotic fractures have an economic cost (from treatment), a social cost (from its sequelae) and a medical cost (from deaths). Many fractures could be avoided through diagnosing osteoporosis prior to the first fracture and thus many temporary and permanent disabilities could be avoided and many lives saved. Awareness of the risk factors for osteoporosis raises suspicions and bone densitometry aids in diagnosis. Treatment should be based on the physiopathology of the disease. Hence, for prevention or treatment of osteoporosis, the activity of osteoclasts should be diminished or the activity of osteoblasts should be increased, or both. Treatment that reduces the incidence of fractures by improving the bone geometry and microarchitecture would be ideal. Newly formed bone tissue needs to have good cell and matrix quality, normal mineralization, a good ratio between mineralized (mechanically resistant) and non-mineralized (flexible) bone, and no accumulated damage. The ideal treatment should have a positive remodeling rate and fast and long-lasting therapeutic effects. Such effects need to be easily detectable. They need to be safe. PMID:27022545

  4. Rare causes of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Marcucci, Gemma; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by loss of bone mass and strength, resulting in increased risk of fractures. It is classically divided into primary (post-menopausal or senile), secondary and idiopathic forms. There are many rare diseases, that cause directly or indirectly osteoporosis. The identification and classification of most of these rare causes of osteoporosis is crucial for the specialists in endocrinology and not, in order to prevent this bone complication and to provide for an early therapy. Several pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including various aspects of bone metabolism such as: decreased bone formation, increased bone resorption, altered calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D homeostasis, and abnormal collagen synthesis. In this review, less common forms of primary and secondary osteoporosis are described, specifying, if applicable: genetic causes, epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenic mechanisms causing osteoporosis. A greater awareness of all rare causes of osteoporosis could reduce the number of cases classified as idiopathic osteoporosis and allow the introduction of appropriate and timely treatments. PMID:26604941

  5. [Endocrine disorders and osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuka

    2015-10-01

    Secondary osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by decreased bone mass that predisposes fractures due to underlying disorders or medication. Disorders of the endocrine system, such as primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency, Cushing's syndrome, and anorexia nervosa frequently cause secondary osteoporosis. In those diseases, hormone excess or deficiency affects functions of osteoblasts, osteocyte, and osteoclasts, leading to aberrant bone remodeling. Bisphosphonates are the first-choice pharmacological agents for fracture prevention in most patients with secondary osteoporosis along with treatment of the underlying disease. PMID:26529938

  6. What Is Osteoporosis?

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... easily. LAWRENCE RAISZ, M.D.: Osteoporosis and bone health have become enormous problems in the United States ... attention to. People ignore the issue of bone health-- they don't concern themselves about it until ...

  7. International Osteoporosis Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bosnia and Herzegovina - Brazil - Bulgaria - Cameroon - Canada - Chile - China - Colombia - Costa Rica - Croatia - Cuba - Cyprus - Czech Republic - ... warn of osteoporosis threat to Asia’s growing elderly population New drugs may help increase muscle strength and ...

  8. Diagnosis of Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahner, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    Early recognition of osteoporosis is difficult because symptoms are lacking and there are no distinct, readily accessible diagnostic features. This article reviews the standard approach, radiographic and laboratory diagnosis, bone mass measurement techniques, and interpretation of bone mineral data. (MT)

  9. Estrogen and Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Robert

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the use of estrogen in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Dosage levels, interactions with other factors, side effects, and the mechanism of estrogen action are discussed. (Author/MT)

  10. Medicines for osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Evista); Teriparatide (Forteo); Denosumab (Prolia); Low bone density - medicines; Osteoporosis - medicines ... Your doctor may prescribe medicines to help lower your risk of fractures. These medicines make the bones in your hips, spine, and other areas denser. ...

  11. Osteoporosis in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... formation. Because it requires daily injections and is expensive, doctors usually prescribe it only for men with ... wine, or a single measure of spirits) • Quit smoking. If you already have osteoporosis, you should take ...

  12. Osteoporosis in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Treasure, J; Serpell, L

    1999-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa is a disorder characterized by low body weight and amenorrhoea (in females). These features lead to a risk of osteoporosis, a condition in which bone loss leads to weakening of bone structure and increased fracture risk. PMID:10605537

  13. Osteoporosis in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... talk to their doctor about having a bone mineral density (BMD) test. Men should also be tested ... tests. The doctor may also order a bone mineral density test. This test can identify osteoporosis, determine ...

  14. Secondary osteoporosis: pathophysiology & diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Emkey, Gregory R; Epstein, Sol

    2014-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and microarchitectural changes in bone tissue that increase the susceptibility to fracture. Secondary osteoporosis is loosely defined as low bone mineral density or increased risk of fragility fracture caused by any factor other than aging or postmenopausal status. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current understanding of the pathophysiology and contribution to fracture risk of many of the more common causes of secondary osteoporosis, as well as diagnostic considerations, outlined by organ system. While not comprehensive, included are a wide array of diseases, conditions, and medications that have been associated with bone loss and susceptibility to fractures. The hope is to highlight the importance to the general clinician of screening for and treating the osteoporosis in these patients, so to limit the resultant increased morbidity associated with fractures. PMID:25432361

  15. Sarcopenia and Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hyung-Min; Han, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Public health strategies designed to accomodate the ever-increasing human lifespan are urgently required. A good clinical understanding of frailty, as well as knowledge regarding how to prevent it, will therefore be required in order to overcome this challenge. Sarcopenia is an important component of the frailty syndrome, and its association with osteoporosis can lead to fractures and incident disability. Therefore, this review examined the literatuire pertaining to the association of sarcopenia with osteoporosis in order to assess preventive strategies.

  16. Nanoparticles based on star polymers as theranostic vectors: endosomal-triggered drug release combined with MRI sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Duong, Hien T T; Laurent, Sophie; MacMillan, Alexandre; Whan, Renee Megan; Elst, Luce Vander; Muller, Robert N; Hu, Jinming; Lowe, Andrew; Boyer, Cyrille; Davis, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    Dual-functional star polymers (diameters 15 nm) are synthesized producing nanoparticles with excellent colloidal stability in both water and serum. The nanoparticles are built with aldehyde groups in the core and activated esters in the arms. The different reactivity of the two functional groups to sequentially react with different amino compounds is exploited; doxorubicin (DOX) and 1-(5-amino-3-aza-2-oxypentyl)-4,7,10-tris(tert-butoxycarbonylmethyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane (DO3A-tBu-NH2 )-a chelating agent effective for the complexation of Gadolinium ions (Gd). The activated ester group is employed to attach the DO3A chelating agent, while the aldehyde groups are exploited for DOX conjugation, providing a controlled release mechanism for DOX in acidic environments. DOX/Gd-loaded nanoparticles are rapidly taken up by MCF-7 breast cancer cells, subsequently releasing DOX as demonstrated using in vitro fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Endosomal, DOX release is observed, using a phasor plot representation of the fluorescence lifetime data, showing an increase of native DOX with time. The MRI properties of the stars are assessed and the relaxivity of Gd loaded in stars is three times higher than conventional organic Gd/DO3A complexes. The DOX/Gd-conjugated nanoparticles yield a similar IC50 to native DOX for breast cancer cell lines, confirming that DOX integrity is conserved during nanoparticle attachment and release. PMID:24985790

  17. THE NEAREST HIGH-VELOCITY STARS REVEALED BY LAMOST DATA RELEASE 1

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Jing; Chen, Li; Hou, Jinliang; Shen, Shiyin; Shao, Zhengyi; Li, Jing; Liu, Chao; Luo, Ali; Shi, Jianrong; Zhang, Haotong; Yang, Ming; Deng, Licai; De Grijs, Richard; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Zhang, Zhenchao

    2014-07-01

    We report the discovery of 28 candidate high-velocity stars (HVSs) at heliocentric distances of less than 3 kpc, based on the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) Data Release 1. Our sample of HVS candidates covers a much broader color range than the equivalent ranges discussed in previous studies and comprises the first and largest sample of HVSs in the immediate solar neighborhood, at heliocentric distances less than 1-3 kpc. The observed as well as the derived parameters for all candidates are sufficiently accurate to allow us to ascertain their nature as genuine HVSs, of which a subset of 12 objects represents the most promising candidates. Our results also highlight the great potential of discovering statistically large numbers of HVSs of different spectral types in LAMOST survey data. This will ultimately enable us to achieve a better understanding of the nature of Galactic HVSs and their ejection mechanisms, and to constrain the structure of the Galaxy.

  18. Bisphosphonates for Osteoporosis: Benefits and Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... o es sis : Benefits and Risks What is osteoporosis? Osteoporosis is a condition in which your bones become ... through menopause are especially at risk of developing osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is more common in women than in ...

  19. Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capelato, Hugo Vicente

    1999-01-01

    We will begin our study with a more or less superficial inspection of the "forest" of stars that we see in the skies. The first thing we notice is that, as sources of light, they are much weaker than the Sun. Second, their apparent colors vary; from a bluish-white in most of them to a reddish-yellow, which is rarer. There is also a third aspect, though it is not very obvious to the naked eye: most of the stars group themselves in small families of two, three or more members. A good example is the Alpha Centauri, the closest star to us, which, in fact, is a triple system of stars. Another is the group of 7 stars that make up the Pleiades, which will be discussed later on. In fact, almost half of the stars are double systems with only two members, called binary stars. Most of these double stars, though together, are separated by several astronomical units (one astronomical unit, AU, is the distance from Earth to the sun: see Chapter 1), and revolve around each other over periods of several years. And yet the revolutions of some binary stars, separated by much smaller distances, occur in only a few hours! These stars are so close to each other that they can share enveloping material. Often this exchange occurs in a somewhat violent manner. Local explosions may occur, expelling matter away from the system. In other binary systems, where one of the components is a very compact, dense star, companion material flows more calmly, making up a light disk around the compact star.

  20. [Osteoporosis and stress].

    PubMed

    Kumano, Hiroaki

    2005-09-01

    There may be three ways of relationship between stress and osteoporosis. The first is that stress induces some physiological changes leading to osteoporosis. The second is that stress induces behavioral distortion of eating, drinking, exercise, and sleep habits, which leads to osteoporosis. The third is that osteoporosis, on the other hand, brings about anxiety, depression, loss of social roles, and social isolation, which leads to stress. The susceptible sex and age groups are postmenopausal women and young women. The abrupt decrease of estrogen in postmenopausal women promotes reabsorption of bone, and it was also reported that the increase of interleukin-6 (IL-6) that is downstream of estrogen was related to the production of osteoclast and to the development of disability of the aged. Regarding the association with stress, while it was reported that depression or depressive states directly increased inflammation-induced cytokines including IL-6, it was also pointed out that stress-induced easy infectious may produce chronic infection, which indirectly increases inflammation-induced cytokines. Anorexia Nervosa that is assumed to be associated with adolescent developmental stress is noteworthy in young women. Amenorrhea is always present in this disease, and in addition to bone reabsorption associated with estrogen deficiency, the decrease of bone formation associated with malnutrition may be related to the development of osteoporosis. PMID:16137956

  1. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Briot, Karine; Roux, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis and the first cause in young people. Bone loss and increased rate of fractures occur early after the initiation of corticosteroid therapy, and are then related to dosage and treatment duration. The increase in fracture risk is not fully assessed by bone mineral density measurements, as it is also related to alteration of bone quality and increased risk of falls. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a treat-to-target strategy focusing on low disease activity including through the use of low dose of prednisone, is a key determinant of bone loss prevention. Bone loss magnitude is variable and there is no clearly identified predictor of the individual risk of fracture. Prevention or treatment of osteoporosis should be considered in all patients who receive prednisone. Bisphosphonates and the anabolic agent parathyroid hormone (1–34) have shown their efficacy in the treatment of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis. Recent international guidelines are available and should guide management of corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis, which remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. Duration of antiosteoporotic treatment should be discussed at the individual level, depending on the subject's characteristics and on the underlying inflammation evolution. PMID:26509049

  2. The Mass of the Galaxy from Large Samples of Field Horizontal-Branch Stars in the SDSS Early Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beers, T. C.; Chiba, M.; Sakamoto, T.; Wilhelm, R.; Allende Prieto, C.; Sommer-Larsen, J.; Newberg, H. J.; Yanny, B.; Marsteller, B.; Pier, J. R.

    2004-07-01

    We present a new estimate of the mass of the Milky Way, making use of a large sample of 955 field horizontal-branch (FHB) stars from the Early Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This sample of stars has been classified on the basis of an automated analysis approach, in combination with other methods, in order to obtain estimates of the physical parameters of the stars, i.e., T_eff, log g, [Fe/H], and should be relatively free of contamination from halo blue stragglers. The stars all have measured radial velocities and photometric distance estimates, and the sample includes objects as distant as ˜ 75 kpc from the Galactic center. Application of a Bayesian likelihood method, for a specific model of the Galaxy, indicates that the total mass of the Galaxy lies in the range 1.5-4.0 x 1012 M⊙. Our sample appears to reveal a clear signature of a dual halo population of FHB stars, with the boundary between the inner and outer halo around 20 kpc, and the possibility of rather striking differences in the rotational properties of the Galaxy at low metallicity.

  3. New anabolic therapies in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mishaela R; Bilezikian, John P

    2003-03-01

    Anabolic agents represent an important new advance in the therapy of osteoporosis. Their potential might be substantially greater than the anti-resorptives. Because the anti-resorptives and anabolic agents work by completely distinct mechanisms of action, it is possible that the combination of agents could be significantly more potent than either agent alone. Recent evidence suggests that a plateau in BMD might occur after prolonged exposure to PTH. Anti-resorptive therapy during or after anabolic therapy might prevent this skeletal adaptation. Protocols to consider anabolic agents as intermittent recycling therapy would be of interest. Of all the anabolics, PTH is the most promising. However, there are unanswered questions about PTH. More studies are needed to document an anabolic effect on cortical bone. More large-scale studies are needed to further determine the reduction in nonvertebral fractures with PTH, especially at the hip. In the future, PTH is likely to be modified for easier and more targeted delivery. Oral or transdermal delivery systems may become available. Recently, Gowen et al have described an oral calcilytic molecule that antagonizes the parathyroid cell calcium receptor, thus stimulating the endogenous release of PTH. This approach could represent a novel endogenous delivery system for intermittent PTH administration. Rising expectations that anabolic therapies for osteoporosis will soon play a major role in treating this disease are likely to fuel further studies and the development of even more novel approaches to therapy. PMID:12699304

  4. [Clinical characteristics of male osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    As men are less likely than women to develop osteoporosis, male osteoporosis remains poorly understood. However, elderly men have a clearly reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for fractures. In Japan, one in four patients with osteoporosis is male. Male osteoporosis is associated with not only reduction in androgen, but also estrogen, and differs from postmenopausal osteoporosis in that decreased bone formation is involved and that age-related changes in cortical bone structure and perforation of the trabeculae of cancellous bone are unlikely to occur. The proportion of secondary osteoporosis is higher for men than women;therefore, differential diagnosis is important in the diagnosis of male osteoporosis. In addition, it is recommended that bone mineral density be measured at the femoral neck or total hip in men. Men have a worse prognosis following fractures than women, and management of male osteoporosis is highly important for extending healthy life expectancy. PMID:27346307

  5. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... ligand (RANKL) inhibitor. Resources NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center Website: http://www.bones.nih. ... No. 15-7925-E NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center 2 AMS Circle Bethesda, MD ...

  6. Male osteoporosis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Antonio; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil, Jorge; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism. Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis. PMID:23362466

  7. Immunologic aspects of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ershler, W B; Harman, S M; Keller, E T

    1997-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity in older people. There are a large number of risk factors for the development of osteoporosis. However, these risk factors eventually must mediate their effects through modulation of bone remodeling. A variety of compounds including hormones and nutrients modulate bone remodeling. In addition to these well-characterized substances, the immune system plays a role in bone remodeling through pro-inflammatory cytokines. Specifically, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-11, interferon-g are known to influence osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Recently, the cytokine IL-6 has joined ranks with these cytokines as a bone reactive agent. IL-6 has been shown to increase with age and menopause. Additionally, murine models suggest that IL-6 plays a central role in bone resorption. Finally, in vitro studies demonstrate that IL-6 induces osteoclast activity. In this review, we will discuss the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in the context of aging and IL-6. PMID:9463782

  8. New Horizons in Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Rachner, Tilman D.; Khosla, Sundeep; Hofbauer, Lorenz C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a common disease characterised by a systemic impairment of bone mass and microarchitecture that results in fragility fractures. With an ageing population, the medical and socioeconomic impact of osteoporosis in general and postmenopausal osteoporosis in particular, will increase further. A detailed knowledge of bone biology with molecular insights into the communication between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts and the orchestrating signalling network has led to the identification of novel therapeutic targets. Based on this, therapeutic strategies have been developed aimed at (I) inhibiting excessive bone resorption and by (II) increasing bone formation. The most promising novel treatments include denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, a key osteoclast cytokine, odanacatib, a specific inhibitor of the osteoclast protease cathepsin K, and antibodies against the proteins sclerostin and dickkopf-1, two endogenous inhibitors of bone formation. This review provides an overview on these novel therapies and explains their underlying physiology. PMID:21450337

  9. [Epidemiology of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Grazio, Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis represents a major and increasing public health problem with the aging of population. Major clinical consequences and economic burden of the disease are fractures. Many risk factors are associated with the fractures including low bone mass, hormonal disorders, personal and family history of fractures, low body weight, use of certain drugs (e.g. glucocorticoids), cigarette smoking, elevated intake of alchohol, low physical activity, insufficient level of vitamin D and low intake of calcium. This epidemiological review describes frequency, importance of risk factors and impact of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Objective measures of bone mineral density along with clinical assessment of risk factors can help identify patients who will benefit from prevention and intervention efforts and eventually reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with osteoporosis-related fractures. PMID:17580550

  10. Emerging therapies for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Minisola, G; Iuliano, A; Prevete, I

    2014-01-01

    Currently available drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis can still be improved in terms of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and management. New approaches for the development of innovative drugs are possible thanks to our increasing understanding of the bone tissue biology and the cellular and molecular processes that regulate it. One of the new anti-bone resorption agents, odanacatib, a selective cathepsin-K inhibitor, is in late phase III clinical research. Among new bone anabolic drugs, those that have an action on the Wnt signaling pathway appear to be particularly promising. The development of new compounds for the treatment of osteoporosis represents an excellent example of translational medicine efforts aimed to extend the range of treatment options for osteoporosis, a very common disease with a high social and economic impact, particularly when causing fractures. PMID:25069493

  11. Pathophysiology of immobilization osteoporosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.; DiCarlo, E. F.

    1995-01-01

    The reduction of gravity-related forces on the skeleton creates a type of osteoporosis that is unique because its severity is dependent on the mechanical stress bearing function of the skeleton as well as the length of time that the forces are absent or reduced. Bones that bear weight under normal conditions are more affected than bones that normally do not bear weight. The cytokine environment and the cells in the affected bones are altered in time so that stem cells produce fewer new cells and the differentiated cells tend to be less active. These alterations in the local environment of the affected parts appear to resemble those of age- and disease-associated systemic forms of osteoporosis. The osteoporosis produced as a result of the loss of normal activity however, appears to be at least partially reversible through remobilization, strenuous exercise, and--possibly in the future--cytokine therapy.

  12. Male osteoporosis: A review.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Antonio; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil, Jorge; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2012-12-18

    Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism.Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis. PMID:23362466

  13. Lifestyle and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kun; Prince, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    Osteoporosis is associated with a number of lifestyle factors, including nutritional factors such as intake of calcium, protein, dairy food, fruits and vegetables and vitamin D status, and behavioural factors such as physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption. Ensuring adequate calcium intake and vitamin D status and having regular weight-bearing physical activity throughout life are important for bone health and the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures. Studies have shown that smoking and excessive alcohol intake have adverse effects on bone health and increase the risk of fracture. There is evidence suggesting that adequate protein intake and higher intake of fruits and vegetables are beneficial to bone health. PMID:25416958

  14. SECONDARY OSTEOPOROSIS: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Faryal; Canalis, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by decreased bone mineral density and compromised bone strength predisposing to an increased risk of fractures. Although idiopathic osteoporosis is the most common form of osteoporosis, secondary factors may contribute to the bone loss and increased fracture risk in patients presenting with fragility fractures or osteoporosis. Several medical conditions and medications significantly increase the risk for bone loss and skeletal fragility. This review focuses on some of the common causes of osteoporosis, addressing the underlying mechanisms, diagnostic approach and treatment of low bone mass in the presence of these conditions. PMID:25971649

  15. Animal models for osteoporosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.; Maran, A.; Lotinun, S.; Hefferan, T.; Evans, G. L.; Zhang, M.; Sibonga, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge.

  16. Clinical Practice. Postmenopausal Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Black, Dennis M; Rosen, Clifford J

    2016-01-21

    Key Clinical Points Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Fractures and osteoporosis are common, particularly among older women, and hip fractures can be devastating. Treatment is generally recommended in postmenopausal women who have a bone mineral density T score of -2.5 or less, a history of spine or hip fracture, or a Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) score indicating increased fracture risk. Bisphosphonates (generic) and denosumab reduce the risk of hip, nonvertebral, and vertebral fractures; bisphosphonates are commonly used as first-line treatment in women who do not have contraindications. Teriparatide reduces the risk of nonvertebral and vertebral fractures. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femur fractures have been reported with treatment but are rare. The benefit-to-risk ratio for osteoporosis treatment is strongly positive for most women with osteoporosis. Because benefits are retained after discontinuation of alendronate or zoledronic acid, drug holidays after 5 years of alendronate therapy or 3 years of zoledronic acid therapy may be considered for patients at lower risk for fracture. PMID:26789873

  17. Genetics of osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Urano, Tomohiko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2014-09-19

    Highlights: • Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with osteoporosis were identified. • SNPs mapped close to or within VDR and ESR1 are associated with bone mineral density. • WNT signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in regulating bone mineral density. • Genetic studies will be useful for identification of new therapeutic targets. - Abstract: Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, which increases susceptibility to fractures. BMD is a complex quantitative trait with normal distribution and seems to be genetically controlled (in 50–90% of the cases), according to studies on twins and families. Over the last 20 years, candidate gene approach and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with low BMD, osteoporosis, and osteoporotic fractures. These SNPs have been mapped close to or within genes including those encoding nuclear receptors and WNT-β-catenin signaling proteins. Understanding the genetics of osteoporosis will help identify novel candidates for diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

  18. Osteoporosis and Women's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... down by the body (a process called bone turnover). Your highest bone mass (size and thickness) is reached between ages 20 and 25, and it declines after that. After menopause, however, women begin to lose bone at an even faster rate. Osteoporosis develops when your body cannot replace bone ...

  19. Animal models for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Turner, R T; Maran, A; Lotinun, S; Hefferan, T; Evans, G L; Zhang, M; Sibonga, J D

    2001-01-01

    Animal models will continue to be important tools in the quest to understand the contribution of specific genes to establishment of peak bone mass and optimal bone architecture, as well as the genetic basis for a predisposition toward accelerated bone loss in the presence of co-morbidity factors such as estrogen deficiency. Existing animal models will continue to be useful for modeling changes in bone metabolism and architecture induced by well-defined local and systemic factors. However, there is a critical unfulfilled need to develop and validate better animal models to allow fruitful investigation of the interaction of the multitude of factors which precipitate senile osteoporosis. Well characterized and validated animal models that can be recommended for investigation of the etiology, prevention and treatment of several forms of osteoporosis have been listed in Table 1. Also listed are models which are provisionally recommended. These latter models have potential but are inadequately characterized, deviate significantly from the human response, require careful choice of strain or age, or are not practical for most investigators to adopt. It cannot be stressed strongly enough that the enormous potential of laboratory animals as models for osteoporosis can only be realized if great care is taken in the choice of an appropriate species, age, experimental design, and measurements. Poor choices will results in misinterpretation of results which ultimately can bring harm to patients who suffer from osteoporosis by delaying advancement of knowledge. PMID:11704974

  20. Teriparatide for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    2004-12-01

    Teriparatide (Forsteo - Eli Lilly) is the first parathyroid hormone derivative to be licensed for the treatment of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. It is described as a "bone-formation agent", in contrast to established treatments, such as bisphosphonates, raloxifene, calcitriol and calcitonin, which reduce bone resorption. Here we consider whether teriparatide offers any worthwhile advantages over these other options. PMID:15587764

  1. Management of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Lewiecki, E Michael

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis or osteopenia occurs in about 44 million Americans, resulting in 1.5 million fragility fractures per year. The consequences of these fractures include pain, disability, depression, loss of independence, and increased mortality. The burden to the healthcare system, in terms of cost and resources, is tremendous, with an estimated direct annual USA healthcare expenditure of about $17 billion. With longer life expectancy and the aging of the baby-boomer generation, the number of men and women with osteoporosis or low bone density is expected to rise to over 61 million by 2020. Osteoporosis is a silent disease that causes no symptoms until a fracture occurs. Any fragility fracture greatly increases the risk of future fractures. Most patients with osteoporosis are not being diagnosed or treated. Even those with previous fractures, who are at extremely high risk of future fractures, are often not being treated. It is preferable to diagnose osteoporosis by bone density testing of high risk individuals before the first fracture occurs. If osteoporosis or low bone density is identified, evaluation for contributing factors should be considered. Patients on long-term glucocorticoid therapy are at especially high risk for developing osteoporosis, and may sustain fractures at a lower bone density than those not taking glucocorticoids. All patients should be counseled on the importance of regular weight-bearing exercise and adequate daily intake of calcium and vitamin D. Exposure to medications that cause drowsiness or hypotension should be minimized. Non-pharmacologic therapy to reduce the non-skeletal risk factors for fracture should be considered. These include fall prevention through balance training and muscle strengthening, removal of fall hazards at home, and wearing hip protectors if the risk of falling remains high. Pharmacologic therapy can stabilize or increase bone density in most patients, and reduce fracture risk by about 50%. By selecting high risk

  2. Rodent models of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sophocleous, Antonia; Idris, Aymen I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this protocol is to provide a detailed description of male and female rodent models of osteoporosis. In addition to indications on the methods of performing the surgical procedures, the choice of reliable and safe anaesthetics is also described. Post-operative care, including analgesia administration for pain management, is also discussed. Ovariectomy in rodents is a procedure where ovaries are surgically excised. Hormonal changes resulting from ovary removal lead to an oestrogen-deprived state, which enhances bone remodelling, causes bone loss and increases bone fracture risk. Therefore, ovariectomy has been considered as the most common preclinical model for understanding the pathophysiology of menopause-associated events and for developing new treatment strategies for tackling post-menopausal osteoporosis. This protocol also provides a detailed description of orchidectomy, a model for androgen-deficient osteoporosis in rodents. Endocrine changes following testes removal lead to hypogonadism, which results in accelerated bone loss, increasing osteoporosis risk. Orchidectomised rodent models have been proposed to mimic male osteoporosis and therefore remain a valuable tool for understanding androgen deficiency in aged men. Although it would have been particularly difficult to assemble an internationally acceptable description of surgical procedures, here we have attempted to provide a comprehensive guide for best practice in performing ovariectomy and orchidectomy in laboratory rodents. Research scientists are reminded that they should follow their own institution's interpretation of such guidelines. Ultimately, however, all animal procedures must be overseen by the local Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Body and conducted under licences approved by a regulatory ethics committee. PMID:25852854

  3. A catalog of M-type star candidates in the LAMOST data release 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Jing; Lépine, Sébastien; Li, Jing; Chen, Li; Hou, Jinliang

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we present a set of M-type star candidates selected from the LAMOST DR1. A discrimination method with the spectral index diagram is used to separate M giants and M dwarfs. Then, we have successfully assembled a set of M giants templates from M0 to M6, using the spectra identified from the LAMOST spectral database. After combining the M dwarf templates in Zhong et al. (2015a) and the new created M giant templates, we use the M-type spectral library to perform the template-fit method to classify and identify M-type stars in the LAMOST DR1. A catalog of M-type star candidates including 8639 M giants and 101690 M dwarfs/subdwarfs is provided. As an additional results, we also present other fundamental parameters like proper motion, photometry, radial velocity and spectroscopic distance.

  4. Breastfeeding and postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Julia P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2003-06-01

    Bone loss associated with osteoporosis occurs with high frequency among the elderly and often results in debilitating fractures. A combination of lifestyle behaviors, genetic predisposition, and disease processes contributes to bone metabolism. Therefore, any discussion regarding bone health must address these factors. The impact of menopause on bone turnover has been generally well studied and characterized. Breastfeeding places significant stress on calcium metabolism and, as a consequence, directly influences bone metabolism. The most significant factors affecting bone mineral density (BMD) and bone metabolism are the duration and frequency of lactation, the return of menses, and pre-pregnancy weight. Although transient, lactation is associated with bone loss. As clinical guidelines and public health policies are being formulated, there is a compelling need for further investigation into the relationship of lactation, BMD, and subsequent risk of osteoporosis. Better understanding of this relationship will provide new opportunities for early intervention and ultimately help in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women. PMID:12734029

  5. [Biological therapy for osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shinya; Tanaka, Sakae

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a disorder of bone formation and resorption balance. Advances in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of bone formation and resorption led to promising therapeutic targets for osteoporosis. In the novel biological drugs, denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) has been clinically applied by positive effect on bone mineral density, negative effect on bone resorption, preventive effect on fragility fractures and safety. Odanacatib, a cathepsin K inhibitor is drawing attention as an antiresorptive drug which has lower bone resorption potency than bisphosphoneate. On the other hand, BHQ-880, an anti-Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) antibody and romosozumab (AMG-785) , an anti-sclerostin antibody which activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway are drawing attention as bone formation accelerators with no bone resorption acceleration. Clinical studies of these drugs are now ongoing and their clinical applications are expected. PMID:24870844

  6. Osteoporosis in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Mehler, Philip S; Cleary, Barbara S; Gaudiani, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is common in anorexia nervosa. It places these patients at increased lifetime risk for fractures. Bone loss may never recover completely even once weight is restored. The strongest predictors of osteoporosis include low body weight and amenorrhea. Loss of bone density can occur rapidly and very early in the course of anorexia nervosa. The etiology of bone loss in the patient with anorexia nervosa is multifactorial. In addition to reduced estrogen and progesterone, excess cortisol levels and low levels of insulin growth factor (IGF-1), a correlate for bone formation, are observed. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry screening is important to assess bone density. However, successful treatments to reverse bone loss, in those with anorexia nervosa, are lacking. Early diagnosis and treatment of anorexia nervosa are paramount to prevent initial weight loss and subsequent loss of bone. PMID:21360368

  7. [Osteoporosis in phlebology].

    PubMed

    van der Molen, H R; Overvelde, S

    1993-01-01

    Patient often think that the pains of their extremities (especially during the night) are caused by a plebo or an angiopathy whereas they are in fact due to a vertebral or lumbar discal affection. 84 patients with osteoporosis were treated by an intramuscular injection of deca-durabolin (25 mg/month) and calcium phosphate (tertiare). Results were satisfactory: six months later, 62 patients no longer suffered, 13 had felt improvement and 2 remained unchanged. PMID:8362009

  8. Osteoporosis and fragility fractures.

    PubMed

    Sànchez-Riera, Lídia; Wilson, Nicholas; Kamalaraj, Narainraj; Nolla, Joan M; Kok, Cindy; Li, Yang; Macara, Monique; Norman, Rosana; Chen, Jian Sheng; Smith, Emma U R; Sambrook, Philip N; Hernández, Carmen Santos; Woolf, Anthony; March, Lyn

    2010-12-01

    The prevalence of osteoporosis is expected to increase with the ageing of the world's population. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors and health burden of osteoporosis. In the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2005, osteoporosis is studied as a risk factor for fracture by considering the bone-mineral-density (BMD) measurement as the continuous exposure variable. We have performed a systematic review seeking population-based studies with BMD data measured by dual-X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The femoral neck was selected as the unique location and all values were converted into Hologic(®) to enable inclusion of worldwide data for analysis. Provisional results on mean BMD values for different world regions are shown in age breakdowns for males and females 50 years or over, as well as mean T-scores using the young, white, female reference of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III. Results show remarkable geographical differences and a time trend towards improvement of the BMD values in Asian and European populations. PMID:21665127

  9. [Prevention of osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Dambacher, M A; Kissling, R; Neff, M

    1998-11-01

    The European Parliament presented June 10th in Brussels the 'Osteoporosis Report in EU--Means for Prevention'. It was emphasized that in the EU more than 3500 million Ecu have to be spent for hospitalization and that more than 500,000 hospitals beds are being used by osteoporotic patients. According to some calculations this number will double within the next 50 years. The EU has set up eight steps to be considered, e.g. have densitometric measurements available for persons with high risk and have these measurement paid by the insurances to further finance and support research for the very important areas of prevention and treatment. One distinguishes between primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of osteoporosis. Primary prevention aims at reaching at adolescent age a peak bone mass as high as possible. Secondary prevention aims at reducing bone loss peri- and postmenopausal. The tertiary prevention with manifest osteoporosis aims at preventing fractures. Emphasis of the primary prevention is, besides a sufficient calcium intake, to omit risk factors; with secondary prevention the use of medical treatments such as estrogens/gestagens, bisphosphonates, and recently also SERMs is applied. The tertiary prevention tries mostly to reduce the femur fractures. In addition to drugs such as vitamin D/calcium, vitamin D metabolites and bisphosphonates it is very important to create 'a fall-proof home'. Also very useful are hip protectors. PMID:9865147

  10. The societal burden of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Becker, David J; Kilgore, Meredith L; Morrisey, Michael A

    2010-06-01

    Osteoporosis currently affects 10 million Americans and is responsible for more than 1.5 million fractures annually. The financial burden of osteoporosis is substantial, with annual direct medical costs estimated at 17 to 20 billion dollars. Most of these costs are related to the acute and rehabilitative care following osteoporotic fractures, particularly hip fractures. The societal burden of osteoporosis includes these direct medical costs and the monetary (eg, caregiver time) and nonmonetary costs of poor health. The aging of the US population is expected to increase the prevalence of osteoporosis and the number of osteoporotic fractures. Growth of the older adult population will pose significant challenges to Medicare and Medicaid, which bear most of the cost of osteoporosis. Efforts to address the looming financial burden must focus on reducing the prevalence of osteoporosis and the incidence of costly fragility fractures. PMID:20425518

  11. The catalogue of radial velocity standard stars for Gaia. I. Pre-launch release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soubiran, C.; Jasniewicz, G.; Chemin, L.; Crifo, F.; Udry, S.; Hestroffer, D.; Katz, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Radial Velocity Spectrograph (RVS) on board Gaia needs to be calibrated using stable reference stars known in advance. The catalogue presented here was built for that purpose. It includes 1420 radial velocity standard star candidates selected on strict criteria to fulfil the Gaia-RVS requirements. A large programme of ground-based observations has been underway since 2006 to monitor these stars and verify their stability, which has to be better than 300 m s-1 over several years. The observations were done on the echelle spectrographs ELODIE and SOPHIE on the 1.93-m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), NARVAL on the Télescope Bernard Lyot at Observatoire du Pic du Midi and CORALIE on the Euler-Swiss Telescope at La Silla. Data from the OHP and Geneva Observatory archives have also been retrieved as have HARPS spectra from the ESO archive. We provide a mean radial velocity in the SOPHIE scale for each star, derived from the combination of velocities measured with those instruments, after having carefully estimated their differences in zero points. In total, 10214 radial velocity measurements have been obtained for the 1420 stars. With a mean time baseline of 6.35 years, 92.9% of the candidates fulfil a target stability criterion of 300 m s-1. Three hundred forty-three stars are found to be constant at the level of 100 m s-1 over 10 years. Comparisons with earlier catalogues show excellent agreement for FGK stars, with zero-point differences lower than 100 m s-1 and a remarkably low rms scatter of 33 m s-1 in one case, suggesting that the precision of the catalogue presented here is better than this value. This catalogue will likely be useful for other large-scale spectroscopic surveys, such as APOGEE, Gaia-ESO, HERMES, and LAMOST. Based on data obtained within the Gaia DPAC (Data Processing and Analysis Consortium) and coordinated by the GBOG (Ground-Based Observations for Gaia) working group, at various telescopes; see abstract.Full Tables 3 and 4

  12. Osteoporosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Osteoporosis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents Osteoporosis can strike at any age, although the risk ...

  13. Epidemiology of spinal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Melton, L J

    1997-12-15

    Approximately 30% of postmenopausal white women in the United States have osteoporosis, and 16% have osteoporosis of the lumbar spine in particular. Bone density of the spine is positively associated with greater height and weight, older age at menopause, a history of arthritis, more physical activity, moderate use of alcoholic beverages, diuretic treatment, and current estrogen replacement therapy, whereas later age at menarche and a maternal history of fracture are associated with lower levels of density. Low bone density leads to an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Fracture risk also increase with age. Vertebral fractures affect approximately 25% of postmenopausal women, although the exact figure depends on the definition used. Recent data show that vertebral fracture rates are as great in men as in women but, because women live longer, the lifetime risk of a vertebral fracture from age 50 onward is 16% in white women and only 5% in white men. Fracture rates are less in most nonwhite populations, but vertebral fractures are as common in Asian women as in those of European heritage. Other risk factors for vertebral fractures are less clear but include hypogonadism and secondary osteoporosis; obesity is protective of fractures as it is of bone loss. Compared with hip fractures, vertebral fractures are less disabling and less expensive, costing approximately $746 million in the United States in 1995. However, they have a substantial negative impact on the patient's function and quality of life. The adverse effects of osteoporotic fractures are likely to increase in the future with the growing number of elderly people. PMID:9431638

  14. Is postmenopausal osteoporosis related to pineal gland functions?

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Anastasiadis, P G; Anninos, P A; Tsagas, N

    1992-02-01

    There is currently considerable interest in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis, which is the most common metabolic bone disease. Osteoporosis affects approximately 20 million persons in the United States, 90% of whom are postmenopausal women. Although there is evidence that estrogen deficiency is an important contributory factor, the pathogenesis of osteoporosis is multifactorial and presently poorly understood. There is evidence that pineal melatonin is an anti-aging hormone and that the menopause is associated with a substantial decline in melatonin secretion and an increased rate of pineal calcification. Animal data indicate that pineal melatonin is involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus metabolism by stimulating the activity of the parathyroid glands and by inhibiting calcitonin release and inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis. Hence, the pineal gland may function as a "fine tuner" of calcium homeostasis. In the following communication, we propose that the fall of melatonin plasma levels during the early stage of menopause may be an important contributory factor in the development of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Consequently, plasma melatonin levels taken in the early menopause could be used as an indicator or perhaps as a marker for susceptibility to postmenopausal osteoporosis. Moreover, light therapy, administration of oral melatonin (2.5 mg at night) or agents which induce a sustained release of melatonin secretion such as 5-methoxypsoralen, could be useful agents in the prophylaxis and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Finally, since application of external artificial magnetic fields has been shown to synchronize melatonin secretion in experimental animals and humans, we propose that treatment with artificial magnetic fields may be beneficial for postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:1305608

  15. [Osteoporosis in males].

    PubMed

    Audran, M; Legrand, E; Chappard, D; Bigorgne, J C; Basle, M F

    2000-09-01

    A shorter life expectancy, a higher peak bone mass and the absence of distinct menopause equivalent explain the lower incidence of osteoporotic fractures in men. In contrast to women, osteoporosis in younger men is in most cases secondary. Causes such as prolonged glucocorticoid therapy, ethanol abuse, hypogonadism and gastrointestinal disorders are now well recognized. The impact of cigarette smoking, low calcium intake, vitamin D deficiency, hypercalciuria and thyrotoxicosis is more controversial but seems to constitute real risk factors for bone loss. Furthermore increased propensity to fall also plays a major role in fracture risk, particularly in alcoholic patients and in elderly men with neurologic disorders. PMID:11033475

  16. Male Osteoporosis in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    D'Amelio, Patrizia; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is now recognized as an important public health problem in elderly men as fragility fractures are complicated by increased morbidity, mortality, and social costs. This review comprises an overview of recent findings in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of male osteoporosis, with particular regard to the old population. PMID:26457082

  17. MID-INFRARED PERIOD-LUMINOSITY RELATIONS OF RR LYRAE STARS DERIVED FROM THE WISE PRELIMINARY DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Christopher R.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Richards, Joseph W.; Butler, Nathaniel R. E-mail: jwrichar@stat.berkeley.edu E-mail: jbloom@astro.berkeley.edu

    2011-09-10

    Interstellar dust presents a significant challenge to extending parallax-determined distances of optically observed pulsational variables to larger volumes. Distance ladder work at mid-infrared wavebands, where dust effects are negligible and metallicity correlations are minimized, has been largely focused on few-epoch Cepheid studies. Here we present the first determination of mid-infrared period-luminosity (PL) relations of RR Lyrae stars from phase-resolved imaging using the preliminary data release of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We present a novel statistical framework to predict posterior distances of 76 well observed RR Lyrae that uses the optically constructed prior distance moduli while simultaneously imposing a power-law PL relation to WISE-determined mean magnitudes. We find that the absolute magnitude in the bluest WISE filter is M{sub W1} = (- 0.421 {+-} 0.014) - (1.681 {+-} 0.147)log{sub 10}(P/0.50118 day), with no evidence for a correlation with metallicity. Combining the results from the three bluest WISE filters, we find that a typical star in our sample has a distance measurement uncertainty of 0.97% (statistical) plus 1.17% (systematic). We do not fundamentalize the periods of RRc stars to improve their fit to the relations. Taking the Hipparcos-derived mean V-band magnitudes, we use the distance posteriors to determine a new optical metallicity-luminosity relation. The results of this analysis will soon be tested by Hubble Space Telescope parallax measurements and, eventually, with the GAIA astrometric mission.

  18. Postmenopausal osteoporosis: microradiographic aspects.

    PubMed

    Dhem, A; Nyssen-Behets, C; Coppens, J

    1998-01-01

    A comparative microradiographic and histologic analysis of undecalcified bone samples was performed in men and women aged 18-98 years. These morphological methods showed that besides usual lamellar bone remodelling, all the so-called inert surfaces, namely both haversian and vascular canals as well as trabecular surfaces, were involved in weathering alterations of the superficial lamellae, resulting in eroded outlines devoid of osteoclast. These aspects, recorded in all pieces of our material, were visible from the earliest adult age and were randomly distributed. Except the grade of osteoporosis at a given age, the microradiographic and histologic aspects were similar in both aged men and women and did not allow sex distinction. These observations were consistent with the hypothesis of a particular destructive process affecting all the quiescent lamellar bone surfaces without osteoclast or cell participation. This kind of erosion, termed delitescence, could be at least partially responsible for the age-related and postmenopausal bone loss. In order to explain the increasing osteoporosis after menopause, it has been suggested that the estrogen deficiency could increase the percentage of dead osteocytes. Thereby the reduced cellular control on the bone surface could impair the remodeling process and fail to adapt the bone structure by repairing the microscopic lesions. PMID:11315966

  19. Osteoporosis and Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Ishimi, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal tissue is formed during the first two decades of life; then a constant bone mass is maintained until 40 y of age. In the case of women, the bone mass is rapidly reduced at menopause at around 50 y of age. After that, bone mass slowly decreases in both men and women who have passed the 70-y-old mark. The National Institute of Health Consensus Conference adopted the definition of osteoporosis as a skeletal disorder that is characterized by compromised bone strength leading to a predisposition for and an increased risk of fracture. Since osteoporotic fractures are the third-highest cause for becoming bedridden, the maintenance of healthy bones is an important factor in extending a person's healthy lifespan. Bone mass is influenced by many factors, such as nutrition, physical activity, smoking and alcohol intake, as well as by genetic factors. Thus, a healthy diet providing balanced nutrients including calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K and protein, regular physical activity, and not smoking help maintain bone health and delay or prevent osteoporosis. Some functional foods containing soy isoflavones, milk basic protein and n-3 fatty acid may help promote bone health. PMID:26598829

  20. Osteoporosis, Fractures, and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that osteoporosis and diabetes are prevalent diseases with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Patients with diabetes mellitus have an increased risk of bone fractures. In type 1 diabetes, the risk is increased by ∼6 times and is due to low bone mass. Despite increased bone mineral density (BMD), in patients with type 2 diabetes the risk is increased (which is about twice the risk in the general population) due to the inferior quality of bone. Bone fragility in type 2 diabetes, which is not reflected by bone mineral density, depends on bone quality deterioration rather than bone mass reduction. Thus, surrogate markers and examination methods are needed to replace the insensitivity of BMD in assessing fracture risks of T2DM patients. One of these methods can be trabecular bone score. The aim of the paper is to present the present state of scientific knowledge about the osteoporosis risk in diabetic patient. The review also discusses the possibility of problematic using the study conclusions in real clinical practice. PMID:25050121

  1. Novel therapies for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Biskobing, Diane M

    2003-04-01

    Osteoporosis remains a significant clinical problem despite effective therapies. Many patients cannot or will not take currently available therapies. For this reason research continues in search of more effective and more tolerable agents. Anabolic agents offer a unique mechanism of action. The anabolic agents parathyroid hormone and strontium will be discussed. The investigational bisphosphonates ibandronate, minodronate and zoledronic acid may offer the advantage of less frequent dosing. Arzoxifene, bazedoxifene, lasofoxifene, MDL-103,323 and ospemifene are investigational selective oestrogen receptor modulators shown to be effective in animal studies and are now in clinical studies. Tibolone is a tissue-specific steroid that is currently used in Europe for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Multiple studies have shown efficacy in improving bone mineral density, but no fracture studies have been conducted to date. While studies of the effect of isoflavones on bone mineral density have been encouraging, a large, multi-centre study in Europe showed no effect of isoflavones on fractures. The newly described agent osteoprotegerin has been shown in early studies to inhibit bone turnover. Other agents with unique mechanisms of action in early development include cathepsin K inhibitors, integrin receptor inhibitors, nitrosylated non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents and Src inhibitors. The efficacy of statins in bone continues to be debated with no prospective, randomised studies yet to confirm the suggestion of benefit seen in epidemiological studies. PMID:12665416

  2. Novel therapies for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Makras, Polyzois; Delaroudis, Sideris; Anastasilakis, Athanasios D

    2015-10-01

    Since the identification of osteoporosis as a major health issue in aging populations and the subsequent development of the first treatment modalities for its management, considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the mechanisms controlling bone turnover and disease pathophysiology, thus enabling the pinpointing of new targets for intervention. This progress, along with advances in biotechnology, has rendered possible the development of ever more sophisticated treatments employing novel mechanisms of action. Denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against RANKL, approved for the treatment of postmenopausal and male osteoporosis, significantly and continuously increases bone mineral density (BMD) and maintains a low risk of vertebral, non-vertebral, and hip fractures for up to 8 years. Currently available combinations of estrogens with selective estrogen receptor modulators moderately increase BMD without causing the extra-skeletal adverse effects of each compound alone. The cathepsin K inhibitor odanacatib has recently been shown to decrease vertebral, non-vertebral, and hip fracture rates and is nearing approval. Romosozumab, an anti-sclerosin antibody, and abaloparatide, a PTH-related peptide analog, are at present in advanced stages of clinical evaluation, so far demonstrating efficaciousness together with a favorable safety profile. Several other agents are currently in earlier clinical and preclinical phases of development, including dickkopf-1 antagonists, activin A antagonists, β-arrestin analogs, calcilytics, and Src tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:26277199

  3. Osteoporosis and sarcopenia: two diseases or one?

    PubMed Central

    Reginster, Jean-Yves; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Bruyère, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review This article reviews recently published evidence for common pathways explaining bone and muscle wasting in normal ageing and pathological conditions. Recent findings Numerous studies support the concept of a bone–muscle unit, where constant cross-talking between the two tissues takes place, involving molecules released by the skeletal muscle secretome, which affects bone, and osteokines secreted by the osteoblasts and osteocytes, which, in turn, impact muscle cells. Summary New chemical entities aiming at concomitantly treating osteoporosis and sarcopenia could be developed by targeting pathways that centrally regulate bone and muscle or emerging pathways that facilitate the communication between the two tissues. PMID:26418824

  4. Thermosensitive AB4 four-armed star PNIPAM-b-HTPB multiblock copolymer micelles for camptothecin drug release.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan-Ling; Fu, Jing-Yu; Xu, Feng; Chen, Ya-Shao; Zhang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-sensitive poly(N-isoproplacrylamide)m-block-hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene-block-poly(N-isoproplacrylamide)m (PNIPAMm-b-HTPB-b-PNIPAMm, m = 1 or 2) block copolymers, AB4 four-armed star multiblock and linear triblock copolymers, were synthesized by ATRP with HTPB as central blocks, and characterization was performed by (1)H NMR, Fourier transform infrared, and size exclusion chromatography. The multiblock copolymers could spontaneously assemble into more regular spherical core-shell nanoscale micelles than the linear triblock copolymer. The physicochemical properties were detected by a surface tension, nanoparticle analyzer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering, and UV-vis measurements. The multiblock copolymer micelles had lower critical micelle concentration than the linear counterpart, TEM size from 100 to 120 nm, and the hydrodynamic diameters below 150 nm. The micelles exhibited thermo-dependent size change, with low critical solution temperature of about 33-35 °C. The characteristic parameters were affected by the composition ratios, length of PNIPAM blocks, and molecular architectures. The camptothecin release demonstrated that the drug release was thermo-responsive, accompanied by the temperature-induced structural changes of the micelles. MTT assays were performed to evaluate the biocompatibility or cytotoxicity of the prepared copolymer micelles. PMID:24236748

  5. Osteoporosis: Prevention and Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Susan; Myers, Anita

    1987-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity in post-menopausal women. Strategies to prevent or delay bone loss in normal post-menopausal women and to reduce the risk of fractures in women with osteoporosis are within the scope of family practice. Certain factors, such as inadequate calcium intake, estrogen deficiency, cigarette smoking and lack of physical activity can be modified in peri- and post-menopausal women. For patients with osteoporosis, there is potential for lowering the risk of fractures by means of calcium supplements or other therapies, physical training and rehabilitation, and modification of factors associated with risk of falling. PMID:21267348

  6. [Osteoporosis in thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Kosińska, Agnieszka; Syrenicz, Anhelli; Kosiński, Bogusław; Garanty-Bogacka, Barbara; Syrenicz, Małgorzata; Gromniak, Elwira

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play the essential role in the regulation of metabolism and bone remodeling in physiological conditions and in the course of thyroid dysfunction. Introduction of densitometry to the diagnostics of osteoporosis has made possible the evaluation of influence of both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism and their treatment on bone mineral density. Moreover it became possible to estimate the influence of treatment with exogenous thyroid hormones on the skeletal system. Authors presented mechanisms of the thyroid hormones action on bone tissue and analysed current state of knowledge concerning the influence of the thyroxine treatment with replacement and suppressive doses on the bone mineral density. The influence of thyroid hormones on the skeletal system with respect to premenopausal and postmenopausal period was also discussed. Great discrepancies in literature data and its reasons were underlined. PMID:16335687

  7. New therapeutics for osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kong Wah; Martin, T John

    2014-06-01

    Two new approaches for the treatment of osteoporosis are summarized, each having arisen out of important new discoveries in bone biology. Odanacatib (ODN) inhibits the enzyme, cathepsin K, that is essential for the resorbing activity of osteoclasts. It is effective in preventing ovariectomy-induced bone loss in preclinical studies, and a phase II clinical study has shown inhibition of resorption sustained over five years. Outcome of a phase III study is awaited. The finding from mouse and human genetics that Wnt signaling is a powerful inducer of bone formation led to developments aimed at enhancing this pathway. Of the several approaches towards this, the most advanced is with a neutralizing antibody against sclerostin, the osteocyte-derived inhibitor of Wnt signaling. Preclinical studies show a powerful bone anabolic effect, and a clinical phase II study shows dose-dependent increases in bone formation and decreases in bone resorption markers. PMID:24699340

  8. Pathogenesis of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    As for most multifactorial disorders, the pathogenesis of osteoporosis is complex, and a different set of mechanisms may be operative in any given individual. However, there are certain common causes of bone loss and increased fracture risk with aging in most people. These include genetic factors contributing to the acquisition of peak bone mass, illnesses affecting skeletal growth and development, sex steroid deficiency following the menopause in women and with aging in men, and intrinsic, age-related changes in bone metabolism. Superimposed on these factors are specific secondary causes of bone loss, such as corticosteroid use or other illnesses affecting bone metabolism that may contribute to fracture risk in individuals exposed to these factors. The past decade has witnessed tremendous advances in our understanding of each of these various causes of bone loss, leading to the development of novel, mechanism-based therapeutic approaches to prevent and treat this important public health disorder. PMID:25243055

  9. Instrumental diagnosis of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Rossini, M; Viapiana, O; Adami, S

    1998-06-01

    Considerable progress in the development of methods for assessing the skeleton now makes it possible to detect osteoporosis non-invasively and early. There is a variety of techniques available at present: single-photon (SPA) and single X-ray absorptiometry (SXA), dual-photon (DPA) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), quantitative computed tomography (QCT), radiographic absorptiometry (RA), and quantitative ultrasound (QUS), and their development has certainly been driven by the need to overcome the inherent shortcomings of plain radiography for this purpose. Both SPA and SXA methods make a quantitative assessment of the bone mineral content (BMC) or density (BMD) at peripheral sites of the skeleton possible. Single energy measurements are not possible at sites with variable soft tissue thickness and composition, i.e., the axial skeleton. For these purposes, DPA and DXA techniques were introduced. The main advantages of an X-ray system over a radionuclide system are shortened examination time, greater accuracy and precision limited to higher resolution, and removal of errors due to source decay correction. Low radiation dose, availability, capacity to evaluate multiple sites, and ease of use have made DXA the most widely used technique for measuring bone mineral density. QCT can determine the true volumetric density of trabecular or cortical bone in three dimensions at any skeletal site. Recently developed new computer-assisted methods have improved RA precision, thus providing a simple and inexpensive technique for screening of bone mineral status of large populations. QUS was reported to provide information regarding the structural characteristics of bone, which may be relevant to the appearance of osteoporotic fractures; indeed, some studies suggest a relationship between QUS and bone strength beyond that which can be explained by BMD. Recent experimental studies suggested that magnetic resonance might also constitute a promising tool for assessing osteoporosis

  10. Osteoporosis treatment: a missed opportunity.

    PubMed

    Milat, Frances; Ebeling, Peter R

    2016-08-15

    Osteoporosis affects 1.2 million Australians and, in 2012, fractures due to osteoporosis and osteopenia in Australians aged over 50 years cost $2.75 billion. Even minor minimal trauma fractures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Despite increasing therapeutic options for managing osteoporosis, fewer than 20% of patients with a minimal trauma fracture are treated or investigated for osteoporosis, so under-treatment is extremely common. Fracture risk assessment is important for selecting patients who require specific anti-osteoporosis therapy. Post-menopausal osteoporosis is frequently due to an imbalance in bone remodelling, with bone resorption exceeding bone formation. Antiresorptive drugs reduce the number, activity and lifespan of osteoclasts, and include bisphosphonates, oestrogen, selective oestrogen receptor-modulating drugs, strontium ranelate, and the human monoclonal antibody denosumab. Teriparatide is the only anabolic agent currently available that stimulates osteoblast recruitment and activity; its antifracture efficacy for non-vertebral fractures increases with the duration of therapy for up to 2 years when it is associated with persisting increases in bone formation rate at the tissue level. Newer anabolic agents are imminent and include an analogue of parathyroid hormone-related protein, abaloparatide, and a humanised monoclonal antibody to an inhibitor of bone formation, romosozumab. Selection of anti-osteoporosis therapy should be individualised to patients, and the duration of bisphosphonate therapy has been covered in recent guidelines. The benefits of treatment far outweigh any risks associated with long term treatment. General practitioners need to take up the challenge imposed by osteoporosis and become champions of change to close the evidence-treatment gap. PMID:27510350

  11. Hyponatremia Is Associated With Increased Osteoporosis and Bone Fractures in a Large US Health System Population

    PubMed Central

    Usala, Rachel L.; Fernandez, Stephen J.; Mete, Mihriye; Cowen, Laura; Shara, Nawar M.; Barsony, Julianna

    2015-01-01

    Context: The significance of studies suggesting an increased risk of bone fragility fractures with hyponatremia through mechanisms of induced bone loss and increased falls has not been demonstrated in large patient populations with different types of hyponatremia. Objective: This matched case-control study evaluated the effect of hyponatremia on osteoporosis and fragility fractures in a patient population of more than 2.9 million. Design, Setting, and Participants: Osteoporosis (n = 30 517) and fragility fracture (n = 46 256) cases from the MedStar Health database were matched on age, sex, race, and patient record length with controls without osteoporosis (n = 30 517) and without fragility fractures (n = 46 256), respectively. Cases without matched controls or serum sodium (Na+) data or with Na+ with a same-day blood glucose greater than 200 mg/dL were excluded. Main Outcome Measures: Incidence of diagnosis of osteoporosis and fragility fractures of the upper or lower extremity, pelvis, and vertebrae were the outcome measures. Results: Multivariate conditional logistic regression models demonstrated that hyponatremia was associated with osteoporosis and/or fragility fractures, including chronic [osteoporosis: odds ratio (OR) 3.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.59–4.39; fracture: OR 4.61, 95% CI 4.15–5.11], recent (osteoporosis: OR 3.06, 95% CI 2.81–3.33; fracture: OR 3.05, 95% CI 2.83–3.29), and combined chronic and recent hyponatremia (osteoporosis: OR 12.09, 95% CI 9.34–15.66; fracture: OR 11.21, 95% CI 8.81–14.26). Odds of osteoporosis or fragility fracture increased incrementally with categorical decrease in median serum Na+. Conclusions: These analyses support the hypothesis that hyponatremia is a risk factor for osteoporosis and fracture. Additional studies are required to evaluate whether correction of hyponatremia will improve patient outcomes. PMID:26083821

  12. The method of searching F/G/K type hyper-velocity star candidates from data release one of LAMOST survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yinbi, Li; Ali, Luo; Gang, Zhao

    2015-08-01

    Hyper-velocity stars are travelling so fast that they can be ejected out from the Galactic center from dynamical interactions between (binary) stars and the central massive black hole(s). In this paper, we report 19 low mass F/G/K type hyper-velocity star candidates from over one million stars of the data release one of the LAMOST general survey. We initially select over 500,000 F, G and K dwarfs from over one million LAMOST DR1 stars with Teff and logg, and then further select over 190,000 final F, G and K dwarf samples with a series of photometric criteria. Then, we obtain 3D phase space coordinates and escape velocities for each dwarf, and select 32 hyper-velocity star candidates through comparing their total velocities and escape velocities. Finally, we individually inspect spectra of the 32 HVS candidates, 19 of them have high quality spectra, and they are all new HVS finds.

  13. Emerging Therapies for Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    McClung, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Although several effective therapies are available for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and older men, there remains a need for the development of even more effective and acceptable drugs. Several new drugs that are in late-stage clinical development will be discussed. Abaloparatide (recombinant parathyroid hormone related peptide [PTHrP] analogue) has anabolic activity like teriparatide. Recent data from the phase 3 fracture prevention trial demonstrate that this agent is effective in reducing fracture risk. Inhibiting cathepsin K reduces bone resorption without decreasing the numbers or activity of osteoclasts, thereby preserving or promoting osteoblast function. Progressive increases in bone mineral density (BMD) have been observed over 5 years. Early data suggest that odanacatib effectively reduces fracture risk. Lastly, inhibiting sclerostin with humanized antibodies promotes rapid, substantial but transient increases in bone formation while inhibiting bone resorption. Marked increases in BMD have been observed in phase 2 studies. Fracture prevention studies are underway. The new therapies with novel and unique mechanisms of action may, alone or in combination, provide more effective treatment options for our patients. PMID:26354487

  14. Emerging Therapies for Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although several effective therapies are available for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and older men, there remains a need for the development of even more effective and acceptable drugs. Several new drugs that are in late-stage clinical development will be discussed. Abaloparatide (recombinant parathyroid hormone related peptide [PTHrP] analogue) has anabolic activity like teriparatide. Recent data from the phase 3 fracture prevention trial demonstrate that this agent is effective in reducing fracture risk. Inhibiting cathepsin K reduces bone resorption without decreasing the numbers or activity of osteoclasts, thereby preserving or promoting osteoblast function. Progressive increases in bone mineral density (BMD) have been observed over 5 years. Early data suggest that odanacatib effectively reduces fracture risk. Lastly, inhibiting sclerostin with humanized antibodies promotes rapid, substantial but transient increases in bone formation while inhibiting bone resorption. Marked increases in BMD have been observed in phase 2 studies. Fracture prevention studies are underway. The new therapies with novel and unique mechanisms of action may, alone or in combination, provide more effective treatment options for our patients. PMID:26354487

  15. A spectroscopic study of the ancient milky way: f- and g-type stars in the third data release of the sloan digital sky survey

    SciTech Connect

    Allende Prieto, Carlos; Beers, T.C.; Wilhelm, R.; Newberg, H.J.; Rockosi, C.M.; Yanny, B.; Lee, Y.S.; /Michigan STate U.

    2005-09-01

    We perform an analysis of spectra and photometry for 22,770 stars included in the third data release (DR3) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We measure radial velocities and, based on a model-atmosphere analysis, derive estimates of the atmospheric parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, and [Fe/H]) for each star. Stellar evolution models are then used to estimate distances. We thoroughly check our analysis procedures using three recently published spectroscopic libraries of nearby stars, and compare our results with those obtained from alternative approaches. The SDSS sample covers a range in stellar brightness of 14 < V < 22, primarily at intermediate galactic latitudes, and comprises large numbers of F- and G-type stars from the thick-disk and halo populations (up to 100 kpc from the galactic plane), therefore including some of the oldest stars in the Milky Way. In agreement with previous results from the literature, we find that halo stars exhibit a broad range of iron abundances, with a peak at [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -1.4. This population exhibits essentially no galactic rotation. Thick-disk G-dwarf stars at distances from the galactic plane in the range 1 < |z| < 3 kpc show a much more compact metallicity distribution, with a maximum at [Fe/H] {approx_equal} -0.7, and a median galactic rotation velocity at that metallicity of 157 {+-} 4 km s{sup -1} (a lag relative to the thin disk of 63 km s{sup -1}). SDSS DR3 includes spectra of many F-type dwarfs and subgiants between 1 and 3 kpc from the plane with galactic rotation velocities consistent with halo membership. A comparison of color indices and metal abundances with isochrones indicates that no significant star formation has taken place in the halo in the last {approx} 11 Gyr, but there are thick-disk stars which are at least 2 Gyr younger. We find the metallicities of thick-disk stars to be nearly independent of galactocentric distance between 5 and 14 kpc from the galactic center, in

  16. Osteoporosis: Cloris Leachman Leads by Example

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Osteoporosis Cloris Leachman Leads By Example Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of ... age discrimination! Read More "Osteoporosis" Articles Cloris Leachman Leads By Example / Preventing and Treating Brittle Bones and ...

  17. Diagnosis and management of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ralston, Stuart H; Fraser, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a common condition characterised by low bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased risk of fragility fractures. It affects up to 30% of women and 12% of men at some point in their lives. Two of the most important risk factors are increasing age and female gender, although other common and potentially modifiable risk factors include long-term corticosteroid therapy, chronic inflammatory disease, malabsorption and untreated premature menopause. The diagnosis of osteoporosis can be confirmed by DEXA but this should only be performed in patients who have an increased risk of fracture on the basis of clinical risk factors. DEXA should be considered if the 10-year risk of major osteoporotic fracture is > 10%. If the BMD T-score values by DEXA at the lumbar spine, femoral neck or total hip are at or below -2.5 then the diagnosis of osteoporosis is confirmed. Vertebral fractures are generally taken as diagnostic of osteoporosis, even if spine BMD values are not in the osteoporotic range. Oral bisphosphonates are the first-line treatment. If they are contraindicated or not tolerated then parenteral therapy should be considered. There is evidence that fractures occur in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis at higher levels of BMD than in postmenopausal osteoporosis so therapy should be considered in patients with a BMD T-score of <-1.5. Although it is useful to have a DEXA scan before starting treatment to provide a baseline value to assess response, this investigation is not absolutely necessary to initiate bone protective therapy, especially in those aged above 65 since the vast majority of these patients will have a T-score of -1.5 or below. In younger individuals where BMD is likely to be higher DEXA is useful in determining if bone protective treatment is needed immediately or if it could be delayed until the T score falls below -1.5. PMID:26882774

  18. Osteoporosis in liver disease: pathogenesis and management

    PubMed Central

    Handzlik-Orlik, Gabriela; Holecki, Michał; Wilczyński, Krzysztof; Duława, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis affects a substantial proportion of patients with chronic liver disease. Pathologic fracture in osteoporosis significantly affects quality of life and life expectancy. By some estimates, 40% of patients with chronic liver disease may experience osteoporotic fracture. In this study we review the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of specific liver disease entities and their relation to osteoporosis. PMID:27293541

  19. Older Men's Explanatory Model for Osteoporosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solimeo, Samantha L.; Weber, Thomas J.; Gold, Deborah T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the nature of men's experiences of osteoporosis by developing an understanding of men's explanatory models. Design and Methods: This descriptive study invited community-residing male osteoporosis patients aged 50+ to participate in interviews about osteoporosis. Participants were recruited from a hospital-affiliated bone…

  20. Evaluation and Treatment of Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Kim M

    2016-07-01

    As the population ages, the rates of osteoporotic fractures will increase, with postmenopausal women incurring most of these fractures. Diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis are extremely important. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan screening is recommended in all women more than 65 years of age or in women aged 50 to 64 years with certain risk factors. Treatment should be considered if osteoporosis is present, there is a history of fragility fracture, or in the setting of osteopenia plus high risk for fracture. PMID:27235616

  1. New horizons in osteoporosis therapies.

    PubMed

    Harsløf, Torben; Langdahl, Bente L

    2016-06-01

    Efficient therapies are available for the treatment of osteoporosis, however, there are still unmet needs. Anti-resorptive therapies only increase bone mineral density to a certain extent and reduce the risk of non-vertebral fractures by 20%, only one anabolic option is available-the effect of which levels off over time, and the evidence for combination therapy targeting both resorption and formation is limited. The current review will focus on emerging treatments of osteoporosis with the potential of enhanced anabolic effects (romosozumab and abaloparatide) or uncoupling of resorption and formation (odanacatib and romosozumab) as well as the effect of combination therapy. PMID:26989807

  2. Osteoporosis in lysinuric protein intolerance.

    PubMed

    Parto, K; Penttinen, R; Paronen, I; Pelliniemi, L; Simell, O

    1993-01-01

    Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by defective transport of cationic amino acids. Patients have an increased incidence of fractures and their skeletal radiographs show osteoporosis. The aim of the study was to characterize the osteopenia in LPI. Twenty-nine Finnish LPI patients (age range 3.7-44.4 years) were screened for parameters of bone metabolism. Morphometric analysis of bone was carried out in specimens of 9 patients. Collagen synthesis was studied with cultured skin fibroblasts (4 patients) and collagen fibril sizes (3 patients) were measured using electron microscopy. Most histological bone specimens (8/9) showed osteoporosis. Osteomalacia was excluded. Routine clinical laboratory tests were unrevealing. The concentrations of free hydroxyproline and type III procollagen N-propeptide in serum and the urinary excretion of hydroxyproline were increased in almost all patients during their growth and in about half of adult patients. Collagen synthesis in LPI fibroblast cultures was significantly decreased compared with that in age-matched controls at 5 (p < 0.01), 14 (p < 0.01) and still at 30 years (p < 0.01), whereas no difference was observed at the age of 44 years (p = N.S.). Osteoporosis in LPI might reflect defective matrix protein synthesis caused by protein deprivation and deficiency of cationic amino acids. Increased collagen turnover can also contribute to the osteoporosis. PMID:8412005

  3. [Osteoporosis secondary to various disorders].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Toru

    2012-06-01

    Secondary osteoporosis is caused by various disorders, metabolic derangements, and drug administration. Among causative disorders, primary hyperparathyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and chronic kidney disease are prevalent ones. Fractures in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease tend to result from the reduction in bone quality rather than that in bone mass. PMID:22653018

  4. Research Advances: Onions Battle Osteoporosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Bern in Switzerland have identified a compound in the popular vegetable that appears to decrease bone loss in laboratory studies using rat bone cells. It is suggested that eating onions might help prevent bone loss and osteoporosis, a disease, which predominantly affects older women.

  5. Osteoporosis Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Reiko; Inoue, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that osteoporosis is closely associated with common chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a chronic inflammatory airway disease but now well known to be associated with various systemic comorbidities including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are extremely common in COPD patients, which have significant impacts on their quality of life (QOL), activities of daily life (ADL), respiratory function, and possibly their prognosis. COPD-associated osteoporosis is however extremely under-recognized, hence undertreated. Recent studies have suggested that both decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone quality compromise bone strength causing fractures in COPD. In COPD patients, various general clinical risk factors for osteoporosis are present including smoking, older age, low body weight, and physical inactivity. In addition, disease-related risk factors such as decreased pulmonary function, inflammation, glucocorticoid use and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency have been linked to the development of osteoporosis in COPD. Increased awareness of osteoporosis in COPD, especially that of high prevalence of vertebral fractures is called upon among general physicians as well as pulmonologists. Routine screening for osteoporosis and risk assessment of fractures will enable physicians to diagnose COPD patients with comorbid osteoporosis at an early stage. Timely prevention of developing osteoporosis together with appropriate treatment of established osteoporosis may improve QOL and ADL of the COPD patients, preserve their lung function and eventually result in better prognosis in these patients. PMID:27622174

  6. Osteoporosis Associated with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryo; Watanabe, Reiko; Inoue, Daisuke

    2016-08-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have revealed that osteoporosis is closely associated with common chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disorders, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD is a chronic inflammatory airway disease but now well known to be associated with various systemic comorbidities including osteoporosis. Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are extremely common in COPD patients, which have significant impacts on their quality of life (QOL), activities of daily life (ADL), respiratory function, and possibly their prognosis. COPD-associated osteoporosis is however extremely under-recognized, hence undertreated. Recent studies have suggested that both decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and impaired bone quality compromise bone strength causing fractures in COPD. In COPD patients, various general clinical risk factors for osteoporosis are present including smoking, older age, low body weight, and physical inactivity. In addition, disease-related risk factors such as decreased pulmonary function, inflammation, glucocorticoid use and vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency have been linked to the development of osteoporosis in COPD. Increased awareness of osteoporosis in COPD, especially that of high prevalence of vertebral fractures is called upon among general physicians as well as pulmonologists. Routine screening for osteoporosis and risk assessment of fractures will enable physicians to diagnose COPD patients with comorbid osteoporosis at an early stage. Timely prevention of developing osteoporosis together with appropriate treatment of established osteoporosis may improve QOL and ADL of the COPD patients, preserve their lung function and eventually result in better prognosis in these patients. PMID:27622174

  7. Osteoporosis across chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Guarino, M; Loperto, I; Camera, S; Cossiga, V; Di Somma, C; Colao, A; Caporaso, N; Morisco, F

    2016-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a complication of chronic liver disease, with impact on morbidity, quality of life, and survival. The progress of medicine and the new therapies stretched the disease's natural history and improved the survival of patients with liver disease. So, it is fundamental to make better the quality of life and to prevent complications. Metabolic bone disorders are common complications of chronic liver disease (CLD). Patients with CLD have an increased risk of bone fractures, with significant impact on morbidity, quality of life, and even on survival. Bone diseases, including osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and osteopenia, are frequently observed in many types of liver disease. The pathogenesis of damage and the mechanisms of bone loss are different in relation to the specific liver disease. The relevance of these conditions induced many authors to create a new nosographic entity known as "hepatic osteodystrophy", although this term is rarely used anymore and it is now commonly referred to as osteopenia or osteoporosis associated with chronic liver disease. This review is based on the personal experiences of the authors and upon research done of the available literature on this subject matter. The authors searched the PubMed database for publications containing the term "liver disease" in combination with "bone disease", "hepatic osteodistrophy", "osteoporosis", "osteopenia", "osteomalacia", and "fractures". They selected publications from the past 10 years but did not exclude older seminal publications, especially for colestatic liver diseases. This review of literature shows that osteoporosis crosses all CLD. It is important to underline that the progress of medicine and the new therapies stretched the disease's natural history and improved the survival of patients with CLD. It is fundamental to make better the quality of life and it is mandatory to prevent complications and in particular the osteoporotic ones, especially fractures. PMID:26846777

  8. Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyer, R.A.; Korach, K.S. ); Epstein, S. ); Bhattacharyya, M. ); Pounds, J. )

    1994-04-01

    Environmental risk factors for osteoporosis were reviewed at a conference held at the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences 8-9 November 1993. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disease and the NIH Office of Research in Women's Health. The objective of the conference was to review what is known about risk factors for osteoporosis and to identify gaps in the present state of knowledge that might be addressed by future research. The conference was divided into two broad themes. The first session focused on current knowledge regarding etiology, risk factors, and approaches to clinical and laboratory diagnosis. This was followed by three sessions in which various environmental pollutants were discussed. Topics selected for review included environmental agents that interfere with bone and calcium metabolism, such as the toxic metals lead, cadmium, aluminum, and fluoride, natural and antiestrogens, calcium, and vitamin D.

  9. [Epidemiology of Osteoporosis in Men].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Saeko

    2016-07-01

    Estimated number of those with osteoporosis was about 12,800,000, and about 23%, 3,000,000 were male osteoporosis in Japan. Incidence of hip, vertebral, distal radius, and proximal humeral fracture in men was half of that in women. Lifetime risk of hip fracture was 5.6% in men. Risk factors for osteoporotic fracture in men were low bone mineral density(BMD), previous fracture, low body mass index, smoking, family history of fracture, glucocorticoid use and others. For osteoporotic fractures, the fracture risk in smokers was significantly higher in men than in women. There was no differences in fracture risks by BMD, previous fracture, glucocorticoid use, and family fracture history between men and women. PMID:27346311

  10. The natural approach to osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Bartolozzi, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is normally the result of a wrong life-style (diet, physical inactivity, smoke, dental hygiene, intestinal dysbiosis,…) and environmental toxicity which stimulate the chronic expression of inflammatory genes and alter the immuno-endocrine balance. A natural approch should face all the factors involved, leading the patients to become aware of their own responsability, and helping them with natural therapies, healthy food and life-style which support their body in the process of self-healing. PMID:26604935

  11. Bone tissue engineering in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Franz; Ebert, Regina; Ignatius, Anita; Matsushita, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshinobu; Groll, Juergen; Walles, Heike

    2013-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a polygenetic, environmentally modifiable disease, which precipitates into fragility fractures of vertebrae, hip and radius and also confers a high risk of fractures in accidents and trauma. Aging and the genetic molecular background of osteoporosis cause delayed healing and impair regeneration. The worldwide burden of disease is huge and steadily increasing while the average life expectancy is also on the rise. The clinical need for bone regeneration applications, systemic or in situ guided bone regeneration and bone tissue engineering, will increase and become a challenge for health care systems. Apart from in situ guided tissue regeneration classical ex vivo tissue engineering of bone has not yet reached the level of routine clinical application although a wealth of scaffolds and growth factors has been developed. Engineering of complex bone constructs in vitro requires scaffolds, growth and differentiation factors, precursor cells for angiogenesis and osteogenesis and suitable bioreactors in various combinations. The development of applications for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone faces technical challenges concerning rapid vascularization for the survival of constructs in vivo. Recent new ideas and developments in the fields of bone biology, materials science and bioreactor technology will enable us to develop standard operating procedures for ex vivo tissue engineering of bone in the near future. Once prototyped such applications will rapidly be tailored for compromised conditions like vitamin D and sex hormone deficiencies, cellular deficits and high production of regeneration inhibitors, as they are prevalent in osteoporosis and in higher age. PMID:23562167

  12. [Nutritional factors in preventing osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Martín Jiménez, Juan Antonio; Consuegra Moya, Belkis; Martín Jiménez, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis, main risk factor for suffering fragility fractures, is an important public health problem which has undoubted social, health and economic impact; but mainly causes pain, functional limitation and severe alterations in the patient's quality of life. Its current prevalence is very high and a further increase is expected due to a higher life expectancy and the progressive ageing of the population. In the prevention of osteoporosis, the main goal is to prevent fragility fractures; for this reason, it is necessary to: 1) promote bone formation in youth, to get sufficient bone mass peak, 2) reduce bone loss in adulthood, especially after menopause, 3) maintain bone health throughout life, and 4) prevent falls. There is enough evidence that multifactorial strategies (assessment of risk factors, healthy lifestyle habits, smoking cessation, moderation in alcohol consumption, physical exercise, outdoor activity with prudent exposure to sunlight, and a varied and balanced diet), are effective in the population at risk. Regarding factors for the prevention of osteoporosis, current recommendations are: increased consumption of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and fluoride; provide adequate vitamin D (even with fortified food if necessary); consumption of foods rich in omega-3 acids; reduction of salt and prepared ready meals; sufficient but moderate intake of protein and, in the absence of intolerance, promote the consumption of milk and dairy products, especially yogurt and fermented milk products. PMID:26267775

  13. The management of osteoporosis in children.

    PubMed

    Ward, L M; Konji, V N; Ma, J

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the manifestations and risk factors associated with osteoporosis in childhood, the definition of osteoporosis and recommendations for monitoring and prevention. As well, this article discusses when a child should be considered a candidate for osteoporosis therapy, which agents should be prescribed, duration of therapy and side effects. There has been significant progress in our understanding of risk factors and the natural history of osteoporosis in children over the past number of years. This knowledge has fostered the development of logical approaches to the diagnosis, monitoring, and optimal timing of osteoporosis intervention in this setting. Current management strategies are predicated upon monitoring at-risk children to identify and then treat earlier rather than later signs of osteoporosis in those with limited potential for spontaneous recovery. On the other hand, trials addressing the prevention of the first-ever fracture are still needed for children who have both a high likelihood of developing fractures and less potential for recovery. This review focuses on the evidence that shapes the current approach to diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of osteoporosis in childhood, with emphasis on the key pediatric-specific biological principles that are pivotal to the overall approach and on the main questions with which clinicians struggle on a daily basis. The scope of this article is to review the manifestations of and risk factors for primary and secondary osteoporosis in children, to discuss the definition of pediatric osteoporosis, and to summarize recommendations for monitoring and prevention of bone fragility. As well, this article reviews when a child is a candidate for osteoporosis therapy, which agents and doses should be prescribed, the duration of therapy, how the response to therapy is adjudicated, and the short- and long-term side effects. With this information, the bone health clinician will be poised to diagnose

  14. Prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in women.

    PubMed

    Al-Azzawi, Farook; Barlow, David; Hillard, Tim; Studd, John; Williamson, Jenny; Rees, Margaret

    2007-12-01

    Osteoporosis affects one in three women. There has been some confusion among women and health professionals about the management of osteoporosis since the publication of the Women's Health Initiative and Million Women studies. This guidance regarding estrogen-based and non-estrogen-based treatments for osteoporosis responds to the controversies about the benefits and risks of individual agents. Treatment choice should be based on up-to-date evidence and targeted to individual women's needs. PMID:18088530

  15. Health Beliefs about Osteoporosis and Osteoporosis Screening in Older Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine older adults' beliefs about osteoporosis and osteoporosis screening to identify barriers to screening. Design: Cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting: Western Pennsylvania. Methods: Surveys were mailed to 1,830 women and men aged 60 years and older. The survey assessed socio-demographic characteristics, osteoporosis and…

  16. 73 FR 56477 - Food Labeling: Health Claims; Calcium and Osteoporosis, and Calcium, Vitamin D, and Osteoporosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-09-29

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its labeling regulation authorizing a health claim on the relationship between calcium and a reduced risk of osteoporosis to include vitamin D so that, in addition to the claim for calcium and osteoporosis, an additional claim can be made for calcium and vitamin D and osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement that the claim list sex, race, and......

  17. [An update on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Krasselt, Marco; Baerwald, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis. Moreover, it is the most common reason for an osteoporosis among young adults. The clinical use of oral glucocorticoids increases the fracture incidence already within three months after starting the therapy. There does not seem to be a lower threshold: even doses as low as 2,5 mg of prednisone equivalent increase the risk of fractures. Adequate diagnostic and therapy are able to significantly reduce the resulting fracture risk. This article will discuss the pathophysiology of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and give a summary of the current recommendations including the recently updated German guidelines. PMID:26939107

  18. Laboratory testing for secondary osteoporosis evaluation.

    PubMed

    Adler, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Osteoporosis has been classified into primary and secondary forms. All patients with osteoporosis should have measurements of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, serum and urine calcium, and some estimation of renal function. There are a wide variety of disorders that lead to secondary osteoporosis, and the tests that confirm these diagnoses are described herein. Making the specific diagnosis is important because treatment of the underlying condition may be sufficient to lessen fracture risk, although some patients may also need usual treatment for osteoporosis. Laboratory testing in addition to a careful history and physical examination will often lead to diagnoses of treatable conditions. PMID:22333732

  19. What People with Anorexia Nervosa Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What People With Anorexia Nervosa Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available ... focus(); */ } //--> Print-Friendly Page April 2016 What Is Anorexia Nervosa? Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized ...

  20. What People with Rheumatoid Arthritis Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... increased risk for osteoporosis, are two to three times more likely than men to have rheumatoid arthritis as well. Osteoporosis Management Strategies Strategies for preventing and treating osteoporosis in ...

  1. What Prostate Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... information on osteoporosis, visit: NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center Website: http://www.bones.nih. ... Pub. No. 16-7905 NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center 2 AMS Circle Bethesda, MD ...

  2. What People with Lupus Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... information on osteoporosis, contact: NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center Website: http://www.bones.nih. ... No. 16-7902-E NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center 2 AMS Circle Bethesda, MD ...

  3. What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... browser. Home Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What Breast Cancer Survivors Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available ... Print-Friendly Page April 2016 The Impact of Breast Cancer Other than skin cancer, breast cancer is the ...

  4. What People with Asthma Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What People With Asthma Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available in: ... focus(); */ } //--> Print-Friendly Page April 2016 What Is Asthma? According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood ...

  5. What People with Diabetes Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Other Conditions What People With Diabetes Need to Know About Osteoporosis Publication available in: ... focus(); */ } //--> Print-Friendly Page April 2016 What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disorder of metabolism, a term ...

  6. Kepler Eclipsing Binary Stars. I. Catalog and Principal Characterization of 1879 Eclipsing Binaries in the First Data Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prša, Andrej; Batalha, Natalie; Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Rucker, Michael; Mjaseth, Kimberly; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas; Koch, David; Borucki, William

    2011-03-01

    The Kepler space mission is devoted to finding Earth-size planets orbiting other stars in their habitable zones. Its large, 105 deg2 field of view features over 156,000 stars that are observed continuously to detect and characterize planet transits. Yet, this high-precision instrument holds great promise for other types of objects as well. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler in the first 44 days of operation, the data being publicly available through MAST as of 2010 June 15. The catalog contains 1879 unique objects. For each object, we provide its Kepler ID (KID), ephemeris (BJD0, P 0), morphology type, physical parameters (T eff, log g, E(B - V)), the estimate of third light contamination (crowding), and principal parameters (T 2/T 1, q, fillout factor, and sin i for overcontacts, and T 2/T 1, (R 1 + R 2)/a, esin ω, ecos ω, and sin i for detached binaries). We present statistics based on the determined periods and measure the average occurrence rate of eclipsing binaries to be ~1.2% across the Kepler field. We further discuss the distribution of binaries as a function of galactic latitude and thoroughly explain the application of artificial intelligence to obtain principal parameters in a matter of seconds for the whole sample. The catalog was envisioned to serve as a bridge between the now public Kepler data and the scientific community interested in eclipsing binary stars.

  7. Thermosensitive tribrachia star-shaped s-P(NIPAM-co-DMAM) random copolymer micelle aggregates: Preparation, characterization, and drug release applications.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yan-Ling; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Xuan; Xu, Feng; Chen, Ya-Shao

    2016-01-01

    Tribrachia star-shaped random copolymers with tunable thermosensitive phase transition temperature were designed and synthesized via a simple one-pot ammonolysis reaction approach with trimesic acid as cores. The self-assembly micellization behavior of the copolymers in aqueous solution was examined by surface tension, UV-vis transmittance, transmission electron microscope, and dynamic light scattering measurements, etc. The results indicated that the resultant copolymers formed thermosensitive micelle aggregates through hydrophobic interactions among the isopropyl groups of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) PNIPAM chains and inter-star association at a polymer concentration above critical aggregation concentrations from 4.06 to 6.55 mg L(-1), with a cloud point range from 36.6℃ to 52.1℃, and homogeneously distributed micelle size below 200 nm. The arm length and the compositional ratios of the two comonomers had effect on physicochemical properties of the polymer micelle aggregates. Particularly, the cloud point values were enhanced as the (N,N-dimethylacrylamide) DMAM monomer was introduced and reached to 36.6℃ and 41.0℃-44.7℃ when the mass ratio of NIPAM to DMAM was 90:10 and 80:20, respectively. The thermo-triggered drug release and cytotoxicity were evaluated to confirm the applicability of the random copolymer micelle aggregates as novel drug targeted release carriers. PMID:25926671

  8. A DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE HEAT RELEASE IN THE OUTER CRUST OF THE TRANSIENTLY ACCRETING NEUTRON STAR XTE J1709-267

    SciTech Connect

    Degenaar, N.; Miller, J. M.; Wijnands, R.

    2013-04-20

    The heating and cooling of transiently accreting neutron stars provides a powerful probe of the structure and composition of their crust. Observations of superbursts and cooling of accretion-heated neutron stars require more heat release than is accounted for in current models. Obtaining firm constraints on the depth and magnitude of this extra heat is challenging and therefore its origin remains uncertain. We report on Swift and XMM-Newton observations of the transient neutron star low-mass X-ray binary XTE J1709-267, which were made in 2012 September-October when it transitioned to quiescence after a {approx_equal}10 week long accretion outburst. The source is detected with XMM-Newton at a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of L{sub X} {approx_equal} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34}(D/8.5 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1}. The X-ray spectrum consists of a thermal component that fits to a neutron star atmosphere model and a non-thermal emission tail, each of which contribute {approx_equal}50% to the total flux. The neutron star temperature decreases from {approx_equal}158 to {approx_equal}152 eV during the {approx_equal}8 hr long observation. This can be interpreted as cooling of a crustal layer located at a column density of y {approx_equal} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} g cm{sup -2} ({approx_equal}50 m inside the neutron star), which is just below the ignition depth of superbursts. The required heat generation in the layers on top would be {approx_equal}0.06-0.13 MeV per accreted nucleon. The magnitude and depth rule out electron captures and nuclear fusion reactions as the heat source, but it may be accounted for by chemical separation of light and heavy nuclei. Low-level accretion offers an alternative explanation for the observed variability.

  9. Inflammatory eye reactions with bisphosphonates and other osteoporosis medications: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Clark, Emma M; Durup, Darshana

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory eye reactions (IERs) are rare but have been associated with medications to treat osteoporosis. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the association between IERs and specific medications to treat osteoporosis (bisphosphonates, selective estrogen receptor modulators, strontium, denosumab and teriparatide). We cover the known epidemiology, potential pathogenic mechanisms and a resume of unanswered questions. Briefly, this review highlights that none of the existing randomized clinical trials were powered to identify these rare adverse events, and the majority of the information available is from spontaneous case reports and case series reporting associations between bisphosphonates and IERs. No case reports describe IERs after other anti-osteoporosis medications. Importantly, some case reports describe recurrence of the IER after affected patients were rechallenged with the same or another bisphosphonate, and that no reported cases resolved without discontinuation of the bisphosphonate. However, three large population-based cohort studies have shown conflicting results between osteoporosis treatments and IERs, but overall these studies suggest that IERs may actually be part of underlying inflammatory disease processes that also cause osteoporosis, rather than due to the medications used to treat osteoporosis themselves. There are no clear pathogenic mechanisms for how bisphosphonates could potentially cause IERs. However, the drug is secreted into the tears by the lacrimal gland and could cause irritation to the mucous membranes with subsequent release of inflammatory mediators, similar to the systemic response typically seen after infusion of bisphosphonates. However, in summary it is still not known whether there is a true causal association between bisphosphonates or other anti-osteoporosis medications and IERs, or whether it is confounding by indication and is actually due to underlying inflammatory diseases that cause both

  10. Medical treatment of vertebral osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Lippuner, K

    2003-10-01

    Although osteoporosis is a systemic disease, vertebral fractures due to spinal bone loss are a frequent, sometimes early and often neglected complication of the disease, generally associated with considerable disability and pain. As osteoporotic vertebral fractures are an important predictor of future fracture risk, including at the hip, medical management is targeted at reducing fracture risk. A literature search for randomized, double-blind, prospective, controlled clinical studies addressing medical treatment possibilities of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal Caucasian women was performed on the leading medical databases. For each publication, the number of patients with at least one new vertebral fracture and the number of randomized patients by treatment arm was retrieved. The relative risk (RR) and the number needed to treat (NNT, i.e. the number of patients to be treated to avoid one radiological vertebral fracture over the duration of the study), together with the respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for each study. Treatment of steroid-induced osteoporosis and treatment of osteoporosis in men were reviewed separately, based on the low number of publications available. Forty-five publications matched with the search criteria, allowing for analysis of 15 different substances tested regarding their anti-fracture efficacy at the vertebral level. Bisphosphonates, mainly alendronate and risedronate, were reported to have consistently reduced the risk of a vertebral fracture over up to 50 months of treatment in four (alendronate) and two (risedronate) publications. Raloxifene reduced vertebral fracture risk in one study over 36 months, which was confirmed by 48 months' follow-up data. Parathormone (PTH) showed a drastic reduction in vertebral fracture risk in early studies, while calcitonin may also be a treatment option to reduce fracture risk. For other substances published data are conflicting (calcitriol, fluoride) or insufficient

  11. KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY STARS. I. CATALOG AND PRINCIPAL CHARACTERIZATION OF 1879 ECLIPSING BINARIES IN THE FIRST DATA RELEASE

    SciTech Connect

    Prsa, Andrej; Engle, Scott G.; Conroy, Kyle; Batalha, Natalie; Rucker, Michael; Mjaseth, Kimberly; Slawson, Robert W.; Doyle, Laurance R.; Welsh, William F.; Orosz, Jerome A.; Seager, Sara; Jenkins, Jon; Caldwell, Douglas

    2011-03-15

    The Kepler space mission is devoted to finding Earth-size planets orbiting other stars in their habitable zones. Its large, 105 deg{sup 2} field of view features over 156,000 stars that are observed continuously to detect and characterize planet transits. Yet, this high-precision instrument holds great promise for other types of objects as well. Here we present a comprehensive catalog of eclipsing binary stars observed by Kepler in the first 44 days of operation, the data being publicly available through MAST as of 2010 June 15. The catalog contains 1879 unique objects. For each object, we provide its Kepler ID (KID), ephemeris (BJD{sub 0}, P{sub 0}), morphology type, physical parameters (T{sub eff}, log g, E(B - V)), the estimate of third light contamination (crowding), and principal parameters (T{sub 2}/T{sub 1}, q, fillout factor, and sin i for overcontacts, and T{sub 2}/T{sub 1}, (R{sub 1} + R{sub 2})/a, esin {omega}, ecos {omega}, and sin i for detached binaries). We present statistics based on the determined periods and measure the average occurrence rate of eclipsing binaries to be {approx}1.2% across the Kepler field. We further discuss the distribution of binaries as a function of galactic latitude and thoroughly explain the application of artificial intelligence to obtain principal parameters in a matter of seconds for the whole sample. The catalog was envisioned to serve as a bridge between the now public Kepler data and the scientific community interested in eclipsing binary stars.

  12. The natural approach to osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Bartolozzi, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is normally the result of a wrong life-style (diet, physical inactivity, smoke, dental hygiene, intestinal dysbiosis,…) and environmental toxicity which stimulate the chronic expression of inflammatory genes and alter the immuno-endocrine balance. A natural approch should face all the factors involved, leading the patients to become aware of their own responsability, and helping them with natural therapies, healthy food and life-style which support their body in the process of self-healing. PMID:26604935

  13. Osteoporosis in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, C S; Selby, P L; Webb, A K; Adams, J E

    1998-01-01

    Osteoporosis is prevalent in adults with CF Longitudinal data have not been collected and so the natural history is unknown. The aetiology is not known. There are no published randomized controlled trials evaluating treatments for osteoporosis in CF patients. Images Figure 1 PMID:9709383

  14. Update on the epidemiology of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Wolf, R L; Zmuda, J M; Stone, K L; Cauley, J A

    2000-02-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem that affects the entire aging population. This report provides an update on the epidemiology of osteoporosis and its associated fractures. Published studies from 1997 to the present are highlighted. The current US prevalence estimates for osteoporosis, trends in fracture incidence rates, and latest reports on the morbidity, mortality, and costs attributable to osteoporotic fractures are discussed. Recent advances in our understanding of risk factors associated with osteoporosis and related fractures are reviewed. Special attention is paid to the rapid progress being made in the field of genetics, the growing importance of nutrition, and the new questions being raised as to the influence of hormonal factors on bone mineral density and fracture risk. New studies linking osteoporosis to several other important diseases in women including breast cancer, osteoarthritis, and stroke are also reviewed. PMID:11123043

  15. Bisphosphonates for treatment of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jacques P.; Morin, Suzanne; Leslie, William; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Cheung, Angela M.; Davison, Kenneth S.; Goltzman, David; Hanley, David Arthur; Hodsman, Anthony; Josse, Robert; Jovaisas, Algis; Juby, Angela; Kaiser, Stephanie; Karaplis, Andrew; Kendler, David; Khan, Aliya; Ngui, Daniel; Olszynski, Wojciech; Ste-Marie, Louis-Georges; Adachi, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To outline the efficacy and risks of bisphosphonate therapy for the management of osteoporosis and describe which patients might be eligible for bisphosphonate “drug holiday.” Quality of evidence MEDLINE (PubMed, through December 31, 2012) was used to identify relevant publications for inclusion. Most of the evidence cited is level II evidence (non-randomized, cohort, and other comparisons trials). Main message The antifracture efficacy of approved first-line bisphosphonates has been proven in randomized controlled clinical trials. However, with more extensive and prolonged clinical use of bisphosphonates, associations have been reported between their administration and the occurrence of rare, but serious, adverse events. Osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical subtrochanteric and diaphyseal femur fractures might be related to the use of bisphosphonates in osteoporosis, but they are exceedingly rare and they often occur with other comorbidities or concomitant medication use. Drug holidays should only be considered in low-risk patients and in select patients at moderate risk of fracture after 3 to 5 years of therapy. Conclusion When bisphosphonates are prescribed to patients at high risk of fracture, their antifracture benefits considerably outweigh their potential for harm. For patients taking bisphosphonates for 3 to 5 years, reassess the need for ongoing therapy. PMID:24733321

  16. Nanohydroxyapatite Application to Osteoporosis Management

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Zairin

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite is chemically related to the inorganic component of bone matrix as a complex structure with the formula of Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6. Previous studies have reported the application of microsized hydroxyapatite to bone regeneration, but the result is not satisfied. The limitation comes from the size of hydroxyapatite. In addition, the duration of treatment is very long. The advantages of hydroxyapatite nanocrystal are the osteoconduction, bioresorption, and contact in close distance. Crystal in osteoporotic bone is calcium phosphate hydroxide with the chemical formula of Ca10(OH)2(PO4)6. Crystal of normal bone is sodium calcium hydrogen carbonate phosphate hydrate with the chemical formula of Ca8H2(PO4)6·H2O–NaHCO3–H2O. The recent development is applying nanobiology approach to hydroxyapatite. This is based on the concept that the mineral atoms arranged in a crystal structure of hydroxyapatite can be substituted or incorporated by the other mineral atoms. In conclusion, the basic elements of hydroxyapatite crystals, composed of atomic minerals in a certain geometric pattern, and their relationship to the bone cell biological activity have opened opportunities for hydroxyapatite crystals supplement application on osteoporosis. Understanding of the characteristics of bone hydroxyapatite crystals as well as the behavior of mineral atom in the substitution will have a better impact on the management of osteoporosis. PMID:24288653

  17. The rising star of high-oleic Virginia peanuts: A summary of data supporting the release of 'VENUS'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'VENUS' is a large-seeded high-oleic Virginia-type peanut that has enhanced Sclerotinia blight and pod rot tolerance when compared to the cultivar Jupiter. 'VENUS' is the first high-oleic Virginia peanut developed for and proposed for release in the Southwestern US. 'VENUS' (experimental designati...

  18. Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... or she may suggest you have a bone density scan. A common test that measures bone density is called a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). This test measures the density of the bones in your hips, spine and ...

  19. [Osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Reza-Albarrán, Alfredo Adolfo

    2016-09-01

    Calcium intake has a role on the development of peak bone mass, and has a mild impact on the maintenance of bone mass during adulthood and the reduction of bone loss rate in postmenopausal women and the elderly in both genders. Calcium dietary intake should be privileged over supplementation. Dairy products are the main calcium dietary sources. Prospective studies have not clearly demonstrated an effect on the prevention of fractures, because of the practical difficulties of a long follow-up in order to get to solid conclusions; however the physiological rationale is that an adequate calcium intake and 25(OH) vitamin D levels exceeding 20 ng/ml is beneficial for bone health and may decrease to certain extent the risk of fractures. PMID:27603893

  20. Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... with weak bones in their spine gradually lose height and their posture becomes hunched over. Over time a bent spine can make it hard to walk or even sit up. Broken hips are a very serious problem as we age. ...

  1. Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods and regular exercise, such as walking or running, to strengthen bones. A doctor may also recommend ... In other words, play a lot! Playing sports, running, jumping, dancing — whatever you like to do. Don' ...

  2. Implant treatment in patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Mellado-Valero, Ana; Ferrer-García, Juan Carlos; Calvo-Catalá, Javier; Labaig-Rueda, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is very common, particularly in post-menopausal women and is characterized by a decrease in bone mass and strength. Osteoporosis also affects the jawbone and it is considered a potential contraindication to placement of dental implants. The present paper reviews the literature regarding the effect of osteoporosis on osseointegration of implants. Experimental models have shown that osteoporosis affects the process of osseointegration, which can be reversed by treatment. However, studies in subjects with osteoporosis have shown no differences in survival of the implants compared to healthy individuals. Therefore, osteoporosis cannot be considered a contraindication for implant placement. Oral bisphosphonates are the most commonly used pharmacological agents in the treatment of osteoporosis. Although there have been cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw in patients treated with bisphosphonates, they are very rare and it is more usually associated with intravenous bisphosphonates in patients with neoplasms or other serious diseases. Nevertheless, patients treated with bisphosphonates must be informed in writing about the possibility of this complication and must give informed consent. Ceasing to use bisphosphonates before implant placement does not seem to be necessary. PMID:19767691

  3. Secondary osteoporosis: differential diagnosis and workup.

    PubMed

    Diab, Dima L; Watts, Nelson B

    2013-12-01

    There are numerous causes of secondary osteoporosis including endocrine disorders, nutritional deficiencies, and other miscellaneous conditions and medications. It is essential to identify and address these factors to appropriately manage patients with osteoporosis. Failure to do so may result in further bone loss despite pharmacologic intervention for osteoporosis. The following diagnostic studies should be considered initially: complete blood count, complete metabolic panel, 25-hydroxyvitamin D level, testosterone level in men, and 24-hour urinary calcium, sodium, and creatinine. Further testing may be performed in selected patients depending on the clinical picture and results of the initial workup. PMID:24100597

  4. [Status and issues of medical treatment for osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2015-10-01

    Although various osteoporosis medications have become available with proven effects for protecting against bone fracture, such osteoporosis treatment is only given to 20 to 25% of those eligible in Japan. The most urgent task at present is to increase the treatment rate. The guidelines for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis were revised in 2015 and now include criteria for commencing medical treatment. However, guidelines for management of osteoporosis, including the duration of medical treatment for osteoporosis, are still under discussion. PMID:26529921

  5. 72 FR 497 - Food Labeling: Health Claims; Calcium and Osteoporosis, and Calcium, Vitamin D, and Osteoporosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2007-01-05

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend the regulation authorizing a health claim on the relationship between calcium and a reduced risk of osteoporosis to: Include vitamin D so that, in addition to claims for calcium and osteoporosis, additional claims can be made for calcium and vitamin D and osteoporosis; eliminate the requirement in Sec. 101.72(c)(2)(i)(A) (21 CFR......

  6. Star Power

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  7. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-11-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  8. Osteoporosis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Osteoporosis and Asian American Women English 骨質疏鬆症與亞裔美國婦女 - 繁體中文 (Chinese - Traditional) PDF National Institute ...

  9. Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis and Osteonecrosis

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Glucocorticoid administration is the most common cause of secondary osteoporosis and the leading cause of nontraumatic osteonecrosis. In patients receiving long-term therapy, glucocorticoids induce fractures in 30 to 50% and osteonecrosis in 9 to 40%. This article reviews glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis and osteonecrosis addressing the risk factors, pathogenesis, evaluation, treatment, and uncertainties in the clinical management of these disorders. PMID:22877431

  10. [Therapy of osteoporosis: towards personalized treatment?].

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Birgit; Lehnert, Hendrik

    2015-11-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common clinical disorder of bone metabolism. With regard to the growing spectrum of therapy options, treatment decisions should be made on an individual basis, taking into account the relative benefits and risks in different patient populations. Prioritization of drugs should be based on the form (primary / secondary) and severity of osteoporosis, sex, age, the specific contraindications and precautions of use of the various available medications and in particular, existing comorbidities. PMID:26536644

  11. Preventing osteoporosis in every day life.

    PubMed

    Lau, E M C

    2004-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by low bone mineral density, microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, and a consequent increase in fracture risk. The public health impact of osteoporosis stems from its association with fractures of the hip, spine and forearm. Between 10 and 20 percent of hip fracture patients die within a year of the event, and among those who survive, almost two-thirds remain disabled. The medical costs of osteoporosis and its attendant fractures have been placed at 5.2 billion dollars each year in the US and 615 million pound sterling each year in the UK. In Asia, osteoporosis is rapidly becoming a major public health problem with an increasing incidence of hip fracture and a rapidly aging population. By the year 2050, more than half of the hip fracture around the world would occur in Asia, with the total number approaching 3.2 million. Osteoporosis can be attributed to both genetic factors and environmental factors. While it is difficult to modify genes, much can be done to prevent osteoporosis in our every day life. These are discussed below. PMID:15577003

  12. Mechanisms of osteocyte stimulation in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Stefaan W; Vaughan, Ted J; McNamara, Laoise M

    2016-09-01

    Experimental studies have shown that primary osteoporosis caused by oestrogen-deficiency results in localised alterations in bone tissue properties and mineral composition. Additionally, changes to the lacunar-canalicular architecture surrounding the mechanosensitive osteocyte have been observed in animal models of the disease. Recently, it has also been demonstrated that the mechanical stimulation sensed by osteocytes changes significantly during osteoporosis. Specifically, it was shown that osteoporotic bone cells experience higher maximum strains than healthy bone cells after short durations of oestrogen deficiency. However, in long-term oestrogen deficiency there was no significant difference between bone cells in healthy and normal bone. The mechanisms by which these changes arise are unknown. In this study, we test the hypothesis that complex changes in tissue composition and lacunar-canalicular architecture during osteoporosis alter the mechanical stimulation of the osteocyte. The objective of this research is to employ computational methods to investigate the relationship between changes in bone tissue composition and microstructure and the mechanical stimulation of osteocytes during osteoporosis. By simulating physiological loading, it was observed that an initial decrease in tissue stiffness (of 0.425GPa) and mineral content (of 0.66wt% Ca) relative to controls could explain the mechanical stimulation observed at the early stages of oestrogen deficiency (5 weeks post-OVX) during in situ bone cell loading in an oestrogen-deficient rat model of post-menopausal osteoporosis (Verbruggen et al., 2015). Moreover, it was found that a later increase in stiffness (of 1.175GPa) and mineral content (of 1.64wt% Ca) during long-term osteoporosis (34 weeks post-OVX), could explain the mechanical stimuli previously observed at a later time point due to the progression of osteoporosis. Furthermore, changes in canalicular tortuosity arising during osteoporosis were shown

  13. 73 FR 66754 - Food Labeling: Health Claims; Calcium and Osteoporosis, and Calcium, Vitamin D, and Osteoporosis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2008-11-12

    ... Osteoporosis, and Calcium, Vitamin D, and Osteoporosis AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final... appeared in the Federal Register of Monday, September 29, 2008 (73 FR 56477). The final rule was published...-436-1450. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. E8-22730, appearing on page 56477 in the...

  14. Osteoporosis in unstable adult scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Velis, K.P.; Healey, J.H.; Schneider, R.

    1988-12-01

    New noninvasive techniques as well as conventional methods were used to evaluate skeletal mass in the following three populations of adult white women as follows: (1) 79 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis designated as unstable (US) because of the associated presence in the lumbar spine of lateral spondylolisthesis with segmental instability; (2) 67 subjects with preexisting idiopathic scoliosis without lateral spondylolisthesis designated as stable (SS); and (3) 248 age-matched nonscoliotic controls. Ages in all three groups were categorized into premenopausal (25-44 years), perimenopausal (45-54 years), and postmenopausal (55-84 years). The results showed higher scoliosis morbidity in the US compared to the SS populations. The prevalence and severity of osteoporosis were markedly increased in US versus SS populations. Femoral neck density determined by dual-photon absorptiometry techniques averaged 26% to 48% lower in all age categories of US patients compared to controls. These changes were found in the youngest age groups, indicating reductions in bone mineral content earlier in the adult life of white women with a specific type of high-morbidity US characterized by the marker of lateral spondylolisthesis.

  15. Osteoporosis in survivors of early life starvation.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M; Albury, William R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide evidence for the association of early life nutritional deprivation and adult osteoporosis, in order to suggest that a history of such deprivation may be an indicator of increased risk of osteoporosis in later life. The 'fetal programming' of a range of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in adults was first proposed in the 1990s and more recently extended to disorders of bone metabolism. Localised famines during World War II left populations in whom the long-term effects of maternal, fetal and infantile nutritional deprivation were studied. These studies supported the original concept of 'fetal programming' but did not consider bone metabolism. The present paper offers clinical data from another cohort of World War II famine survivors - those from the Holocaust. The data presented here, specifically addressing the issue of osteoporosis, report on 11 Holocaust survivors in Australia (five females, six males) who were exposed to starvation in early life. The cases show, in addition to other metabolic disorders associated with early life starvation, various levels of osteoporosis, often with premature onset. The cohort studied is too small to support firm conclusions, but the evidence suggests that the risk of adult osteoporosis in both males and females is increased by severe starvation early in life - not just in the period from gestation to infancy but also in childhood and young adulthood. It is recommended that epidemiological research on this issue be undertaken, to assist planning for the future health needs of immigrants to Australia coming from famine affected backgrounds. Pending such research, it would be prudent for primary care health workers to be alert to the prima facie association between early life starvation and adult osteoporosis, and to take this factor into account along with other indicators when assessing a patient's risk of osteoporosis in later life. PMID:22951115

  16. Osteoporosis in the at-risk asthmatic.

    PubMed

    Aljubran, S A; Whelan, G J; Glaum, M C; Lockey, R F

    2014-11-01

    The effect of inhaled glucocorticosteroids (ICS) on bone metabolism and subsequent osteoporosis is controversial. Explanations for this controversy include various study designs, duration of use, outcome measures, and population demographics of research studies with intranasal or inhalational ICS. Patients with poorly controlled asthma are at greatest risk of osteoporosis because they are commonly treated with intermittent or continuous systemic corticosteroids (SCS) or high-dose ICS. A 45-year-old Caucasian woman presents with moderate-to-severe asthma with frequent albuterol use and nighttime awakenings at least once weekly. She is on fluticasone/salmeterol 500/50 μg one inhalation twice daily and montelukast 10 mg/day. She requires prednisone 15 mg three times per day for 5 days up to three times a year. Is this patient at greater risk of osteopenia, characterized by a T-score between -1.0 and -2.5, and subsequent osteoporosis and an increased risk of fractures? If she has osteopenia, should she be treated with a bisphosphonate? The risk of osteoporosis and fracture increases significantly with frequent administration of SCS, and patients on such medications should undergo preventative measures and treatment. This study discuses factors that contribute to an increased risk of osteoporosis/osteopenia in patients with asthma and suggests recommendations based on the current literature. PMID:25039444

  17. Osteoporosis Prevention, Screening, and Treatment: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kling, Juliana M.; Clarke, Bart L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Osteoporosis, defined as low bone mass leading to increased fracture risk, is a major health problem that affects approximately 10 million Americans. The aging U.S. population is predicted to contribute to as much as a 50% increase in prevalence by 2025. Although common, osteoporosis can be clinically silent, and without prevention and screening, the costs of osteoporotic fracture–related morbidity and mortality will burden the U.S. healthcare system. This is a particularly relevant concern in the context of diminishing health care resources. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is the most widely used, validated technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) and diagnosing osteoporosis. Cost-effectiveness analyses support early detection and treatment of high-risk patients with antiresorptive medications such as bisphosphonates. Moreover, optimization of bone health throughout life can help prevent osteoporosis. Current guidelines recommend screening women by age 65 years, but because no guidelines for screening intervals exist, decisions are made on the basis of clinical judgment alone. Although the recent literature provides some guidance, this review further explores current recommendations in light of newer evidence to provide more clarity on prevention, screening, and management strategies for patients with osteoporosis in the primary care setting. PMID:24766381

  18. Osteoporosis in paediatric patients with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Marreiros, Humberto Filipe; Loff, Clara; Calado, Eulalia

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and morbidity associated with osteoporosis and fractures in patients with spina bifida (SB) highlight the importance of osteoporosis prevention and treatment in early childhood; however, the issue has received little attention. The method for the selection of appropriate patients for drug treatment has not been clarified. Objective To review the literature concerning fracture risks and low bone density in paediatric patients with SB. We looked for studies describing state-of-the-art treatments and for prevention of secondary osteoporosis. Methods Articles were identified through a search in the electronic database (PUBMED) supplemented with reviews of the reference lists of selected papers. The main outcome measures were incidence of fractures and risk factors for fracture, an association between bone mineral density (BMD) and occurrence of fracture, risk factors of low BMD, and effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments on BMD and on the incidence of fractures. We considered as a secondary outcome the occurrence of fractures in relation to the mechanism of injury. Results Results indicated that patients with SB are at increased risk for fractures and low BMD. Risk factors that may predispose patients to fractures include higher levels of neurological involvement, non-ambulatory status, physical inactivity, hypercalciuria, higher body fat levels, contractures, and a previous spontaneous fracture. Limitations were observed in the number and quality of studies concerning osteoporosis prevention and treatment in paediatric patients with SB. The safety and efficiency of drugs to treat osteoporosis in adults have not been evaluated satisfactorily in children with SB. PMID:22330186

  19. Management of osteoporosis in spine surgery.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Ronald A; Kang, Daniel Gene; Wagner, Scott Cameron

    2015-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a burgeoning clinical problem that is characterized by decreased bone strength and density. It predisposes patients to fragility fractures and debilitating spine deformities. Several complications are associated with spine surgery in patients with osteoporosis, and there is currently no treatment algorithm to guide the spine surgeon. A multidisciplinary approach to treatment of patients with osteoporosis and spine deformity or fracture is encouraged, and preoperative planning is crucial for successful surgical outcomes. Several surgical techniques have been developed to treat osteoporosis-related deformities, including posterior instrumentation with fusion. However, achieving fixation and fusion in these patients can be difficult secondary to poor bone stock. Augmentation methods to improve pedicle screw fixation have evolved, including instrumentation at multiple levels, bioactive cement augmentation, and fenestrated or expandable pedicle screws, but their impact on clinical outcomes remains unknown. Management of osteoporosis in patients undergoing spine surgery is challenging, but with appropriate patient selection, medical optimization, and surgical techniques, these patients can experience pain relief, deformity correction, and improved function. PMID:25808687

  20. A review of osteoporosis management in younger premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    McLendon, Amber N; Woodis, C Brock

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the available evidence for osteoporosis treatments in young and premenopausal women. A review of articles evaluating the treatment or prevention of osteoporosis in young (age less than 50 years) or premenopausal women was conducted. Several trials evaluating the treatment of anorexia nervosa and use of hormone therapy in those women, the use of bisphosphonates in women undergoing chemotherapy for breast cancer and the use of bisphosphonates, teriparatide and vitamin D in women with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis are described. Limited data were found to support the treatment of osteoporosis in women with idiopathic osteoporosis or cystic fibrosis, or after kidney transplant. The evidence for treatment of osteoporosis in premenopausal women is not nearly as robust as that for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Although fracture risk in the premenopausal population is low, women with secondary osteoporosis may benefit from treatment with various agents, depending upon the condition. PMID:24328599

  1. Injected Drug May Help Fight Osteoporosis in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160452.html Injected Drug May Help Fight Osteoporosis in Women Abaloparatide appears to reduce fractures better ... risk of bone fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis better than a placebo and the currently available ...

  2. What Are Osteoporosis and Arthritis and How Are They Different?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Other Related Conditions: NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center 2 AMS Circle Bethesda, MD ... www.niams.nih.gov NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center 2 AMS Circle Bethesda, MD ...

  3. For People with Osteoporosis: How to Find a Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... No. 15-7888-E NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center 2 AMS Circle Bethesda, MD ... another language, contact the NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center at NIHBoneInfo@mail.nih.gov . ...

  4. What People with Celiac Disease Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... ligand (RANKL) inhibitor. Resources NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center Website: http://www.bones.nih. ... Pub. No. 16-7897 NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center 2 AMS Circle Bethesda, MD ...

  5. Osteoporosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Malay; Bhardwaj, Rajeev; Madabhavi, Irappa; Khatana, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lifestyle-related chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD is associated with various comorbidities found in all stages of COPD. The comorbidities have significant impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden in COPD. Management of comorbidities should be incorporated into the comprehensive management of COPD as this will also have an effect on the outcome in COPD patients. Various comorbidities reported in COPD include cardiovascular disease, skeletal muscle dysfunction, anemia, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a significant comorbidity in COPD patients. Various risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, systemic inflammation, vitamin D deficiency, and the use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are responsible for its occurrence in patients with COPD. This review will focus on the prevalence, pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis in COPD patients. PMID:25788838

  6. [Advances in the treatment of secondary osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Galindo Zavala, R; Núñez Cuadros, E; Díaz Cordovés-Rego, G; Urda Cardona, A L

    2014-12-01

    Osteoporosis is being increasingly recognised in paediatric practice as a consequence of the increasing life expectancy of children who suffer from chronic diseases and other factors. There are many non-pharmacological measures that can improve children' bone health, for example, avoiding inflammatory activity and osteotoxic treatments; increasing sun exposure and weight-bearing exercise, and maintaining an adequate nutritional status. Vitamin D and calcium supplements have been proposed as a measure to increase bone mass, but their effect and therapeutic indications are not completely clear. On the other hand, bisphosphonates are currently the only pharmacological alternative for the patients with infantile secondary osteoporosis. However, more studies are required on the therapeutic indications, posology, and long term secondary effects of biphosphonates. The aim of this article is to analyze the scientific evidence of the effectiveness of the therapeutic alternatives for childhood secondary osteoporosis and their safety in children. PMID:25441207

  7. Osteoporosis in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Malay; Bhardwaj, Rajeev; Madabhavi, Irappa; Khatana, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lifestyle-related chronic inflammatory pulmonary disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. COPD is associated with various comorbidities found in all stages of COPD. The comorbidities have significant impact in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden in COPD. Management of comorbidities should be incorporated into the comprehensive management of COPD as this will also have an effect on the outcome in COPD patients. Various comorbidities reported in COPD include cardiovascular disease, skeletal muscle dysfunction, anemia, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a significant comorbidity in COPD patients. Various risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, systemic inflammation, vitamin D deficiency, and the use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) are responsible for its occurrence in patients with COPD. This review will focus on the prevalence, pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis in COPD patients. PMID:25788838

  8. New Antiresorptive Therapies for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease whose risk increases with age and it is common among postmenopausal women. Currently, almost all pharmacological agents for osteoporosis target the bone resorption component of bone remodeling activity. Current antiresorptive agents are effective, but the effectiveness of some agents is limited by real or perceived intolerance, longterm adverse events (AEs), coexisting comorbidities, and inadequate long-term adherence. New antiresorptive therapies that may expand options for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis include denosumab, combination of conjugated estrogen/bazedoxifene and cathepsin K inhibitors. However, the long-term efficacy and AEs of these antiresorptive therapies need to be confirmed in studies with a longer follow-up period. PMID:26046031

  9. Treatment options for thalassemia patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Terpos, Evangelos; Voskaridou, Ersi

    2010-08-01

    Osteoporosis represents a prominent cause of morbidity in patients with thalassemia. The delay in sexual maturation, the presence of diabetes and hypothyroidism, the parathyroid gland dysfunction, the progressive marrow expansion, the iron toxicity on osteoblasts, the iron chelators, and the deficiency of growth hormone or insulin growth factors have been identified as major causes of osteoporosis in thalassemia. Adequate hormonal replacement, effective iron chelation, improvement of hemoglobin levels, calcium and vitamin D administration, physical activity, and smoking cessation are the main to-date measures for the management of the disease. During the last decade, novel pathogenetic data suggest that the reduced osteoblastic activity, which is believed to be the basic mechanism of bone loss in thalassemia, is accompanied by a comparable or even greater increase in bone resorption. Therefore, the role of bisphosphonates, potent inhibitors of osteoclast activation, arises as a major factor in the management of osteoporosis in thalassemia patients. PMID:20712799

  10. The link between osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Farhat, Ghada N.; Cauley, Jane A.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and osteoporosis are common age-related conditions associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and disability. Traditionally, these two conditions were considered unrelated and their coexistence was attributed to independent age-related processes. However, an increasing body of biological and epidemiological evidence has provided support for a link between the two conditions that cannot be explained by age alone. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the link between osteoporosis and CVD including: 1) shared risk factors, 2) common pathophysiological mechanisms, 3) common genetic factors, or 4) a causal association. This review highlights the epidemiologic literature on the association of bone density with cardiovascular mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, and subclinical measures of atherosclerosis. It also summarizes the different potential mechanisms involved in the link between osteoporosis and CVD. PMID:22460842

  11. On the conversion of neutron stars into quark stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliara, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    The possible existence of two families of compact stars, neutron stars and quark stars, naturally leads to a scenario in which a conversion process between the two stellar objects occurs with a consequent release of energy of the order of 1053 erg. We discuss recent hydrodynamical simulations of the burning process and neutrino diffusion simulations of cooling of a newly formed strange star. We also briefly discuss this scenario in connection with recent measurements of masses and radii of compact stars.

  12. Osteoporosis Health Beliefs among Younger and Older Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, C. Shanthi; McLeod, William; Kennedy, Laura; McLeod, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare osteoporosis health beliefs among different age and gender groups. This study used a cross-sectional design, involved 300 participants that represent both genders and three age groups (18 to 25, 30 to 50, and 50-plus), and assessed osteoporosis health beliefs using the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale…

  13. Osteoporosis and Arthritis: Two Common but Different Conditions

    MedlinePlus

    ... situation. Most people with arthritis will use pain management strategies at some time. This is not always true for people with osteoporosis. Usually, people with osteoporosis need pain relief when they ... pain management strategies are similar for people with osteoporosis, OA, ...

  14. Transient osteoporosis of the hip in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Siva, S; Roach, V

    1997-08-01

    Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) is an uncommon condition. This painful regional osteoporosis affects previously healthy women in the third trimester of pregnancy. It is characterized by pain in the affected hip and pronounced osteopenia of the femoral head and neck. It has a relatively short clinical course (average 6 months) and a predictably benign prognosis. Complete clinical and radiological recovery is the rule. The diagnosis is one of exclusion. The cause of the osteopenia is not known, although various aetiological factors have been implicated. A case of TOH occurring in the third trimester of pregnancy with complete recovery within 6 months postpartum is presented. PMID:9325501

  15. Premenopausal bone health: osteoporosis in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Alice; Cohen, Adi; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-12-01

    This article will discuss the diagnosis of osteoporosis in premenopausal women and the evaluation and management of those with low-trauma fractures and/or low bone mineral density. As secondary causes (glucocorticoid excess, anorexia nervosa, premenopausal estrogen deficiency, and celiac disease) are commonly the underlying cause of osteoporosis in this population, treatment of the underlying condition should be the focus of management. Additional management options, generally reserved for those with major or multiple fractures and/or ongoing bone loss, will also be described. PMID:24022503

  16. Osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chetty, M; Stephen, L X G; Roberts, T

    2016-01-01

    The osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome (MIM 259770) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which bone fragility and frequent fractures are associated with serious ocular changes. The skeletal manifestations resemble those of osteogenesis imperfecta while hyperplasia of the vitreous, eye and corneal opacities often mimics the appearance of intraocular glioma. This disorder was previously reported in a South African family of Indian stock as 'the ocular form of osteogenesis imperfecta'. Terminological discussion followed and it was suggested that these individuals had osteoporosis-pseudoglioma syndrome. This article describes and depicts the manifestations of the disorder and discusses the nosology. PMID:27245540

  17. Stars and star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, D. Ia.

    Topics examined include close binary systems, supernovae and their remnants, variable stars, young star groups (e.g., clusters and associations), spherical star clusters, and planetary nebulae. Also considered are the interstellar medium and star formation, systems of galaxies, and current problems in cosmology.

  18. Bone regeneration associated with nontherapeutic and therapeutic surface coatings for dental implants in osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Alghamdi, Hamdan S; Jansen, John A

    2013-06-01

    Oral implantology is considered as the treatment of choice for replacing missing teeth in elderly people. However, implant complications may occur in patients with osteoporosis. The pathogenesis underlying osteoporosis is due to an alteration in bone cell response to hormonal, nutritional, and aging factors. For such challenging situations, improved bone regeneration has been shown around dental implants for certain surface modifications. These modifications include coatings of titanium implants with calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics. Surface coating developments also allow for the addition of organic biomolecules, like growth factors, into the inorganic coatings that increase the bone formation process at the bone-implant interface. The application of therapeutic-based coatings is becoming a rapidly growing research field of interest. CaP-coated implants have the ability to incorporate anti-osteoporotic drugs, which then can be locally released over time from an implant surface in a controlled manner. Thus, it can be anticipated that nontherapeutic and/or therapeutic coated implants can significantly increase low bone density as well as improve impaired bone regeneration in osteoporosis. This review aims to provide a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms for impaired bone regeneration around dental implants in osteoporosis. Secondly, the review will focus on biological interactions and beneficial role of the surface-coated (i.e., nontherapeutics and therapeutics) bone implants in osteoporotic bone tissue. PMID:23088597

  19. Management of endocrine disease: Secondary osteoporosis: pathophysiology and management.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Faryal; Canalis, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by decreased mass and compromised bone strength predisposing to an increased risk of fractures. Although idiopathic osteoporosis is the most common form of osteoporosis, secondary factors may contribute to the bone loss and increased fracture risk in patients presenting with fragility fractures or osteoporosis. Several medical conditions and medications significantly increase the risk for bone loss and skeletal fragility. This review focuses on some of the common causes of osteoporosis, addressing the underlying mechanisms, diagnostic approach and treatment of low bone mass in the presence of these conditions. PMID:25971649

  20. Bisphosphonates adherence for treatment of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a disease of bone metabolism in which bisphosphonates (BPS) are the most common medications used in its treatment, whose main objective is to reduce the risk of fractures. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on BPs adherence for treatment of osteoporosis. Methods Systematic review of articles on BPs adherence for treatment of osteoporosis, indexed on MEDLINE (via PubMed) databases, from inception of databases until January 2013. Search terms were “Adherence, Medication” (MeSH term), “Bisphosphonates” (MeSH term), and “Osteoporosis” (MeSH term). Results Of the 78 identified studies, 27 met the eligibility criteria. Identified studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding adherence and associated factors, adherence and fracture, adherence and BPs dosage. The studies are mostly observational, conducted with women over 45 years old, showing low rates of adherence to treatment. Several factors may influence adherence: socio-economic and cultural, participation of physicians when guidance is given to the patient, the use of bone turnover markers, and use of generic drugs. The monthly dosage is associated with greater adherence compared to weekly dosage. Conclusions Considering the methodological differences between the studies, the results converge to show that adherence to treatment of osteoporosis with BPs is still inadequate. Further experimental studies are needed to evaluate the adherence and suggest new treatment options. PMID:23705998

  1. The Effect of Fluoride in Osteoporosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, L. R.; Gallagher, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of fluoride on bone tissue and the possible role of fluoride in the treatment of osteoporosis. At present, fluoride treatment should be restricted to clinical trials until its risks and benefits have been further evaluated. (Author/MT)

  2. Better Bones Buddies: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, Susan L.; Blue, Rebecca; Horner, Arlene

    2005-01-01

    Although osteoporosis typically surfaces in later life, peak bone mass attained before age 20 is a key factor in its prevention. However, most American children's diets lack sufficient calcium during the critical growth periods of preadolescence and adolescence to achieve peak bone mass. "Better Bones (BB) Buddies" is an educational program…

  3. Osteoporosis: What is the Role of Exercise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munnings, Frances

    1992-01-01

    Research has not yet identified the best combination of estrogen replacement, calcium, and exercise for fighting osteoporosis, but clinical experience indicates all are needed to prevent the rapid bone loss that occurs in postmenopausal women. Physicians must encourage women to reduce their risk using all available options. (SM)

  4. Osteoporosis Risk Factors in Eighth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysen, Victoria C.; Walker, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings from food frequency questionnaires and surveys of 138 Midwestern eighth-grade student-parent pairs. The study examined the incidence of modifiable and nonmodifiable osteoporosis risk factors and compared gender differences. Data analysis indicated that many adolescents possessed several modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors…

  5. [Drug therapy for primary osteoporosis in men].

    PubMed

    Soen, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Overall, drug therapies for osteoporosis in men are less defined than in women, mainly due to the fact that there are fewer RCTs performed in male populations, to the relatively smaller sample sizes, and to the lack of long-term extension studies. In a series of well-designed RCTs, alendronate, risedronate, zoledronic acid, and teriparatide were demonstrated to reduce the risk of new vertebral fractures in men presenting with primary osteoporosis(including osteoporosis associated with low testosterone levels)and to improve the bone mineral density(BMD). In preliminary studies, ibandronate and denosumab also showed their beneficial effects on surrogate outcomes(BMD and markers of bone turnover)in men with osteoporosis. Although direct evidence about their non-vertebral anti-fracture efficacy are lacking, the effects of bisphosphonates, denosumab and teriparatide on surrogate outcomes were similar to those reported in pivotal RCTs undertaken in postmenopausal women, in which vertebral and non-vertebral anti-fracture efficacy have been clearly demonstrated. PMID:27346317

  6. Bone mineral density: testing for osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sheu, Angela; Diamond, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary osteoporosis is related to bone loss from ageing. Secondary osteoporosis results from specific conditions that may be reversible. A thoracolumbar X-ray is useful in identifying vertebral fractures, and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is the preferred method of calculating bone mineral density. The density of the total hip is the best predictor for a hip fracture, while the lumbar spine is the best site for monitoring the effect of treatment. The T-score is a comparison of the patient’s bone density with healthy, young individuals of the same sex. A negative T-score of –2.5 or less at the femoral neck defines osteoporosis. The Z-score is a comparison with the bone density of people of the same age and sex as the patient. A negative Z-score of –2.5 or less should raise suspicion of a secondary cause of osteoporosis. Clinical risk calculators can be used to predict the 10-year probability of a hip or major osteoporotic fracture. A probability of more than 5% for the hip or more than 20% for any fracture is abnormal and treatment may be warranted. PMID:27340320

  7. Immunology of Osteoporosis: A Mini-Review.

    PubMed

    Pietschmann, Peter; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Meshcheryakova, Anastasia; Föger-Samwald, Ursula; Ellinger, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of fractures and associated morbidity in the aged population. The pathogenesis of osteoporosis is multifactorial; whereas traditional pathophysiological concepts emphasize endocrine mechanisms, it has been recognized that also components of the immune system have a significant impact on bone. Since 2000, when the term 'osteoimmunology' was coined, novel insights into the role of inflammatory cytokines by influencing the fine-tuned balance between bone resorption and bone formation have helped to explain the occurrence of osteoporosis in conjunction with chronic inflammatory reactions. Moreover, the phenomenon of a low-grade, chronic, systemic inflammatory state associated with aging has been defined as 'inflamm-aging' by Claudio Franceschi and has been linked to age-related diseases such as osteoporosis. Given the tight anatomical and physiological coexistence of B cells and the bone-forming units in the bone marrow, a role of B cells in osteoimmunological interactions has long been suspected. Recent findings of B cells as active regulators of the RANK/RANKL/OPG axis, of altered RANKL/OPG production by B cells in HIV-associated bone loss or of a modulated expression of genes linked to B-cell biology in response to estrogen deficiency support this assumption. Furthermore, oxidative stress and the generation of advanced glycation end products have emerged as links between inflammation and bone destruction. PMID:26088283

  8. Osteoporosis: Its Prosthodontic Considerations - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Munagapati, Bharathi; Karnati, Rajeev K Reddy; Venkata, Giridhar Reddy Sirupa; Nidudhur, Simhachalam Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease of bone which is common in middle aged post-menopausal women. The osteoporotic bones will become weak and are prone to fractures. Osteoporosis means “porous bone” is a “silent disease”. Healthy bone microscopically appears like a honeycomb but, in osteoporotic patients the spaces are much bigger. The osteoporotic bone will have less density or mass and the structure of bone tissue is abnormal. As the bone becomes less dense, they become weaker and more likely to fracture. Women are four times more likely to develop osteoporosis than men. Oral health maintenance for adults with osteoporosis is important. Bone weakness and loss may also affect the ridges that hold dentures resulting in poor fitting dentures. The patients require new dentures more often than those who have strong, healthy bones. Best way to handle problems is avoid delaying or postponing the dental treatment. Regular dental visits and healthy lifestyle is necessary in strengthening and maintenance of good bone health. Well balanced diet with high amounts of vitamin-D & calcium with regular physical activity is recommended. PMID:26816999

  9. Management of beta-thalassemia-associated osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Andrea; Pinto, Valeria; Forni, Gian Luca; Pilotto, Alberto

    2016-03-01

    Beta-Thalassemia-associated osteoporosis is a multifactorial and complex condition. Different acquired and genetic factors are involved in its pathogenesis. These factors produce an imbalance in bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoblast activity and increasing osteoclast function, leading to bone loss and increased fracture risk. The management of patients presenting with thalassemia-associated osteoporosis should consist of the implementation of general measures and the prescription of a specific pharmacological agent, with the aim of reducing fracture risk and preventing disability and deterioration of quality of life. General measures include control of anemia, adequate chelation therapy, healthy nutrition and lifestyle, regular exercise, adequate management of comorbid conditions, hormone replacement therapy in patients with hypogonadism, and vitamin D supplementation/therapy. Among the pharmacological agents currently available for the management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and men, bisphosphonates have been shown to improve bone mineral density, to reduce bone turnover, and to decrease bone/back pain in patients with thalassemia-associated osteoporosis, with a good profile of safety and tolerability. On the other hand, there are limited experiences with other pharmacological agents (e.g., denosumab or teriparatide). The complexity of this condition presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges and underscores the importance of a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach. PMID:27060977

  10. [New strategies for exercise training in osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, A; Schilling, S; Neuerburg, C; Mutschler, W; Böcker, W; Felsenberg, D; Stumpf, U

    2015-11-01

    In the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, movement with muscle strengthening and proprioceptive training plays a major role. This was taken into consideration in the guidelines by the governing body on osteoporosis (Dachverband Osteoporose, DVO) from 2014 on prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and in the DVO guidelines from 2008 on physiotherapy and exercise therapy for osteoporosis. Increases in lumbar bone density of between 0.5 % and 2.5 % can be achieved in women by strengthening exercises with high resistance. With this combination and strengthening of the quadriceps muscle a reduction of falls and hence the fracture risk could also be achieved. In traumatology, training for muscle strengthening is not always possible, especially for elderly patients. Practically relevant alternatives are regular walking and aquatraining, which may also lead to a significant increase in bone mineral density. Furthermore, large effects can be achieved with alternating side whole-body vibration (WBV) training with whole body vibration plates with only 3 days of training per week and with short training periods (15-20 min). Rates of increase in leg strength between 20 % and almost 40 % and in bone density between 0.5 % and 4 % in 6 months have been described. Whether and with what intensity whole body vibration therapy could be used for e.g. more rapid healing of fractures, is currently unclear. Initial positive results have been described in animal models. PMID:26467265

  11. Osteoporosis in German men: a cost-of-illness study.

    PubMed

    Berghaus, Sabine; Müller, Dirk; Gandjour, Afschin; Civello, Daniele; Stock, Stephanie

    2015-06-01

    Costs of male osteoporosis may have increased due to population aging and change of treatment patterns. This cost-of-illness study provides a current estimate of the economic burden of male osteoporosis in Germany. Routine claims data from six German sickness funds were analyzed and extrapolated to the German statutory health insurance (SHI). For men above the age of 50 with at least one ICD-10 osteoporosis-related diagnosis or osteoporosis-related fracture in 2010, direct costs related to osteoporosis were considered based on a payer's perspective. Total direct costs attributable to osteoporosis amounted to €728 million in 2010. The majority of these costs (71%) resulted from inpatient treatment due to fractures. Patients aged 75 and older caused approximately 63% of costs. Male osteoporosis represents a non-negligible economic burden for the German health care system. Targeted prevention and promotion measures should be offered both to men and women. PMID:25495596

  12. Multiscale alterations in bone matrix quality increased fragility in steroid induced osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Karunaratne, A; Xi, L; Bentley, L; Sykes, D; Boyde, A; Esapa, C T; Terrill, N J; Brown, S D M; Cox, R D; Thakker, R V; Gupta, H S

    2016-03-01

    A serious adverse clinical effect of glucocorticoid steroid treatment is secondary osteoporosis, enhancing fracture risk in bone. This rapid increase in bone fracture risk is largely independent of bone loss (quantity), and must therefore arise from degradation of the quality of the bone matrix at the micro- and nanoscale. However, we lack an understanding of both the specific alterations in bone quality n steroid-induced osteoporosis as well as the mechanistic effects of these changes. Here we demonstrate alterations in the nanostructural parameters of the mineralized fibrillar collagen matrix, which affect bone quality, and develop a model linking these to increased fracture risk in glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis. Using a mouse model with an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced corticotrophin releasing hormone promoter mutation (Crh(-120/+)) that developed hypercorticosteronaemia and osteoporosis, we utilized in situ mechanical testing with small angle X-ray diffraction, synchrotron micro-computed tomography and quantitative backscattered electron imaging to link altered nano- and microscale deformation mechanisms in the bone matrix to abnormal macroscopic mechanics. We measure the deformation of the mineralized collagen fibrils, and the nano-mechanical parameters including effective fibril modulus and fibril to tissue strain ratio. A significant reduction (51%) of fibril modulus was found in Crh(-120/+) mice. We also find a much larger fibril strain/tissue strain ratio in Crh(-120/+) mice (~1.5) compared to the wild-type mice (~0.5), indicative of a lowered mechanical competence at the nanoscale. Synchrotron microCT show a disruption of intracortical architecture, possibly linked to osteocytic osteolysis. These findings provide a clear quantitative demonstration of how bone quality changes increase macroscopic fragility in secondary osteoporosis. PMID:26657825

  13. Multiscale alterations in bone matrix quality increased fragility in steroid induced osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Karunaratne, A.; Xi, L.; Bentley, L.; Sykes, D.; Boyde, A.; Esapa, C.T.; Terrill, N.J.; Brown, S.D.M.; Cox, R.D.; Thakker, R.V.; Gupta, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    A serious adverse clinical effect of glucocorticoid steroid treatment is secondary osteoporosis, enhancing fracture risk in bone. This rapid increase in bone fracture risk is largely independent of bone loss (quantity), and must therefore arise from degradation of the quality of the bone matrix at the micro- and nanoscale. However, we lack an understanding of both the specific alterations in bone quality n steroid-induced osteoporosis as well as the mechanistic effects of these changes. Here we demonstrate alterations in the nanostructural parameters of the mineralized fibrillar collagen matrix, which affect bone quality, and develop a model linking these to increased fracture risk in glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis. Using a mouse model with an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced corticotrophin releasing hormone promoter mutation (Crh− 120/+) that developed hypercorticosteronaemia and osteoporosis, we utilized in situ mechanical testing with small angle X-ray diffraction, synchrotron micro-computed tomography and quantitative backscattered electron imaging to link altered nano- and microscale deformation mechanisms in the bone matrix to abnormal macroscopic mechanics. We measure the deformation of the mineralized collagen fibrils, and the nano-mechanical parameters including effective fibril modulus and fibril to tissue strain ratio. A significant reduction (51%) of fibril modulus was found in Crh− 120/+ mice. We also find a much larger fibril strain/tissue strain ratio in Crh− 120/+ mice (~ 1.5) compared to the wild-type mice (~ 0.5), indicative of a lowered mechanical competence at the nanoscale. Synchrotron microCT show a disruption of intracortical architecture, possibly linked to osteocytic osteolysis. These findings provide a clear quantitative demonstration of how bone quality changes increase macroscopic fragility in secondary osteoporosis. PMID:26657825

  14. Prevalence of osteoporosis in patients awaiting total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Vitor Rodrigues; de Campos, Gustavo Constantino; Plapler, Pérola Grimberg; de Rezende, Márcia Uchôa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of osteoporosis in patients awaiting total hip arthroplasty. Method: Twenty-nine patients diagnosed with hip osteoarthritis awaiting primary total arthroplasty of the hip answered WOMAC questionnaire, VAS and questions about habits, osteoporosis and related diseases. Bone mineral densitometry of the lumbar spine and hips and laboratory tests (complete blood count and examination of calcium metabolism) were performed. Weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index (BMI). The evaluated quantitative characteristics were compared between patients with and without osteoporosis using the Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Thirteen men and 16 women with a mean age of 61.5 years old, WOMAC 51.4; EVA 6.4 and BMI 27.6 were evaluated. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 20.7%, and 37.9% had osteopenia. Patients with osteoporosis were older than patients without osteoporosis (p=0.006). The mean bone mineral density of the femoral neck without hip osteoarthritis was lower than the affected side (p=0.007). Thirty-five percent of patients did not know what osteoporosis is. Of these, 30% had osteopenia or osteoporosis. Conclusion: osteoarthritis and osteoporosis may coexist and the population waiting for total hip arthroplasty should be considered at risk for the presence of osteoporosis. Level of Evidence III, Observational Study. PMID:26327793

  15. Spaceflight osteoporosis: current state and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Cappellesso, R; Nicole, L; Guido, A; Pizzol, D

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the established major consequences of long-duration spaceflights in astronauts seriously undermining their health after their returning on Earth. Indeed, astronauts typically lose more bone mass during one month than postmenopausal women on Earth lose in one year. To date, countermeasures mainly consist in exercise and supplementation while pharmacological treatment as those used in postmenopausal women are not routine. However, it is evident that exercise and supplementation alone are not enough to maintain bone homeostasis. In this paper we describe the current countermeasures for bone loss during long-term spaceflight, review the modern treatment which are successfully employed to prevent osteoporosis on Earth and that could be quickly used also for astronauts and finally focus on the recent cellular and molecular understanding of bone homeostasis which might provide the basis for the development of future targeted therapies. PMID:26494042

  16. Osteoporosis diagnostics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Dura, Marta; Blumfield, Einat; Żuchowski, Paweł; Waszczak, Marzena; Jeka, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic connective tissue disease. The development of comorbidities often occurs in the course of RA. One of them is osteoporosis, which has serious social and economic effects and may contribute to the increase in the degree of disability and premature death of the patient. Due to the young age in which RA disease occurs, densitometry (DXA) of the lumbar spine is the basic examination in osteoporosis diagnostics. In the course of RA, much more frequently than in healthy persons of the same age, osteoporotic fractures of vertebral bodies occur, which hinder a correct assessment in the DXA test. Rheumatoid arthritis patients often undergo computed tomography (CT) examination of the abdominal cavity for other medical indications than suspected spinal injury. Then, CT examination may also serve for the assessment of bone density, especially in patients with osteoporotic fractures. PMID:27407274

  17. Clodronate news of efficacy in osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Nardi, Alfredo; Ventura, Lorenzo; Cozzi, Luisella; Tonini, Greta

    2016-01-01

    Summary Clodronate belongs to Bisphosphonates family and it has been studied especially for osteoporosis treatment, Paget’s disease, osteolytic metastases, hypercalcemia malignancy and some childhood skeletal diseases. Besides the osteoporosis treatment, it has been successfully used for treating tumoral osteolysis and for bone localization of multiple myeloma, hypercalcemia malignancy, primary hyperparathyroidism, Paget’s disease and algodystrophy. Filipponi study showed a statistically significant reduction of the incidence of vertebral fractures after 4 years of treatment with clodronate, intravenously administered at a dose of 200 mg every three weeks. Frediani study, published in 2003 on BONE, proved the clodronate efficacy in the prevention of fractures caused by glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO). Clodronate doses of 800 mg/day per os and 100 mg i.m./week are substantially equivalent, because the oral absorption is about 1,9%. A higher efficacy on BMD was documented in various works, especially in cohorts of patients with a greater fracture risk, using higher doses (1600 mg per os). This has led to the hypothesis of using clodronate 200 mg i.m. formulation. Clodronate is an osteoporosis drug that can be assumed in different doses (100 mg i.m./week, clodronate 200 mg i.m. every 2 weeks) considering the risk band, identified by algorithms (FRAX o DeFRA), by BMD and by the presence of at least one risk factor. That means that it is possible to envisage a differentiated use of clodronate adapting the doses to the fracture risk and to the severity of pain symptoms, thus promoting a greater adherence to the therapy. To conclude clodronate is helpful in reducing fracture risk, is safe, well tolerated, and has a good rate cost/effectiveness in patients with fracture risk over 7% established with FRAX. PMID:27252741

  18. [Osteoporosis in men and androgen replacement therapy].

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Akira; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2003-11-01

    Androgen plays an important role in bone maturation and maintenance of bone mass. Androgen deficiency associated with aging causes osteoporosis for men. With respect to this disease, androgen replacement treatment has been performed for aging male. However, available preparations of androgen are limited in Japan and each of them has both merit and demerit. Establishment of guideline for androgen replacement treatment including criteria of serum testosterone concentration is the problem, which now confronts us. PMID:15775234

  19. Osteoporosis: the emperor has no clothes

    PubMed Central

    Järvinen, T L N; Michaëlsson, K; Aspenberg, P; Sievänen, H

    2015-01-01

    Current prevention strategies for low-trauma fractures amongst older persons depend on the notions that fractures are mainly caused by osteoporosis (pathophysiology), that patients at high risk can be identified (screening) and that the risk is amenable to bone-targeted pharmacotherapy (treatment). However, all these three notions can be disputed. Pathophysiology Most fracture patients have fallen, but actually do not have osteoporosis. A high likelihood of falling, in turn, is attributable to an ageing-related decline in physical functioning and general frailty. Screening Currently available fracture risk prediction strategies including bone densitometry and multifactorial prediction tools are unable to identify a large proportion of patients who will sustain a fracture, whereas many of those with a high fracture risk score will not sustain a fracture. Treatment The evidence for the viability of bone-targeted pharmacotherapy in preventing hip fracture and other clinical fragility fractures is mainly limited to women aged 65–80 years with osteoporosis, whereas the proof of hip fracture-preventing efficacy in women over 80 years of age and in men at all ages is meagre or absent. Further, the antihip fracture efficacy shown in clinical trials is absent in real-life studies. Many drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis have also been associated with increased risks of serious adverse events. There are also considerable uncertainties related to the efficacy of drug therapy in preventing clinical vertebral fractures, whereas the efficacy for preventing other fractures (relative risk reductions of 20–25%) remains moderate, particularly in terms of the low absolute risk reduction in fractures with this treatment. PMID:25809279

  20. To prevent the osteoporosis playing in advance

    PubMed Central

    Colì, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Summary There are several possibilities for the prevention of primary, secondary and tertiary osteoporosis but till now they have not been promoted enough and bone fragility is thought about only after the onset of a fracture (tertiary prevention). By recent studies and discoveries it is becoming increasingly clear that there is a relationship between growth and development in early childhood and bone health in old age. Suboptimal bone development leads to a reduction in peak bone mass, and a higher risk of osteoporotic fracture later in life. Preventative strategies against osteoporosis can be aimed at either optimizing the peak bone mass obtained, or reducing the rate of bone loss. Optimization of peak bone mass may be more amenable to public health strategies. Technological advances and our knowledge of osteoporosis have increased in the last decade and so tertiary prevention should be considered a failure in the field of public health. If we want to make advances in the osteoporotic field, we must start in childhood, before the bone mass peak is reached and the gold-standard is starting with prevention as soon as possible, also during fetal development. PMID:24133522

  1. Osteoporosis: an increasing concern in pediatric dentistry.

    PubMed

    da Fonseca, Marcio A

    2011-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children are being affected by low bone density and osteoporosis. Bone fractures are the main reason for hospitalization between 10 and 14 years of age and, over the past 3 decades, there has been an increase in the incidence of fractures in children. Childhood factors such as lifestyle, diet, chronic illness, and medications have a vital short-term impact on bone health and a long-term effect on the achievement of peak bone mass, with the potential for morbidity in adulthood. The primary forms of osteoporosis consist of rare inherited conditions, but the secondary forms are becoming more common given that chronically ill children are surviving longer. This subject should be of interest to pediatric dentists, because low mineral density and osteoporosis, together with drugs used to treat them (eg, bisphosphonates), may cause adverse effects in the oral cavity. Furthermore, the pediatric dentist is an important health care professional to counsel patients about healthy lifestyles that can help prevent the condition from an early age. PMID:21703077

  2. Osteoporosis and trace elements--an overview.

    PubMed

    Aaseth, Jan; Boivin, Georges; Andersen, Ole

    2012-06-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine functional, exercise related and nutritional factors. Of particular considerations are calcium (Ca) status, vitamin D, fluoride, magnesium and other trace elements. Several trace elements such as zinc and copper are essential for normal development of the skeleton in humans and animals. Fluoride accumulates in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified. Numerous investigators have evaluated the role of medications and supplementations with minerals and trace substances to reverse the progression of this disease. Although bisphosphonates are still the drugs of choice, low-dosed fluoride and strontium salts have shown promise for the future. PMID:22575536

  3. Nandrolone decanoate for men with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, R C; Moore, S W; Whalen, K E; Landy, C

    1998-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of nandrolone decanoate and calcium (NDC) with those of calcium alone (CAL) in men with idiopathic osteoporosis, a 12-month, randomized, prospective, controlled study, was performed in an outpatient clinic. Twenty-one men with idiopathic osteoporosis (as determined by radiological and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry findings) were randomly allocated to either 50 mg nandrolone decanoate intramuscularly (im) weekly and 1,000 mg oral calcium carbonate daily (NDC group) or to 1,000 mg oral calcium carbonate daily (CAL group). Bone densitometry (total body, left femur, and lumbar spine), serum, and urine biochemical parameters were measured at 3-month intervals. In the NDC group, bone mineral density initially increased, reached a plateau, and then decreased to near baseline levels at 12 months. Increases in lean muscle mass mirrored these changes. Free and total testosterone significantly decreased. Hemoglobin increased in all patients in this group. Patients in the CAL group exhibited no significant change in either total body or bone mineral density or biochemical parameters. Thus, nandrolone decanoate, 50 mg im weekly, transiently increases the bone mass of men with idiopathic osteoporosis in this preliminary study. Careful monitoring is necessary. PMID:10099043

  4. Postmenopausal osteoporosis - clinical, biological and histopathological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pavel, Oana Roxana; Popescu, Mihaela; Novac, Liliana; Mogoantă, LaurenŢiu; Pavel, LaurenŢiu Petrişor; Vicaş, Răzvan Marius; Trăistaru, Magdalena Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is one of the most common disorders in postmenopausal women, affecting the quality of life and increasing the risk for fractures in minor traumas. Changes in the bone microarchitecture causes static changes in the body and affects motility. In this study, we analyzed two groups of women, one with physiological menopause and one with surgically induced menopause. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was suspected based on the clinical symptoms and confirmed by assessing bone mineral density by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Comparing some clinical and biological aspects there was noted that a much higher percentage of women with surgically induced menopause exhibited increases in body mass index, changes in serum lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, serum calcium, magnesemia and osteocalcin. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in the histopathological aspects of bone tissue examined from these two groups. In all patients, there was identified a significant reduction in the number of osteocytes and osteoblasts, the expansion of haversian channels, reducing the number of trabecular bone in the cancellous bone with wide areola cavities often full of adipose tissue, non-homogenous demineralization of both the compact bone and the cancellous bone, atrophy and even absence of the endosteal, and the presence of multiple microfractures. Our study showed that early surgically induced menopause more intensely alters the lipid, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism, thus favoring the onset of osteoporosis. PMID:27151697

  5. Denosumab for the Treatment of Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Zaheer, Sarah; LeBoff, Meryl; Lewiecki, E. Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low trauma fractures due to osteoporosis are a major health concern worldwide. Despite the availability of many therapeutic compounds to reduce fracture risk, osteoporosis remains undertreated and the burden of osteoporotic fractures remains high. Denosumab is a novel agent that acts to reduce bone turnover, improve bone mineral density, and reduce fracture risk, offering a favorable efficacy and safety profile. Areas covered This review covers the pharmacology and major clinical trials with extension/post-marketing follow-up, including trials for all FDA-approved indications of denosumab to date. Expert Opinion Denosumab is an efficacious and safe osteoporosis treatment option, with current data up to 8 years of continued use showing continued improvement in bone density with sustained fracture risk reduction. Safety profiles overall are similar to placebo, with no new safety concerns in extension trials, though a theoretical increased risk of infection exists with RANKL inhibition. Future considerations include safety of prolonged treatment beyond 8 years, and efficacy/fracture risk after discontinuation or with non-adherence, given the characteristic pharmacodynamic profile of denosumab. PMID:25614274

  6. Studies on the pathophysiology and therapy of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, J L; Ambrus, J L; Robin, J C; Ambrus, C M; Kahn, E A

    1984-01-01

    Etiologic and pathologic factors in clinical osteoporosis are reviewed. Techniques were developed to determine total skeletal calcium content with in vivo neutron activation analysis and to induce osteoporosis (in about three months) with low calcium diet, corticosteroid or heparin treatment in experimental animals. Genetic influence was demonstrated: C3H/St (Ha) mice were more susceptible to osteoporosis by all three modalities than C57B1/6 (J) mice. Fluoride was ineffective in preventing osteoporosis induced by either of these three modalities. Heparin induced osteoporosis was prevented by conjugated estrogens, progestins or their combinations. Progestins were shown in other studies to inhibit estrogen induced metaplasia and neoplasia. Combining estrogens with progestin may result in an increased therapeutic index for the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Human and salmon calcitonin, Deca - Durabolin, an anabolic steroid, Mopidamole, a pyrimidopyrimidine derivative, Trental, a methylxanthine derivative, certain 2-thiophene carboxylic acid derivatives and imidazoquinazolines exhibited anti-osteoporotic effects. PMID:6396359

  7. Decreased Bone Formation Explains Osteoporosis in a Genetic Mouse Model of Hemochromatosiss

    PubMed Central

    Doyard, Mathilde; Chappard, Daniel; Leroyer, Patricia; Roth, Marie-Paule; Loréal, Olivier; Guggenbuhl, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis may complicate iron overload diseases such as genetic hemochromatosis. However, molecular mechanisms involved in the iron-related osteoporosis remains poorly understood. Recent in vitro studies support a role of osteoblast impairment in iron-related osteoporosis. Our aim was to analyse the impact of excess iron in Hfe-/- mice on osteoblast activity and on bone microarchitecture. We studied the bone formation rate, a dynamic parameter reflecting osteoblast activity, and the bone phenotype of Hfe−/− male mice, a mouse model of human hemochromatosis, by using histomorphometry. Hfe−/− animals were sacrificed at 6 months and compared to controls. We found that bone contains excess iron associated with increased hepatic iron concentration in Hfe−/− mice. We have shown that animals with iron overload have decreased bone formation rate, suggesting a direct impact of iron excess on active osteoblasts number. For bone mass parameters, we showed that iron deposition was associated with bone loss by producing microarchitectural impairment with a decreased tendency in bone trabecular volume and trabecular number. A disorganization of trabecular network was found with marrow spaces increased, which was confirmed by enhanced trabecular separation and star volume of marrow spaces. These microarchitectural changes led to a loss of connectivity and complexity in the trabecular network, which was confirmed by decreased interconnectivity index and increased Minkowski’s fractal dimension. Our results suggest for the first time in a genetic hemochromatosis mouse model, that iron overload decreases bone formation and leads to alterations in bone mass and microarchitecture. These observations support a negative effect of iron on osteoblast recruitment and/or function, which may contribute to iron-related osteoporosis. PMID:26829642

  8. Nigella Sativa reverses osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis poses a significant public health issue. It is a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength that predisposes to increased risk of fracture. There is a direct relationship between the lack of estrogen after menopause and the development of osteoporosis. About 33% of women over 50 will experience bone fractures as a result of osteoporosis. Nigella Sativa (NS) has been shown to have beneficial effects on bone and joint diseases. The present study was conducted to elucidate the protective effect of Nigella Sativa on osteoporosis produced by ovariectomy in rats. Methods Female Wistar rats aged 12–14 months were divided into three groups: sham-operated control (SHAM), ovariectomized (OVX), and ovariectomized supplemented with nigella sativa (OVX-NS) orally for 12 weeks; 4 weeks before ovariectomy and 8 weeks after. After 12 weeks, plasma levels of calcium (Ca+2), phosphorous (Pi), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrates, nitric oxide surrogate, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. Histological examination of the liver and the tibia was conducted. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia was also performed. Results OVX rats showed significant decrease in plasma Ca+2, accompanied by a significant increase in plasma ALP, amino terminal collagen type 1 telopeptide, MDA, nitrates, TNF-α and IL-6. These changes were reversed by NS supplementation in OVX-NS group to be near SHAM levels. Histological examination of the tibias revealed discontinuous eroded bone trabeculae with widened bone marrow spaces in OVX rats accompanied by a significant decrease in both cortical and trabecular bone thickness compared to Sham rats. These parameters were markedly reversed in OVX-NS rats. Histological examination of the liver showed mononuclear cellular infiltration and congestion of blood vessels at the portal area in OVX rats which were not found

  9. Incidence of Osteoporosis in Patients with Urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bijelic, Radojka; Milicevic, Snjezana; Balaban, Jagoda

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction. Clinical researches have shown an increased bone disintegration and lower bone mass in patients with calcium urolithiasis. Goal. The goal of our research was to establish the incidence of osteoporosis in adult patients with calcium urolithiasis, on the basis of measuring mineral bone density, using DEXA method, with a special reflection on age subgroups. Material and methods. Clinical research was prospective and it was implemented at the University Clinical Center of Banja Luka, at the Clinic for Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases and at the Urology Clinic. Material in this research consisted of patients divided in two groups, a working and a control group. One hundred and twenty (120) patients were included in both these groups, divided in three age subgroups: 20-40, 40-60 and over 60. The working group consisted of the patients with calcium urolithiasis and the control group consisted of patients without calcium urolithiasis. Establishing of mineral bone density at L2-L4 of lumbal spine vertebrae and hip was done for the patients in both these groups, using DEXA method. Results. Analysis of mineral bone density using DEXA method in patients in age groups of working and control groups, as well as in the total sample of working and control groups, have shown that the patients of the working group, over 60, had a decreased mineral bone density (30% of osteopenia and 15% osteoporosis) significantly more expressed when compared to the other two age groups (12.5% in the subgroup 20-40 and 17.5% in the subgroup 40-60), which presents a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). In the control group, when taking into account age groups, osteopenia and osteoporosis were marked in 37.5% and 2.5% in the group of patients over 60, whereas in the youngest population, 5% of osteopenia was found, which presents a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). When observing the total sample of working and control group, there was a

  10. Biological agents in management of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Tella, Sri Harsha; Gallagher, J Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease associated with an imbalance between formation and resorption, leading to net loss of bone mass, loss of bone microarchitecture, and development of fractures. Bone resorption is primarily due to an activation of osteoclastogenesis and an increase in receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expression, a cytokine involved in the final pathway of the osteoclast cycle.Recent studies of genetic diseases led to the discovery of the wingless-type (Wnt) signaling pathway that plays a major role in bone formation. Further work showed that sclerostin produced by osteocytes and the Dickkopf (DKK1) protein secreted in bone were negative regulators of the Wnt signaling bone formation pathway that act directly by binding to the co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 of WnT and thereby inhibiting the anabolic Wnt pathway. This understanding of the bone remodeling led to the discovery of new biological drugs that target these pathways and have been evaluated in clinical trials.The current article discusses the role of these newer "biological" agents in management of osteoporosis. Denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that specifically binds RANKL, blocks the binding of RANK to its ligand markedly reducing bone resorption, increases bone density, and reduces fractures and is approved for osteoporosis. Parathyroid hormone PTH 1-34 (teriparatide) stimulates bone formation through inhibition of sclerostin, DKK1, and frizzled protein; increases BMD; improves microarchitecture; and decreases fractures and is approved for osteoporosis. The anti-sclerostin antibodies (romosozumab, blosozumab) increase bone mass by neutralizing the negative effects of sclerostin on the Wnt signaling pathway. These biologics are being evaluated now in a clinical trial and early data looks promising. Cathepsin K is a proteolytic enzyme that degrades bone matrix and inhibitors such as odanacatib show increasing bone density and perhaps decreased fractures. The

  11. Senile osteoporosis: is it an immune-mediated disease?

    PubMed

    De Martinis, M; Di Benedetto, M C; Mengoli, L P; Ginaldi, L

    2006-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity in older people. There are a large number of risk factors for the development of senile osteoporosis. However, recent discoveries suggest that these risk factors could exert their effects through immunologically mediated modulation of bone remodelling. Inflamm-ageing itself plays a role in bone remodelling through pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are known to influence osteoclasts and osteoblasts, together with other more recently discovered immunological mediators and transcription factors. Senile osteoporosis is an example of the central role of immune-mediated inflammation in determining bone resorption. In this review, we will discuss the pathogenesis of osteoporosis in the context of immunosenescence. PMID:17109066

  12. [Diagnostic criteria for primary osteoporosis : year 2012 revision].

    PubMed

    Soen, Satoshi

    2014-03-01

    In 1995, the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Metabolism (now the Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research) established The Osteoporosis Diagnostic Criteria Review Committee. Following discussion held at the 13th scientific meeting of the Society in 1996, the Committee, with the consensus of its members, proposed diagnostic criteria for primary osteoporosis. The Committee revised those criteria in 1996 and again in 2000. Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Japan Osteoporosis Society Joint Review Committee for the Revision of the Diagnostic Criteria for Primary Osteoporosis aimed at obtaining international consistency and made a revised edition based on the new findings in 2012. PMID:24576928

  13. The position of strontium ranelate in today's management of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Reginster, J-Y; Brandi, M-L; Cannata-Andía, J; Cooper, C; Cortet, B; Feron, J-M; Genant, H; Palacios, S; Ringe, J D; Rizzoli, R

    2015-06-01

    Osteoporosis accounts for about 3 % of total European health-care spending. The low proportion of costs for the pharmacological prevention of osteoporotic fracture means that it is highly cost saving, especially in patient with severe osteoporosis or patients who cannot take certain osteoporosis medications due to issues of contraindications or tolerability. Following recent regulatory changes, strontium ranelate is now indicated in patients with severe osteoporosis for whom treatment with other osteoporosis treatments is not possible, and without contraindications including uncontrolled hypertension, established, current or past history of ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, and/or cerebrovascular disease. We review here today's evidence for the safety and efficacy of strontium ranelate. The efficacy of strontium ranelate in patients complying with the new prescribing information (i.e. severe osteoporosis without contraindications) has been explored in a multivariate analysis of clinical trial data, which concluded that the antifracture efficacy of strontium ranelate is maintained in patients with severe osteoporosis without contraindications and also demonstrated how the new target population mitigates risk. Strontium ranelate is therefore an important alternative in today's management of osteoporosis, with a positive benefit-risk balance, provided that the revised indication and contraindications are followed and cardiovascular risk is monitored. The bone community should be reassured that there remain viable alternatives in patients in whom treatment with other agents is not possible and protection against the debilitating effects of fracture is still feasible in patients with severe osteoporosis. PMID:25868510

  14. What People with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Need to Know about Osteoporosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... information on osteoporosis, contact: NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center Website: http://www.bones.nih. ... Pub. No. 16-7900 NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center 2 AMS Circle Bethesda, MD ...

  15. P1 - Maxillary Osteoporosis and Genetic Predisposition

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, E.; Delle Rose, G.; Duvina, M.; Civitelli, V.; Brancato, L.; Amunni, F.; Tonelli, P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Osteoporosis is a form of dysmetabolic osteopathy of multifactorial origin, characterised by reduction of the bone matrix and mineral portion and, overall, of bone mass, leading to fragility and increased fracture risk. AETIOPATHOGENESIS -ENDOCRINE FACTORS: ACTH, glycocorticoids, PTH, thyroxine, oestrogen, testosterone-GENETIC FACTORS: Major genes that regulate fundamental characteristics of bone, such as density and quality, and minor genes that regulate individual genetic background [lipoprotein receptor related protein (LRP5), TGF1, BMP, VDR, COL1A1, ER]. The DIAGNOSIS is based on history, clinical findings (vertebral or appendicular fractures), blood chemistry, conventional radiology and bone mass measurement. For the latter, it is possible to use DUAL-ENERGY X-RAY DENSITOMETRY which measures bone mineral content: according to the WHO definition, in osteoporosis bone mineral density (BMD) is more than 2.5 standard deviations below normal. MAXILLARY OSTEOPOROSIS: because of their function as a support for teeth, which leads to the development of the alveolar process, and their role in mastication, the jawbones (maxilla and mandible) differ from all the other bones of the skeleton. This role, also involving the masticatory muscles, prompts bone trophism. In advancing age a marked reduction of the thickness of the maxillary cortical bone is observed, together with increased porosity and constant functional remodelling of the trabecular part, a phenomenon that, as it increases, leads to tooth loss. Only a mandibular area (a bucco-lingual area of cortical bone in front of the mental foramen) remains unmodified, independently of gender, age and tooth loss. Materials and methods: Kemifar® supplies a test which can be used to study several factors (Er, VDR, COL1A1) that predispose to the development of osteoporosis. OsteoResis®Type is a simple, non-invasive test that allows the complete determination, and interpretation, of several genotypes associated

  16. Managing osteoporosis in ulcerative colitis: Something new?

    PubMed Central

    Piodi, Luca Petruccio; Poloni, Alessandro; Ulivieri, Fabio Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The authors revise the latest evidence in the literature regarding managing of osteoporosis in ulcerative colitis (UC), paying particular attention to the latest tendency of the research concerning the management of bone damage in the patient affected by UC. It is wise to assess vitamin D status in ulcerative colitis patients to recognize who is predisposed to low levels of vitamin D, whose deficiency has to be treated with oral or parenteral vitamin D supplementation. An adequate dietary calcium intake or supplementation and physical activity, if possible, should be guaranteed. Osteoporotic risk factors, such as smoking and excessive alcohol intake, must be avoided. Steroid has to be prescribed at the lowest possible dosage and for the shortest possible time. Moreover, conditions favoring falling have to been minimized, like carpets, low illumination, sedatives assumption, vitamin D deficiency. It is advisable to assess the fracture risk in all UC patient by the fracture assessment risk tool (FRAX® tool), that calculates the ten years risk of fracture for the population aged from 40 to 90 years in many countries of the world. A high risk value could indicate the necessity of treatment, whereas a low risk value suggests a follow-up only. An intermediate risk supports the decision to prescribe bone mineral density (BMD) assessment and a subsequent patient revaluation for treatment. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry bone densitometry can be used not only for BMD measurement, but also to collect data about bone quality by the means of trabecular bone score and hip structural analysis assessment. These two indices could represent a method of interesting perspectives in evaluating bone status in patients affected by diseases like UC, which may present an impairment of bone quality as well as of bone quantity. In literature there is no strong evidence for instituting pharmacological therapy of bone impairment in UC patients for clinical indications other than those that

  17. Rabbiteye blueberry prevents osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective It has been forecasted that the rabbiteye blueberry could inhibit osteoporosis. However, the inhibition and prevention of osteoporosis via rabbiteye blueberry are still elusive. This study was aim to evaluate the anti-osteoporosis effects of rabbiteye blueberry in ovariectomized rats. Methods Thirty rats were randomly divided into three groups of ten rats each as follows: sham-operated group (SG), ovariectomized model control group (OMG), and ovariectomized rabbiteye blueberry treatment group (OBG). The blood mineral levels, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) level were determined. The expression analyses of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were performed. Besides, the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone histomorphometry (BH) were measured. Results The ALP activity in SG and OBG was significantly lower than that in OMG. For the OPG level, the significant increase of OPG level in OBG was indicated compared with the other groups. The mRNA expression levels of type I collagen, integrin-β1, and FAK in OMG were significantly lower than those in other groups. The BMD in OMG were all significantly lower than those in SG and OBG. For BH, blueberry significantly improved the trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, mean trabecular bone number, and bone formation rate, and decreased the trabecular separation, the percent of bone resorption perimeter, and mean osteoclast number in OBG compared with OMG. Conclusions The rabbiteye blueberries had an effective inhibition in bone resorption, bone loss, and reduction of bone strength of ovariectomized rats and could improve the BMD, osteogenic activity, and trabecular bone structure. PMID:25102951

  18. Role of estrogen in avian osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Beck, M M; Hansen, K K

    2004-02-01

    One of the difficulties associated with commercial layer production is the development of osteoporosis in hens late in the production cycle. In light of this fact and because of hens' unique requirements for Ca, many studies have focused on the regulation of Ca and the role of estrogen in this process. The time course of estrogen synthesis over the productive life of hens has been well documented; increased circulating estrogen accompanies the onset of sexual maturity while decreases signal a decline in egg production prior to a molt. Numbers of estrogen receptors decrease with age in numerous tissues. The parallel changes in calcium-regulating proteins, primarily Calbindin D28K, and in the ability of duodenal cells to transport Ca, are thought to occur as a result of the changes in estrogen, and are also reversible by the molt process. In addition to the traditional model of estrogen action, evidence now exists for a possible nongenomic action of estrogen via membrane-bound receptors, demonstrated by extremely rapid surges of ionized Ca in chicken granulosa cells in response to 17beta-estradiol. Estrogen receptors have also been discovered in duodenal tissue, and tamoxifen, which binds to the estrogen receptor, has been shown to cause a rapid increase in Ca transport in the duodenum. In addition, recent evidence also suggests that mineralization of bone per se may not explain entirely the etiology of osteoporosis in the hen but that changes in the collagen matrix may contribute through decreases in bone elasticity. Taken together, these studies suggest that changes in estrogen synthesis and estrogen receptor populations may underlie the age-related changes in avian bone. As with postmenopausal women, dietary Ca and vitamin D are of limited benefit as remedies for osteoporosis in the hen. PMID:14979570

  19. Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Altan, Halenur; Tosun, Gül; Şen, Yaşar

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis (IJO) is a very rare disease, self restrictive and shows marked, spontaneous improvement during adolescence. The major clinical features were pain with difficulty walking, growth retardation, oral and dental abnormalities with radiographically porous bone structure. A 13-year-old male referred to paediatric dentistry clinic for toothache. The observations made with extra-intraoral clinic examination that one revealed short and skinny stature, diffuse caries in deciduous teeth, abraded lower incisor, deep bite and dysmorphic appearance in permanent incisor. This report emphasizes the recognized features of IJO as well as describes facio-dental findings that could aid in the diagnosis and management of these patients. PMID:26436063

  20. Exercise and osteoporosis: Methodological and practical considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, Jon E.; Friedlander, Anne L.; Steiger, Peter; Genant, Harry K.

    1994-01-01

    Physical activity may have important implications for enhancing bone density prior to the initiation of space flight, for preserving bone density during zero gravity, and for rehabilitating the skeleton upon return to Earth. Nevertheless, the beneficial effects of exercise upon the skeleton have not been proven by controlled trials and no consensus exists regarding the type, duration, and intensity of exercise necessary to make significant alterations to the skeleton. The following sections review our current understanding of exercise and osteoporosis, examine some of the methodological shortcomings of these investigations, and make research recommendations for future clinical trials.

  1. Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Gül; Şen, Yaşar

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic Juvenile Osteoporosis (IJO) is a very rare disease, self restrictive and shows marked, spontaneous improvement during adolescence. The major clinical features were pain with difficulty walking, growth retardation, oral and dental abnormalities with radiographically porous bone structure. A 13-year-old male referred to paediatric dentistry clinic for toothache. The observations made with extra-intraoral clinic examination that one revealed short and skinny stature, diffuse caries in deciduous teeth, abraded lower incisor, deep bite and dysmorphic appearance in permanent incisor. This report emphasizes the recognized features of IJO as well as describes facio-dental findings that could aid in the diagnosis and management of these patients. PMID:26436063

  2. A Multidisciplinary Osteoporosis Service-Based Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Dean; Keast, John; Montgomery, Val; Hayman, Sue

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate an existing Trust-based osteoporosis service's preventative activity, determine any issues and problems and use this data to reorganise the service, as part of a National Health Service Executive/Regional Office-commissioned and funded study. Setting: A UK Hospital Trust's Osteoporosis Service. Design & Method: A…

  3. Rural Women and Osteoporosis: Awareness and Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hollie L.; Laya, Mary; DeWitt, Dawn E.

    2006-01-01

    Context: Little is known about rural women's knowledge about osteoporosis. Purpose: To explore what women from high-prevalence rural communities know about osteoporosis and to assess their learning preferences. Methods: We surveyed 437 women in rural Washington and Oregon. Findings: The response rate was 93% (N = 406). The mean age of respondents…

  4. Epidemiology of Osteoporosis in Women with Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrager, Sarina

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis is increasing due to the aging of the population. Women with cognitive impairment from childhood are at disproportionally high risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Suggested explanations for this increased risk include high use of anticonvulsant medications, lower peak bone densities, and higher rates of nonambulation. Down syndrome…

  5. A Practical Approach to Osteoporosis Management in the Geriatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Dan; Cheung, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a medical condition that is seen commonly in elderly patients, and it is associated with a large burden of morbidity and mortality. This article provides a practical approach to the workup and management of osteoporosis in patients 65 years or older. PMID:25825609

  6. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis Among Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lori W.; Wallace, Lorraine Silver; Perry, Blake Allen; Bleeker, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk factors for osteoporosis among a sample of middle-aged women. Methods: Adipose tissue and bone mineral density levels at the left femur, lumbar spine, and total body were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects (n=342) were surveyed regarding a variety of osteoporosis-related risk factors.…

  7. Premenopausal osteoporosis, an overlooked consequence of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Teng, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Many young women with anorexia nervosa develop premenopausal osteoporosis. In particular, female athletes have a much higher incidence of disordered eating than their peers and therefore are at a much higher risk of stress fractures and other traumatic bone pathology. This review summarizes factors affecting the development of premenopausal osteoporosis in these patients and identifies potential targets for intervention. PMID:21199907

  8. [Pharmacological treatment of other types of secondary osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryo

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews the treatment strategy for the secondary osteoporosis excluding those caused by diabetes, CKD, endocrine disorders, or glucocorticoid, which proceeding articles deal with. Among numerous possible causes for such secondary osteoporosis, the author has selected osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), osteoporosis associated with gastrectomy or bariatric surgery, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For OI, current standard treatment is bisphosphonates (BPs), of which efficacy for fracture inhibition has recently been of issue. Other treatment modalities, e.g. PTH, have just been explored. Osteoporosis associated with gastrectomy, bariatric surgery or IBD, have been treated with vitamin D, calcium, and BPs. Despite high fracture rates, there are almost no treatment data for osteoporosis associated with COPD. PMID:26529940

  9. Bisphosphonates for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Maraka, Spyridoula; Kennel, Kurt A

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disorder characterized by bone loss, which leads to impaired bone strength and an increased risk of fractures. Two million fractures are attributed to osteoporosis annually in the United States and they are associated with serious morbidity and mortality. Bisphosphonates reduce the risk of fracture by suppressing bone resorption and increasing bone strength, and they have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. However, the use of these drugs for the management of osteoporosis remains a clinical challenge. There are several important considerations including appropriate patient selection, pretreatment evaluation, potential adverse effects, patient preferences, and adherence. This review will discuss the evidence informing the clinical strategy for using bisphosphonates in patients with osteoporosis and those at high risk of fracture, focusing on the benefits and risks of treatment. We will also consider issues related to the monitoring and duration of treatment. PMID:26333528

  10. Osteoporosis management in older patients who experienced a fracture

    PubMed Central

    Oertel, Mark J; Graves, Leland; Al-Hihi, Eyad; Leonardo, Vincent; Hopkins, Christina; DeSouza, Kristin; Bhattacharya, Rajib K

    2016-01-01

    Background Fractures in older patients are common, morbid, and associated with increased risk of subsequent fractures. Inpatient and outpatient management and treatment of fractures can be costly. With more emphasis placed on quality care for Medicare beneficiaries, we studied if patients were receiving proper screening for osteoporosis and treatment after diagnosis of fracture. This study aims to determine if adequate screening and treatment for osteoporosis occurs in the postfracture period. Methods A retrospective analysis of Medicare beneficiaries aged 67 years or older was gathered from a single institution in both inpatient and outpatient visits. Based on International Classification of Diseases ninth revision codes, primary diagnosis of fractures of neck and trunk, upper limb, and lower limb were obtained in addition to current procedural terminology codes for fracture procedures. We studied patients who had been screened for osteoporosis with a bone mineral study or received osteoporosis treatment after their fracture. Results Medicare beneficiaries totaling 1,375 patients were determined to have an inclusion fracture between June 1, 2013 and November 30, 2014. At the time of our analysis on December 1, 2014, 1,219 patients were living and included in the analysis. Of these patients, 256 (21.0%) either received osteoporosis testing with bone mineral density or received treatment for osteoporosis. On sex breakdown, 208/820 (25.4%) females received proper evaluation or treatment of osteoporosis in comparison to 48/399 (12.0%) males. This is in comparison to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ national average of 19.1% for osteoporosis management in females. Conclusion A minority of studied patients received evaluation or treatment for osteoporosis after their fracture. Postfracture investigation and treatment for osteoporosis in Medicare beneficiaries is inadequate. If improved, Medicare costs could be reduced by prevention of future fractures