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Sample records for star rs cnc

  1. On the Central Symmetry of the Circumstellar Envelope of RS Cnc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhung, P. T.; Hoai, D. T.; Winters, J. M.; Darriulat, P.; Gérard, E.; Le Bertre, T.

    2015-08-01

    We present a phenomenological study of CO (1-0) and CO (2-1) emission from the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the AGB star RS Cnc. It reveals departures from central symmetry that turn out to provide a new tool for the exploration of some of the CSE properties. We use a wind model including a bipolar flow with a typical wind velocity of ˜8 km s-1, decreasing to ˜2 km s-1 near the equator, to describe Doppler velocity spectral maps obtained by merging data collected at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and the Pico Veleta single-dish radio telescope. Parameters describing the wind morphology and kinematics are obtained, together with the radial dependence of the gas temperature in the domain of the CSE probed by the CO observations. Significant north-south central asymmetries are revealed by the analysis, which we quantify using a simple phenomenological description. The origin of such asymmetries is unclear for the moment.

  2. On the central symmetry of the circumstellar envelope of RS Cnc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuyet Nhung, Pham; Thi Hoai, Do; Winters, Jan Martin; Darriulat, Pierre; Gérard, Eric; Le Bertre, Thibaut

    2015-05-01

    We present a phenomenological study of CO(1?0) and CO(2?1) emission from the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star RS Cnc. It reveals departures from central symmetry that turn out to be efficient tools for the exploration of some of the properties of the CSE. We use a wind model including a bipolar flow with a typical wind velocity of ~8 km s?1 that decreases to ~2 km s?1 near the equator. This wind model is used to describe Doppler velocity spectral maps obtained by merging data collected at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and Pico Veleta single dish radio telescope. Parameters describing the wind morphology and kinematics are obtained, together with the radial dependence of the gas temperature in the domain of the CSE probed by the CO observations. Significant north-south central asymmetries are revealed by the analysis, which we quantify using a simple phenomenological description. The origin of such asymmetries is unclear. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  3. On the central symmetry of the circumstellar envelope of RS Cnc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nhung, Pham Tuyet; Thi Hoai, Do; Winters, Jan Martin; Darriulat, Pierre; Gérard, Eric; Le Bertre, Thibaut

    2015-05-01

    We present a phenomenological study of CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) emission from the circumstellar envelope (CSE) of the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star RS Cnc. It reveals departures from central symmetry that turn out to be efficient tools for the exploration of some of the properties of the CSE. We use a wind model including a bipolar flow with a typical wind velocity of ~8 km s-1 that decreases to ~2 km s-1 near the equator. This wind model is used to describe Doppler velocity spectral maps obtained by merging data collected at the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and Pico Veleta single dish radio telescope. Parameters describing the wind morphology and kinematics are obtained, together with the radial dependence of the gas temperature in the domain of the CSE probed by the CO observations. Significant north-south central asymmetries are revealed by the analysis, which we quantify using a simple phenomenological description. The origin of such asymmetries is unclear. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer and the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  4. The shortest modulation period Blazhko RR Lyrae star: SS Cnc

    E-print Network

    J. Jurcsik; B. Szeidl; Á. Sódor; I. Dékány; Zs. Hurta; K. Posztobányi; K. Vida; M. Váradi; A. Szing

    2006-03-20

    Extended BV(RI)c CCD observations of SS Cnc, a short period RRab star are presented. Nearly 1400 data points in each band have been obtained spanning over 79 days during the spring of 2005. The star exhibits light curve modulation, the so called Blazhko effect with small amplitude (B maximum brightness varies 0.1 mag) and with the shortest modulation period (5.309 d) ever observed. In the Fourier spectrum of the V light curve the pulsation frequency components are detected up to the 24th harmonic order, and modulation side lobe frequencies with significantly asymmetric amplitudes are seen up to the 15th and 9th orders for the lower and higher frequency components, respectively. Detailed comparison of the modulation behavior of SS Cnc and RR Gem, the two recently discovered small amplitude, short modulation period Blazhko stars is presented. The modulation frequency (f_m) appears in the Fourier spectrum of both stars with similar amplitude. We also demonstrate that the modulation frequencies have basically different properties as the pulsation and modulation side lobe frequencies have, indicating that the physics behind these frequency components are not the same. The discovery of small amplitude modulations of RRab stars cautions that the large photometric surveys (MACHO, OGLE) may seriously underestimate the number of modulated RR Lyrae stars.

  5. RS CVn stars - Chromospheric phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    The observational information regarding chromospheric emission features in surface-active RS CVn stars is reviewed. Three optical features are considered in detail: Ca II H and K, Balmer H-alpha and He I 10830 A. While the qualitative behavior of these lines is in accord with solar-analogy/rotation-activity ideas, the quantitative variation and scaling are very poorly understood. In many cases, the spectroscopic observations with sufficient SNR and resolution to decide these questions have simply not yet been made. The FK Com stars, in particular, present extreme examples of rotation that may well tax present understanding of surface activity to its limits.

  6. Beryllium abundances in parent stars of extrasolar planets: 16 Cyg A & B and rho 1 Cnc

    E-print Network

    R. J. Garcia Lopez; M. R. Perez de Taoro

    1998-03-03

    The Be II 3131 A doublet has been observed in the solar-type stars 16 Cyg A & B and in the late G-type star rho 1 Cnc, to derive their beryllium abundances. 16 Cyg A & B show similar (solar) beryllium abundances while 16 Cyg B, which has been proposed to have a planetary companion of ~2 M_Jup, is known to be depleted in lithium by a factor larger than 6 with respect to 16 Cyg A. Differences in their rotational histories which could induce different rates of internal mixing of material, and the ingestion of a similar planet by 16 Cyg A are discussed as potential explanations. The existence of two other solar-type stars which are candidates to harbour planetary-mass companions and which show lithium and beryllium abundances close to those of 16 Cyg A, requires a more detailed inspection of the peculiarities of the 16 Cyg system. For rho 1 Cnc, which is the coolest known object candidate to harbour a planetary-mass companion (M > 0.85 M_Jup), we establish a precise upper limit for its beryllium abundance, showing a strong Be depletion which constrains the available mixing mechanisms. Observations of similar stars without companions are required to asses the potential effects of the planetary companion on the observed depletion. It has been recently claimed that rho 1 Cnc appears to be a subgiant. If this were the case, the observed strong Li and Be depletions could be explained by a dilution process taking place during its post-main sequence evolution.

  7. NEWS & VIEWS nEutRon StaRS

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    -mail: fernando@astro.columbia.edu O n a dark night you can see a thousand stars above, each like the Sun shining -- has central densities comparable to those of nuclei. What does the neutron star sky look like, madeNEWS & VIEWS nEutRon StaRS a magnetar by another name Fernando Camilo is at the Columbia

  8. MOA-2010-BLG-523: 'FAILED PLANET' = RS CVn STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, A.; Yee, J. C.; Pinsonneault, M. H.; Dong, Subo; Gaudi, B. S.; Hung, L.-W.; Bond, I. A.; Udalski, A.; Han, C.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Greenhill, J.; Tsapras, Y.; Bensby, T.; Allen, W.; Almeida, L. A.; Jablonski, F.; Bos, M.; Christie, G. W.; DePoy, D. L.; Lee, C.-U.; Collaboration: muFUN Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; RoboNet Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; and others

    2013-02-15

    The Galactic bulge source MOA-2010-BLG-523S exhibited short-term deviations from a standard microlensing light curve near the peak of an A {sub max} {approx} 265 high-magnification microlensing event. The deviations originally seemed consistent with expectations for a planetary companion to the principal lens. We combine long-term photometric monitoring with a previously published high-resolution spectrum taken near peak to demonstrate that this is an RS CVn variable, so that planetary microlensing is not required to explain the light-curve deviations. This is the first spectroscopically confirmed RS CVn star discovered in the Galactic bulge.

  9. Long-term spottedness variations of 16 RS CVn stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikova, A. V.; Alekseev, I. Yu.

    2015-10-01

    An improved zonal model for spotted stellar photospheres enabling analysis of two active longitudes simultaneously present on a star is used to determine the spottedness parameters for a sample of chromospherically active RS CVn binary stars. Variations of the spot-activity characteristics of these systems with time are analyzed for time scales of several decades, in order to search for evolutionary changes of their spotted regions. The analysis made use of observations acquired during multi-color photometric monitoring of six spotted active RS CVn systems conducted at the Astronomical Observatory of the Ural Federal University and the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory since 2003, as well as data from the literature. Half of the stars display drifts of their spots towards the equator and poles during some time intervals; however, the speeds of the spots' latitude drifts are lower than the analogous speeds for sunspots, by factors of 1.5-4, on average. Correlations or anti-correlations between a spot's area and its latitude were detected for nine stars, with the correlation coefficients R ranging from 0.54 to 0.93; stronger correlations are found for stars whose spot areas increasewith increasing latitude during the entire analyzed time interval. Activity cycles lasting from 5 to 28 years have been determined or confirmed for nine of the studied systems.

  10. RS CVn Stars Among Variables with Possible CW Classification in the ASAS-3 Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdnikov, L. N.; Pastukhova, E. N.

    2008-12-01

    We present a list of 109 probable RS CVn variables among stars in the ASAS-3 catalog with Population II Cepheid classification as the main one or an alternative one. These stars are identified with X-ray sources and have light curves (from ASAS-3 data) in no contradiction with the suggested RS CVn classification.

  11. Possible magnetic activity cycles in two solar-type overcontact binary stars: AD Cnc and FG Hya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B.; Yuan, J.-Z.; He, J.-J.; Zhu, L. Y.

    2006-08-01

    W UMa-type binary stars are overcontact systems where both components are filling the critical Roche lobes and sharing a common convictive envelope (CCE). This type of binaries offers a good chance to study the effects of the CCE on solar-type magnetic activity. Recently, two solar-type overcontact binaries, AD Cnc (Sp.=K0; P=0.2827 days) and FG Hya (Sp.=G0; P=0.3278 days), have been monitored for several years photometrically with the 1.0-m telescope in Yunnan Observatory. The light levels at both minima and both maxima in the light curves were found to be variable. An orbital period analysis of the two systems were done based on our new determined times of light minimum combined with the others compiled from the literature. After long-term period changes were removed, double cyclic period changes were discovered for the two binaries. The light curves of those sample stars have been analysed with the new version of the W-D method and the properties of dark spot on the photospheric surface were determined. The main results are as following. (1) For FG Hya, we found that both the orbital period and the depth of the primary minimum show a cyclic change with a period of 36.4 years and in the same phase. The variation of the light curve, the spotted primary component and the connection between the period change and the depth of the primary minimum all indicate that the G0-type primary component display solar-type magnetic activity cycle with a period of 36.4 years. (2) The long-term evolution of dark spot on the photospheric surface of the primary component is presented based on the analysis of the variation of the light curves. It is found that the dark spot activity may have a 17-year cycle, which is close to the period of one cyclic component of the period variations (16.2 years). This suggests that the primary component (K0-type star) may have a 17-year magnetic activity cycle.

  12. The Motion Verified Red Stars (MoVeRS) Catalog and Low-Mass Field Stars with Warm Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theissen, Christopher; West, Andrew A.; Dhital, Saurav

    2016-01-01

    We present the Motion Verified Red Stars (MoVeRS) catalog of proper motion selected low-mass stars from SDSS, 2MASS, and WISE. These surveys provide a time baseline of ~12 years for sources found in all three surveys, and a precision better than 10 mas/year.The MoVeRS catalog is augmented with proper motions from SDSS+USNO-B and the full sample contains 8,735,004 photometric point-sources selected based on colors and their significant (2?) proper motions. This catalog will be useful for finding new low-mass common proper motion systems, along with providing a large input catalog for numerous studies of low-mass stars. In addition, we use the MoVeRS catalog to present a preliminary sample of low-mass field stars exhibiting signatures of warm dust (mid-infrared excesses). Such systems are thought to originate from collisions of terrestrial planets, raising even more questions about the habitability of planetary systems around low-mass stars.

  13. BVR photometry of a newly identified RS CVn binary star HD 61396

    E-print Network

    Sudhanshu Barway; S. K. Pandey; Padmakar Singh Parihar

    2004-08-10

    BVR photometry of a recently identified RS CVn binary star HD61396, carried out during 2001, is presented. The new photometry reveal significant evolution in the shape and amplitude of light curve when compared with those reported earlier by Padmakar etal (2000). The traditional two-starspot model has been used to obtain the spot parameters from the observed light curve. Changes in the spot area and their location on the stellar surface are discernible from the extracted parameters from the new photometry.

  14. CNC Programming I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Joe

    This document contains five units for a course in computer numerical control (CNC) for computer-aided manufacturing. It is intended to familiarize students with the principles and techniques necessary to create proper CNC programs manually. Each unit consists of an introduction, instructional objectives, learning materials, learning activities,…

  15. Open architecture CNC system

    SciTech Connect

    Tal, J.; Lopez, A.; Edwards, J.M.

    1995-04-01

    In this paper, an alternative solution to the traditional CNC machine tool controller has been introduced. Software and hardware modules have been described and their incorporation in a CNC control system has been outlined. This type of CNC machine tool controller demonstrates that technology is accessible and can be readily implemented into an open architecture machine tool controller. Benefit to the user is greater controller flexibility, while being economically achievable. PC based, motion as well as non-motion features will provide flexibility through a Windows environment. Up-grading this type of controller system through software revisions will keep the machine tool in a competitive state with minimal effort. Software and hardware modules are mass produced permitting competitive procurement and incorporation. Open architecture CNC systems provide diagnostics thus enhancing maintainability, and machine tool up-time. A major concern of traditional CNC systems has been operator training time. Training time can be greatly minimized by making use of Windows environment features.

  16. Southern RS CVn systems - Candidate list. [spectral catalog of variable binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiler, E. J.; Stencel, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    A list of 43 candidate RS CVn binary systems in the far southern hemisphere of the sky (south of -40 deg declination) is presented. The candidate systems were selected from the first two volumes of the Michigan Spectral Catalog (1975, 1978), which provides MK classifications for southern HD stars and identifies any unusual characteristics noted for individual stellar spectra. The selection criteria used were: (1) the occurrence of Ca II H and K emission; (2) known or suspected binary nature; (3) regular light variations of zero to one magnitude; and (4) spectral type between F0 and K2 and luminosity less than bright giant (II).

  17. CAD/CAM/CNC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domermuth, Dave; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Includes "Quick Start CNC (computer numerical control) with a Vacuum Filter and Laminated Plastic" (Domermuth); "School and Industry Cooperate for Mutual Benefit" (Buckler); and "CAD (computer-assisted drafting) Careers--What Professionals Have to Say" (Skinner). (JOW)

  18. CNC router modernization

    E-print Network

    Doody, Aaron L. (Aaron Lee)

    2007-01-01

    A large-format CNC router has been stored in the Pappalardo Laboratory wood shop for several years in an unusable state. A need assessment determined that it would be cost effective to bring the router online for use in ...

  19. New CCD Photometric Study of AM Cnc

    E-print Network

    Tasselli, D

    2015-01-01

    We present in this paper the new study of variable star AM Cnc, a short period RRab star, in orther to determine, through the light curve and the physical parameters. The Star were observed for a total of 293 sessions shooting, and exhibits light curve modulation, the so called Blazhko effect with the shortest modulation Period=0d.559233 ever observed. We observed this star with the 0,6 mt telescope of the Astronomical Observatory of Andrate (OAA) - To and the result detect small but definite modification in temperature and mean radius of the star itself. All results are compared with previously published literature values and discussed.

  20. HE 0017+0055 : A probable pulsating CEMP-rs star and long-period binary

    E-print Network

    Jorissen, A; Van Eck, S; Andersen, J; Nordstroem, B; Siess, L; Torres, G; Masseron, T; Van Winckel, H

    2015-01-01

    A radial-velocity monitoring of the Carbon-Enhanced Metal-Poor (CEMP) star HE 0017+0055 over 8 years with the Nordic Optical Telescope and Mercator telescopes reveals variability with a period of 384 d and amplitude of 540$\\pm27$ m s$^{-1}$, superimposed on a nearly linear long-term decline of $\\sim$1 m s$^{-1}$ day$^{-1}$. High-resolution HERMES/Mercator and Keck/HIRES spectra have been used to derive elemental abundances using 1-D LTE MARCS models. A metallicity of [Fe/H] $\\sim -2.4$ is found, along with s-process overabundances on the order of 2 dex (with the exception of [Y/Fe] $\\sim+0.5$), and most notably overabundances of r-process elements like Sm, Eu, Dy, and Er in the range 0.9 - 2.0 dex. With [Ba/Fe] $ > 1.9$ dex and [Eu/Fe] = 2.3 dex, HE 0017+0055 is a CEMP-rs star. It appears to be a giant star below the tip of the red giant branch (RGB). The s-process pollution must therefore originate from mass transfer from a companion formerly on the AGB, now a carbon-oxygen white dwarf (WD). If the 384 d vel...

  1. S 10947 Aql = RX J2009.8+1557: A probable RS CVn star which sometimes stops its eclipses

    E-print Network

    G. A. Richter; J. Greiner

    2000-08-25

    We report the discovery of a new variable star, called S 10947 Aql, as the likely optical counterpart of RX J2009.8+1557. The optical variability pattern as well as the detected X-ray emission suggest that it is a chromospherically active binary of the RS Canum Venaticorum type. We discovered an occasional disappearance of the eclipsing minima as well as large variations in the eclipse amplitude. We discuss possible causes of this peculiarity.

  2. INVESTIGATION FOR THE ENRICHMENT PATTERN OF THE ELEMENT ABUNDANCES IN r+s STAR HE 0338 - 3945: A SPECIAL r-II STAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Cui Wenyuan; Zhang Jiang; Zhu Zizhong; Zhang Bo E-mail: zhangbo@hebtu.edu.c

    2010-01-01

    The very metal-poor star HE 0338 - 3945 shows a double-enhanced pattern of the neutron-capture elements. The study of this sample could help people gain a better understanding of s- and r-process nucleosynthesis at low metallicity. Using a parametric model, we find that the abundance pattern of the neutron-capture elements could be best explained by a binary system formed in a molecular cloud that had been polluted by r-process material. The observed abundance pattern of C and N can be explained by an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) model. Combined with the parameters obtained from Cui and Zhang, we suggest that the initial mass of the AGB companion is most likely to be about 2.5 M{sub sun}, which excludes the possibility of forming a Type 1.5 supernova. By comparing with the observational abundance pattern of CS 22892 - 052, we find that the dominant production of O should accompany the production of the heavy r-process elements of r+s stars. Similar to r-II stars, the heavy r-process elements are not produced in conjunction with all the light elements from the Na to Fe group. The abundance pattern of the light and r-process elements for HE 0338 - 3945 is very close to the pattern of the r-II star CS 22892 - 052. Therefore, we suggest that HE 0338 - 3945 should be a special r-II star.

  3. On the coronae of rapidly rotating stars. I - The relation between rotation and coronal activity in RS CVn systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, F. M.; Bowyer, S.

    1981-01-01

    Soft X-ray observations are presented of a nearly complete sample of RS Canum Venaticorum systems taken with the Einstein X-ray Observatory. It is shown that the quiescent coronal activity, as measured by the ratio of the X-ray to bolometric flux, is directly proportional to the angular velocity of the star with the active chromosphere in these systems. This relation is found to hold over two decades in angular velocity. It is also found that the stellar surface gravity has no obvious influence on the ratio of the X-ray luminosity to the bolometric luminosity over two decades in surface gravity. It is pointed out that the linear relation between the ratio of the X-ray luminosity to the bolometric luminosity on the one hand, and the angular velocity, on the other, holds important implications for dynamo theories of the generation of stellar magnetic fields.

  4. CNC Preparation Meets Manufacturing Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassola, Joel

    2006-01-01

    This article features the machining technology program at Cape Fear Community College (CFCC) of Wilmington, North Carolina. North Carolina's Cape Fear Community College is working to meet diverse industry needs through its CNC training. The school's program has gained the attention of the local manufacturing community and students when it shifted…

  5. Degraded RNA transcript stable regions (StaRs) as targets for enhanced forensic RNA body fluid identification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng-Han; Albani, Patricia P; Fleming, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    The detection of messenger RNA (mRNA) using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) is becoming common practice for forensic body fluid identification. However, the degraded and scarce nature of RNA from forensic samples mean that mRNA transcripts are not consistently detected or remain undetected in practice. Conventional primer design for RT-PCR (and quantitative RT-PCR) includes targeting primers to span exon-exon boundaries or by having the primers on two separate exons, and satisfying common primer thermodynamic criteria. We have found that the conventional placement of primers is not always optimal for obtaining reproducible results from degraded samples. Using massively parallel sequencing data from degraded body fluids, we designed primers to amplify transcript regions of high read coverage, hence, higher stability, and compared these with primers designed using conventional methodology. Our findings are that primers designed for transcript regions of higher read coverage resulted in vastly improved detection of mRNA transcripts that were not previously detected or were not consistently detected in the same samples using conventional primers. We developed a new concept whereby primers targeted to transcript stable regions (StaRs) are able to consistently and specifically amplify a wide range of RNA biomarkers in various body fluids of varying degradation levels. PMID:26485676

  6. A new radial velocity curve for the RS CVn star sigma Gem: Constraints on its physical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duemmler, R.; Ilyin, I. V.; Tuominen, I.

    1997-06-01

    26 high quality radial velocity measurements of the RS CVn star sigma Gem taken in 1993, 1994, and 1995 are used in combination with older measurements to fit a new radial velocity curve. Essentially, the orbital parameters given by \\cite[Bopp \\& Dempsey (1989)]{BD89} are confirmed. However, the orbit turns out to be circular. sigma Gem is known as a single-lined binary, and also in the new spectra no trace of the secondary is found. However, combining the orbital with rotational parameters, constraints on the fundamental parameters can be found: the inclination, the radius and the two masses. The inclination is high; the mass of the primary seems to be normal for a K1 giant, its radius, however, seems to be too small. Based on observations collected at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), La Palma, Spain. Table \\ref{T-RV} is also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html.

  7. CNC electrical discharge machining centers

    SciTech Connect

    Jaggars, S.R.

    1991-10-01

    Computer numerical control (CNC) electrical discharge machining (EDM) centers were investigated to evaluate the application and cost effectiveness of establishing this capability at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). In line with this investigation, metal samples were designed, prepared, and machined on an existing 15-year-old EDM machine and on two current technology CNC EDM machining centers at outside vendors. The results were recorded and evaluated. The study revealed that CNC EDM centers are a capability that should be established at KCD. From the information gained, a machine specification was written and a shop was purchased and installed in the Engineering Shop. The older machine was exchanged for a new model. Additional machines were installed in the Tool Design and Fabrication and Precision Microfinishing departments. The Engineering Shop machine will be principally used for the following purposes: producing deep cavities in small corner radii, machining simulated casting models, machining difficult-to-machine materials, and polishing difficult-to-hand polish mold cavities. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. ROSSITER-MCLAUGHLIN OBSERVATIONS OF 55 Cnc e

    SciTech Connect

    López-Morales, Mercedes; Rodler, Florian; Dumusque, Xavier; Buchhave, Lars A.; Latham, David W.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Harutyunyan, Avet; Hoyer, Sergio; Alonso, Roi; Gillon, Michaël; Kaib, Nathan A.; Lovis, Christophe; Pepe, Francesco; Queloz, Didier; Ségransan, Damien; Udry, Stéphane; Raymond, Sean N.; Waldmann, Ingo P.

    2014-09-10

    We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of the transiting super-Earth 55 Cnc e collected during six transit events between 2012 January and 2013 November with HARPS and HARPS-N. We detect no radial velocity signal above 35 cm s{sup –1} (3?) and confine the stellar v sin i {sub *} to 0.2 ± 0.5 km s{sup –1}. The star appears to be a very slow rotator, producing a very low amplitude Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. Given such a low amplitude, the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect of 55 Cnc e is undetected in our data, and any spin-orbit angle of the system remains possible. We also performed Doppler tomography and reach a similar conclusion. Our results offer a glimpse of the capacity of future instrumentation to study low amplitude Rossiter-McLaughlin effects produced by super-Earths.

  9. Ground-based search for the atmosphere of the super-Earth 55Cnc e.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mooij, Ernst; Esteves, Lisa; Karjalainen, Raine; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Jayawardhana, Ray; Watson, Chris

    2015-12-01

    The star 55Cnc is currently one of the brightest stars in the sky known to host a transiting planet, the super-Earth 55Cnc e. This super-Earth has a density lower than that of the Earth and could potentially have either a significant water fraction or a hydrogen-rich envelope, although the latter is expected to have vaporated.We will present the first ground-based transit detections of 55Cnc e obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope on La Palma, and show the status of our follow-up program aimed at searching for its atmosphere at low and high-spectral resolution with telescopes on the ground, including the WHT, NOT, and Subaru.

  10. Synthetical Reliability Analysis Model of CNC Software System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Xia, Yinjie; Wan, Yi

    CNC technology is the core of advanced manufacturing technology, and CNC software system is the very important part of numerical control system. The entire CNC system will not work normally, once the potential failure makes the software invalid. As to the current study of CNC sysytem, in use of the FAULT glitch tree, established a glitch tree for the CNC system; find the minimum cut sets with Fussed method and then according to the probability of several common glitches, make quantitative analysis in the reliability of the CNC system so that scientific ways can be provided for the reliability design, maintenance and management of the CNC system.

  11. TX Cnc AS A MEMBER OF THE PRAESEPE OPEN CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. B.; Deng, L.; Lu, P.

    2009-08-15

    We present B-, V-, and I-band CCD photometry of the W UMa-type binary system TX Cnc, which is a member star of the Praesepe open cluster. Based on the observations, new ephemeris and a revised photometric solution of the binary system were derived. Combined with the results of the radial velocity solution contributed by Pribulla et al., the absolute parameters of the system were determined. The mass, radius, and luminosity of the primary component are derived to be 1.35 {+-} 0.02 M {sub sun}, 1.27 {+-} 0.04 R {sub sun}, and 2.13 {+-} 0.11 L {sub sun}. Those for the secondary star are computed as 0.61 {+-} 0.01 M {sub sun}, 0.89 {+-} 0.03 R {sub sun}, and 1.26 {+-} 0.07 L {sub sun}, respectively. Based on these results, a distance modulus of (m - M) {sub V} = 6.34 {+-} 0.05 is determined for the star. It confirms the membership of TX Cnc to the Praesepe open cluster. The evolutionary status and the physical nature of the binary system are discussed compared with the theoretical model.

  12. Improving Energy Efficiency in CNC Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavanaskar, Sushrut S.

    We present our work on analyzing and improving the energy efficiency of multi-axis CNC milling process. Due to the differences in energy consumption behavior, we treat 3- and 5-axis CNC machines separately in our work. For 3-axis CNC machines, we first propose an energy model that estimates the energy requirement for machining a component on a specified 3-axis CNC milling machine. Our model makes machine-specific predictions of energy requirements while also considering the geometric aspects of the machining toolpath. Our model - and the associated software tool - facilitate direct comparison of various alternative toolpath strategies based on their energy-consumption performance. Further, we identify key factors in toolpath planning that affect energy consumption in CNC machining. We then use this knowledge to propose and demonstrate a novel toolpath planning strategy that may be used to generate new toolpaths that are inherently energy-efficient, inspired by research on digital micrography -- a form of computational art. For 5-axis CNC machines, the process planning problem consists of several sub-problems that researchers have traditionally solved separately to obtain an approximate solution. After illustrating the need to solve all sub-problems simultaneously for a truly optimal solution, we propose a unified formulation based on configuration space theory. We apply our formulation to solve a problem variant that retains key characteristics of the full problem but has lower dimensionality, allowing visualization in 2D. Given the complexity of the full 5-axis toolpath planning problem, our unified formulation represents an important step towards obtaining a truly optimal solution. With this work on the two types of CNC machines, we demonstrate that without changing the current infrastructure or business practices, machine-specific, geometry-based, customized toolpath planning can save energy in CNC machining.

  13. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Z, M. Nafis O.; Y, Nafrizuan M.; A, Munira M.; J, Kartina

    2012-09-01

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  14. Discovery of phase-locked variable polarization in an RS Canum Venaticorum-like star, HR 5110

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbour, M. S.; Kemp, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Using measurements on 79 nights in 1980 January-August, it is established that the polarization in the ultraviolet (U band) varies synchronously on the known binary period of 2.6132 days, with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.03%. The pattern is mainly second harmonic in character, as typical of binary star examples such as Algol and Upsilon Her. Reflection by the cooler star, by a plasma concentration, or both, is suggested. The scale of the polarization seems to be consistent with Rayleigh scattering by neutral hydrogen on the cooler star, and a roughly lambda to the -4th wavelength dependence should be searched for. The QU curve suggests a sizeable inclination for the system, of about 45 deg, but this is preliminary. Separately, a possible weak periodicity might be present on a subsidiary period, conceivably related to a rotating star spot.

  15. An intelligent CNC machine control system architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.J.; Loucks, C.S.

    1996-10-01

    Intelligent, agile manufacturing relies on automated programming of digitally controlled processes. Currently, processes such as Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machining are difficult to automate because of highly restrictive controllers and poor software environments. It is also difficult to utilize sensors and process models for adaptive control, or to integrate machining processes with other tasks within a factory floor setting. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program, a CNC machine control system architecture based on object-oriented design and graphical programming has been developed to address some of these problems and to demonstrate automated agile machining applications using platform-independent software.

  16. MULTIBAND PHOTOMETRIC AND SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF HV Cnc

    SciTech Connect

    Gökay, G.; Gürol, B.; Derman, E.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, radial velocity and VI- and JHK{sub S} - (Two Micron All Sky Survey) band photometric data of the detached system HV Cnc have been analyzed. The primary component of HV Cnc, which is a member of the M67 cluster, is suspected to be either a blue straggler or turn-off star. The system is a single-lined spectroscopic binary and its light curve shows a total eclipse. Spectroscopic observations of the system revealed the third component, which shows contribution to the total light of the system. Light curve and radial velocity data have been analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code and JHK{sub S} filter definitions computed for the W-D code in this work. Our analysis shows that the mass and radius of the primary and secondary components are 1.31 M {sub ?}, 0.52 M {sub ?}, 1.87 R {sub ?}, and 0.48 R {sub ?}, respectively. All results are compared with previously published literature values and discussed.

  17. BD Andromedae: A new short-period RS CVn eclipsing binary star with a distant tertiary body in a highly eccentric orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chun-Hwey; Song, Mi-Hwa; Yoon, Jo-Na; Jeong, Min-Ji; Han, Wonyong

    2014-06-20

    A photometric study of BD And was made through the analysis of two sets of new BVR light curves. The light curves with migrating photometric waves outside eclipse show that BD And is a short-period RS CVn-type binary star. The analysis of all available timings reveals that the orbital period has varied in a strictly cyclical way with a period of 9.2 yr. The periodic variation most likely arises from the light-time effect due to a tertiary moving in a highly elliptical orbit (e {sub 3} = 0.76). The Applegate mechanism could not operate properly in the eclipsing pair. The light curves were modeled with two large spots on the hotter star and a large third light amounting to about 14% of the total systemic light. BD And is a triple system: a detached binary system consisting of two nearly equal solar-type stars with an active primary star and a G6-G7 tertiary dwarf. The absolute dimensions of the eclipsing pair and tertiary components were determined. The three components with a mean age of about 5.8 Gyr are located at midpositions in main-sequence bands. The radius of the secondary is about 17% larger than that deduced from stellar models. The orbital and radiometric characteristics of the tertiary are intensively investigated. One important feature is that the mutual inclination between two orbits is larger than 60°, implying that Kozai cycles had occurred very efficiently in the past. The possible past and future evolutions of the BD And system, driven by KCTF and MBTF, are also discussed.

  18. Development of Lathe Attachment for a CNC Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, V.; Kumar, S.

    2013-04-01

    A lathe attachment has been developed for an existing CNC machine (installed with rapid prototyping attachment) using conceptual design. The CNC machine operates on mechatronic controls and a computer interface called CAMSOFT, and is used as a CNC Lathe after installing the respective attachment to it. The conceptual design phase, starts from an idea and different components of the lathe are designed as attachment using CAD modelling and is followed by fabrication phase. The lathe attachment is successfully developed and is installed to the CNC machine. The working of the CNC Lathe attachment is checked by making some machining operation like turning and thread cutting. The machining operations are successfully done. The CNC machine becomes multifunctional with the presently developed lathe attachment and the existing RP (rapid prototyping) attachment, and can be used accordingly by installing the respective attachment to it. The CNC machine is useful for carrying research work in both the fields, when installed with the appropriate attachment.

  19. Planetpol polarimetry of the exoplanet systems 55 Cnc and tau Boo

    E-print Network

    P. W. Lucas; J. H. Hough; J. A. Bailey; M. Tamura; E. Hirst; D. Harrison

    2008-11-04

    We present very sensitive polarimetry of 55 Cnc and tau Boo in an attempt to detect the partially polarised reflected light from the planets orbiting these two stars. 55 Cnc is orbited by a hot Neptune planet (55 Cnc e) at 0.038 AU, a hot Jupiter planet (55 Cnc b) at 0.11 AU, and at least 3 more distant planets. The polarisation of this system is very stable, showing no sign of the periodic variations that would be expected if a short period planet were detected. The measured standard deviation of the night averaged Stokes Q/I and U/I parameters is 2.2x10^{-6}. We derive upper limits on the geometric albedo, A_G and planetary radius using Monte Carlo multiple scattering simulations of a simple model atmosphere. We assume Rayleigh-like scattering (scaled by the maximum polarisation, p_m at 90 degrees) and pressure insensitive extinction. Atmospheres in which multiple scattering plays only a small role have an almost linear relation between polarisation and A_G. In this case, the 4 sigma upper limits is A_G<0.13(R/1.2 R_{Jup})^{-2}p_m^{-1} for 55 Cnc e. This suggests that 55 Cnc e is relatively small and not a pure H-He planet. The data do not give a useful upper limit for 55 Cnc b. tau Boo is orbited by an unusually massive hot Jupiter planet. The standard deviation in the night averaged Stokes Q/I and U/I polarisation parameters is 5.1x10^{-6}. The 4 sigma upper limit is A_G<0.37(R/1.2 R_{Jup})^{-2}p_m^{-1} for tau Boo b. This extends the similar upper limits reported previously for this planet to longer wavelengths. The larger scatter in the tau Boo data may be due to the spot activity detected photometrically by the MOST satellite. These results contrast markedly with the recent claim of a 3 sigma detection of a periodic polarisation signal from HD189733 with amplitude P=2x10^{-4}, attributed to the planet HD189733 b.

  20. CNC Machining Of The Complex Copper Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popan, Ioan Alexandru; Balc, Nicolae; Popan, Alina

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents the machining process of the complex copper electrodes. Machining of the complex shapes in copper is difficult because this material is soft and sticky. This research presents the main steps for processing those copper electrodes at a high dimensional accuracy and a good surface quality. Special tooling solutions are required for this machining process and optimal process parameters have been found for the accurate CNC equipment, using smart CAD/CAM software.

  1. SY Cnc, a case for unstable mass transfer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casares, J.; Martínez-Pais, I. G.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.

    2009-11-01

    Intermediate-resolution (0.5-1 Å) optical spectroscopy of the cataclysmic variable (CV) SY Cnc reveals the spectrum of the donor star. Our data enable us to resolve the orbital motion of the donor and provide a new orbital solution, binary mass ratio and spectral classification. We find that the donor star has spectral-type G8 +/- 2 V and orbits the white dwarf with P = 0.3823753 +/- 0.0000003 d, K2 = 88.0 +/- 2.9 kms-1 and V sini = 75.5 +/- 6.5 kms-1. Our values are significantly different from previous works and lead to q = M2/M1 = 1.18 +/- 0.14. This is one of the highest mass ratios known in a CV and is very robust, because it is based on resolving the rotational broadening over a large number of metallic absorption lines. The donor could be a slightly evolved main sequence or descendant from a massive star which underwent an episode of thermal time-scale mass transfer.

  2. Advanced CNC Programming (EZ-CAM). 439-366.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Joe

    This document contains two units for an advanced course in computer numerical control (CNC) for computer-aided manufacturing. It is intended to familiarize students with the principles and techniques necessary to create proper CNC programs using computer software. Each unit consists of an introduction, instructional objectives, learning materials,…

  3. Understanding and Writing G & M Code for CNC Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In modern CAD and CAM manufacturing companies, engineers design parts for machines and consumable goods. Many of these parts are cut on CNC machines. Whether using a CNC lathe, milling machine, or router, the ideas and designs of engineers must be translated into a machine-readable form called G & M Code that can be used to cut parts to precise…

  4. CNC Turning Technician. A Competency-Based Instructional System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Kelly; Hilley, Robert

    This competency-based curriculum guide for instructing students in using computer numerically controlled (CNC) turning machines is one of a series of instructional guides for the machinist field developed in Oklahoma. Although developed jointly with Baxter Technologies Corporation and oriented toward the Baxter Vo-Tec 2000 Future Builder CNC

  5. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on rheological and mechanical properties and crystallization behavior of PLA/CNC nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Musa R; Khoshkava, Vahid

    2015-06-01

    In earlier work, we reported that spray freeze drying of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) yields porous agglomerate structures. On the other hand, the conventional spray dried CNC (CNCSD) and the freeze dried CNC (CNCFD) produce compact solid structures with very low porosity. As it is rather difficult to obtain direct microscopic evidence of the quality of dispersion of CNC in polymer nanocomposites, it was shown that supporting evidence of the quality and influence of dispersion in a polypropylene (PP)/CNC nanocomposite could be obtained by studying the rheological behavior, mechanical properties and crystallization characteristics of PP/CNC nanocomposites. In an effort to produce a sustainable, fully biosourced, biodegradable nanocomposite, this manuscript presents the results of a study of the rheological, mechanical and crystallization behavior of PLA/CNCSFD nanocomposites obtained by melt processing. The results are analyzed to determine CNC network formation, rheological percolation threshold concentrations, mechanical properties in the rubbery and glassy states, and the effect of CNCSFD on crystalline nucleation and crystallization rates of PLA. These results suggest that the porosity and network structure of CNCSFD agglomerates contribute significantly to good dispersion of CNC in the PLA matrix. PMID:25843840

  6. ROSSITER-MCLAUGHLIN OBSERVATIONS OF 55 Cnc e

    E-print Network

    López-Morales, Mercedes

    We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of the transiting super-Earth 55 Cnc e collected during six transit events between 2012 January and 2013 November with HARPS and HARPS-N. We detect no radial velocity signal above ...

  7. A hybrid type small 5-axis CNC milling machine

    E-print Network

    Son, Seung-Kil, 1964-

    2002-01-01

    5-axis CNC milling machines are important in a number of industries ranging from aerospace to consumer-die-mold machining because they can deliver high machining accuracy with a spindle tilting capacity. Most of these ...

  8. Very low luminosity stars with very large amplitude flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1990-01-01

    CCD frames of CZ Cnc, KY Cep, the gamma-ray burster optical transient, and NSV 12006 are analyzed. Also studied are 549 archival photographic plates of the CZ Cnc field. These observations are compared with the data of Lovas (1976). Flare events on CZ Cnc are examined. Based on the data it is noted that CZ Cnc is a main-sequence star, has a magnitude of 16.1, a distance of 100 pc, occasional large-amplitude flares, and frequent flares with amplitudes greater than 4 mag.

  9. GROUND-BASED TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPER-EARTH 55 Cnc e

    SciTech Connect

    De Mooij, E. J. W.; López-Morales, M.; Karjalainen, R.; Hrudkova, M.; Jayawardhana, Ray

    2014-12-20

    We report the first ground-based detections of the shallow transit of the super-Earth exoplanet 55 Cnc e using a 2 m class telescope. Using differential spectrophotometry, we observed one transit in 2013 and another in 2014, with average spectral resolutions of ?700 and ?250, spanning the Johnson BVR photometric bands. We find a white light planet-to-star radius ratio of 0.0190{sub ?0.0027}{sup +0.0023} from the 2013 observations and 0.0200{sub ?0.0018}{sup +0.0017} from the 2014 observations. The two data sets combined result in a radius ratio of 0.0198{sub ?0.0014}{sup +0.0013}. These values are all in agreement with previous space-based results. Scintillation noise in the data prevents us from placing strong constraints on the presence of an extended hydrogen-rich atmosphere. Nevertheless, our detections of 55 Cnc e in transit demonstrate that moderate-sized telescopes on the ground will be capable of routine follow-up observations of super-Earth candidates discovered by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite around bright stars. We expect it also will be possible to place constraints on the atmospheric characteristics of those planets by devising observational strategies to minimize scintillation noise.

  10. Effect of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) particle morphology on dispersion and rheological and mechanical properties of polypropylene/CNC nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Khoshkava, Vahid; Kamal, Musa R

    2014-06-11

    Polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites containing spray-dried cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), freeze-dried CNC, and spray-freeze-dried CNC (CNCSFD) were prepared via melt mixing in an internal batch mixer. Polarized light, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopy showed significantly better dispersion of CNCSFD in PP/CNC nanocomposites compared with the spray-dried and freeze-dried CNCs. Rheological measurements, including linear and nonlinear viscoelastic tests, were performed on PP/CNC samples. The microscopy results were supported by small-amplitude oscillatory shear tests, which showed substantial rises in the magnitudes of key rheological parameters of PP samples containing CNCSFD. Steady-shear results revealed a strong shear thinning behavior of PP samples containing CNCSFD. Moreover, PP melts containing CNCSFD exhibited a yield stress. The magnitude of the yield stress and the degree of shear thinning behavior increased with CNCSFD concentration. It was found that CNCSFD agglomerates with a weblike structure were more effective in modifying the rheological properties. This effect was attributed to better dispersion of the agglomerates with the weblike structure. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed considerable improvement in the modulus of samples containing CNCSFD agglomerates. The percolation mechanical model with modified volume percolation threshold and filler network strength values and the Halpin-Kardos model were used to fit the experimental results. PMID:24809661

  11. CNC Turning Center Advanced Operations. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-332.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowronski, Steven D.; Tatum, Kenneth

    This student guide provides materials for a course designed to introduce the student to the operations and functions of a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 presents course expectations and syllabus, covers safety precautions, and describes the CNC turning center components, CNC

  12. Design of an open-architecture EDM SoftCNC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jun-Min; Wang, Zhen-Long; Chi, Guan-Xin; Zhao, Wan-Sheng

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents a new kind of electro-discharge machining (EDM) software computer numerical control (SoftCNC) system which is based on RTLinux platform and Finite State Machine (FSM) method. An EDM SoftCNC function model is given and the structure of SoftCNC based on the function model is proposed. The Binary FSM (Motion FSM and control FSM) model of the whole system is also proposed. To simplify complexities, the system FSM is decomposed to a set of FSMs. The motion decision-making FSM which is the dispatcher of motion tasks is designed. The auto task FSM and interpolate algorithm FSM are proposed. In control FSM, the control signal generator-decoder model is proposed, as well as the auto decision FSM is fabricated. Three abstract layers: function abstract layer, communication abstract layer and hardware abstract layer are designed to enhance enclosure and porting of SoftCNC. Run on MD21 machine, the performance implies that the system is stable, reliable and with low-latency.

  13. Implementation of Additive Rapid Prototyping on Retrofit CNC Mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Freeform fabrication techniques are gaining popularity as a means of making parts. Layered additive methods are associated with rapid prototyping. Many rapid prototyping methods are commercially proprietary and may cost thousands of dollars. Using a retrofit CNC mill for layered fabrication and C...

  14. PROMOTING A VIRTUAL TRAINING ENVIRONMENT FOR CNC Faruk nsaar

    E-print Network

    Aristomenis, Antoniadis

    more and more automated through the use of CAD/CAM systems. Furthermore continuous developments. The facilities for CNC training vary a lot and this has had direct impact on the experience that the trainee vary a lot and it has a direct impact on the experience that the trainee is acquiring during his

  15. Fidget with Widgets: CNC Activity Introduces the Flatbed Router

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tryon, Daniel V.

    2006-01-01

    The computer numerical control (CNC) flatbed router is a powerful tool and a must-have piece of equipment for any technology education program in which students will produce a product--whether it involves Manufacturing, Materials Processing, or any of the vast array of Project Lead the Way courses. This article describes an activity--producing a…

  16. Linear positioning laser calibration setup of CNC machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Xiulin; Yang, Congjing

    2002-10-01

    The linear positioning laser calibration setup of CNC machine tools is capable of executing machine tool laser calibraiotn and backlash compensation. Using this setup, hole locations on CNC machien tools will be correct and machien tool geometry will be evaluated and adjusted. Machien tool laser calibration and backlash compensation is a simple and straightforward process. First the setup is to 'find' the stroke limits of the axis. Then the laser head is then brought into correct alignment. Second is to move the machine axis to the other extreme, the laser head is now aligned, using rotation and elevation adjustments. Finally the machine is moved to the start position and final alignment is verified. The stroke of the machine, and the machine compensation interval dictate the amount of data required for each axis. These factors determine the amount of time required for a through compensation of the linear positioning accuracy. The Laser Calibrator System monitors the material temperature and the air density; this takes into consideration machine thermal growth and laser beam frequency. This linear positioning laser calibration setup can be used on CNC machine tools, CNC lathes, horizontal centers and vertical machining centers.

  17. CO and HI emission from the circumstellar envelopes of some evolved stars

    E-print Network

    Diep, P N; Nhung, P T; Tuan-Anh, P; Bertre, T Le; Winters, J M; Matthews, L D; Phuong, N T; Thao, N T; Darriulat, P

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the CO and HI radio emission of some evolved stars are presented using data collected by the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer and Pico Veleta telescope, the Nan\\c{c}ay Radio Telescope and the JVLA and ALMA arrays. Approximate axial symmetry of the physical and kinematic properties of the circumstellar envelope (CSE) are observed in CO emission, in particular, from RS Cnc, EP Aqr and the Red Rectangle. A common feature is the presence of a bipolar outflow causing an enhanced wind velocity in the polar directions. HI emission extends to larger radial distances than probed by CO emission and displays features related to the interaction between the stellar outflow and interstellar matter. With its unprecedented sensitivity, FAST will open a new window on such studies. Its potential in this domain is briefly illustrated.

  18. Generation of gear tooth surfaces by application of CNC machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Chen, N. X.

    1994-04-01

    This study will demonstrate the importance of application of computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines in generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. This topology decreases gear vibration and will extend the gear capacity and service life. A preliminary investigation by a tooth contact analysis (TCA) program has shown that gear tooth surfaces in line contact (for instance, involute helical gears with parallel axes, worm gear drives with cylindrical worms, etc.) are very sensitive to angular errors of misalignment that cause edge contact and an unfavorable shape of transmission errors and vibration. The new topology of gear tooth surfaces is based on the localization of bearing contact, and the synthesis of a predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to absorb a piecewise linear function of transmission errors caused by gear misalignment. The report will describe the following topics: description of kinematics of CNC machines with six degrees of freedom that can be applied for generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. A new method for grinding of gear tooth surfaces by a cone surface or surface of revolution based on application of CNC machines is described. This method provides an optimal approximation of the ground surface to the given one. This method is especially beneficial when undeveloped ruled surfaces are to be ground. Execution of motions of the CNC machine is also described. The solution to this problem can be applied as well for the transfer of machine tool settings from a conventional generator to the CNC machine. The developed theory required the derivation of a modified equation of meshing based on application of the concept of space curves, space curves represented on surfaces, geodesic curvature, surface torsion, etc. Condensed information on these topics of differential geometry is provided as well.

  19. Generation of gear tooth surfaces by application of CNC machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Chen, N. X.

    1994-01-01

    This study will demonstrate the importance of application of computer numerically controlled (CNC) machines in generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. This topology decreases gear vibration and will extend the gear capacity and service life. A preliminary investigation by a tooth contact analysis (TCA) program has shown that gear tooth surfaces in line contact (for instance, involute helical gears with parallel axes, worm gear drives with cylindrical worms, etc.) are very sensitive to angular errors of misalignment that cause edge contact and an unfavorable shape of transmission errors and vibration. The new topology of gear tooth surfaces is based on the localization of bearing contact, and the synthesis of a predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors that is able to absorb a piecewise linear function of transmission errors caused by gear misalignment. The report will describe the following topics: description of kinematics of CNC machines with six degrees of freedom that can be applied for generation of gear tooth surfaces with new topology. A new method for grinding of gear tooth surfaces by a cone surface or surface of revolution based on application of CNC machines is described. This method provides an optimal approximation of the ground surface to the given one. This method is especially beneficial when undeveloped ruled surfaces are to be ground. Execution of motions of the CNC machine is also described. The solution to this problem can be applied as well for the transfer of machine tool settings from a conventional generator to the CNC machine. The developed theory required the derivation of a modified equation of meshing based on application of the concept of space curves, space curves represented on surfaces, geodesic curvature, surface torsion, etc. Condensed information on these topics of differential geometry is provided as well.

  20. Researches Regarding The Circular Interpolation Algorithms At CNC Laser Cutting Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tîrnovean, Mircea Sorin

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an integrated simulation approach for studying the circular interpolation regime of CNC laser cutting machines. The circular interpolation algorithm is studied, taking into consideration the numerical character of the system. A simulation diagram, which is able to generate the kinematic inputs for the feed drives of the CNC laser cutting machine is also presented.

  1. Digital Design and Fabrication Techniques Using a 3-Axis CNC Mill 

    E-print Network

    Coffman, Ky

    2010-07-14

    was completed from design to production using a three-axis CNC mill, our current machine at the Texas A & M Architecture Ranch. Three-axis CNC mills are typically used to create surface effects and not completely three-dimensional objects because...

  2. 78 FR 50135 - CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION CNC Development, Ltd., Exousia Advanced Materials, Inc., and South American Minerals, Inc.; Order... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of CNC Development,...

  3. Virtual Training Centre For CNC: a Sample Virtual Training Environment Mehmet Sahin1

    E-print Network

    Aristomenis, Antoniadis

    and reinforce Vocational Training in Computer Numerical Control (CNC) Machines. "Virtual Training Centre for CNCVirtual Training Centre For CNC: a Sample Virtual Training Environment Mehmet Sahin1 , Süleyman bilalis@dpem.tuc.gr Abstract It is a fact that virtual training has been a scope of interest

  4. CNC water-jet machining and cutting center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, D. C.

    1991-09-01

    Computer Numerical Control (CNC) water-jet machining was investigated to determine the potential applications and cost-effectiveness that would result by establishing this capability in the engineering shops of Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). Both conductive and nonconductive samples were machined at KCD on conventional machining equipment (a three-axis conversational programmed mill and a wire electrical discharge machine) and on two current-technology water-jet machines at outside vendors. These samples were then inspected, photographed, and evaluated. The current-technology water-jet machines were not as accurate as the conventional equipment. The resolution of the water-jet equipment was only +/- 0.005 inch, as compared to +/- 0.0002 inch for the conventional equipment. The principal use for CNC water-jet machining would be as follows: Contouring to near finished shape those items made from 300 and 400 series stainless steels, titanium, Inconel, aluminum, glass, or any material whose fabrication tolerance is less than the machine resolution of +/- 0.005 inch; and contouring to finished shape those items made from Kevlar, rubber, fiberglass, foam, aluminum, or any material whose fabrication specifications allow the use of a machine with +/- 0.005 inch tolerance. Additional applications are possible because there is minimal force generated on the material being cut and because the water-jet cuts without generating dust.

  5. Time-optimal CNC tool paths : a mathematical model of machining

    E-print Network

    Kim, Taejung, 1969-

    2001-01-01

    Free-form surface machining is a fundamental but time-consuming process in modern manufacturing. The central question we ask in this thesis is how to reduce the time that it takes for a 5-axis CNC (Computer Numerical ...

  6. MOST satellite photometry of stars in the M67 field: eclipsing binaries, blue stragglers and ? Scuti variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pribulla, Theodor; Rucinski, Slavek; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Kallinger, Thomas; Kuschnig, Rainer; Rowe, Jason F.; Guenther, David B.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Sasselov, Dimitar; Walker, Gordon A. H.; Weiss, Werner W.

    2008-11-01

    We present two series of MOST (Microvariability and Oscillations of STars) space-based photometry, covering nearly continuously 10 d in 2004 and 30 d in 2007, of selected variable stars in the upper main sequence of the old open cluster M67. New high-precision light curves were obtained for the blue straggler binary/triple systems AH Cnc, ES Cnc and EV Cnc. The precision and phase coverage of ES Cnc and EV Cnc is by far superior to any previous observations. The light curve of ES Cnc is modelled in detail, assuming two dark photospheric spots and Roche geometry. An analysis of the light curve of AH Cnc indicates a low mass ratio (q ~ 0.13) and a high inclination angle for this system. Two new long-period eclipsing binaries, GSC 814-323 and HD 75638 (non-members of M67) were discovered. We also present ground-based DDO spectroscopy of ES Cnc and of the newly found eclipsing binaries. Especially interesting is HD 75638, a member of a visual binary, which must itself be a triple or a higher multiplicity system. New light curves of two ? Scuti pulsators, EX Cnc and EW Cnc, have been analysed leading to detection of 26 and eight pulsation frequencies of high temporal stability. Based on photometric data from MOST, a Canadian Space Agency mission (jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna), and on spectroscopic data from the David Dunlap Observatory, University of Toronto. E-mail: pribulla@ta3.sk (TP); rucinski@astro.utoronto.ca (SR)

  7. Shared and service-oriented CNC machining system for intelligent manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yao; Liu, Qiang; Tong, Ronglei; Cui, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    To improve efficiency, reduce cost, ensure quality effectively, researchers on CNC machining have focused on virtual machine tool, cloud manufacturing, wireless manufacturing. However, low level of information shared among different systems is a common disadvantage. In this paper, a machining database with data evaluation module is set up to ensure integrity and update. An online monitoring system based on internet of things and multi-sensors "feel" a variety of signal features to "percept" the state in CNC machining process. A high efficiency and green machining parameters optimization system "execute" service-oriented manufacturing, intelligent manufacturing and green manufacturing. The intelligent CNC machining system is applied in production. CNC machining database effectively shares and manages process data among different systems. The prediction accuracy of online monitoring system is up to 98.8% by acquiring acceleration and noise in real time. High efficiency and green machining parameters optimization system optimizes the original processing parameters, and the calculation indicates that optimized processing parameters not only improve production efficiency, but also reduce carbon emissions. The application proves that the shared and service-oriented CNC machining system is reliable and effective. This research presents a shared and service-oriented CNC machining system for intelligent manufacturing process.

  8. The moderately interacting Algol binary RS Cephei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, Mirek J.; Dobias, Jan J.

    1987-01-01

    In agreement with previous observers, it is found that the eclipsing binary RS Cep is an Algol-type semidetached system. From IUE spectra and Lick Observatory optical scans, the spectral types of the components are determined as B9.7e V + G8 III-IV. The effective temperature of the primary star is found to be 9670 K (with an uncertainty of about 150 K). From the photometric elements, the spectral types, and the semidetached nature of the system, a satisfactory model of the system is developed, giving masses 2.4 and 0.4 solar mass, radii 2.3 and 7.6 solar radii, and separation of the components 32 solar radii. This model leads to a distance of 910 pc; the color excess is E(B - V) = 0.03 mag. Balmer emission lines are observed in the optical scans, so that the system is a Be star. An IUE spectrum obtained during the total primary eclipse reveals a number of UV emission lines, typical for interacting Algols and W Ser stars. Power emitted in these lines is about twice as high as that in TT Hya or U Cep, therefore, RS Cep is a relatively active Algol system. A broad 'bulge' of excess relative flux is observed roughly between wavelengths 210 and 270 nm in the totality spectrum, and interpreted as broad blends of emission lines of Fe II; the same Fe II lines, formed in a circumstellar shell or disk, cause additional absorption in the out-of-eclipse spectra.

  9. Systematics for checking geometric errors in CNC lathes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, R. P.; Rolim, T. L.

    2015-10-01

    Non-idealities presented in machine tools compromise directly both the geometry and the dimensions of machined parts, generating distortions in the project. Given the competitive scenario among different companies, it is necessary to have knowledge of the geometric behavior of these machines in order to be able to establish their processing capability, avoiding waste of time and materials as well as satisfying customer requirements. But despite the fact that geometric tests are important and necessary to clarify the use of the machine correctly, therefore preventing future damage, most users do not apply such tests on their machines for lack of knowledge or lack of proper motivation, basically due to two factors: long period of time and high costs of testing. This work proposes a systematics for checking straightness and perpendicularity errors in CNC lathes demanding little time and cost with high metrological reliability, to be used on factory floors of small and medium-size businesses to ensure the quality of its products and make them competitive.

  10. Spatial augmented reality on industrial CNC-machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwal, Alex; Gustafsson, Jonny; Lindfors, Christoffer

    2008-02-01

    In this work we present how Augmented Reality (AR) can be used to create an intimate integration of process data with the workspace of an industrial CNC (computer numerical control) machine. AR allows us to combine interactive computer graphics with real objects in a physical environment - in this case, the workspace of an industrial lathe. ASTOR is an autostereoscopic optical see-through spatial AR system, which provides real-time 3D visual feedback without the need for user-worn equipment, such as head-mounted displays or sensors for tracking. The use of a transparent holographic optical element, overlaid onto the safety glass, allows the system to simultaneously provide bright imagery and clear visibility of the tool and workpiece. The system makes it possible to enhance visibility of occluded tools as well as to visualize real-time data from the process in the 3D space. The graphics are geometrically registered with the workspace and provide an intuitive representation of the process, amplifying the user's understanding and simplifying machine operation.

  11. PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity in Latvians, Lithuanians and Taiwanese

    PubMed Central

    Sjakste, Tatjana; Paramonova, Natalia; Wu, Lawrence Shi-Shin; Zemeckiene, Zivile; Sitkauskiene, Brigita; Sakalauskas, Raimundas; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Sjakste, Nikolajs

    2014-01-01

    PSMA6 (rs2277460, rs1048990), PSMC6 (rs2295826, rs2295827) and PSMA3 (rs2348071) genetic diversity was investigated in 1438 unrelated subjects from Latvia, Lithuania and Taiwan. In general, polymorphism of each individual locus showed tendencies similar to determined previously in HapMap populations. Main differences concern Taiwanese and include presence of rs2277460 rare allele A not found before in Asians and absence of rs2295827 rare alleles homozygotes TT observed in all other human populations. Observed patterns of SNPs and haplotype diversity were compatible with expectation of neutral model of evolution. Linkage disequilibrium between the rs2295826 and rs2295827 was detected to be complete in Latvians and Lithuanians (D? = 1; r2 = 1) and slightly disrupted in Taiwanese (D? = 0.978; r2 = 0.901). Population differentiation (FST statistics) was estimated from pairwise population comparisons of loci variability, five locus haplotypes and PSMA6 and PSMC6 two locus haplotypes. Latvians were significantly different from all Asians at each of 5 SNPs and from Lithuanians at the rs1048990 and PSMC6 loci. Lithuanian and Asian populations exhibited similarities at the PSMC6 loci and were different at the PSMA6 and PSMA3 SNPs. Considering five locus haplotypes all European populations were significantly different from Asian; Lithuanian population was different from both Latvian and CEU. Allele specific patterns of transcription factor binding sites and splicing signals were predicted in silico and addressed to eventual functionality of nucleotide substitutions and their potential to be involved in human genome evolution and geographical adaptation. Current study represents a novel step toward a systematic analysis of the proteasomal gene genetic diversity in human populations. PMID:25606411

  12. Synthesis of chemical cross-linked gelatin hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ooi Shok; Ahmad, Ishak; Amin, Mohd. Cairul Iqbal Mohd

    2014-09-01

    A novel method was performed to obtain hydrogel with superior sensitivity towards changes in pH and temperature by incorporation of CNC into gelatin based hydrogel. Glutaraldehyde was used as cross-linker due to its high chemical reactivity towards NH2 group on gelatin. Different ratio of gelatin / CNC hydrogel was produced in order to study the effects of CNC towards the swelling behaviour of hydrogel at different pH and temperature. Swelling tests were performed at different pH range from pH 3 to pH 11. Temperature swelling tests were performed at 25 °C and 37 °C. The hydrogel showed impressive pH sensitivity and maximum swelling was obtained at pH 3. Higher swelling ratio was observed at higher temperature. SEM micrographs showed that the pore size of hydrogel decreased with increasing CNC content due to formation of more rigid hydrogel structure. The characteristics of the hydrogel to respond to different pH and temperature suggest that gelatin / CNC hydrogel are promising candidates to be developed as drug carrier.

  13. Silicate Dust in RS Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, M. T.; Woodward, C. E.; Helton, L. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Evans, A.; Kaminsky, B.; Pavlenko, Y. V.; Eyres, S. P. S.; Maxwell, M.

    2014-12-01

    We present Spitzer IRS spectra of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi obtained between 2006 and 2009. The data show emission lines due to HI, [Ne II], [Ne V], [Ne VI] and [O IV] and the well known silicate features at 10 ?m and 18 ?m, whose behaviour are reported here. The silicate features are variable in the period covered by the observations, appearing strongest in our 2007 data. Interestingly, the central wavelength of the 18 ?m band is shorter than observed in other symbiotic systems and other circumstellar environments, suggesting unusual grain properties in RS Oph. We report changes that have taken place in the dusty environment in RS Oph and investigate the properties of the dust grains.

  14. The in-situ 3D measurement system combined with CNC machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huijie; Jiang, Hongzhi; Li, Xudong; Sui, Shaochun; Tang, Limin; Liang, Xiaoyue; Diao, Xiaochun; Dai, Jiliang

    2013-06-01

    With the development of manufacturing industry, the in-situ 3D measurement for the machining workpieces in CNC machine tools is regarded as the new trend of efficient measurement. We introduce a 3D measurement system based on the stereovision and phase-shifting method combined with CNC machine tools, which can measure 3D profile of the machining workpieces between the key machining processes. The measurement system utilizes the method of high dynamic range fringe acquisition to solve the problem of saturation induced by specular lights reflected from shiny surfaces such as aluminum alloy workpiece or titanium alloy workpiece. We measured two workpieces of aluminum alloy on the CNC machine tools to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed measurement system.

  15. Technical and Symbolic Knowledge in CNC Machining: A Study of Technical Workers of Different Backgrounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Laura M. W.; Beach, King

    Performances of 45 individuals with varying degrees of formal and informal training in machining and programming were compared on tasks designed to tap intellectual changes that may occur with the introduction of computer numerical control (CNC). Participants--30 machinists, 8 machine operators, and 7 engineers--were asked background questions and…

  16. Learning Control: Sense-Making, CNC Machines, and Changes in Vocational Training for Industrial Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berner, Boel

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores how novices in school-based vocational training make sense of computerized numerical control (CNC) machines. Based on two ethnographic studies in Swedish schools, one from the early 1980s and one from 2006, it analyses change and continuity in the cognitive, social, and emotional processes of learning how to become a machine…

  17. Basic CNC Operation. Training Workbook [and] Assessment and Training Guide [and] Hands-on Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anoka-Hennepin Technical Coll., Minneapolis, MN.

    This workbook is intended for students taking a course in basic computer numerical control (CNC) operation that was developed during a project to retrain defense industry workers at risk of job loss or dislocation because of conversion of the defense industry. The workbook contains daily training guides for each of the course's 13 sessions. Among…

  18. CNC Turning Center Operations and Prove Out. Computer Numerical Control Operator/Programmer. 444-334.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowronski, Steven D.

    This student guide provides materials for a course designed to instruct the student in the recommended procedures used when setting up tooling and verifying part programs for a two-axis computer numerical control (CNC) turning center. The course consists of seven units. Unit 1 discusses course content and reviews and demonstrates set-up procedures…

  19. Improved precision on the radius of the nearby super-Earth 55 Cnc e

    E-print Network

    Gillon, M.

    We report on new transit photometry for the super-Earth 55?Cnc?e obtained with Warm Spitzer/IRAC at 4.5 ?m. An individual analysis of these new data leads to a planet radius of [superscript 2.21]+0.15 [over] -0.16 R[subscript ...

  20. Radial Error Feedback Geometric Adaptive Control for Bar Turning in CNC Turning Centers

    E-print Network

    Collins, Emmanuel

    -6046 liu@eng.fsu.edu, indwang1@eng.fsu.edu Abstract In-process measurement and control of CNC machines can improve machining accuracy while increasing productivity and eliminating waste in a cost effective way-contact laser sensor was used to directly measure the radial error of the workpiece while it is being cut

  1. Development of a QFD-based expert system for CNC turning centre selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Kanika; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools are automated devices capable of generating complicated and intricate product shapes in shorter time. Selection of the best CNC machine tool is a critical, complex and time-consuming task due to availability of a wide range of alternatives and conflicting nature of several evaluation criteria. Although, the past researchers had attempted to select the appropriate machining centres using different knowledge-based systems, mathematical models and multi-criteria decision-making methods, none of those approaches has given due importance to the voice of customers. The aforesaid limitation can be overcome using quality function deployment (QFD) technique, which is a systematic approach for integrating customers' needs and designing the product to meet those needs first time and every time. In this paper, the adopted QFD-based methodology helps in selecting CNC turning centres for a manufacturing organization, providing due importance to the voice of customers to meet their requirements. An expert system based on QFD technique is developed in Visual BASIC 6.0 to automate the CNC turning centre selection procedure for different production plans. Three illustrative examples are demonstrated to explain the real-time applicability of the developed expert system.

  2. Chemical crosslinking of acrylic acid to form biocompatible pH sensitive hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Lim Sze; Ahmad, Ishak; Lazim, Mohd Azwani Shah Mat; Amin, Mohd. Cairul Iqbal Mohd

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce a novel pH and temperature sensitive hydrogel, composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC was extracted from kenaf fiber through a series of alkali and bleaching treatments followed by acid hydrolysis. The PAA was then subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in PAA matrix. The mixture was casted onto petri dish to obtain disc shape hydrogel. The effects of reaction conditions such as the ratio of PAA and CNC on the swelling behavior of the hydrogel obtained towards pH and temperature were studied. The obtained hydrogel was further subjected to different tests such swelling test for swelling behaviour at different pH and temperature along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology analysis. The hydrogel obtained showed excellent pH sensitivity and obtained maximum swelling at pH 7. Besides that, hydrogel obtained showed significant increase in swelling ratio when temperature of swelling medium was increased from 25°C to 37°C. SEM micrograph showed that the pore size of the hydrogel decreases with increase of CNC content proving that the hydrogel structure became more rigid with addition of CNC. The PAA/CNC hydrogel with such excellent sensitivity towards pH and temperature can be developed further as drug carrier.

  3. Chemical crosslinking of acrylic acid to form biocompatible pH sensitive hydrogel reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Lim Sze; Ahmad, Ishak; Lazim, Mohd Azwani Shah Mat; Amin, Mohd. Cairul Iqbal Mohd

    2014-09-03

    The purpose of this study is to produce a novel pH and temperature sensitive hydrogel, composed of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and cellulose nanocrystal (CNC). CNC was extracted from kenaf fiber through a series of alkali and bleaching treatments followed by acid hydrolysis. The PAA was then subjected to chemical cross-linking using the cross-linking agent (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide) with CNC entrapped in PAA matrix. The mixture was casted onto petri dish to obtain disc shape hydrogel. The effects of reaction conditions such as the ratio of PAA and CNC on the swelling behavior of the hydrogel obtained towards pH and temperature were studied. The obtained hydrogel was further subjected to different tests such swelling test for swelling behaviour at different pH and temperature along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for morphology analysis. The hydrogel obtained showed excellent pH sensitivity and obtained maximum swelling at pH 7. Besides that, hydrogel obtained showed significant increase in swelling ratio when temperature of swelling medium was increased from 25°C to 37°C. SEM micrograph showed that the pore size of the hydrogel decreases with increase of CNC content proving that the hydrogel structure became more rigid with addition of CNC. The PAA/CNC hydrogel with such excellent sensitivity towards pH and temperature can be developed further as drug carrier.

  4. CCD Photometric Study of the Contact Binary TX Cnc in the Young Open Cluster NGC 2632

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Qian, Sheng-Bang; Boonrucksar, Soonthornthum; Zhu, Li-Ying; He, Jia-Jia; Yuan, J.-Z.

    2007-06-01

    TX Cnc is a member of the young open cluster NGC2632. In the present paper, four CCD epochs of light minimum and a complete V light curve of TX Cnc are presented. A period investigation based on all available photoelectric or CCD data showed that it is superimposed on a long-term increase (dP/dt=+3.97×10-8) and weak evidence suggests that it includes a small-amplitude period oscillation (A3=0d.0028; T3=26.6yr). The light curves in the V band obtained in 2004 were analyzed with the 2003 version of the W-D code. It was shown that TX Cnc is an overcontact binary system with a degree of contact factor f=24.8%. The absolute parameters of the system were calculated: M1=1.319±0.007M?, M2=0.600±0.01M?; R1=1.28±0.19R?, R2=0.91±0.13R?. TX Cnc may be on the TRO-controlled stage of the evolutionary scheme proposed by Qian (2001a, b, 2003a), and may contain an invisible tertiary component (m3?0.097M?). If this is true, the tertiary component has played an important role in the formation and evolution of TX Cnc by removing angular momentum from the central system (Pribulla & Rucinski 2006). In this way the contact binary configuration can be formed in the shortlife time of a young open cluster via AML.

  5. Radio emission of cataclysmic variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerst, E.; Benz, A.; Hirth, W.; Geffert, M.; Kiplinger, A.

    1986-01-01

    Eight cataclysmic variable stars were observed at 6 cm wavelength using the Very Large Array (VLA). The objects were: CN-Ori, SS-Aur, YZ-Cnc, SU-Uma, Z-Cam, V603-Aql, EM-Cyg, and RZ-Sge. Most of these objects were in optical high stage, but none were detected beyond flux limits between 0.1 and 0.3 mJy.

  6. White Dwarfs in Binary Systems A white dwarf orbiting another star can become active

    E-print Network

    Barnes, Joshua Edward

    White Dwarfs in Binary Systems A white dwarf orbiting another star can become active when the other. Explosions from White Dwarf Star RS Oph #12;Classical Novae: RS Ophiuci Recurrent Nova RS Ophiuci Explosions becomes incandescent. #12;H and He from the companion build up on the white dwarf's surface. Classical

  7. The long-period Galactic Cepheid RS Puppis - I. A geometric distance from its light echoes

    E-print Network

    Pierre Kervella; Antoine Mérand; Laszlo Szabados; Pascal Fouqué; David Bersier; Emanuela Pompei; Guy Perrin

    2008-02-11

    Context: The bright southern Cepheid RS Pup is surrounded by a circumstellar nebula reflecting the light from the central star. The propagation of the light variations from the Cepheid inside the dusty nebula creates spectacular light echoes that can be observed up to large distances from the star itself. This phenomenon is currently unique in this class of stars. Aims: For this relatively distant star, the trigonometric parallax available from Hipparcos has a low accuracy. A careful observation of the light echoes has the potential to provide a very accurate, geometric distance to RS Pup. Methods: We obtained a series of CCD images of RS Pup with the NTT/EMMI instrument, covering the variation period of the star (P=41.4d). This allowed us to track the progression of the light wavefronts over the nebular features surrounding the star. We measured precisely the phase lag of the photometric variation in several regions of the circumstellar nebula. Results: From our phase lag measurements, we derived a geometric distance of 1992 +/- 28 pc to RS Pup. This distance is affected by a total uncertainty of 1.4%, and corresponds to a parallax of pi = 0.502 +/- 0.007 mas and a distance modulus of mu = 11.50 +/- 0.03. Conclusions: The geometric distance we derived is by far the most accurate to a Cepheid, and among the most accurate to any star. RS Pup appears both as somewhat neglected and particularly promising to investigate the mass-loss history of Cepheids. Thanks to its highly accurate distance, it is also bound to become an important luminosity fiducial for the long period part of the period-luminosity diagram.

  8. Rotational modulation and flares on RS CVn and BY Dra-type stars. I - Photometry and spot models for BY Dra, AU Mic, AR Lac, II Peg and V 711 Tau (= HR 1099)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodono, M.; Cutispoto, G.; Pazzani, V.; Catalano, S.; Byrne, P. B.

    1986-01-01

    Multicolor wide-band photometry of five active stars is presented. The observations were carried out at several places before, during and after the period of IUE observations for the purpose of determining the location, sizes, and evolution of photospheric spots at the time when chromospheric, transition region, and coronal activity data were obtained from UV and radio observations. II Peg, BY Dra, and AU Mic show fairly stable quasi-sinusoidal light curves, while AR Lac and V 711 Tau show double-peaked light curves. For V 711 Tau, a remarkable evolution of the spotted area extent and/or longitude distribution is found. Small, but definite color variations that are consistent with the cool spot hypothesis have also been detected for BY Dra, II Peg and V 711 Tau.

  9. Vision-based on-machine measurement for CNC machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Ruixue; Han, Jiang; Lu, Rongsheng; Xia, Lian

    2015-02-01

    A vision-based on-machine measurement system (OMM) was developed to improve manufacturing effectiveness. It was based on a visual probe to enable the CNC machine tool itself to act as a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) to inspect a workpiece. The proposed OMM system was composed of a visual probe and two software modules: computer-aided inspection planning (CAIP) module and measurement data processing (MDP) module. The auto-focus function of the visual probe was realized by using astigmatic method. The CAIP module was developed based on a CAD development platform with Open CASCADE as its kernel. The MDP module includes some algorithms for determination of inspection parameters, for example, the chamfered hole was measured through focus variation. The entire system was consequently verified on a CNC milling machine.

  10. A Three Dimensional Picture of RS CVN Stellar Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    The ROSAT all-sky survey provides a unique opportunity to study an RS CVn system simultaneously at x-ray, EUV, UV, optical, and radio wavelengths at many phases throughout an orbital period. ROSAT can detect the x-ray flux of each candidate system during each 30 second viewing 16 times per day for at least 2 days. We request a block of 7 IUE shifts to obtain NEAR SIMULTANEOUS emission line fluxes (SWP-LO) and Mg IT line profiles (LWP-HI), and we will obtain contemporaneous optical photometry and spectroscopy and VLA radio fluxes (3.6, 6, and 20 cm). one objective of this PROPOSAL is to obtain the FIRST 3-D MODEL OF THE INHOMOGENEOUS PHOTOSPHERE, CHROMOSPHERE, AND CORONA OF A STAR OTHER THAN THE SUN. We will use optical photometry and spectroscopy to map the spotted photospheres of each star, and the Mg II line profiles to DOPPLERIMAGE their chromospheres, to determine the location, size, and surface flux of the active regions. We will then use the time variation of the UV emission line and x-ray fluxes to determine what fluxes are due to the quiet and active regions separately. These data will provide SURFACE FLUXES for the quiet and active regions separately. We will then will model BOTH REGIONS independently using an emission measure analysis. We will also model any flares observed. The second part of the program will be a simultaneous UV/X-ray SURVEY with the objective of DETERMINING THE RANGE OF PHYSICAL MODELS APPLICABLE TO THE CHROMOSPHERES AND CORONAE OF RS CVN SYSTEMS. We propose to obtain emission line fluxes (SWP-LO) and Mg II line profiles (LWP-HI) of all bright RS CVns observed by ROSAT from mid-July through September 1990 that meet the IUE observing constraints. About 17 systems in the Strassmeier catalog will likely be observed during this period. While many RS CVn systems have been observed separately by IUE and x-ray satellites, SIMULTANEOUS UV and x-ray observations are required to model these spatially inhomogenous and timevariable systems. This research program and the ROSAT RS CVn survey will constitute most of the data for the Ph.D. Thesis of the Lead Investigator, Anthony Veale.

  11. AGE -A HEA Cancer FoRs

    E-print Network

    Balasuriya, Sanjeeva

    CANCER CANCER R REVIEW D DR ADAM B FoRs RESEARCH DOCUMENT BUTLER, RE H COVERA T ESEARCH P AGE;Cancer FoRs 5 June 2013 Page 2 BACKGROUND This document was created for the Health and Medical Research Strategic Review and attempts to outline the coverage of cancer research throughout the university

  12. The long-period Galactic Cepheid RS Puppis - I. A geometric distance from its light echoes

    E-print Network

    Kervella, Pierre; Szabados, Laszlo; Fouqué, Pascal; Bersier, David; Pompei, Emanuela; Perrin, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Context: The bright southern Cepheid RS Pup is surrounded by a circumstellar nebula reflecting the light from the central star. The propagation of the light variations from the Cepheid inside the dusty nebula creates spectacular light echoes that can be observed up to large distances from the star itself. This phenomenon is currently unique in this class of stars. Aims: For this relatively distant star, the trigonometric parallax available from Hipparcos has a low accuracy. A careful observation of the light echoes has the potential to provide a very accurate, geometric distance to RS Pup. Methods: We obtained a series of CCD images of RS Pup with the NTT/EMMI instrument, covering the variation period of the star (P=41.4d). This allowed us to track the progression of the light wavefronts over the nebular features surrounding the star. We measured precisely the phase lag of the photometric variation in several regions of the circumstellar nebula. Results: From our phase lag measurements, we derived a geometric...

  13. Variability in the super-Earth 55 Cnc e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Gillon, Michael; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Queloz, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in recent years in observations of atmospheric signatures of giant exoplanets, but processes in rocky exoplanets remain largely unknown due to major challenges in observing small planets. Numerous efforts to observe spectra of super-Earths, exoplanets with masses of 1-10 Earth masses, have thus far revealed only featureless spectra. In this paper, we report a 4? detection of variability in the dayside thermal emission from the transiting super-Earth 55 Cancri e. Dedicated space-based monitoring of the planet in the mid-infrared over eight eclipses revealed the thermal emission from its dayside atmosphere varying by a factor of 3.7 between 2012 and 2013. The amplitude and trend of the variability are not explained by potential influence of star spots or by local thermal or compositional changes in the atmosphere over the short span of the observations. The possibility of large-scale surface activity due to strong tidal interactions possibly similar to Io, or the presence of circumstellar/circumplanetary material appear plausible and motivate future long-term monitoring of the planet.

  14. Variability in the super-Earth 55 Cnc e

    E-print Network

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Queloz, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in recent years in observations of atmospheric signatures of giant exoplanets, but processes in rocky exoplanets remain largely unknown due to major challenges in observing small planets. Numerous efforts to observe spectra of super-Earths, exoplanets with masses of 1-10 Earth masses, have thus far revealed only featureless spectra. In this paper we report a 4-$\\sigma$ detection of variability in the dayside thermal emission from the transiting super-Earth 55 Cancri e. Dedicated space-based monitoring of the planet in the mid-infrared over eight eclipses revealed the thermal emission from its dayside atmosphere varying by a factor 3.7 between 2012 and 2013. The amplitude and trend of the variability are not explained by potential influence of star spots or by local thermal or compositional changes in the atmosphere over the short span of the observations. The possibility of large scale surface activity due to strong tidal interactions possibly similar to Io, or the presence...

  15. Search for RS-gravitons at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Strologas, John; /New Mexico U.

    2011-09-01

    We present a search for Randall-Sundrum (RS) gravitons decaying to diphotons or dielectrons or dimuons, performed with the CDF II detector and using up to 5.7 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity. The respective mass spectra are consistent with the ones expected by the standard model. For the RS-model parameter k/{bar M}{sub Pl} = 0.1, RS-gravitons with mass less than 1111 GeV/c{sup 2} are excluded at 95% CL.

  16. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, M. P.; Holdridge, D.; Survo, P.; Lehtinen, R.; Baxter, S.; Toto, T.; Johnson, K. L.

    2015-11-01

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41-SG (4th generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity and pressure. In order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Facility site in north Central Oklahoma USA. During 3-8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results suggest that the RS92 and RS41 measurements generally agree within manufacturer specified tolerances with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the "wet bulbing" effect is mitigated in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements also appear to show a smaller impact from solar heating. These results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions, but under most observational conditions the RS41 and RS92 measurements agree within the manufacturer specified limits and so a switch to RS41 radiosondes will have little impact on long-term observational records.

  17. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jensen, M. P.; Holdridge, D.; Survo, P.; Lehtinen, R.; Baxter, S.; Toto, T.; Johnson, K. L.

    2015-11-02

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41-SG (4th generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity and pressure. Thus, in order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Facility site in north Central Oklahoma USA. During 3–8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results suggest that the RS92 and RS41 measurements generally agree within manufacturermore »specified tolerances with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the "wet bulbing" effect is mitigated in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements also appear to show a smaller impact from solar heating. These results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions, but under most observational conditions the RS41 and RS92 measurements agree within the manufacturer specified limits and so a switch to RS41 radiosondes will have little impact on long-term observational records.« less

  18. Comparison of Vaisala radiosondes RS41 and RS92 at the ARM Southern Great Plains Site

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, M. P.; Holdridge, D.; Survo, P.; Lehtinen, R.; Baxter, S.; Toto, T.; Johnson, K. L.

    2015-11-02

    In the fall of 2013, the Vaisala RS41-SG (4th generation) radiosonde was introduced as a replacement for the RS92-SGP radiosonde with improvements in measurement accuracy of profiles of atmospheric temperature, humidity and pressure. Thus, in order to help characterize these improvements, an intercomparison campaign was undertaken at the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Facility site in north Central Oklahoma USA. During 3–8 June 2014, a total of 20 twin-radiosonde flights were performed in a variety of atmospheric conditions representing typical midlatitude continental summertime conditions. The results suggest that the RS92 and RS41 measurements generally agree within manufacturer specified tolerances with notable exceptions when exiting liquid cloud layers where the "wet bulbing" effect is mitigated in the RS41 observations. The RS41 measurements also appear to show a smaller impact from solar heating. These results suggest that the RS41 does provide important improvements, particularly in cloudy conditions, but under most observational conditions the RS41 and RS92 measurements agree within the manufacturer specified limits and so a switch to RS41 radiosondes will have little impact on long-term observational records.

  19. HEUS-RS applications study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The final report of a High Energy Upper Stage Restartable Solid (HEUS-RS) Applications Study is presented. The material deals with launch program cost comparisons associated with meeting NASA mission model requirements with several different launch vehicle approaches.

  20. [Characteristic of the Genetic Variability of Four Polymorphic Variants (rs2069705, rs17880053, rs11126176, and rs804271) in Representative Samples of Indigenous and Alien Populations of Siberia].

    PubMed

    Kucher, A N; Babushkina, N P; Kulish, E V; Makeeva, O A; Bragina, E Yu; Goncharova, I A; Eremina, E R; Puzyrev, V P

    2015-08-01

    The variability of potentially important functional polymorphic variants rs2069705 (5'UTR of the IFNG gene), rs17880053 (near 5'UTR of the IFNGR2), rs11126176 (LOC100287361 pseudogene), and rs804271 (near 5'UTR of the NEIL2 gene) was characterized in representatives of four ethnic groups living in the Siberian region. These ethnic groups included three indigenous Mongoloid ethnic groups (Yakuts, the residents of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Tuvinians from the Republic of Tuva, and Buryats from the Republic Buryatia) and the alien Russian population. All of the examined variants were polymorphic. The frequency of the rs2069705 allele C in Russians was 0.5833, while it was in a range from 0.7842 to 0.8967 in representatives of the indigenous populations. The frequency of rs17880053 deletion was 0.8073 in Russians and from 0.4474 to 0.5521 in the indigenous ethnic groups. The frequency of the rs11126176 allele A was equal to 0.5398 in Russians but was recorded with lower frequencies in indigenous ethnic groups (from 0.2722 to 0.4551). The frequency of the rs804271 allele Gwas 0.5215 in Russians and from 0.2527 to 0.4022 indigenous ethnic groups. With respect to the genotype structure, the alien Russian population was considerably distanced from indigenous Mongoloid populations. Specifically, the genetic distance was 0.0742 between Russians and Yakuts, 0.1365 between Russians and Tuvinians, and 0.1433 between Russians and Buryats. Among the Mongoloid indigenous ethnic groups of Siberia, Tuvinians and Yakuts were the most distant from each other (0.0262). The genetic distance was equal to 0.0151 between Yakuts and Buryats and 0.0127 between Buryats and Tuvinians. PMID:26601495

  1. AT Cnc: A SECOND DWARF NOVA WITH A CLASSICAL NOVA SHELL

    SciTech Connect

    Shara, Michael M.; Mizusawa, Trisha; Zurek, David; Wehinger, Peter; Martin, Christopher D.; Neill, James D.; Forster, Karl; Seibert, Mark

    2012-10-20

    We are systematically surveying all known and suspected Z Cam-type dwarf novae for classical nova shells. This survey is motivated by the discovery of the largest known classical nova shell, which surrounds the archetypal dwarf nova Z Camelopardalis. The Z Cam shell demonstrates that at least some dwarf novae must have undergone classical nova eruptions in the past, and that at least some classical novae become dwarf novae long after their nova thermonuclear outbursts, in accord with the hibernation scenario of cataclysmic binaries. Here we report the detection of a fragmented 'shell', 3 arcmin in diameter, surrounding the dwarf nova AT Cancri. This second discovery demonstrates that nova shells surrounding Z Cam-type dwarf novae cannot be very rare. The shell geometry is suggestive of bipolar, conical ejection seen nearly pole-on. A spectrum of the brightest AT Cnc shell knot is similar to that of the ejecta of the classical nova GK Per, and of Z Cam, dominated by [N II] emission. Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV imagery reveals a similar-sized, FUV-emitting shell. We determine a distance of 460 pc to AT Cnc, and an upper limit to its ejecta mass of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun }, typical of classical novae.

  2. AT Cnc: A Second Dwarf Nova with a Classical Nova Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shara, Michael M.; Mizusawa, Trisha; Wehinger, Peter; Zurek, David; Martin, Christopher D.; Neill, James D.; Forster, Karl; Seibert, Mark

    2012-10-01

    We are systematically surveying all known and suspected Z Cam-type dwarf novae for classical nova shells. This survey is motivated by the discovery of the largest known classical nova shell, which surrounds the archetypal dwarf nova Z Camelopardalis. The Z Cam shell demonstrates that at least some dwarf novae must have undergone classical nova eruptions in the past, and that at least some classical novae become dwarf novae long after their nova thermonuclear outbursts, in accord with the hibernation scenario of cataclysmic binaries. Here we report the detection of a fragmented "shell," 3 arcmin in diameter, surrounding the dwarf nova AT Cancri. This second discovery demonstrates that nova shells surrounding Z Cam-type dwarf novae cannot be very rare. The shell geometry is suggestive of bipolar, conical ejection seen nearly pole-on. A spectrum of the brightest AT Cnc shell knot is similar to that of the ejecta of the classical nova GK Per, and of Z Cam, dominated by [N II] emission. Galaxy Evolution Explorer FUV imagery reveals a similar-sized, FUV-emitting shell. We determine a distance of 460 pc to AT Cnc, and an upper limit to its ejecta mass of ~5 × 10-5 M ?, typical of classical novae.

  3. Anharmonic Resonances among Low-Lying Vibrational Levels of Methyl Iso-Cyanide (H_3CNC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pracna, P.; Urban, J.; Urban, V. S.; Varga, J.; Horneman, V.-M.

    2010-06-01

    Vibrational levels up to 1000 wn of H_3C-N?C are currently studied in FTIR spectra together with rotational transitions within these levels. This investigation comprises the low-lying excited vibrational levels of the CNC doubly degenerate bending vibration v8=1^± 1 (267.3 wn), v8=20,± 2 (524.6 wn (A), 545.3 wn (E)), and v8=3^± 1,± 3 (792.5 wn (A1+A2), 833.9 wn (E)), respectively, and the next higher fundamental level of the C-N valence vibration v4=1 (945 wn). All these vibrational levels exhibit cubic and quartic anharmonic resonances localized to moderate values of the rotational quantum number K?10. Therefore the system of rovibrational levels has to be treated as a global polyad in order to describe all the available data quantitatively. The ground state constants have been improved considerably by extending the assignments to higher J/K rotational states both in the purely rotational spectra recorded in the ground vibrational level and in the ground state combination differences generated from the wavenumbers assigned in the fundamental ?_4 band. Similarities and differences with respect to isoelectronic molecules CH_3CN and CH_3CCH are discussed.

  4. Fast manufacturing of E-ELT mirror segments using CNC polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, C.; Baker, I.; Davies, G.; Evans, R.; Field, N.; Fox-Leonard, T.; Messelink, W.; Mitchell, J.; Rees, P.; Waine, S.; Walker, D. D.; Yu, G.

    2013-09-01

    We report on the first-ever demonstration of grinding and polishing full-size, off-axis aspheric, mirror segments as prototypes for an extremely large telescope, processed entirely in the final hexagonal shape. We first describe the overall strategy for controlling form and mid spatial frequencies, at levels in the vicinity of <10nm RMS surface. This relies first on direct CNC grinding of the base-form of these 1.4m segments, using the Cranfield BoX™ machine. The segments are then mounted on a custom designed (Optic Glyndwr Optoelectronic Engineering Group) three segment hydraulic support, and CNC polished on a Zeeko IRP 1600 machine using a variety of custom tooling. We overview the fullaperture and sub-aperture metrology techniques used to close the process-loop and certify quality, all of which operate with the segment in-situ on the IRP1600. We then focus on the pristine edge-definition achieved by the combination of tool-lift and smoothing operations; results never previously demonstrated on full-size pre-cut hexagonal segments. Finally, the paper discusses the feasibility of scaling the process to deliver 931 segments in seven years, as required for the E-ELT project.

  5. CNC machine tool's wear diagnostic and prognostic by using dynamic Bayesian networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobon-Mejia, D. A.; Medjaher, K.; Zerhouni, N.

    2012-04-01

    The failure of critical components in industrial systems may have negative consequences on the availability, the productivity, the security and the environment. To avoid such situations, the health condition of the physical system, and particularly of its critical components, can be constantly assessed by using the monitoring data to perform on-line system diagnostics and prognostics. The present paper is a contribution on the assessment of the health condition of a computer numerical control (CNC) tool machine and the estimation of its remaining useful life (RUL). The proposed method relies on two main phases: an off-line phase and an on-line phase. During the first phase, the raw data provided by the sensors are processed to extract reliable features. These latter are used as inputs of learning algorithms in order to generate the models that represent the wear's behavior of the cutting tool. Then, in the second phase, which is an assessment one, the constructed models are exploited to identify the tool's current health state, predict its RUL and the associated confidence bounds. The proposed method is applied on a benchmark of condition monitoring data gathered during several cuts of a CNC tool. Simulation results are obtained and discussed at the end of the paper.

  6. TTL> 32bit RS485 Driver 32bit Clock Counter

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    0...1240 nsec (*) = selectable (*) NIM TTL­> 32­bit RS485 Driver 32­bit Clock Counter Internal Clock Oscillator 50 MHz TTL­> RS485 Logic Select VME BUS P2 = USER rollover flag GPS pulse GPS signals to V533 (NIM) LOCAL TIME 32­bit to V533 input (RS485) GPS FLAG to V533 input (RS485) TRIGGER to V533

  7. Comprehensive reliability allocation method for CNC lathes based on cubic transformed functions of failure mode and effects analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhou; Zhu, Yunpeng; Ren, Hongrui; Zhang, Yimin

    2015-03-01

    Reliability allocation of computerized numerical controlled(CNC) lathes is very important in industry. Traditional allocation methods only focus on high-failure rate components rather than moderate failure rate components, which is not applicable in some conditions. Aiming at solving the problem of CNC lathes reliability allocating, a comprehensive reliability allocation method based on cubic transformed functions of failure modes and effects analysis(FMEA) is presented. Firstly, conventional reliability allocation methods are introduced. Then the limitations of direct combination of comprehensive allocation method with the exponential transformed FMEA method are investigated. Subsequently, a cubic transformed function is established in order to overcome these limitations. Properties of the new transformed functions are discussed by considering the failure severity and the failure occurrence. Designers can choose appropriate transform amplitudes according to their requirements. Finally, a CNC lathe and a spindle system are used as an example to verify the new allocation method. Seven criteria are considered to compare the results of the new method with traditional methods. The allocation results indicate that the new method is more flexible than traditional methods. By employing the new cubic transformed function, the method covers a wider range of problems in CNC reliability allocation without losing the advantages of traditional methods.

  8. Advanced CNC and CAM Series. Educational Resources for the Machine Tool Industry. Course Syllabi, Instructor's Handbook [and] Student Laboratory Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Technical Coll. System, Waco.

    This package consists of course syllabi, an instructor's handbook, and student laboratory manual for a 1-year vocational training program to prepare students for entry-level positions as advanced computer numerical control (CNC) and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAM) technicians.. The program was developed through a modification of the DACUM…

  9. The Asymmetric Outflow of RS Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S.; Booth, R.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.

    2013-01-01

    RS Ophiuchi (RS Oph) is a symbiotic binary consisting of a hot white dwarf accreting from the slow, dense stellar wind of a cool, red giant companion. The system belongs to, and is one of the best studied examples of, an even smaller subclass of binaries known as recurrent novae in which the white dwarf undergoes repeated thermonuclear outbursts. We present 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) models of mass transfer from the red giant to the white dwarf, followed by a nova outburst. We show that the outflow in the former is strongly concentrated towards the binary orbital plane. The nova ejecta is thus constrained in the equatorial directions, resulting in a bipolar outflow. The white dwarf in RS Oph is thought to be close to the Chandrasekhar mass, making the system a likely Type Ia supernova candidate. We discuss the role that such a highly structured circumstellar medium will play in the evolution of the supernova remnant.

  10. EUV Emission from RS Canum Venaticorum binaries.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrou, C. K.; Mathioudakis, M.; Doyle, J. G.; Antonopoulou, E.

    1997-02-01

    We performed a study of 104 RS CVn systems in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) using the all-sky survey data obtained by the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). The present sample includes several new RS CVn detections; 11 more than in the published EUVE catalogs, and 8 more than in the ROSAT Wide Field Camera catalog. The ratio of detections to non-detections remained constant throughout the sky, implying that our detections are not limited by the exposure time but are most likely limited by absorption from the interstellar medium. A general trend of increasing Lex/B (50-180Å) flux with decreasing rotational period is clear. The dwarf systems exhibit a leveling-off for the faster rotators. In contrast, the evolved systems exhibit no such effect. For the RS CVn systems the losses in the EUV represent a smaller fraction of the coronal radiative losses, as compared to active late-type dwarfs.

  11. Concurrent Collections (CnC): A new approach to parallel programming

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-07

    A common approach in designing parallel languages is to provide some high level handles to manipulate the use of the parallel platform. This exposes some aspects of the target platform, for example, shared vs. distributed memory. It may expose some but not all types of parallelism, for example, data parallelism but not task parallelism. This approach must find a balance between the desire to provide a simple view for the domain expert and provide sufficient power for tuning. This is hard for any given architecture and harder if the language is to apply to a range of architectures. Either simplicity or power is lost. Instead of viewing the language design problem as one of providing the programmer with high level handles, we view the problem as one of designing an interface. On one side of this interface is the programmer (domain expert) who knows the application but needs no knowledge of any aspects of the platform. On the other side of the interface is the performance expert (programmer or program) who demands maximal flexibility for optimizing the mapping to a wide range of target platforms (parallel / serial, shared / distributed, homogeneous / heterogeneous, etc.) but needs no knowledge of the domain. Concurrent Collections (CnC) is based on this separation of concerns. The talk will present CnC and its benefits. About the speaker Kathleen Knobe has focused throughout her career on parallelism especially compiler technology, runtime system design and language design. She worked at Compass (aka Massachusetts Computer Associates) from 1980 to 1991 designing compilers for a wide range of parallel platforms for Thinking Machines, MasPar, Alliant, Numerix, and several government projects. In 1991 she decided to finish her education. After graduating from MIT in 1997, she joined Digital Equipment’s Cambridge Research Lab (CRL). She stayed through the DEC/Compaq/HP mergers and when CRL was acquired and absorbed by Intel. She currently works in the Software and Services Group / Technology Pathfinding and Innovation.

  12. Concurrent Collections (CnC): A new approach to parallel programming

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    A common approach in designing parallel languages is to provide some high level handles to manipulate the use of the parallel platform. This exposes some aspects of the target platform, for example, shared vs. distributed memory. It may expose some but not all types of parallelism, for example, data parallelism but not task parallelism. This approach must find a balance between the desire to provide a simple view for the domain expert and provide sufficient power for tuning. This is hard for any given architecture and harder if the language is to apply to a range of architectures. Either simplicity or power is lost. Instead of viewing the language design problem as one of providing the programmer with high level handles, we view the problem as one of designing an interface. On one side of this interface is the programmer (domain expert) who knows the application but needs no knowledge of any aspects of the platform. On the other side of the interface is the performance expert (programmer or program) who demands maximal flexibility for optimizing the mapping to a wide range of target platforms (parallel / serial, shared / distributed, homogeneous / heterogeneous, etc.) but needs no knowledge of the domain. Concurrent Collections (CnC) is based on this separation of concerns. The talk will present CnC and its benefits. About the speaker Kathleen Knobe has focused throughout her career on parallelism especially compiler technology, runtime system design and language design. She worked at Compass (aka Massachusetts Computer Associates) from 1980 to 1991 designing compilers for a wide range of parallel platforms for Thinking Machines, MasPar, Alliant, Numerix, and several government projects. In 1991 she decided to finish her education. After graduating from MIT in 1997, she joined Digital Equipment?s Cambridge Research Lab (CRL). She stayed through the DEC/Compaq/HP mergers and when CRL was acquired and absorbed by Intel. She currently works in the Software and Services Group / Technology Pathfinding and Innovation.

  13. SEAC4RS Data and Information Page

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-01

    ... Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys ( SEAC4RS ) airborne field study was conducted from August 6 to September 23, 2014.  The ... and feedbacks of aerosol particles from anthropogenic pollution and biomass burning on meteorology and climate through changes in the ...

  14. V474 Car: A RARE HALO RS CVn BINARY IN RETROGRADE GALACTIC ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Bubar, Eric J.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Walter, Frederick M.

    2011-04-15

    We report the discovery that the star V474 Car is an extremely active, high velocity halo RS CVn system. The star was originally identified as a possible pre-main-sequence star in Carina, given its enhanced stellar activity, rapid rotation (10.3 days), enhanced Li, and absolute magnitude which places it above the main sequence (MS). However, its extreme radial velocity (264 km s{sup -1}) suggested that this system was unlike any previously known pre-MS system. Our detailed spectroscopic analysis of echelle spectra taken with the CTIO 4 m finds that V474 Car is both a spectroscopic binary with an orbital period similar to the photometric rotation period and metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx_equal}-0.99). The star's Galactic orbit is extremely eccentric (e {approx_equal} 0.93) with a perigalacticon of only {approx}0.3 kpc of the Galactic center-and the eccentricity and smallness of its perigalacticon are surpassed by only {approx}0.05% of local F/G-type field stars. The observed characteristics are consistent with V474 Car being a high-velocity, metal-poor, tidally locked, chromospherically active binary, i.e., a halo RS CVn binary, and one of only a few such specimens known.

  15. Association between ANKK1 (rs1800497) and LTA (rs909253) Genetic Variants and Risk of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Arab, Arwa H.; Elhawary, Nasser A.

    2015-01-01

    Limited research has assessed associations between schizophrenia and genetic variants of the ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKK1) and lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) genes among individuals of Middle Eastern ancestry. Here we present the first association study investigating the ANKK1 rs1800497 (T>C) and LTA rs909253 (A>G) single-nucleotide polymorphisms in an Egyptian population. Among 120 patients with DSM-IV and PANSS (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) assessments of schizophrenia and 100 healthy controls, we determined the genotypes for the polymorphisms using endonuclease digestion of amplified genomic DNA. Results confirmed previous findings from different ethnic populations, in that the rs1800497 and rs909253 polymorphisms were both associated with risk of schizophrenia. Differences between the genotypes of cases and controls were strongly significant (P = 0.0005 for rs1800497 and P = 0.001 for rs909253). The relative risk to schizophrenia was 1.2 (P = 0.01) for the C allele and 0.8 (P = 0.04) for the G allele. The CC, GG, and combined CC/AA genotypes were all more frequent in cases than in controls. These results support an association between ANKK1 and LTA genetic markers and vulnerability to schizophrenia and show the potential influence of just one copy of the mutant C or G allele in the Egyptian population. PMID:26114114

  16. Tidal Dissipation and Eccentricity Pumping: Implications for the Depth of the Secondary Eclipse of 55 Cnc e

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolmont, E.; Selsis, F.; Raymond, S. N.; Leconte, J.; Hersant, F.; Maurin, A.-S.; Pericaud, J.

    2014-01-01

    We use the super-Earth 55 Cnc e (Fischer et al. 2008) as a case-study to address an observable effect of tidal heating. This transiting short-period planet belongs to a compact multiple system with massive planets. We investigate whether planet-planet interactions can force the eccentricity of this planet to a level that would affect the eclipse depth observed with Spitzer.

  17. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the Catalogue of Nearby Stars, edition 1969

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Catalogue of Nearby Stars, Edition 1969 (Gliese 1969) contains a number of modifications and additions to the 1957 catalog. It should be mentioned that the 1969 edition lists: (1) all 915 stars of the first edition, even though newer parallaxes place some of the stars below the catalog limit; (2) almost all known stars having trigonometric parallaxes or = 0.045 deg, although in some cases the mean values of trigonometric and spectral or photometric parallaxes are or = 0.045 deg. Pleiades stars and the carbon star X Cnc have been omitted; and (3) all stars with mean (resulting) parallaxes or = 0.045 deg. The resulting catalog contains 1529 single stars and systems with a total of 1890 components (not including spectroscopic and astrometric companions). The machine-readable version of the catalog is described. It is intended to enable users to read and process the data without problems or guesswork.

  18. TYC 8380-1953-1: Discovery of an RS CVn Binary Through the XMM-Newton Slew Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Santiago, J.; Stelzer, B.; Saxton, R.

    2012-07-01

    In this article we report the discovery of the chromospherically active (RS CVn type) binary TYC 8380-1953-1 through the XMM-Newton slew survey and present results of our optical and X-ray follow-up. With a flux limit of 6×10-13 ergs cm-2 s-1 in the soft band (0.2--2 keV), the XMM-Newton slew has a similar sensitivity to the ROSAT All Sky Survey, allowing interesting sources to be identified by their long-term variability. Two different types of stellar sources are detected in shallow X-ray surveys: young stars (both pre--main- and main-sequence stars) and chromospherically active binaries (BY Dra and RS CVn-type systems). The discovery of stars in such surveys and the study of their nature through optical follow-ups is valuable to determine their spatial distribution and scale height in the Galaxy. Our analysis shows that TYC 8380-1953-1 is a double-lined spectroscopic binary, with both components having similar spectral type (likely K0/2 + K3/5) and luminosity. With a typical coronal temperature for an RS CVn system (kT˜1.15 keV) and an X-ray luminosity in the 0.3--10 keV energy band higher than 4×1031 erg s-1, TYC 8380-1953-1 lies among the most X-ray luminous RS CVn binaries.

  19. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance... Tolerances § 180.1114 Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas...

  2. An improved method for risk evaluation in failure modes and effects analysis of CNC lathe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachieru, N.; Belu, N.; Anghel, D. C.

    2015-11-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is one of the most popular reliability analysis tools for identifying, assessing and eliminating potential failure modes in a wide range of industries. In general, failure modes in FMEA are evaluated and ranked through the risk priority number (RPN), which is obtained by the multiplication of crisp values of the risk factors, such as the occurrence (O), severity (S), and detection (D) of each failure mode. However, the crisp RPN method has been criticized to have several deficiencies. In this paper, linguistic variables, expressed in Gaussian, trapezoidal or triangular fuzzy numbers, are used to assess the ratings and weights for the risk factors S, O and D. A new risk assessment system based on the fuzzy set theory and fuzzy rule base theory is to be applied to assess and rank risks associated to failure modes that could appear in the functioning of Turn 55 Lathe CNC. Two case studies have been shown to demonstrate the methodology thus developed. It is illustrated a parallel between the results obtained by the traditional method and fuzzy logic for determining the RPNs. The results show that the proposed approach can reduce duplicated RPN numbers and get a more accurate, reasonable risk assessment. As a result, the stability of product and process can be assured.

  3. An adaptive recurrent-neural-network motion controller for X-Y table in CNC machine.

    PubMed

    Lin, Faa-Jeng; Shieh, Hsin-Jang; Shieh, Po-Huang; Shen, Po-Hung

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, an adaptive recurrent-neural-network (ARNN) motion control system for a biaxial motion mechanism driven by two field-oriented control permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) in the computer numerical control (CNC) machine is proposed. In the proposed ARNN control system, a RNN with accurate approximation capability is employed to approximate an unknown dynamic function, and the adaptive learning algorithms that can learn the parameters of the RNN on line are derived using Lyapunov stability theorem. Moreover, a robust controller is proposed to confront the uncertainties including approximation error, optimal parameter vectors, higher-order terms in Taylor series, external disturbances, cross-coupled interference and friction torque of the system. To relax the requirement for the value of lumped uncertainty in the robust controller, an adaptive lumped uncertainty estimation law is investigated. Using the proposed control, the position tracking performance is substantially improved and the robustness to uncertainties including cross-coupled interference and friction torque can be obtained as well. Finally, some experimental results of the tracking of various reference contours demonstrate the validity of the proposed design for practical applications. PMID:16602590

  4. The resonance line of B II in IUE spectra of chemically peculiar stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckrone, D. S.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of high-dispersion spectroscopic observations of eight chemically peculiar stars including Kappa Cnc and Mu Lep, and of one normal comparison star, Nu Cap, in the vicinity of 1362 A. The reported data were obtained with the International Ultraviolet Explorer during the first 15 months of its operation. The initial reduction of the data, which were originally described in a qualitative summary by Leckrone (1980), was affected by a serious error in the calibration of the instrument's intensity transfer function. This error has been corrected in the currently presented data. The results of spectrum syntheses of the 1362 A feature are also described for several of the stars.

  5. Association between TNF-?rs1799724 and rs1800629 polymorphisms and the risk of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Mao, Y Q; Dong, S Q; Gao, M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the associations between 2 major tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) polymorphisms, rs1799724 C>T and rs1800629 G>A, and the susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD) using a meta-analysis framework. The PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, Wiley, Web of Science, WANFANG, and VIP databases (last updated search in October 2014) were comprehensively searched for relevant published studies. The studies retrieved from database searches were filtered based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the resultant data extracted from the selected studies were analyzed using the Comprehensive Meta-analysis 2.0 software. Eleven case-control studies, containing 2000 CD patients and 3499 healthy controls, were identified as relevant to this meta-analysis. Data extracted from these 11 studies were analyzed to understand the role of the 2 TNF-? polymorphisms in CD. We found that the TNF-? rs1799724 C>T polymorphism increased the susceptibility to CD (allele model: OR = 1.293, 95%CI = 1.090-1.534, P = 0.003; dominant model: OR = 1.258, 95%CI = 1.031-1.534, P = 0.024). In contrast, we found no significant association between the TNF-? rs1800629 G>A polymorphism and CD susceptibility (allele model: OR = 1.005, 95%CI = 0.864-1.170, P = 0.945; dominant model: OR = 0.962, 95%CI = 0.809-1.145, P = 0.667). This meta-analysis showed that the TNF-? rs1799724 C>T polymorphism is associated with CD susceptibility, while the TNF-? rs1800629 G>A polymorphism appeared to have no correlation with the susceptibility to CD. PMID:26634549

  6. An Analysis of Light Variations of RS Canum Venaticorum Binary Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, Daniel Bruce

    Photoelectric data for fourteen RS Canum Venaticorum binary systems were obtained by the author from 1978 through 1981, at Rosemary Hill Observatory. These data are presented in the form of light curves and tabulated magnitudes and heliocentric Julian Dates. The outside-of-eclipse points for eight systems were Fourier analyzed for measurement of any distortion wave in the light curve. The wave in RS Canum Venaticorum itself was found to have moved half a phase unit in only two years. A wave was discovered in the light curve of RZ Eridani, and was found to have changed in a manner consistent with the starspot model for RS CVn systems. The light curve for UX Comae Bernices was found to have a large amount of intrinsic scatter, and the system was found to be anomalously bright on one night. These characteristics suggest that some type of flare activity may be present in that system. The other five systems analyzed were found to have waves consistent with other published results, or to have no definite wave at all. The possibility of detecting spots and deriving spot sizes from secondary eclipse observations was also explored. For this purpose the Wilson-Devinney computer program for light curve synthesis was modified to allow spots on the secondary star. Comparison of computer synthesized secondary eclipses of spotted stars to actual observations showed that there is little chance of detecting fluctuations due to individual spots. It was found that there is even less chance for discriminating between a few large spots and a large number of smaller spots. However, the program did produce good fits to RS CVn light curves, using reasonable spot parameters.

  7. Changes in the red giant and dusty environment of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi following the 2006 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushton, M. T.; Kaminsky, B.; Lynch, D. K.; Pavlenko, Ya. V.; Evans, A.; Eyres, S. P. S.; Woodward, C. E.; Russell, Ray W.; Rudy, Richard J.; Sitko, Michael L.; Kerr, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi (RS Oph) obtained on several occasions after its latest outburst in 2006 February. The 1-5?m spectra are dominated by the red giant, but the HI, HeI and coronal lines present during the eruption are present in all our observations. From the fits of the computed infrared spectral energy distributions to the observed fluxes, we find Teff = 4200 +/- 200K for the red giant. The first overtone CO bands at 2.3?m, formed in the atmosphere of the red giant, are variable. The spectra clearly exhibit an infrared excess due to dust emission longward of 5?m we estimate an effective temperature for the emitting dust shell of 500 K, and find that the dust emission is also variable, being beyond the limit of detection in 2007. Most likely, the secondary star in RS Oph is intrinsically variable.

  8. RS Flip-Flop Circuit Dynamics Revisited

    E-print Network

    Aminur Rahman; Denis Blackmore

    2015-09-07

    Logical RS flip-flop circuits are investigated once again in the context of discrete planar dynamical systems, but this time starting with simple bilinear (minimal) component models based on fundamental principles. The dynamics of the minimal model is described in detail, and shown to exhibit some of the expected properties, but not the chaotic regimes typically found in simulations of physical realizations of chaotic RS flip-flop circuits. Any physical realization of a chaotic logical circuit must necessarily involve small perturbations - usually with quite large or even nonexisting derivatives - and possibly some symmetry-breaking. Therefore, perturbed forms of the minimal model are also analyzed in considerable detail. It is proved that perturbed minimal models can exhibit chaotic regimes, sometimes associated with chaotic strange attractors, as well as some of the bifurcation features present in several more elaborate and less fundamentally grounded dynamical models that have been investigated in the recent literature. Validation of the approach developed is provided by some comparisons with (mainly simulated) dynamical results obtained from more traditional investigations.

  9. Optical and X-Ray Studies of Chromospherically Active Stars: FR Cancri, HD 95559, and LO Pegasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, J. C.; Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; Sagar, R.

    2005-09-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of three chromospherically active stars, namely, FR Cnc (BD +16°1753), HD 95559, and LO Peg (BD +22°4409), including newly obtained optical photometry and low-resolution optical spectroscopy for FR Cnc, as well as archival IR and X-ray observations. The BVR photometry carried out from 2001 to 2004 has found significant photometric variability to be present in all three stars. For FR Cnc, a photometric period of 0.8267+/-0.0004 days has been established. The strong variation in the phase and amplitude of the FR Cnc light curves when folded on this period implies the presence of evolving and migrating spots or spot groups on its surface. Two independent spots with migration periods of 0.97 and 0.93 yr, respectively, are inferred. The photometry of HD 95559 suggests the formation of a spot (group) during the interval of our observations. We infer the existence of two independent spots or groups in the photosphere of LO Peg, one of which has a migration period of 1.12 yr. The optical spectroscopy of FR Cnc carried out during 2002-2003 reveals the presence of strong and variable Ca II H and K, H?, and H? emission features indicative of a high level of chromospheric activity. The value of 5.3 for the ratio of the excess emission in H? to H?, EH?/EH?, suggests that the chromospheric emission may arise from an extended off-limb region. We have searched for the presence of color excesses in the near-IR JHK bands of these stars using Two Micron All Sky Survey data, but none of them appear to have any significant color excess. We have also analyzed archival X-ray observations of HD 95559 and LO Peg carried out with the ROSAT observatory. The best-fit models to their X-ray spectra imply the presence of two coronal plasma components of differing temperatures and with subsolar metal abundances. The inferred emission measures and temperatures of these systems are similar to those found for other active dwarf stars. The kinematics of FR Cnc suggest that it is a very young (35-55 Myr) main-sequence star and a possible member of the IC 2391 supercluster. LO Peg also has young disk-type kinematics and has been previously suggested to be a member of the 100 Myr old Local Association (Pleiades moving group). The kinematics of HD 95559 indicate it is a possible member of the 600 Myr old Hyades supercluster.

  10. Optical and X-ray studies of chromospherically active stars: FR Cancri, HD 95559 and LO Pegasi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, J. C.; Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; Sagar, R.

    2005-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of three chromospherically active stars, namely FR Cnc (= BD +16 degrees 1753), HD 95559 and LO Peg (=BD +22 degrees 4409), including newly obtained optical photometry, (for FR Cnc) low-resolution optical spectroscopy, as well as archival IR and X-ray observations. The BVR photometry carried out during the years 2001 - 2004 has found significant photometric variability to be present in all three stars. For FR Cnc, a photometric period 0.826685 +/- 0.000034 d has been established. The strong variation in the phase and amplitude of the FR Cnc light curves when folded on this period implies the presence of evolving and migrating spots or spot groups on its surface. Two independent spots with migration periods of 0.97 and 0.93 years respectively are inferred. The photometry of HD 95559 suggests the formation of a spot (group) during the interval of our observations. We infer the existence of two independent spots or groups in the photosphere of LO Peg, one of which has a migration period of 1.12 years. The optical spectroscopy of FR Cnc carried out during 2002-2003, reveals the presence of strong and variable Ca I1 H and K, H(sub beta) and H(sub alpha) emission features indicative of high level of chromospheric activity. The value of 5.3 for the ratio of the excess emission in H(sub alpha) to H(sub beta), EH(sub alpha)/EH(sub beta), suggests that the chromospheric emission may arise from an extended off-limb region. We have searched for the presence of color excesses in the near-IR JHK bands of these stars using 2MASS data, but none of them appear to have any significant color excess. We have also analyzed archival X-ray observations of HD 95559 and LO Peg carried out by with the ROSAT observatory. The best fit models to their X-ray spectra imply the presence of two coronal plasma components of differing temperatures and with sub-solar metal abundances. The inferred emission measures and temperatures of these systems are similar to those found for other active dwarf stars. The kinematics of FR Cnc suggest that it is a very young (35 - 55 Myrs) main-sequence star and a possible member of the IC 2391 supercluster. LO Peg also has young disk-type kinematics and has been previously suggested to be a member of the 100 Mys old Local Association (Pleiades Moving Group). The kinematics of HD 95559 indicate it is a possible member of the 600 Myrs old Hyades supercluster.

  11. 40 CFR 180.545 - Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate; tolerances for residues...cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS )-cis, trans -chrysanthemate; tolerances for residues...cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS )-cis, trans -chrysanthemate as follows:...

  12. 40 CFR 180.545 - Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate; tolerances for residues...cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS )-cis, trans -chrysanthemate; tolerances for residues...cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS )-cis, trans -chrysanthemate as follows:...

  13. 40 CFR 180.545 - Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate; tolerances for residues...cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS )-cis, trans -chrysanthemate; tolerances for residues...cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS )-cis, trans -chrysanthemate as follows:...

  14. 40 CFR 180.545 - Prallethrin (RS)-2-methyl-4-oxo-3-(2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2-propynyl)cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS)-cis, trans-chrysanthemate; tolerances for residues...cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS )-cis, trans -chrysanthemate; tolerances for residues...cyclopent-2-enyl (1RS )-cis, trans -chrysanthemate as follows:...

  15. RADIAL VELOCITY PLANETS DE-ALIASED: A NEW, SHORT PERIOD FOR SUPER-EARTH 55 Cnc e

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, Rebekah I.; Fabrycky, Daniel C. E-mail: daniel.fabrycky@gmail.co

    2010-10-10

    Radial velocity measurements of stellar reflex motion have revealed many extrasolar planets, but gaps in the observations produce aliases, spurious frequencies that are frequently confused with the planets' orbital frequencies. In the case of Gl 581 d, the distinction between an alias and the true frequency was the distinction between a frozen, dead planet and a planet possibly hospitable to life. To improve the characterization of planetary systems, we describe how aliases originate and present a new approach for distinguishing between orbital frequencies and their aliases. Our approach harnesses features in the spectral window function to compare the amplitude and phase of predicted aliases with peaks present in the data. We apply it to confirm prior alias distinctions for the planets GJ 876 d and HD 75898 b. We find that the true periods of Gl 581 d and HD 73526 b/c remain ambiguous. We revise the periods of HD 156668 b and 55 Cnc e, which were afflicted by daily aliases. For HD 156668 b, the correct period is 1.2699 days and the minimum mass is (3.1 {+-} 0.4) M{sub +}. For 55 Cnc e, the correct period is 0.7365 days-the shortest of any known planet-and the minimum mass is (8.3 {+-} 0.3) M{sub +}. This revision produces a significantly improved five-planet Keplerian fit for 55 Cnc, and a self-consistent dynamical fit describes the data just as well. As radial velocity techniques push to ever-smaller planets, often found in systems of multiple planets, distinguishing true periods from aliases will become increasingly important.

  16. Copyright: R.S. Tyler 2006, The University of Iowa

    E-print Network

    (sleep apnea, restless leg) · Medications · Caffeine (coffee, tea, cola, chocolate) · Nicotine (smoking · After that time ­ Avoid stress, exercise, eating, alcohol, caffeine #12;© Copyright: R.S. Tyler 2006

  17. A genome-wide survey of RS domain proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, L; Ouzounis, C A; Enright, A J; Blencowe, B J

    2001-01-01

    Domains rich in alternating arginine and serine residues (RS domains) are frequently found in metazoan proteins involved in pre-mRNA splicing. The RS domains of splicing factors associate with each other and are important for the formation of protein-protein interactions required for both constitutive and regulated splicing. The prevalence of the RS domain in splicing factors suggests that it might serve as a useful signature for the identification of new proteins that function in pre-mRNA processing, although it remains to be determined whether RS domains also participate in other cellular functions. Using database search and sequence clustering methods, we have identified and categorized RS domain proteins encoded within the entire genomes of Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This genome-wide survey revealed a surprising complexity of RS domain proteins in metazoans with functions associated with chromatin structure, transcription by RNA polymerase II, cell cycle, and cell structure, as well as pre-mRNA processing. Also identified were RS domain proteins in S. cerevisiae with functions associated with cell structure, osmotic regulation, and cell cycle progression. The results thus demonstrate an effective strategy for the genomic mining of RS domain proteins. The identification of many new proteins using this strategy has provided a database of factors that are candidates for forming RS domain-mediated interactions associated with different steps in pre-mRNA processing, in addition to other cellular functions. PMID:11780626

  18. FPGA-Based Fused Smart-Sensor for Tool-Wear Area Quantitative Estimation in CNC Machine Inserts

    PubMed Central

    Trejo-Hernandez, Miguel; Osornio-Rios, Roque Alfredo; de Jesus Romero-Troncoso, Rene; Rodriguez-Donate, Carlos; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Aurelio; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturing processes are of great relevance nowadays, when there is a constant claim for better productivity with high quality at low cost. The contribution of this work is the development of a fused smart-sensor, based on FPGA to improve the online quantitative estimation of flank-wear area in CNC machine inserts from the information provided by two primary sensors: the monitoring current output of a servoamplifier, and a 3-axis accelerometer. Results from experimentation show that the fusion of both parameters makes it possible to obtain three times better accuracy when compared with the accuracy obtained from current and vibration signals, individually used. PMID:22319304

  19. RORA gene rs12912233 and rs880626 polymorphisms and their interaction with SCN1A rs3812718 in the risk of epilepsy: a case-control study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Haerian, Batoul Sadat; Sha'ari, Hidayati Mohd; Tan, Hui Jan; Fong, Choong Yi; Wong, Sau Wei; Ong, Lai Choo; Raymond, Azman Ali; Tan, Chong Tin; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2015-04-01

    RAR-related orphan receptors A (RORA) and B (RORB) and voltage-gated sodium channel type 1 (SCN1A) genes play critical roles in the regulation of the circadian clock. Evidence has shown an association of RORA and RORB polymorphisms with susceptibility to autism and depression. Hence, we tested the association of RORA rs12912233, rs16943429, rs880626, rs2290430, and rs12900948; RORB rs1157358, rs7022435, rs3750420, and rs3903529; and SCN1A rs3812718 with epilepsy risk in the Malaysians. DNA was genotyped in 1789 subjects (39% epilepsy patients) by using MassARRAY (Sequenom). Significant association was obtained for rs12912233 in Malaysian Chinese (p=0.003). Interaction between rs12912233-rs880626 and rs3812718 was associated with the epilepsy risk in the subjects overall (p=0.001). Results show that RORA rs12912233 alone might be a possible risk variant for epilepsy in Malaysian Chinese, but that, together with RORA rs880626 and SCN1A rs3812718, this polymorphism may have a synergistic effect in the epilepsy risk in Malaysians. PMID:25668517

  20. Effect of a gelatin-based edible coating containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) on the quality and nutrient retention of fresh strawberries during storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhouri, F. M.; Casari, A. C. A.; Mariano, M.; Yamashita, F.; Innocnentini Mei, L. H.; Soldi, V.; Martelli, S. M.

    2014-08-01

    Strawberry is a non-climacteric fruit with a very short postharvest shelf-life. Loss of quality in this fruit is mostly due to its relatively high metabolic activity and sensitivity to fungal decay, meanly grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). In this study, the ability of gelatin coatings containing cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) to extend the shelf-life of strawberry fruit (Fragaria ananassa) over 8 days were studied. The filmogenic solution was obtained by the hydration of 5 g of gelatin (GEL) in 100 mL of distillated water containing different amounts of CNC dispersion (10 mg CNC/g of GEL or 50 mg of CNC/g of GEL) for 1 hour at room temperature. After this period, the solution was heated to 70 °C and maintained at this temperature for 10 minutes. The plasticizer (glycerol) (10g/100g of the GEL) was then added with constant, gentle stirring in order to avoid forming air bubbles and also to avoid gelatin denaturation until complete homogenization. Strawberries (purchased at the local market) were immersed in the filmogenic solution for 1 minute and after coated were dried at 15 °C by 24 hours. The strawberries were then kept under refrigeration and characterized in terms of their properties (weight loss, ascorbic acid content, titratable acidity, water content). The results have shown that samples covered with GEL/CNC had a significant improvement in its shelf- life. For instance, for the control sample (without coating) the weight loss after 8 days of storage was around 65%, while covered samples loss in the range of 31-36%. Edible coating was also effective in the retention of ascorbic acid (AA) in the strawberries, while control sample presented a fast decay in the AA content, covered samples showed a slow decay in the AA concentration. Moreover, the use of GEL/CNC edible coating had an antimicrobial effect in the fruits.

  1. Association between HRAS rs12628 and rs112587690 polymorphisms with the risk of melanoma in the North American population.

    PubMed

    Tomei, Sara; Adams, Sharon; Uccellini, Lorenzo; Bedognetti, Davide; De Giorgi, Valeria; Erdenebileg, Narnygerel; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Reinboth, Jennifer; Liu, Qiuzhen; Bevilacqua, Generoso; Wang, Ena; Mazzanti, Chiara; Marincola, Francesco M

    2012-12-01

    HRAS belongs to the RAS genes superfamily. RAS genes are important players in several human tumors and the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs12628 has been shown to contribute to the risk of bladder, colon, gastrointestinal, oral, and thyroid carcinoma. We hypothesized that this SNP may affect the risk of cutaneous melanoma as well. HRAS gene contains a polymorphic region (rs112587690), a repeated hexanucleotide -GGGCCT- located in intron 1. Three alleles of this region, P1, P2, and P3, have been identified that contain two, three, and four repeats of the hexanucleotide, respectively. We investigated the clinical impact of these polymorphisms in a case-control study. A total of 141 melanoma patients and 118 healthy donors from the North America Caucasian population were screened for rs12628 and rs112587690 polymorphisms. Genotypes were assessed by capillary sequencing or fragment analysis, respectively, and rs12628 CC and rs112587690 P1P1 genotypes significantly associated with increased melanoma risk (OR = 3.83, p = 0.003; OR = 11.3, p = 0.033, respectively), while rs112587690 P1P3 frequency resulted significantly higher in the control group (OR = 0.5, p = 0.017). These results suggest that rs12628 C homozygosis may be considered a potential risk factor for melanoma development in the North American population possibly through the linkage to rs112587690. PMID:22618666

  2. Association of APOA5 rs662799 and rs3135506 polymorphisms with arterial hypertension in Moroccan patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of the study is to investigate the association between the APOA5 polymorphisms and haplotypes with Arterial Hypertension (AHT) in Moroccan patients. Methods The study was performed in 283 subjects, 149 patients with AHT and 134 controls. All subjects were genotyped for the APOA5 -1131 T?>?C (rs662799), 56C?>?G (rs3135506) and c.553G?>?T (rs2075291) polymorphisms. Results There was a strong association between -1131 T?>?C and 56C?>?G polymorphisms with AHT. The -1131 T?>?C and 56C?>?G polymorphisms were significantly associated with increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) and triglycerides (TG) levels. There were 4 haplotypes with a frequency higher than 5%, constructed from APOA5 polymorphisms, with the following order: -1131 T?>?C, 56C?>?G and c.553G?>?T. Haplotype H1 (TCG) was associated with decreased risk of AHT, whereas the haplotypes H2 (CCG) and H4 (CGG) were significantly associated with an increased risk of AHT. Carriers of H1 haplotype had a lower SBP and DBP and TG. In contrast, significant elevated SBP, DBP and TG were found in H4 haplotypes carriers. Conclusions Our data demonstrate for the first time that several common SNPs in the APOA5 gene and their haplotypes are closely associated with modifications of blood pressure and serum lipid parameters in the AHT patient. PMID:24684850

  3. Remastering the RV Classics: Self-Consistent Dynamical Models for the 55 Cnc and GJ 876 Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Benjamin E.; Ford, E. B.; Wright, J.; Fischer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, radial velocity (RV) observations have uncovered a handful of dynamically rich exoplanet systems. In particular, the 55 Cnc and GJ 876 systems have 4+ planets with some of them displaying planet-planet interactions on the observing timescale. In turn, this makes the posterior distributions of these systems oddly shaped and extremely difficult to sample from, especially when employing a Newtonian model. We apply our Radial velocity Using N-body Differential evolution Markov chain Monte Carlo code (RUN DMC; Nelson et al. 2013, submitted) to these two landmark systems. For 55 Cnc, we investigate the orbital architecture based on a cumulative 1418 RV observations from various sources and transit constraints from Winn et al. 2011. We find planets "b" and "c" are apsidally aligned but not in a mean-motion resonance, and the orbital stability of the system is sensitive to the orbital properties of planet "f". For GJ 876, we analyze the Keck HIRES (Rivera et al. 2010) and HARPS (Correia et al. 2010) data to constrain the distribution of the Laplace argument and mutual inclinations amongst planet pairs based on both the RVs and assumption of long-term stability.

  4. A Modern Take on the RV Classics: N-body Analysis of GJ 876 and 55 Cnc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Benjamin E.; Ford, E. B.; Wright, J.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades, radial velocity (RV) observations have uncovered a diverse population of exoplanet systems, in particular a subset of multi-planet systems that exhibit strong dynamical interactions. To extract the model parameters (and uncertainties) accurately from these observations, one requires self-consistent n-body integrations and must explore a high-dimensional 7 x number of planets) parameter space, both of which are computationally challenging. Utilizing the power of modern computing resources, we apply our Radial velocity Using N-body Differential Evolution Markov Chain Monte Carlo code (RUN DEMCMC) to two landmark systems from early exoplanet surveys: GJ 876 and 55 Cnc. For GJ 876, we analyze the Keck HIRES (Rivera et al. 2010) and HARPS (Correia et al. 2010) data and constrain the distribution of the Laplace argument. For 55 Cnc, we investigate the orbital architecture based on a cumulative 1086 RV observations from various sources and transit constraints from Winn et al. 2011. In both cases, we also test for long-term orbital stability.

  5. Copyright: R.S. Tyler 2006, The University of Iowa

    E-print Network

    Cochlea Cochlea with hearing loss and missing hair cells #12;© Copyright: R.S. Tyler 2006, The University of Iowa Thoughts & Emotions 13 Normal Hearing Loss Hair Cells #12;© Copyright: R.S. Tyler 2006 of Iowa Thoughts & Emotions 15 Solutions for Hearing Loss Cannot replace hair cells or nerve fibers

  6. Responding to the 5Rs: An Alternate Perspective of Slowmation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidman, Gillian; Keast, Stephen; Cooper, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to Hoban and Neilsen's (2010) Five Rs model for understanding how learners engage with slowmation. An alternative model (the Learning MMAEPER Model) that builds on the 5Rs model is explained in terms of its use in secondary science preservice teacher education. To probe into the surface and deep learning that can occur…

  7. Software Manual--RS232 Laser Merge Module

    E-print Network

    Gardel, Margaret

    Software Manual--RS232 Laser Merge Module Document # SU-256521-09 Rev A The information presented.SpectralAppliedResearch.com #12;Software Manual--RS232 Laser Merge Module Document # SU-586521-09 Rev A Table of Contents 1

  8. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    PubMed

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content. PMID:25794725

  9. Association of p53 rs1042522, MDM2 rs2279744, and p21 rs1801270 polymorphisms with retinoblastoma risk and invasion in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rongxin; Liu, Shu; Ye, Huijing; Li, Jiali; Du, Yi; Chen, Lingyan; Liu, Xiaoman; Ding, Yungang; Li, Qian; Mao, Yuxiang; Ai, Siming; Zhang, Ping; Ma, Wenfang; Yang, Huasheng

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of p53 rs1042522, MDM2 rs2279744 and p21 rs1801270, all in the p53 pathway, which plays a crucial role in DNA damage and genomic instability, were reported to be associated with cancer risk and pathologic characteristics. This case-control study was designed to analyse the association between these SNPs and retinoblastoma (RB) in a Chinese Han population. These SNPs in 168 RB patients and 185 adult controls were genotyped using genomic DNA from venous blood. No significant difference was observed in allele or genotypic frequencies of these SNPs between Chinese RB patients and controls (all P?>?0.05). However, the rs1042522 GC genotype showed a protective effect against RB invasion, as demonstrated by event-free survival (HR?=?0.53, P?=?0.007 for GC versus GG/CC). This effect was significant for patients with a lag time >1 month and no pre-enucleation treatment (P?=?0.007 and P?=?0.010, respectively), indicating an interaction between p53 rs1042522 and clinical characteristics, including lag time and pre-enucleation treatment status. Thus, the rs1042522 SNP may be associated with RB invasion in the Han Chinese population; however, further large and functional studies are needed to assess the validity of this association. PMID:26289323

  10. Association of BID SNPs (rs8190315 and rs2072392) and clinical features of benign prostate hyperplasia in Korean population

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Hosik; Kim, Su Kang; Yoo, Koo Han; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Kim, Young Ock; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Exercise has beneficial effect on cancer apoptosis and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The BH3 interacting domain death agonist (BID) gene expression is associated with apoptosis or cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated the association between BID single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the development, prostate volume, and international prostate symptom score (IPSS) of BPH. In 222 BPH males and 214 controls, two SNPs in BID [rs8190315 (Ser56Gly), and rs2072392 (Asp106Asp)] were genotyped and analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. In the result, the genotype and allele frequencies of rs8190315 and rs2072392 were not associated with BPH development or IPSS, however, the allele frequencies [odd ratio (OR)= 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI)= 1.07–3.41, P= 0.03] and genotype frequencies (in dominant model, OR= 1.94, 95% CI= 1.01–3.74, P= 0.42) of rs8190315, and the genotype frequencies of rs2072392 (in dominant model, OR= 1.94, 95% CI= 1.01–3.74, P= 0.42) were associated with increased prostate volume. We propose that rs8190315 and rs2072392 of BID may contribute to the disease severity of BPH. PMID:25610824

  11. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1114 Section 180.1114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1114 - Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pseudomonas fluorescens A506, Pseudomonas fluorescens 1629RS, and Pseudomonas syringae 742RS; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1114 Section 180.1114 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS...

  13. Cloning and heterologous expression of the ftfCNC-2(1) gene from Weissella confusa MBFCNC-2(1) as an extracellular active fructansucrase in Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Malik, Amarila; Hapsari, Maria Tyas; Ohtsu, Iwao; Ishikawa, Shu; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Fructan-exopolysaccharides (fructan-EPS) (inulin and levan) and their oligosaccharides (fructooligosaccharides, FOS) have drawn considerable interest in the food and pharmaceutical industries. EPS-producing lactic acid bacteria have been reported to produce ?-fructans (inulin and levan), as well as ?-glucans, by the function of sucrase enzymes, i.e., fructansucrase and glucansucrase. A fructansucrase ftfCNC-2(1) gene from Weissella confusa strain MBFCNC-2(1) was previously cloned in Escherichia coli. In this study, we aimed to express the ftf[CNC-2(1)] gene in Bacillus subtilis to obtain the active form of the extracellular recombinant protein FTF[CNC-2(1)]. This cloning was achieved by inserting the gene in-fusion with the signal sequence of the B. subtilis subtilisin E. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and in situ activity assay with Periodic Acid-Schiff staining revealed that the recombinant FTF[CNC-2(1)] was successfully expressed as an extracellular protein from B. subtilis DB403 in its active form, which was confirmed using sucrose and raffinose. PMID:25454699

  14. Unified error model based spatial error compensation for four types of CNC machining center: Part I-Singular function based unified error model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kaiguo; Yang, Jianguo; Yang, Liyan

    2015-08-01

    To unify the error model for four types of CNC machining center, the comprehensive error model of each type of CNC machining center was established using the homogenous transformation matrix (HTM). The internal rules between the HTMs and the kinematic chains were analyzed in this research. The analysis results show that the HTM elements associated with the motion axes which are at the rear of the reference coordinate system are positive value. On the contrary, the HTM elements associated with the motion axes which are at the front of the reference coordinate system are negative value. To express these internal rules, the singular function was introduced to the HTMs. And a unified error model for four types of CNC machining center was established based on the HTM and the singular function. The unified error model includes 18 error elements which are the main factors affecting the machining accuracy of CNC machine tools. The practical results show that the unified error model is not only suitable for vertical machining center but also suitable for horizontal machining center.

  15. 57ime CONGRS CANADIEN DE GOTECHNIQUE 57TH CANADIAN GEOTECHNICAL CONFERENCE 5ime CONGRS CONJOINT SCG/AIH-CNN 5TH JOINT CGS/IAH-CNC CONFERENCE

    E-print Network

    Aubertin, Michel

    CONJOINT SCG/AIH-CNN 5TH JOINT CGS/IAH-CNC CONFERENCE SIMULATING ACID MINE DRAINAGE THROUGH MINE WASTES) Dept. of Civil, Geological and Mining Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique, Montreal (2) Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda *NSERC-Polytechnique-UQAT Chair, Environment and Mine

  16. Frequency of rs731236 (Taql), rs2228570 (Fok1) of Vitamin-D Receptor (VDR) gene in Emirati healthy population.

    PubMed

    Osman, Enas; Al Anouti, Fatme; El Ghazali, Gehad; Haq, Afrozul; Mirgani, Rajaa; Al Safar, Habiba

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin D is getting more attention everyday due to its importance in maintaining bone and calcium homeostasis, cellular proliferation, differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D is derived from diet or elicited in the skin by the activation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is an inert molecule that must be activated by ultraviolet light to form pre-vitamin D3. Recent studies connected the gene encoding for vitamin D (VDR) to the genetic control of bone mass and other diseases. As VDR SNPs have been associated with several disorders and diseases, it's important to investigate the allelic and genotypic distribution among populations. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) variants in healthy Emirati individuals and compare their genotype and allele distribution with other populations. In this study 282 (female, 187; male, 95) unrelated healthy UAE nationals were involved. Two hundreds and eight two DNA samples been collected to genotype rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) VDR SNPs. Our results indicate that the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) vary considerably in different populations. In the Emirati population the distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) were AA 38%, AG 42%, GG 20% and AA 27%, AG 42%, GG 31% respectively. The Emirati population genotype and allele distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) had no difference with Caucasians from USA and France. However, there was significant difference with Asian populations. PMID:26504744

  17. Frequency of rs731236 (Taql), rs2228570 (Fok1) of Vitamin-D Receptor (VDR) gene in Emirati healthy population

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Enas; Al Anouti, Fatme; El ghazali, Gehad; Haq, Afrozul; Mirgani, Rajaa; Al Safar, Habiba

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D is getting more attention everyday due to its importance in maintaining bone and calcium homeostasis, cellular proliferation, differentiation and immune response. Vitamin D is derived from diet or elicited in the skin by the activation of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is an inert molecule that must be activated by ultraviolet light to form pre-vitamin D3. Recent studies connected the gene encoding for vitamin D (VDR) to the genetic control of bone mass and other diseases. As VDR SNPs have been associated with several disorders and diseases, it's important to investigate the allelic and genotypic distribution among populations. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) variants in healthy Emirati individuals and compare their genotype and allele distribution with other populations. In this study 282 (female, 187; male, 95) unrelated healthy UAE nationals were involved. Two hundreds and eight two DNA samples been collected to genotype rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) VDR SNPs. Our results indicate that the distribution of the alleles and genotypes of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) vary considerably in different populations. In the Emirati population the distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) were AA 38%, AG 42%, GG 20% and AA 27%, AG 42%, GG 31% respectively. The Emirati population genotype and allele distribution of rs731236 (Taq1) and rs2228570 (Fok1) had no difference with Caucasians from USA and France. However, there was significant difference with Asian populations. PMID:26504744

  18. Unravelling the nature of HD 81032 - a new RS CVn Binary

    E-print Network

    J. C. Pandey; K. P. Singh; S. A. Drake; R. Sagar

    2005-11-29

    BVR photometric and quasi-simultaneous optical spectroscopic observations of the star HD 81032 have been carried out during the years 2000 - 2004. A photometric period of $18.802 \\pm 0.07$ d has been detected for this star. A large group of spots with a migration period of $7.43 \\pm 0.07$ years is inferred from the first three years of the data. H$\\alpha$ and Ca II H and K emissions from the star indicate high chromospheric activity. The available photometry in the BVRIJHK bands is consistent with spectral type of K0 IV previously found for this star. We have also examined the spectral energy distribution of HD 81032 for the presence of an infrared colour excess using the 2MASS JHK and IRAS photometry, but found no significant excess in any band abovethe normal values expected for a star with this spectral type. We have also analyzed the X-ray emission properties of this star using data obtained by the ROSAT X-ray observatory during its All-Sky Survey phase. An X-ray flare of about 12 hours duration was detected during the two days of X-ray coverage obtained for this star. Its X-ray spectrum, while only containing 345 counts, is inconsistent with a single-temperature component solar-abundance coronal plasma model, but implies either the presence of two or more plasma components, non-solar abundances, or a combination of both of these properties. All of the above properties of HD 81032 suggest that it is a newly identified, evolved RS CVn binary.

  19. Unravelling the Nature of HD 81032 - A New RS CVn Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, J. C.; Singh, K. P.; Drake, S. A.; Sagar, R.

    2005-12-01

    VR photometric and quasi-simultaneous optical spectro-scopic observations of the star HD81032 have been carried out during the years 2000-2004. A photometric period of 18,802±0,07d has been detected for this star. A large group of spots with a migration period of 7,43±0,07 years is inferred from the first three years of the data. H? and CaII H and K emissions from the star indicate high chromospheric activity. The available photometry in the BVRIJHK bands is consistent with the spectral type of K0 IV previously found for this star. We have also examined the spectral energy distribution of HD81032 for the presence of an infrared colour excess using the 2MASS JHK and IRAS photometry, but found no significant excess in any band above the normal values expected for a star with this spectral type. We have also analyzed the X-ray emission properties of this star using data obtained by the ROSAT X-ray observatory during its All-Sky Survey phase. An X-ray flare of about 12 hours duration was detected during the two days of X-ray coverage obtained for this star. Its X-ray spectrum, while only containing 345 counts, is inconsistent with a single-temperature component solar-abundance coronal plasma model, but implies either the presence of two or more plasma components, non-solar abundances, or a combination of both of these properties. All of the above properties of HD81032 suggest that it is a newly identified, evolved RS CVn binary.

  20. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Burnside, Christopher G.; Bruno, Cy

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program, specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. As originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single boost. For both the small satellite delivery and the orbital debris mission candidates, the RS-34 Phoenix requires the least amount of modification to the existing hardware. The results of the RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study show that the system is technically sufficient to successfully support all of the missions analyzed.

  1. RS-34 Phoenix (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Utilization Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Kos, Larry; Bruno, Cy

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in conjunction with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne conducted a study to evaluate potential in-space applications for the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the decommissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bipropellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System, renamed Phoenix. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in October 2009. RS-34 propulsion system components were harvested from stages supplied by the USAF and used on the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study sought to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions: 1) small satellite delivery (SSD), 2) orbital debris removal (ODR), 3) ISS re-supply, 4) SLS kick stage, 5) manned GEO servicing precursor mission, and an Earth-Moon L-2 Waypoint mission. The small satellite delivery and orbital debris removal missions were found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. It is believed that this technology will enable a small, low-cost multiple satellite delivery to multiple orbital locations with a single boost. For both the small satellite delivery and the orbital debris mission candidates, the RS-34 Phoenix requires the least amount of modification to the existing hardware. The results of the RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study show that the system is technically sufficient to successfully support all of the missions analyzed

  2. Monte Carlo simulations of the site-diluted 3d XY model with superexchange interaction: Application to Fe[Se2CN(C2H5)2]2Cl-Zn[S2CN(C2H5)2]2 diluted magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Filho, J. B.; Plascak, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    A simple site-diluted classical XY model is proposed to study the magnetic properties of the ferromagnetic polycrystalline Fe[Se2CN(C2H5)2]2Cl diluted with diamagnetic Zn[S2CN(C2H5)2]2. An extra superexchange interaction is assumed between next-nearest-neighbors on a simple cubic lattice, which are induced by a diluted ion. The critical properties are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations using a hybrid algorithm, single histograms procedures and finite-size scaling techniques. Quite good fits to the experimental results of the ordering temperature are obtained, namely its much less rapidly decreasing with dilution than predicted by the standard diluted 3d XY model, and the change in curvature around 86% of the magnetic Fe[Se2CN(C2H5)2]2Cl compound.

  3. Interleukin-10 rs2227307 and CXCR2 rs1126579 polymorphisms modulate the predisposition to septic shock

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Cristina Padre; de Oliveira, Argenil José de Assis; Botoni, Fernando Antônio; Rezende, Isabela Cristina Porto; Alves-Filho, Jose Carlos; Cunha, Fernando de Queiroz; Estanislau, Juliana de Assis Silva Gomes; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana; Rios-Santos, Fabricio

    2015-01-01

    Despite major improvements in its treatment and diagnosis, sepsis is still a leading cause of death and admittance to the intensive care unit (ICU). Failure to identify patients at high risk of developing septic shock contributes to an increase in the sepsis burden and rapid molecular tests are currently the most promising avenue to aid in patient risk determination and therapeutic anticipation. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the genetic susceptibility that affects sepsis outcome in 72 sepsis patients admitted to the ICU. Seven polymorphisms were genotyped in key inflammatory response genes in sepsis, including tumour necrosis factor-?, interlelukin (IL)-1?, IL-10, IL-8, Toll-like receptor 4, CXCR1 and CXCR2. The primary finding showed that patients who were homozygous for the major A allele in IL-10 rs1800896 had almost five times higher chance to develop septic shock compared to heterozygotes. Similarly, selected clinical features and CXCR2 rs1126579 single nucleotide polymorphisms modulated septic shock susceptibility without affecting survival. These data support the hypothesis that molecular testing has clinical usefulness to improve sepsis prognostic models. Therefore, enrichment of the ICU portfolio by including these biomarkers will aid in the early identification of sepsis patients who may develop septic shock. PMID:26038959

  4. Copyright: R.S. Tyler 2006, The University of Iowa

    E-print Network

    , The University of Iowa Summary 13 Preparing for Sleep Using Sound · Choose soft pleasant sounds you enjoy ­ Music with Relaxation Techniques: · Progressive muscle relaxation · Imagery #12;© Copyright: R.S. Tyler 2006

  5. G IS ,,,, (~' G IS RS -- 210093) (~'--,,fiL...--" 210093)

    E-print Network

    Li, Xiang

    G IS °Æ,,,, × / (~'·§ G IS º RS --¿¸ø¡¡ 210093) ¡¡ (~'·§°--,,»fiL...--¿"¡¡ 210093) ¡""¡¿ ­~°¨Ø`¸¤`¢°--´,,l G IS ~­"-- , ¨»"·`¸¸ø--L°Æ,,,," , ¢Æ»° ^~°--´,,l G IS °Æ,,,, , ¨¶--»--',°l----`¸--¿ , ~´"¶­°Æ,,,,--·~»--' °l----`¸´¡£ ¡,,...¡¿ ´,,l¡¡ G IS¡¡°Æ,,,,¡¡¨

  6. RS-Predictor models augmented with SMARTCyp reactivities: Robust metabolic regioselectivity predictions for nine CYP isozymes

    PubMed Central

    Zaretzki, Jed; Rydberg, Patrik; Bergeron, Charles; Bennett, Kristin P.; Olsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    RS-Predictor is a tool for creating pathway-independent, isozyme-specific site of metabolism (SOM) prediction models using any set of known cytochrome P450 substrates and metabolites. Until now, the RS-Predictor method was only trained and validated on CYP 3A4 data, but in the present study we report on the versatility the RS-Predictor modeling paradigm by creating and testing regioselectivity models for substrates of the nine most important CYP isozymes. Through curation of source literature, we have assembled 680 substrates distributed among CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C19, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4, which we believe is the largest publicly accessible collection of P450 ligands and metabolites ever released. A comprehensive investigation into the importance of different descriptor classes for predicting the regioselectivity of each isozyme is made through the generation of multiple independent RS-Predictor models for each set of isozyme substrates. Two of these models include a DFT reactivity descriptor derived from SMARTCyp. Optimal combinations of RS-Predictor and SMARTCyp are shown to have stronger performance than either method alone, while also exceeding the accuracy of the commercial regioselectivity prediction methods distributed by StarDrop and Schrödinger, correctly identifying a large proportion of the metabolites in each substrate set within the top two rank-positions: 1A2(83.0%), 2A6(85.7%), 2B6(82.1%), 2C19(86.2%), 2C8(83.8%), 2C9(84.5%), 2D6(85.9%), 2E1(82.8%), 3A4(82.3%) and merged(86.0%). Comprehensive datamining of each substrate set and careful statistical analyses of the predictions made by the different models revealed new insights into molecular features that control metabolic regioselectivity and enable accurate prospective prediction of likely SOMs. PMID:22524152

  7. Liquid Rocket Propulsion: RS-68 and Linear Aerospike

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Terry

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of the RS-68 and Linear Aerospike engines. The topics include: 1) The mission; 2) Design and Development Strategies; 3) Cost Driven Design Trades; 4) Moderate Pressure Requirements Enable Reduced Complexity; 5) Experience Based Design; 6) Development Costs Dominated by Cost of Eliminating Failure Modes; and 7) Reducing Development Costs. This paper also includes the design of the RS-68 Engine and the engine performance.

  8. Naproxen-eudragit RS100 nanoparticles: preparation and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Adibkia, Khosro; Javadzadeh, Yousef; Dastmalchi, Siavoush; Mohammadi, Ghobad; Niri, Fatemeh Kari; Alaei-Beirami, Mahmood

    2011-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate naproxen-eudragit RS100 nanoparticles and investigate the physicochemical characteristics of the prepared nanoparticles. The nanoparticles of naproxen with eudragit RS100 were formulated using the solvent evaporation/extraction technique (the single emulsion technique). The effect of several process parameters, i.e., drug/polymer ratio, aqueous phase volume and speed of homogenization were considered on the size of the nanoformulations. The physicochemical characteristics of nanoparticles were studied applying particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The release rate of naproxen from various drug/polymer nanoparticles was investigated as well. All the prepared formulations using eudragit RS100 resulted in nano-range size particles with relative spherical smooth morphology. The nanoparticles of naproxen-eudragit RS100 displayed lower crystallinity. The intermolecular interaction between naproxen and eudragit RS100 was detected in the FT-IR spectrum of the nanoparticles. All the nanoparticles displayed a slowed release pattern with the reduced burst release in comparison with the intact drug powder and physical mixtures of drug and polymer. According of these findings, formulation of the naproxen-eudragit RS100 nanoparticles was able to improve the physicochemical characteristics of the drug and possibly will increase the anti-inflammatory effects of drug following its ocular or intra-joint administration. PMID:21130612

  9. Genotype–phenotype analysis of SNPs associated with primary angle closure glaucoma (rs1015213, rs3753841 and rs11024102) and ocular biometry in the EPIC-Norfolk Eye Study

    PubMed Central

    Day, Alexander C; Luben, Robert; Khawaja, Anthony P; Low, Sancy; Hayat, Shabina; Dalzell, Nichola; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Foster, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Aims To investigate if the single nucleotide polymorphisms rs3753841, rs1015213 and rs11024102, recently implicated in the development of acute primary angle closure or primary angle closure glaucoma, are associated with ocular biometric characteristics of British adults in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk eye study. Methods Genotyping data on rs1015213 (between PCMTD1 and ST18), rs11024102 (at PLEKHA7) and rs3753841 (at COL11A1) were available on 3268 participants. Direct genotypic data was available for rs1015213 and rs3753841. Data was imputed for rs11024102. Ocular biometric data was available on 1137 participants who attended the third European Prospective Investigation of Cancer health examination and 988 (87%) of these participants had no previous cataract surgery either eye. Axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and corneal keratometry were measured by using the Zeiss IOLMaster. Results Presence of at least one A allele (AG or AA genotype) for rs1015213 was associated with a shallower ACD (?0.07 mm, 95% CI ?0.01 to ?0.14 mm, p=0.028) after adjusting for age and sex (both p?0.001). There was no association with AL or corneal keratometry for rs1015213 genotypes. AL, ACD and keratometry were not associated with rs3753841 or rs11024102 genotypes including after adjusting for age and sex. Conclusions This study suggests that primary angle closure glaucoma susceptibility at the PCMTD1-ST18 locus may be partly explained by an association between rs1015213 and ACD in European populations. This effect is equivalent to almost 20% of the SD of the mean ACD of phakic individuals in this cohort. We were not able to identify any association between rs3753841 or rs11024102 and ocular biometry. PMID:23505305

  10. The Effect of Xuefuzhuyu Oral Liquid on Aspirin Resistance and Its Association with rs5911, rs5787, and rs3842788 Gene Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mei; Yang, Lin; Kou, Na; Miao, Yu; Wang, Mingming; Zhao, Quanli; Ren, Junhua; Zhang, Shaoyan; Shi, Dazhuo; Chen, Keji

    2015-01-01

    Aspirin should be continued indefinitely in patients after interventional therapy, but 10% to 40% of patients experience recurrent vascular events despite adequate aspirin therapy, a condition known as aspirin resistance (AR). Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid, derived from the classic recipe Xuefuzhuyu decoction, has been well documented to inhibit platelet aggregation and to improve hemorheology. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid on AR in patients with chronic stable angina after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and the possible genetic markers related to the drug response. 43 patients diagnosed as having aspirin resistance or semi-resistance were randomly divided into control and treatment groups after screening 207 stable CHD patients. Platelet aggregation rate was determined using turbidimetry. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms in COX-1 (rs5787, rs3842788) and GP IIb (rs5911) were genotyped in whole blood samples using ABI PRISM 7900 HT Fast Real-Time instrument and ABI PRISM 3730 DNA Sequencer. The results showed that Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid could effectively improve blood stasis syndrome and AR by inhibiting ADP-induced platelet aggregation and that patients with the rs5911 genetic variant exhibited better drug response upon treatment with Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid, which suggests Xuefuzhuyu oral liquid as a new possible drug for the prevention of AR. PMID:26495016

  11. Niobium in R And (S6, 6e) and HR 1105 (S5, 3). [S star abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    Lines of the first multiplet of niobium are strong in R And and HR 1105. These lines are also present in other S stars: HR 8714, R Cam, V Cnc, R CMi, and T Sgr. They are also visible in the M stars, Beta-Peg and Mu-UMa. An approximation to the abundance ratio, Nb/Fe, has been deduced from pairs of lines having nearly equal intensity. In R And, the ratio is about 200 times the solar value. It is hoped that good plates will soon be obtained for the near infrared region, so that the significant Nb/Rb abundance ratio may be determined.

  12. OxymiRs in Cutaneous Development, Wound Repair and Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Chandan K.; Roy, Sashwati

    2013-01-01

    The state of tissue oxygenation is widely recognized as a major microenvironmental cue that is known to regulate the expression of coding genes. Recent works have extended that knowledge to demonstrate that the state of tissue oxygenation may potently regulate the expression of microRNAs (miRs). Collectively, such miRs that are implicated in defining biological outcomes in response to a change in the state of tissue oxygenation may be referred to as oxymiRs. Broadly, oxymiRs may be categorized into three groups: (A) the existence (expression and/or turnover) of which is directly influenced by changes in the state of tissue oxygenation; (B) the existence of which is indirectly (e.g. oxygen-sensitive proteins, metabolites, pH etc) influenced by changes in the state of tissue oxygenation; and (C) those that modify biological outcomes to changes in the state of tissue oxygenation by targeting oxygen sensing pathways. This work represents the first review of how oxymiRs may regulate development, repair and regeneration. Currently known oxymiRs may affect the functioning of a large number of coding genes which have hitherto fore never been linked to oxygen sensing. Many of such target genes have been validated and that number is steadily growing. Taken together, our understanding of oxymiRs has vastly expanded the implications of changes in the state of tissue oxygenation. This emerging paradigm has major implications in untangling the complexities underlying diseases associated with ischemia and related hypoxic insult such as chronic wounds. PMID:23063665

  13. 3D simulations of RS Oph: from accretion to nova blast

    E-print Network

    Rolf Walder; Doris Folini; Steven N. Shore

    2008-04-16

    RS Ophiuchi is a recurrent nova with a period of about 22 years, consisting of a wind accreting binary system with a white dwarf (WD) very close to the Chandrasekhar limit and a red giant star (RG). The system is considered a prime candidate to evolve into an SNIa. We present a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of the quiescent accretion and the subsequent explosive phase. The computed circumstellar mass distribution in the quiescent phase is highly structured with a mass enhancement in the orbital plane of about a factor of 2 as compared to the poleward directions. The simulated nova remnant evolves aspherically, propagating faster toward the poles. The shock velocities derived from the simulations are in agreement with those derived from observations. For v_RG = 20 km/s and for nearly isothermal flows, we derive a mass transfer rate to the WD of 10% of the mass loss of the RG. For an RG mass loss of 10^{-7} solar masses per year, we found the orbit of the system to decay by 3% per million years. With the derived mass transfer rate, multi-cycle nova models provide a qualitatively correct recurrence time, amplitude, and fastness of the nova. Our simulations provide, along with the observations and nova models, the third ingredient for a deeper understanding of the recurrent novae of the RS Oph type. In combination with recent multi-cycle nova models, our results suggests that the WD in RS Oph will increase in mass. Several speculative outcomes then seem plausible. The WD may reach the Chandrasekhar limit and explode as an SN Ia. Alternatively, the mass loss of the RG could result in a smaller Roche volume, a common envelope phase, and a narrow WD+WD system. Angular momentum loss due to graviational wave emission could trigger the merger of the two WDs and - perhaps - an SN Ia via the double degenerate scenario.

  14. 27/10/2010 12:48AGU: Highlatitude geomagnetically induced current events observed on very low frequency radio wave receiver systems Page 1 of 2http://europa.agu.org/?view=article&uri=/journals/rs/rs1002/2009RS004215/2009RS004215.xml&t=

    E-print Network

    Ulich, Thomas

    frequency radio wave receiver systems Page 1 of 2http://europa.agu.org/?view=article&uri=/journals/rs/rs1002/2009RS004215/2009RS004215.xml&t= Keywords radio waves induced currents geomagnetic Index Terms Ionosphere Abstract Highlatitude geomagnetically induced current events observed on very low frequency radio wave

  15. Texas A&M University GIS/RS certificate application. Revised 07/2014

    E-print Network

    Texas A&M University GIS/RS certificate application. Revised 07/2014 1 APPLICATION FOR GRADUATE;Texas A&M University GIS/RS certificate application. Revised 07/2014 2 Remote Sensing (RS) Course CERTIFICATE IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (GIS) or REMOTE SENSING (RS) Please complete, sign and return

  16. Unified error model based spatial error compensation for four types of CNC machining center: Part II-unified model based spatial error compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kaiguo; Yang, Jianguo; Yang, Liyan

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, a spatial error compensation method was proposed for CNC machining center based on the unified error model. The spatial error distribution was analyzed in this research. The result shows that the spatial error is relative to each axis of a CNC machine tool. Moreover, the spatial error distribution is non-linear and there is no regularity. In order to improve the modeling accuracy and efficiency, an automatic error modeling application was designed based on the orthogonal polynomials. To realize the spatial error compensation, a multi-thread parallel processing mode based error compensation controller was designed. Using the spatial error compensation method, the machine tools' accuracy is greatly improved compared to that with no compensation.

  17. Optical flickering of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi: amplitude-flux relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamanov, R.; Latev, G.; Boeva, S.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Stoyanov, K.; Bachev, R.; Spassov, B.; Nikolov, G.; Golev, V.; Ibryamov, S.

    2015-07-01

    We report observations of the flickering variability of the symbiotic recurrent nova RS Oph at quiescence in five bands (UBVRI). We find evidence of a correlation between the peak-to-peak flickering amplitude (?F) and the average flux of the hot component (Fav). The correlation is highly significant, with a correlation coefficient of 0.85 and a p-value of ˜10-20. Combining the data from all wavebands, we find a dependence of the type ? F ? F_{av}^k, with power-law index k = 1.02 ± 0.04 for the UBVRI flickering of RS Oph. Thus, the relationship between the amplitude of variability and the average flux of the hot component is consistent with linearity. The rms amplitude of flickering is on average 8 per cent (±2 per cent) of Fav. The detected correlation is similar to that found in accreting black holes/neutron stars and cataclysmic variables. The possible reasons are briefly discussed. The data are available upon request from the authors.

  18. Expression, purification, and characterization of rhTyrRS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) catalyze the first step of protein synthesis. Emerging evidence indicates that AARSs may have additional functions, playing a role in signal transduction pathways regulating thrombopoiesis and inflammation. Recombinant human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (rhTyrRS) is engineered with a single amino acid substitution that unmasks its cytokine activity. An industrial production method that provides high yield as well as high purity, quality, and potency of this protein is required for preclinical research. Results We expressed codon-optimized rhTyrRS in Escherichia coli under fermentation conditions. Soluble protein was purified by a three-step purification method using cation exchange chromatography, gel filtration chromatography, and anion exchange chromatography. We also established a method to test the biological activity of rhTyrRS by measuring aminoacylation and IL-8 release in rhTyrRS-treated HL-60 cells. Conclusions The characterization of purified rhTyrRS indicated that this protein can be used in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:25027604

  19. Luminescent Ruthenium(II) Complex Bearing Bipyridine and N-Heterocyclic Carbene-based C?N?C Pincer Ligand for Live-Cell Imaging of Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsui, Wai-Kuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Tsang, Wai-Him; Lo, Hoi-Shing; Liu, Yaxiang; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Wong, Chun-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    Luminescent ruthenium(II)-cyanide complex with N-heterocyclic carbene pincer ligand C?N?C = 2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine and 2,2?-bipyridine (bpy) shows minimal cytotoxicity to both human breast carcinoma cell (MCF-7) and human retinal pigmented epithelium cell (RPE) in a wide range of concentration (0.1–500??M), and can be used for the luminescent imaging of endocytosis of the complex in these cells. PMID:25765974

  20. Luminescent Ruthenium(II) Complex Bearing Bipyridine and N-Heterocyclic Carbene-based C?N?C Pincer Ligand for Live-Cell Imaging of Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, Wai-Kuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Tsang, Wai-Him; Lo, Hoi-Shing; Liu, Yaxiang; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung; Chiu, Sung-Kay; Wong, Chun-Yuen

    2015-03-01

    Luminescent ruthenium(II)-cyanide complex with N-heterocyclic carbene pincer ligand C?N?C = 2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) shows minimal cytotoxicity to both human breast carcinoma cell (MCF-7) and human retinal pigmented epithelium cell (RPE) in a wide range of concentration (0.1-500 ?M), and can be used for the luminescent imaging of endocytosis of the complex in these cells.

  1. Transcription factors, CncC and Maf, regulate expression of CYP6BQ genes responsible for deltamethrin resistance in Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Kalsi, Megha; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2015-10-01

    Insecticide resistance is a global problem that presents an ongoing challenge to control insects that destroy crops, trees and transmit diseases. Dramatic progress has been made during the last decade on identification of insecticide resistance-associated genes. In one of the most common resistance mechanisms, insects acquire resistance by increasing the levels of their detoxification enzymes especially the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450's). Previous studies in our laboratory showed that the pyrethroid resistance in QTC279 strain of Tribolium castaneum is achieved through constitutive overexpression of the P450 gene CYP6BQ9 by 200-fold higher in the resistant strain as compared to that in the susceptible strain. RNAi-aided knockdown in the expression of probable genes that regulate P450 gene expression in QTC279 identified cap 'n' collar C (CncC) and muscle aponeurosis fibromatosis (Maf) family transcription factors as the key regulator of these genes, CncC and Maf regulate expression of multiple genes in the CYP6BQ cluster. Studies on the promoters of these genes using reporter assays identified binding sites that mediate CncC and Maf regulation of CYP6BQ gene expression. PMID:26255690

  2. OPMILL - MICRO COMPUTER PROGRAMMING ENVIRONMENT FOR CNC MILLING MACHINES THREE AXIS EQUATION PLOTTING CAPABILITIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    OPMILL is a computer operating system for a Kearney and Trecker milling machine that provides a fast and easy way to program machine part manufacture with an IBM compatible PC. The program gives the machinist an "equation plotter" feature which plots any set of equations that define axis moves (up to three axes simultaneously) and converts those equations to a machine milling program that will move a cutter along a defined path. Other supported functions include: drill with peck, bolt circle, tap, mill arc, quarter circle, circle, circle 2 pass, frame, frame 2 pass, rotary frame, pocket, loop and repeat, and copy blocks. The system includes a tool manager that can handle up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts tool length for each tool. It will display all tool information and stop the milling machine at the appropriate time. Information for the program is entered via a series of menus and compiled to the Kearney and Trecker format. The program can then be loaded into the milling machine, the tool path graphically displayed, and tool change information or the program in Kearney and Trecker format viewed. The program has a complete file handling utility that allows the user to load the program into memory from the hard disk, save the program to the disk with comments, view directories, merge a program on the disk with one in memory, save a portion of a program in memory, and change directories. OPMILL was developed on an IBM PS/2 running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of RAM. OPMILL was written for an IBM PC or compatible 8088 or 80286 machine connected via an RS-232 port to a Kearney and Trecker Data Mill 700/C Control milling machine. It requires a "D:" drive (fixed-disk or virtual), a browse or text display utility, and an EGA or better display. Users wishing to modify and recompile the source code will also need Turbo BASIC, Turbo C, and Crescent Software's QuickPak for Turbo BASIC. IBM PC and IBM PS/2 are registered trademarks of International Business Machines. Turbo BASIC and Turbo C are trademarks of Borland International.

  3. Luminescent organoplatinum(II) complexes with functionalized cyclometalated C^N^C ligands: structures, photophysical properties, and material applications.

    PubMed

    Kui, Steven C F; Hung, Faan-Fung; Lai, Shiu-Lun; Yuen, Mai-Yan; Kwok, Chi-Chung; Low, Kam-Hung; Chui, Stephen Sin-Yin; Che, Chi-Ming

    2012-01-01

    A series of [(R'-C^N^C-R'')Pt(L)] complexes with doubly deprotonated cyclometalated R'-C^N^C-R'' ligands (R'-C^N^C-R''=2,6-diphenylpyridine derivatives) functionalized with carbazole, fluorene, or thiophene unit(s) have been synthesized and their photophysical properties studied. The X-ray crystal structures reveal extensive intermolecular ?···? and C-H···? interactions between the cyclometalated C^N^C ligands. Compared to previously reported cyclometalated platinum(II) complexes [(C^N^C)Pt(L)], which are non-emissive in solution at room temperature, the carbazole-, fluorene- and thiophene-functionalized [(R'-C^N^C-R'')Pt(L)] (L=DMSO 1-9, C?N-Ar, 1a-9a) complexes are emissive in solution at room temperature with ?(max) at 564-619 nm and ?=0.02-0.26. The emissions of the [(R'-C^N^C-R'')Pt(L)] complexes are attributed to electronic excited states with mixed (3)MLCT and (3)IL character. The carbazole/fluorene/thiophene unit(s) allow the tuning of the electronic properties of the [(R'-C^N^C-R'')Pt] moiety, with the emission maxima in a range of 564-619 nm. These are the first examples of organoplatinum(II) complexes bearing doubly deprotonated cyclometalated C^N^C ligands that are emissive in solution at room temperature. In non-degassed DMSO, the emission intensities of 6a-9a are enhanced upon exposure to ambient light. This phenomenon is caused by reacting photogenerated (1)O(2) with a DMSO molecule to form dimethyl sulfone, leading to the removal of dissolved oxygen in solution. Self-assembled nanowires and nanorods are obtained from precipitation of 3a in THF/H(2)O and 8a in DMSO/Et(2)O, respectively. The [(R'-C^N^C-R'')Pt(L)] complexes are soluble in common organic solvents with a high thermal stability (>300 °C), rendering them as phosphorescent dopants for organic light-emitting diode (OLEDs) applications. Red OLEDs with CIE coordinates of (0.65±0.01, 0.35±0.01) were fabricated from 7a or 8a. A maximum external efficiency (?(Ext)) of 12.6% was obtained for the device using 8a as emitter. PMID:22170325

  4. Polymorphisms rs12998 and rs5780218 in KiSS1 Suppressor Metastasis Gene in Mexican Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Quevedo, Edhit Guadalupe; Mimendi Aguilar, Gabriela Monserrat; Juárez Aguilar, Luis Anselmo; Gutierrez Rubio, Susan Andrea; Flores Martínez, Silvia Esperanza; Dávalos Rodríguez, Ingrid Patricia; Sánchez Corona, José; Torres Morán, Martha Isabel; Rosales Gómez, Roberto Carlos; Morán Moguel, María Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Aims. KiSS1 is a metastasis suppressor gene associated with inhibition of cellular chemotaxis and invasion attenuating the metastasis in melanoma and breast cancer cell lines. Along the KiSS-1 gene at least 294 SNPs have been described; however the association of these polymorphisms as genetic markers for metastasis in breast cancer studies has not been investigated. Here we describe two simple PCR-RFLPs protocols to identify the rs5780218 (9DelT) and the rs12998 (E20K) KiSS1 polymorphisms and the allelic, genotypic, and haplotypic frequencies in Mexican general population (GP) and patients with benign breast disease (BBD) or breast cancer (BC). Results. The rs5780218 polymorphism was individually associated with breast cancer (P = 0.0332) and the rs12998 polymorphism shows statistically significant differences when GP versus case (BC and BBD) groups were compared (P < 0.0001). The H1 Haplotype (G/-) occurred more frequently in BC group (0.4256) whereas H2 haplotype (G/T) was the most prevalent in BBD group (0.4674). Conclusions. Our data indicated that the rs5780218 polymorphism individually confers susceptibility for development of breast cancer in Mexican population and a possible role as a genetic marker in breast cancer metastasis for H1 haplotype (Wt/variant) in KiSS1 gene must be analyzed in other populations. PMID:25810563

  5. Restoring New Agegraphic Dark Energy in RS II Braneworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Karami, K.; Sheykhi, A.

    2011-10-01

    Motivated by recent works (Saridakis in Phys. Lett. B 660:138, 2008; Sheykhi in Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 19(3):305, 2010), we investigate the new agegraphic model of dark energy in the framework of RS II braneworld. We also include the case of variable gravitational constant G in our model. Moreover, we reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of the quintessence, tachyon, K-essence and dilaton scalar field models according to the evolutionary behavior of the new agegraphic dark energy model in RS II braneworld cosmology including varying G.

  6. IL-1A rs1800587, IL-1B rs1143634 and IL-1R1 rs2234650 polymorphisms in Iranian patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, S; Farazmand, A; Mahmoudi, M; Ashraf-Ganjouei, A; Javinani, A; Nazari, B; Kavosi, H; Amirzargar, A A; Jamshidi, A R; Gharibdoost, F

    2015-12-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disorder, with ambiguous pathogenesis. Genetic and environmental factors were proved to be correlated with SSc aetiology. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cytokine genes can alter the structure and function of the cytokines and consequently may increase the susceptibility to a specific disease. In this study, we investigated SNPs of the IL-1 gene cluster in Iranian SSc patients. We obtained blood samples from 170 SSc patients and 213 healthy individuals. Cytokine genotyping results were obtained by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). IL-1A rs1800587, IL-1B rs1143634 and IL-1R1 rs2234650 were evaluated for SNP study. The frequency of the IL-1B rs1143634 CT genotype was significantly lower in SSc patients compared to the controls (OR = 0.584; 95% CI = 0.385-0.886; P-value = 0.023), so we propose that CT genotype of this allele might be protective. According to our haplotype analysis, CCC haplotype frequency is higher in the control group compared to SSc patients (OR = 1.575; 95% CI = 1.176-2.111; P-value = 0.008) and in contrast, CTC haplotype frequency is lower in the control group compared to SSc patients (OR = 0.152; 95% CI = 0.047-0.484; P-value = 0.002), so they might decrease and increase the susceptibility of having SSc, respectively. In addition, we reported two significant diplotypes frequency differences among SSc patients and healthy individuals. It is highly important that there is not much resemblance between the IL-1 gene cluster polymorphism in different populations, so we can indicate that SNPs may play critical roles when they are combined with other genetic and environmental factors. PMID:26416393

  7. Intermittent process measurement and process capability analysis using MP700 touch trigger probe on a CNC machining center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiou, Fang-Jung; Su, Po-Chuan

    2006-11-01

    This study developed an intermittent process measurement system by integrating a MP700 touch trigger probe system with a machining center to measure a workpiece containing freeform surface and regular geometric features, and to do the statistical process control analysis. The whole measuring system, consisting of a personal computer, a CNC machining center controller, a RENISHAW MP700 touch probe system, was integrated information-technically. Measuring software was also developed to simulate the measuring path, to prevent collision, to generate the corresponding measuring NC codes and to calculate the process capability indices, such as the process capability index (Cp), the process performance index (C PK) and the accuracy capability index (Ca). To evaluate the performance of the developed measuring system, a carrier combined with a freeform surface and regular geometric features, referred to in the ISO 10791-7 cutting test standard, was designed. Six pieces of the tested carriers were manufactured and inspected using the MP700 touch trigger probe to evaluate the performance of the developed measuring system. According to the measuring results, the developed measuring system was successfully and effectively used to carry out the intermittent process measurement and the statistical process analysis of the measuring results of some test carriers on the machining center.

  8. AngiomiRs: Potential Biomarkers of Pregnancy's Vascular Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Santa, Laura María; González Teshima, Laura Yuriko; Forero Forero, Jose Vicente; Castillo Giraldo, Andres Orlando

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been the focus of research for their role in posttranscriptional regulation and as potential biomarkers of risk for disease development. Their identification in specific physiological processes, like angiogenesis, a key pathway in placental vascular development in pregnancy, suggests an important role of miRNAs that regulate angiogenesis (angiomiRs). Many complications of pregnancy have in common placental vascular alterations, involving an imbalance in the angiogenesis process in the development of conditions such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and gestational diabetes, complications with the highest rates of morbimortality in pregnancy. Many studies have identified angiomiRs with differential expression profiles in each of these diseases; however, this evidence requires further studies focused on evaluating their potential as biomarkers of risk for the angiomiRs detected, to establish correlations between placental tissue and serum/plasma expression profiles. Therefore, the objective of this review is to highlight the best angiomiRs detected in placental tissue and serum/plasma in each of these three pathologies to show the current data available for potential biomarkers and to propose future research strategies on this topic. PMID:26550492

  9. Copyright: R.S. Tyler 2006, The University of Iowa

    E-print Network

    , The University of Iowa Concentration 6 Things That Affect Concentration · Your emotional state ­ Anxiety ­ Fear effort is put into the task or when task is more enjoyable #12;© Copyright: R.S. Tyler 2006 pleasant sounds you enjoy · Music (calm, soothing, steady, classical, piano) · Nature sounds (waves

  10. Copyright: R.S. Tyler 2006, The University of Iowa

    E-print Network

    © Copyright: R.S. Tyler 2006, The University of Iowa Habituation to Sound New refrigerator is loud at first loudness or annoyance of tinnitus ­ Can hear both tinnitus & masker · Duration ­ Best to put on in morning · If environmental noise drowns out the sound, do not increase the volume. · If after wearing the device for awhile

  11. AngiomiRs: Potential Biomarkers of Pregnancy's Vascular Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Santa, Laura María Rodríguez; Teshima, Laura Yuriko González; Forero, Jose Vicente Forero; Giraldo, Andres Orlando Castillo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been the focus of research for their role in posttranscriptional regulation and as potential biomarkers of risk for disease development. Their identification in specific physiological processes, like angiogenesis, a key pathway in placental vascular development in pregnancy, suggests an important role of miRNAs that regulate angiogenesis (angiomiRs). Many complications of pregnancy have in common placental vascular alterations, involving an imbalance in the angiogenesis process in the development of conditions such as preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, and gestational diabetes, complications with the highest rates of morbimortality in pregnancy. Many studies have identified angiomiRs with differential expression profiles in each of these diseases; however, this evidence requires further studies focused on evaluating their potential as biomarkers of risk for the angiomiRs detected, to establish correlations between placental tissue and serum/plasma expression profiles. Therefore, the objective of this review is to highlight the best angiomiRs detected in placental tissue and serum/plasma in each of these three pathologies to show the current data available for potential biomarkers and to propose future research strategies on this topic. PMID:26550492

  12. 359-06/RDS/rs PERSISTENT SURVEILLANCE FOR

    E-print Network

    weeks periods ­ Test materials with high neutron fluence (3-8 MW-yr/m2) ­ Further develop all elements, Superconducting Tokamaks, and a Materials Test Facility Enable Demo #12;359-06/RDS/rs FDF is Viewed as a Direct, Large, Supporting Fusion Nuclear Science Program On Test Specimens and Components, · Materials

  13. Connecting RS OPh to [some] Type Ia Supernovae

    E-print Network

    Patat, F; Podsiadlowski, Ph; Mason, E; Melo, C; Pasquini, L

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Recurrent nova systems like RS Oph have been proposed as a possible channel to Type Ia Supernova explosions, based on the high mass of the accreting white dwarf. Additional support to this hypothesis has been recently provided by the detection of circumstellar material around SN2006X and SN2007le, showing a structure compatible with that expected for recurrent nova outbursts.In this paper we investigate the circumstellar environment of RS Oph and its structure, with the aim of establishing a firmer and independent link between this class of objects and Type Ia SN progenitors. Methods: We study the time evolution of CaII, NaI and KI absorption features in RS Oph, before, during, and after the last outburst, using multi-epoch, high-resolution spectroscopy, and applying the same method adopted for SN2006X and SN2007le. Results: A number of components, blue-shifted with respect to the systemic velocity of RS Oph, are detected. In particular, one feature strongly weakens in the first two weeks after the outb...

  14. Rotating MaxRS queries Zitong Chen a

    E-print Network

    Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing

    , such as finding the location for a new fast food restaurant with a limited delivery range attracting the greatest to the analysis issues of location-related data. Recently, several location analysis problems have been proposed. The maximizing range sum (MaxRS) problem [3] is one of these location analysis problems. Given a set O

  15. U ITED STATES: Supreme ourt Upholds Army Engine rs'

    E-print Network

    : Supreme ourt Upholds Army Engine rs' Veto of Florida Dredge Plan 1,;.S. & USSR Sign i'.Iid-Atlantic hsh ri s Agreem nt U.S. & USSR Sign 3 Agr ments Yellowtail Flound 'r in C'rious D( cline· ew England Landings

  16. Habitable Planet Formation in Extreme Planetary Systems: Systems with Multiple Stars and/or Multiple Planets

    E-print Network

    Nader Haghighipour

    2007-12-15

    Understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of habitable planets in extrasolar planetary systems is a challenging task. In this respect, systems with multiple giant planets and/or multiple stars present special complications. The formation of habitable planets in these environments is strongly affected by the dynamics of their giant planets and/or their stellar companions. These objects have profound effects on the structure of the disk of planetesimals and protoplanetary objects in which terrestrial-class planets are formed. To what extent the current theories of planet formation can be applied to such "extreme" planetary systems depends on the dynamical characteristics of their planets and/or their binary stars. In this paper, I present the results of a study of the possibility of the existence of Earth-like objects in systems with multiple giant planets (namely Upsilon Andromedae, 47 UMa, GJ 876, and 55 Cnc) and discuss the dynamics of the newly discovered Neptune-size object in 55 Cnc system. I will also review habitable planet formation in binary systems and present the results of a systematic search of the parameter-space for which Earth-like objects can form and maintain long-term stable orbits in the habitable zones of binary stars.

  17. Associations of IFN-? rs2430561 T/A, IL28B rs12979860 C/T and ER? rs2077647 T/C polymorphisms with outcomes of hepatitis B virus infection: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaidi; Yue, Ming; Wang, Jiajia; Zhang, Yun; Yu, Rongbin; Su, Jing; Peng, Zhihang; Wang, Jie

    2014-11-01

    Several studies investigated associations of IFN-? rs2430561 T/A, IL28B rs12979860 C/T and ER? rs2077647 T/C gene polymorphisms with outcomes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but the results were controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of all published observational studies to address this inconsistency. Literature was searched in online database and a systematic review was conducted based on the search results. A total of 24 studies were included and dichotomous data were presented as odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The rs2430561 T allele was associated with reduced persistent HBV infection risk (T vs. A: OR, 0.690; 95% CI, [0.490, 0.971]), while the rs2077647 T allele significantly increased the risk of persistent HBV infection (T vs. C: OR, 1.678; 95% CI, [1.212, 2.323]). Rs 2077647 CC might play a role in protecting individuals against HBV persistence (TT vs. CC: OR, 4.109; 95% CI, [2.609, 6.473]). Furthermore, carriers of the rs2430561 TT genotype were more likely to clear HBV spontaneously compared with those of the AA genotype (TT vs. AA: OR, 0.555; 95% CI, [0.359, 0.856]). For rs12979860 C/T polymorphism, no significant correlation with HBV infection outcomes was found. In subgroup analyses, the results were similar to those of overall analysis. However, for rs2077647 TT vs. TC+CC, significantly increased risks were observed in the Asian and hospital-based population, but not in the overall analysis. IFN-? rs2430561 T/A and ER? rs2077647 T/C genetic polymorphisms were associated with outcomes of HBV infection, but no association was found between IL28B rs12979860 C/T and HBV infection. PMID:25469118

  18. Milliarcsecond N-Band Observations of the Nova RS Ophiuchi: First Science with the Keck Interferometer Nuller

    E-print Network

    R. K. Barry; W. C. Danchi; W. A. Traub; J. L. Sokoloski; J. P. Wisniewski; E. Serabyn; M. J. Kuchner; R. Akeson; E. Appleby; J. Bell; A. Booth; H. Brandenburg; M. Colavita; S. Crawford; M. Creech-Eakman; W. Dahl; C. Felizardo; J. Garcia; J. Gathright; M. A. Greenhouse; J. Herstein; E. Hovland; M. Hrynevych; C. Koresko; R. Ligon; B. Mennesson; R. Millan-Gabet; D. Morrison; D. Palmer; T. Panteleeva; S. Ragland; M. Shao; R. Smythe; K. Summers; M. Swain; K. Tsubota; C. Tyau; G. Vasisht; E. Wetherell; P. Wizinowich; J. Woillez

    2008-01-27

    We report observations of the nova RS Ophiuchi (RS Oph) using the Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN), approximately 3.8 days following the most recent outburst that occurred on 2006 February 12. These observations represent the first scientific results from the KIN, which operates in N-band from 8 to 12.5 microns in a nulling mode. By fitting the unique KIN data, we have obtained an angular size of the mid-infrared continuum of 6.2, 4.0, or 5.4 mas for a disk profile, gaussian profile (FWHM), and shell profile respectively. The data show evidence of enhanced neutral atomic hydrogen emission and atomic metals including silicon located in the inner spatial regime near the white dwarf (WD) relative to the outer regime. There are also nebular emission lines and evidence of hot silicate dust in the outer spatial region, centered at ! 17 AU from the WD, that are not found in the inner regime. Our evidence suggests that these features have been excited by the nova flash in the outer spatial regime before the blast wave reached these regions. These identifications support a model in which the dust appears to be present between outbursts and is not created during the outburst event. We further discuss the present results in terms of a unifying model of the system that includes an increase in density in the plane of the orbit of the two stars created by a spiral shock wave caused by the motion of the stars through the cool wind of the red giant star. These data show the power and potential of the nulling technique which has been developed for the detection of Earth-like planets around nearby stars for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission and Darwin missions.

  19. Investigation of IL-21 gene polymorphisms (rs2221903, rs2055979) in cases with multiple sclerosis of Azerbaijan, Northwest Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gharibi, Tohid; Kazemi, Tohid; Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Almasi, Shohreh; Dehghanzadeh, Rashedeh; seyfizadeh, Narges; Babaloo, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the Central Nervous System that is immunologically mediated in genetically susceptible individuals. IL-21, a cytokine produced by TCD4+ cells, particularly by Th-17 cells, is believed to play an important role in the MS pathogenesis. Objective: This study was performed to investigate the impact of genetic polymorphisms in IL-21 gene on MS susceptibility and clinical profiles. Methods: Seventy Iranian patients with clinically definite relapsing-remitting MS and 110 age, sex and ethic matched controls were genotyped for IL-21 gene polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP method. Results: Our results showed that the IL-21 rs2221903 SNP is not polymorphic in our population. Also, the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the IL-21 rs2055979 did not differ significantly between the MS patients and controls (P = 0.413 and P = 0.565 respectively, and OR = 1.122, 95% CI = 0.79-1.87 for T allele). However, our results showed that IL-21 rs2055979 (G/T) T allele positive (TT+GT) MS patients had lower (PI ? 1.5) disease progression compared to rs2055979 T allele negative (GG) patients (P = 0.009). Conclusion: Our results showed that no outstanding association exists between IL-21 alleles and susceptibility to MS. However, our clinical analysis showed significant association of IL-21 gene polymorphism with the progression of multiple sclerosis disease. Our results indicate that the G allele promotes, or the T allele protects against disease progression. To clarify the role of IL-21 rs2055979 in MS pathogenesis, further comprehensive studies with larger sample sizes among different ethnicity populations are recommended. PMID:26155434

  20. Strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alcock, Charles; Farhi, Edward; Olinto, Angela

    1986-01-01

    Strange matter, a form of quark matter that is postulated to be absolute stable, may be the true ground stage of the hadrons. If this hypothesis is correct, neutron stars may convert to 'strange stars'. The mass-radius relation for strange stars is very different from that of neutron stars; there is no minimum mass, and for mass of 1 solar mass or less, mass is proportional to the cube of the radius. For masses between 1 solar mass and 2 solar masses, the radii of strange stars are about 10 km, as for neutron stars. Strange stars may have an exposed quark surface, which is capable of radiating at rates greatly exceeding the Eddington limit, but has a low emissivity for X-ray photons. The stars may have a thin crust with the same composition as the preneutron drip outer layer of a conventional neutron star crust. Strange stars cool efficiently via neutrino emission.

  1. Stars and Star Myths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Oliver

    Myths and tales from around the world about constellations and facts about stars in the constellations are presented. Most of the stories are from Greek and Roman mythology; however, a few Chinese, Japanese, Polynesian, Arabian, Jewish, and American Indian tales are also included. Following an introduction, myths are presented for the following 32…

  2. Narcolepsy goes to school: the three Rs for school nurses.

    PubMed

    Gow, Monica

    2014-03-01

    The sleep disorder narcolepsy most often first appears in the teen years. It can dash the dreams of optimistic, intelligent students. It can make some students the target of nasty jokes and bullying, leaving them depressed and socially isolated. It can challenge children's self-esteem, and lowered self-esteem may last a lifetime. Typically, children with narcolepsy gain weight and have no interest in participating in anything. Many constantly feel extreme tiredness, and they may experience cataplexy. School nurses and teachers can help if they know the symptoms and practice the 3 Rs of narcolepsy: Recognize the symptoms of narcolepsy; Respect that narcolepsy is a lifelong, serious sleep disorder that needs treatment; and Refer students who exhibit symptoms to medical professionals. The 3 Rs will help students living with this lifelong disorder to get a fair shake in life's academic, social, and career arenas. PMID:24707660

  3. Radiation Dry Bias of the Vaisala RS92 Humidity Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vomel, H.; Selkirk, H.; Miloshevich, L.; Valverde-Canossa, J.; Valdes, J.; Kyro, E.; Kivi, R.; Stolz, W.; Peng, G.; Diaz, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    The comparison of simultaneous humidity measurements by the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde and by the Cryogenic Frostpoint Hygrometer (CFH) launched at Alajuela, Cosla Rica, during July 2005 reveals a large solar radiation dry bias of the Vaisala RS92 humidity sensor and a minor temperature-dependent calibration error. For soundings launched at solar zenith angles between 10" and 30 , the average dry bias is on the order of 9% at the surface and increases to 50% at 15 km. A simple pressure- and temperature-dependent correction based on the comparison with the CFH can reduce this error to less than 7% at all altitudes up to 15.2 km, which is 700 m below the tropical tropopause. The correction does not depend on relative humidity, but is able to reproduce the relative humidity distribution observed by the CFH.

  4. Predicting pKa for proteins using COSMO-RS.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Jensen, Jan Halborg; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2013-01-01

    We have used the COSMO-RS implicit solvation method to calculate the equilibrium constants, pKa, for deprotonation of the acidic residues of the ovomucoid inhibitor protein, OMTKY3. The root mean square error for comparison with experimental data is only 0.5 pH units and the maximum error 0.8 pH units. The results show that the accuracy of pKa prediction using COSMO-RS is as good for large biomolecules as it is for smaller inorganic and organic acids and that the method compares very well to previous pKa predictions of the OMTKY3 protein using Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics. Our approach works well for systems of about 1000 atoms or less, which makes it useful for small proteins as well as for investigating portions of larger proteins such as active sites in enzymes. PMID:24244915

  5. Combined XRR and RS Measurements of Nickel Silicide Films

    SciTech Connect

    Gonchond, J.-P.; Cacho, F.; Wyon, C.; Rolland, G.; Braeckelmann, G.; Kwakman, L.F.Tz.; Tsach, Y.; Agnihotri, D.K.; Formica, J.P.

    2005-09-09

    X ray reflectivity (XRR) is shown to be well suited to measure the thickness of NiSi films annealed at different temperatures. The phase transformation during the silicide reaction at different spike annealing temperatures (310 deg. C-450 deg. C) has been characterized by measuring the sheet resistance (Rs). Combining Rs and XRR measurements, the resistivity of the nickel silicide is deduced, showing a factor {approx}3 difference between the high-resistivity Ni2Si phase and the low-resistivity NiSi phase. A measured 49-point contour map shows wafer non-uniformity <1% for the resistivity of NiSi. X ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the co-existence of both phases at the intermediate annealing temperatures.

  6. Another functional frame-shift polymorphism of DEFB126 (rs11467497) associated with male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shiwei; Shi, Changgeng; Chen, Guowu; Zheng, Ju-fen; Wu, Bin; Diao, Hua; Ji, Lindan; Gu, Yihua; Xin, Aijie; Wu, Yancheng; Zhou, Weijin; Miao, Maohua; Xu, Limin; Li, Zheng; Yuan, Yao; Wang, Peng; Shi, Huijuan

    2015-01-01

    DEFB126 rs140685149 mutation was shown to cause sperm dysfunction and subfertility. Indel rs11467497 is another 4-nucleotide frame-shift mutation (151bp upstream of rs140685149) that leads to the premature termination of translation and the expression of peptide truncated at the carboxyl terminus. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive association study to check the contribution of rs140685149 and rs11467497 to male infertility. Our results confirmed the previous findings that there was no association between rs140685149 and sperm motility. In contrast, we found a significant association of another indel rs11467497 with male infertility. Moreover, rs11467497 was shown to be associated with higher number of round cells in the infertile males with low sperm motility. Surprisingly, the two mutations commonly existed in the sperm donors (n = 672), suggesting a potential application of the two indels in the screening for eligible sperm donors. Western blotting assays showed the sperms with rs140685149 2-nt deletion tended to have unstable DEFB126 protein in contrast of no DEFB126 protein expressed in the sperms with rs11467497 4-nt deletion, suggesting a more severe consequence caused by rs11467497 mutation. In conclusion, our study presented a significant contribution of another functional frame-shift polymorphism of DEFB126 (rs11467497) to male infertility. PMID:25721098

  7. Higher Curvature Effects in ADD and RS Models

    E-print Network

    Thomas G. Rizzo

    2006-07-05

    Over the last few years several extra-dimensional models have been introduced in attempt to deal with the hierarchy problem. These models can lead to rather unique and spectacular signatures at Terascale colliders such as the LHC and ILC. The ADD and RS models, though quite distinct, have many common feature including a constant curvature bulk, localized Standard Model(SM) fields and the assumption of the validity of the EH action as a description of gravitational interactions.

  8. Higher Curvature Effects in the ADD and RS Models

    SciTech Connect

    Rizzo, Thomas G.; /SLAC

    2006-07-05

    Over the last few years several extra-dimensional models have been introduced in attempt to deal with the hierarchy problem. These models can lead to rather unique and spectacular signatures at Terascale colliders such as the LHC and ILC. The ADD and RS models, though quite distinct, have many common feature including a constant curvature bulk, localized Standard Model(SM) fields and the assumption of the validity of the EH action as a description of gravitational interactions.

  9. Fast H? emission line variability in RS Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worters, H. L.; Rushton, M. T.

    2014-08-01

    We present optical spectroscopy of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi with time resolutions of ˜6, ˜5 and ˜2 min. In contrast to previous high time resolution studies of the system, changes in the emission from H? are detected on time-scales as short as 2 min. Future high time resolution spectroscopy at a higher spectral resolution will be invaluable in determining the nature of the variation.

  10. The Nebulosity and Distance of the Cepheid RS Puppis

    E-print Network

    Feast, Michael W

    2008-01-01

    Adopting a distance for RS Pup derived from a period-luminosity relation based on Cepheid parallaxes, it is shown that the phase-lag observations of the surrounding nebulosity by Kervella et al. are well fitted by a model of an equatorial disc at an angle of 8.1 $\\pm$ 0.6 degrees to the plane of the sky. The astrophysical implications of this are briefly mentioned.

  11. The Nebulosity and Distance of the Cepheid RS Puppis

    E-print Network

    Michael W. Feast

    2008-04-01

    Adopting a distance for RS Pup derived from a period-luminosity relation based on Cepheid parallaxes, it is shown that the phase-lag observations of the surrounding nebulosity by Kervella et al. are well fitted by a model of an equatorial disc at an angle of 8.1 $\\pm$ 0.6 degrees to the plane of the sky. The astrophysical implications of this are briefly mentioned.

  12. IL-4 receptor alpha single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs1805010 and rs1801275 are associated with increased risk of asthma in a Saudi Arabian population

    PubMed Central

    Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Alzaabi, Ashraf; Al-Hajjaj, Mohamed S.; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan H.; Halwani, Rabih

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The IL-4 receptor alpha subunit (IL-4R?), when associated with the common gamma chain receptor, or the IL-13R?1 subunit, transduces signals to STAT6 in response to IL-4 and IL-13 stimulations. This results in a number of cell-specific responses including Th2 differentiation, lymphocyte proliferation and IgE production. Given the prominent role of IL-4R? in allergic disorders, several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been found associated with asthma and other atopic disorders, including rs1805010 (I75V) and rs1801275 (Q576R) SNPs; however, lack of significant association have also been reported for some ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to determine whether IL-4R? rs1805010 and rs1801275 polymorphisms are associated with asthma in patients from Saudi Arabia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and ninety severe asthmatic patients (11-70 years old) and 194 healthy subjects of equivalent age range were recruited for blood donation. DNA was purified and genotyping for rs1801275 and rs1805010 polymorphisms in the IL-4R? gene was performed by PCR amplification, followed by cycle sequencing of the purified PCR fragments using BigDye chain terminator and capillary electrophoresis. RESULTS: Pearson's Chi-square tests showed that the minor alleles, G, for both rs1805010 and rs1801275 SNPs, were significantly more frequent in asthmatics than in the healthy group (Yates’ P < 0.05); conversely, the major alleles, A, were significantly more frequent in healthy than in asthmatics (P < 0.05). Concerning association analysis, odds for A/G-G/G genotypes were significantly higher to be associated with asthma predisposition (rs1801275: OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 1.39-3.22; P < 0.001*; rs1805010: OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.01-2.53; P < 0.05*; dominant model). Analysis of gender-genotype interactions, with genders nested within A/G-G/G, indicated higher odds for females than males of significant association with asthma (rs1801275: OR = 5.19, 95% CI = 2.09-12.94*; rs1805010: OR = 3.73, 95% CI = 2.06-6.74*). Rs1805010 and rs1801275 were in linkage disequilibrium (D’ = 0.27; P < 0.0004*), with G-G haplotype being more frequent in asthmatics than in healthy subjects (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.59-3.71*). CONCLUSIONS: The risk alleles, G, of IL-4R? rs1805010 and rs1801275 SNPs and corresponding A/G-G/G genotypes were significantly associated with asthma predisposition in asthmatics from Saudi Arabia. PMID:24791170

  13. The circumstellar envelopes of the Cepheids ? Carinae and RS Puppis . Comparative study in the infrared with Spitzer, VLT/VISIR, and VLTI/MIDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kervella, P.; Mérand, A.; Gallenne, A.

    2009-05-01

    Context: Compact circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) have been detected around several Cepheids by interferometry. In particular, observations with the VINCI instrument revealed in 2006 a compact envelope around the long period Cepheid ? Car (P = 35.5 days). Another Cepheid, RS Pup (P = 41.4 days), presents a large (?2 arcmin) circumstellar nebula scattering the Cepheid light in the visible. These envelopes are particularly interesting for two reasons: their presence could impact the Cepheid distance scale, and they could imply stellar mass loss. Aims: Our goal is to establish the spatial and spectral properties of the CSEs of ? Car and RS Pup. This is done through a parametrization of the envelopes in terms of fractional flux (with respect to the star) and angular size. Methods: We retrieved archival Spitzer images of the two stars (? = 3.5-70 ?m), and obtained new diffraction-limited imaging with the VLT/VISIR camera in BURST mode (? = 8.6-11.9 ?m), as well as interferometric observations with the VLTI/MIDI beam combiner (? = 8-13 ?m). This combination of single-telescope and interferometric techniques allows us to probe the envelopes of the two Cepheids over a broad range of angular scales, from arcminutes to milliarcseconds. Results: The circumstellar envelope of RS Pup is resolved spatially at 24 and 70 ?m by Spitzer, and around 10 ?m by MIDI and VISIR. The envelope of ? Car appears much more compact, and is resolved only in the VISIR and MIDI observations. The infrared excesses we detect around RS Pup and ? Car are both very significant, but differ considerably in spectral and spatial properties. We detect a warm component in the CSE of both stars at a spatial scale of a few 100 to a few 1000 AU. In addition, RS Pup presents a very large (several 100 000 AU) and cold (?40 K) dusty envelope. Conclusions: The observed properties of the CSEs lead us to propose that the cold dust content of the large reflection nebula surrounding RS Pup has an interstellar origin, while the warm CSEs of the two stars were created by ongoing stellar mass loss. We also speculate that the NGC 7023 reflection nebula surrounding the Herbig Be star HD 200775 is an analogue of RS Pup at an age of 100 000 years. The presence of CSEs around the two brightest long-period Cepheids is an indication that many long-period members of this class, if not all, could be surrounded by warm circumstellar envelopes created by mass loss. However, very large dusty envelopes such as that of RS Pup are probably less common, as according to our scenario, they require the presence of a high dust density in the interstellar medium (ISM) at the time of the formation of the Cepheid progenitor. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at Paranal Observatory, under ESO programs 073.D-0142(B), 077.D-0500(A), 078.D-0739(B), 078.D-0739(D) and 081.D-0165(A).

  14. Pulsating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catelan, M.; Smith, H. A.

    2015-03-01

    This book surveys our understanding of stars which change in brightness because they pulsate. Pulsating variable stars are keys to distance scales inside and beyond the Milky Way galaxy. They test our understanding not only of stellar pulsation theory but also of stellar structure and evolution theory. Moreover, pulsating stars are important probes of the formation and evolution of our own and neighboring galaxies. Our understanding of pulsating stars has greatly increased in recent years as large-scale surveys of pulsating stars in the Milky Way and other Local Group galaxies have provided a wealth of new observations and as space-based instruments have studied particular pulsating stars in unprecedented detail.

  15. The Functional TP53 rs1042522 and MDM4 rs4245739 Genetic Variants Contribute to Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Risk

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chuanbo; Wei, Jinyu; Yuan, Chenglu; Wang, Xin; Jiang, Chuanwu; Zhou, Changchun; Yang, Ming

    2014-01-01

    As a heterogeneous kind of malignances, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common hematologic cancer worldwide with the significantly increased morbidity in China. Accumulated evidences demonstrated that oncoprotein MDM4 plays a crucial role in the TP53 tumor suppressor signaling pathway. An rs4245739 A>C polymorphism locating in the MDM4 3?-untranslated region creates a miR-191 target site and results in allele-specific MDM4 expression. In this study, we examined the association between this polymorphism as well as the TP53 Arg72Pro (rs1042522 G>C) genetic variant and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) risk in a Chinese Han population. Genotypes were determined in 200 NHL cases and 400 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by logistic regression. We found significantly increased NHL risk among carriers of the TP53 72Pro allele compared with those with the 72Arg allele (P?=?0.002 for the Pro/Pro genotype). We also observed a significantly decreased NHL risks among carriers of the MDM4 rs4245739 C allele compared with those with the A allele in Chinese (P?=?0.014 for the AC genotype). Stratified analyses revealed the associations between these SNPs and NHL risk are especially noteworthy in young or male individuals. Additionally, the associations are much pronounced in NHL patients with B-cell lymphomas or grade 3 or 4 disease. Our results indicate that the TP53 Arg72Pro and the MDM4 rs4245739 polymorphisms contribute to NHL susceptibility and support the hypothesis that genetic variants in the TP53 pathway genes can act as important modifiers of NHL risk. PMID:25203442

  16. The long-period Galactic Cepheid RS Puppis - II. 3D structure and mass of the nebula from VLT/FORS polarimetry

    E-print Network

    Kervella, P; Szabados, L; Sparks, W B; Havlen, R J; Bond, H E; Pompei, E; Fouqué, P; Bersier, D; Cracraft, M

    2012-01-01

    The long-period Cepheid RS Pup is surrounded by a large dusty nebula reflecting the light from the central star. Due to the changing luminosity of the central source, light echoes propagate into the nebula. This remarkable phenomenon was the subject of Paper I.The origin and physical properties of the nebula are however uncertain: it may have been created through mass loss from the star itself, or it could be the remnant of a pre-existing interstellar cloud. Our goal is to determine the 3D structure of the nebula, and estimate its mass. Knowing the geometrical shape of the nebula will also allow us to retrieve the distance of RS Pup in an unambiguous manner using a model of its light echoes (in a forthcoming work). The scattering angle of the Cepheid light in the circumstellar nebula can be recovered from its degree of linear polarization. We thus observed the nebula surrounding RS Pup using the polarimetric imaging mode of the VLT/FORS instrument, and obtained a map of the degree and position angle of linear...

  17. Natural antioxidants exhibit chemopreventive characteristics through the regulation of CNC-bZip transcription factors in estrogen-induced breast carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anwesha; Ronghe, Amruta; Singh, Bhupendra; Bhat, Nimee K.; Chen, Jie; Bhat, Hari K.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterize the role of resveratrol (Res) and vitamin C (VC) in prevention of estrogen-induced breast cancer through regulation of CNC b-zip transcription factors. Human breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A was treated with 17?-estradiol (E2) and VC or Res with or without E2. mRNA and protein expression levels of CNC b-zip transcription factors: Nrf1, Nrf2, Nrf3 and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes SOD3 and NQO1 were quantified. Treatment with E2 suppressed while VC and Res prevented E2-mediated decrease in the expression levels of SOD3, NQO1, Nrf2 mRNA and protein in MCF-10A cells. Treatment with E2, Res or VC significantly increased mRNA and protein expression levels of Nrf1. 17?-estradiol treatment significantly increased but VC or Res decreased Nrf3 mRNA and protein expression levels. Our studies demonstrate that estrogen-induced breast cancer might be prevented through up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes via Nrf-dependent pathways. PMID:25130429

  18. Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livio, Mario; Villaver, Eva

    2009-11-01

    Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Eva Villaver; 1. High-mass star formation by gravitational collapse of massive cores M. R. Krumholz; 2. Observations of massive star formation N. A. Patel; 3. Massive star formation in the Galactic center D. F. Figer; 4. An X-ray tour of massive star-forming regions with Chandra L. K. Townsley; 5. Massive stars: feedback effects in the local universe M. S. Oey and C. J. Clarke; 6. The initial mass function in clusters B. G. Elmegreen; 7. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies B. C. Whitmore; 8. On the binarity of Eta Carinae T. R. Gull; 9. Parameters and winds of hot massive stars R. P. Kudritzki and M. A. Urbaneja; 10. Unraveling the Galaxy to find the first stars J. Tumlinson; 11. Optically observable zero-age main-sequence O stars N. R. Walborn; 12. Metallicity-dependent Wolf-Raynet winds P. A. Crowther; 13. Eruptive mass loss in very massive stars and Population III stars N. Smith; 14. From progenitor to afterlife R. A. Chevalier; 15. Pair-production supernovae: theory and observation E. Scannapieco; 16. Cosmic infrared background and Population III: an overview A. Kashlinsky.

  19. Association between rs7517847 and rs2201841 polymorphisms in IL-23 receptor gene and risk of ankylosing spondylitis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Ma, Jian-xiong; Jia, Hao-bo; Feng, Rui; Xu, Li-yan

    2015-01-01

    To comprehensively evaluate the association between rs7517847 and rs2201841 polymorphisms in the Interleukin-23 (IL-23) receptor gene and ankylosing spondylitis (AS), a meta-analysis was performed. The Pubmed, Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, Wanfang and China Biology Medicine disc (CBMdisc) databases were searched to identify eligible studies on rs7517847 and rs2201841 polymorphisms in the IL-23 receptor gene and AS that were published through September 2014. Data of interest were extracted from each study, and the meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. Four studies were eligible for the meta-analysis and included a total patient population of 2,465. With regards to rs7517847, the current study showed that the genotype GG and allele G might play a protective role during AS (OR = 0.76, 95% CI [0.59–0.99]; OR = 0.88, 95% CI [0.78–0.99] for homozygote and allelic models, respectively). However, according to the meta-analysis, there was no statistical association between the genotype or allele of rs2201841 and an individual’s susceptibility to AS in all genetic models. In conclusion, it was the IL-23 rs7517847 polymorphism rather than the rs2201841 polymorphism that had a statistical association with AS. Nevertheless, more evidence is needed to confirm this result. Consequently, it is necessary to carry out more high-quality studies to confirm the associations between these two single nucleotide polymorphisms and AS. PMID:25922796

  20. Association between two promoter polymorphisms (rs1893219 and rs1893220) of MC2R gene and intracerebral hemorrhage in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun-Kyung; Chon, Jinmann; Park, Hae Jeong; Chung, Joo-Ho; Baik, Hyung Hwan

    2015-08-18

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has an important role in the pathogenesis of stroke. We investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R), also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptor, were associated with the development of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in Korean population. Two promoter SNPs [rs1893219 (-853A/G) and rs1893220 (-759G/T)] were genotyped in 145 ICH patients and 331 control subjects using direct sequencing. Multiple logistic regression models were used to determine odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and p-values. Two SNPs were associated with the development of ICH (rs1893219, p=0.003 in log-additive model, p=0.023 in dominant model, p=0.002 in recessive model; rs1893220, p=0.005 in log-additive model, p=0.021 in dominant model, p=0.003 in recessive model). The frequencies of the G allele of rs1893219 and the T allele of rs1893220 were decreased in ICH group compared to control group (p=0.003 and p=0.004, respectively). The frequencies of the AG and GT haplotypes comprised of rs1893219 and rs1893220 were also significantly different between the ICH and control groups (p=0.0026 and p=0.0034, respectively). These data suggest that the MC2R gene may contribute to the development of ICH. PMID:26115626

  1. Coordinated ultraviolet and radio observations of selected nearby stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1987-01-01

    All of the US2 shifts assigned were successfully completed with simultaneous International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and the Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the proposed target stars. The target stars included dwarf M flare stars and RS CVn stars. The combined ultraviolet (IUE) and microwave (VLA) observations have provided important new insights to the radiation mechanisms at these two widely-separated regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The VLA results included the discovery of narrow-band microwave radiation and rapid time variations in the microwave radiation of dwarf M flare stars. The results indicate that conventional radiation mechanisms cannot explain the microwave emission from these stars. In general, ultraviolet variations and bursts occur when no similar variations are detected at microwave wavelengths and vice versa. Although these is some overlap, the variations in these two spectral regions are usually uncorrelated, suggesting that there is little interaction between the activity centers at the two associated atmospheric levels.

  2. Non-Association between rs7903146 and rs12255372 Polymorphisms in Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Gene and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Jahrom City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pourahmadi, Mohammad; Moradzadeh, Malihe; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) is a transcription factor in the Wnt signaling pathway. High levels of TCF7L2 have been reported in most human tissues, including the heart, lung, brain, liver, kidney, placenta, adipose tissues, and pancreatic ?-cells. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between TCF7L2 polymorphisms (rs12255372 and rs7903146) and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the city of Jahrom, Iran. Methods This case-control study was conducted with 200 patients referred to Diabetes Clinics and 200 healthy subjects in Jahrom City. Biochemical characteristics were first determined. TCF7L2 rs1255372 and rs7903146 polymorphisms were then genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Results T-allele frequencies of both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in normal glucose-tolerant subjects (rs12255372: 20.3% vs. 14.5%; rs7903146: 28.5% vs. 22.25%). The rs12255372 (G/T) polymorphism analysis showed an odds ratio of 0.473 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.170 to 1.314; P=0.151) for the TT genotype and 0.646 (95% CI, 0.410 to 1.019; P=0.060) for the TG genotype, compared with the GG genotype. The rs7903146 (C/T) polymorphism odds ratios for TT and TC genotypes were 0.564 (95% CI, 0.280 to 1.135; P=0.109) and 0.751 (95% CI, 0.487 to 1.157; P=0.194) compared with the CC genotype, respectively. Conclusion The rs12255372 and rs7903146 SNPs of the TCF7L2 gene were not associated with insulin resistance in the evaluated population. PMID:26616591

  3. Creative implementation of 3Rs principles within industry programs: beyond regulations and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bratcher, Natalie A; Reinhard, Gregory R

    2015-03-01

    The industry involved with using animals as an essential part of research has supported the theory and philosophy of the 3Rs for years. However, both the culture and approach surrounding the 3Rs is evolving rapidly, and many institutions are attempting to surpass the regulations and guidelines to implement the 3Rs for improved science and animal welfare. Regulatory documents and guidelines such as the Animal Welfare Act, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the US Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training clearly outline how the IACUC should address the 3Rs, but there are many additional paradigms and resources that an institution can use to promote the 3Rs creatively. We review the legal mandates and guidelines that institutions must or should follow, and we present some creative approaches toward their compliance, including the creation of full-time dedicated 3Rs roles as well as temporary 3Rs-focused positions such as visiting scientist and postdoctoral fellowships and internships. We also discuss how to creatively achieve 3Rs progress through internal committees and working groups, involvement in 3Rs consortia, recognizing 3Rs advances through awards programs, and creating 3Rs volunteer opportunities. Adherence to regulations and guidelines creates a solid foundation for good animal care and science, and creative 3Rs approaches enable the growth of a robust animal welfare culture that enhances the potential for 3Rs benefits to animals and science. PMID:25836958

  4. Creative Implementation of 3Rs Principles within Industry Programs: Beyond Regulations and Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Bratcher, Natalie A; Reinhard, Gregory R

    2015-01-01

    The industry involved with using animals as an essential part of research has supported the theory and philosophy of the 3Rs for years. However, both the culture and approach surrounding the 3Rs is evolving rapidly, and many institutions are attempting to surpass the regulations and guidelines to implement the 3Rs for improved science and animal welfare. Regulatory documents and guidelines such as the Animal Welfare Act, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, and the US Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research, and Training clearly outline how the IACUC should address the 3Rs, but there are many additional paradigms and resources that an institution can use to promote the 3Rs creatively. We review the legal mandates and guidelines that institutions must or should follow, and we present some creative approaches toward their compliance, including the creation of full-time dedicated 3Rs roles as well as temporary 3Rs-focused positions such as visiting scientist and postdoctoral fellowships and internships. We also discuss how to creatively achieve 3Rs progress through internal committees and working groups, involvement in 3Rs consortia, recognizing 3Rs advances through awards programs, and creating 3Rs volunteer opportunities. Adherence to regulations and guidelines creates a solid foundation for good animal care and science, and creative 3Rs approaches enable the growth of a robust animal welfare culture that enhances the potential for 3Rs benefits to animals and science. PMID:25836958

  5. High-Resolution N-Band Observations of the Nova RS Ophiuchi with the Keck Interferometer Nuller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, R. K.; Danchi, W. C.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Koresko, C.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Serabyn, E.; Traub, W.; Kuchner, M.; Greenhouse, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    We report new observations of the nova RS Ophiuchi (RS Oph) using the Keck Interferometer Nulling Instrument, approximately 3.8 days following the most recent outburst that occurred on 2006 February 12. The Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) operates in K-band from 8 to 12.5 pm in a nulling mode, which means that the central broad-band interference fringe is a dark fringe - with an angular width of 25 mas at mid band - rather than the bright fringe used ill a conventional optical interferometer. In this mode the stellar light itself is suppressed by the destructive fringe, effectively enhancing the contrast of the circumstellar material located near the star. By subsequently shifting the neighboring bright fringe onto the center of the source brightness distribution and integrating, a second spatial regime dominated by light from the central portion of the source is almost simultaneously sampled. The nulling technique is the sparse aperture equivalent of the conventional corongraphic technique used in filled aperture telescopes. By fitting the unique KIK inner and outer spatial regime data, we have obtained an angular size of the mid-infrared continuum of 6.2, 4.0. or 5.4 mas for a disk profile, gaussian profile (fwhm), and shell profile respectively. The data show evidence of enhanced neutral atomic hydrogen emission located in the inner spatial regime relative to the outer regime. There is also evidence of a 9.7 micron silicate feature seen outside of this region. Importantly, we see spectral lines excited by the nova flash in the outer region before the blast wave reaches these regions. These lines are from neutral, weakly excited atoms which support the following interpretation. We discuss the present results in terms of a unifying model of the system that includes an increase in density in the plane of the orbit of the two stars created by a spiral shock wave caused by the motion of the stars through the cool wind of the red giant star. These data show the power and potential of the nulling technique which has been developed for the detection of Earth-like planets around nearby stars for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission and Darwin missions.

  6. Photometric and Ca II H and K Spectroscopic Variations in Nearby Sun-like Stars with Planets. III.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Gregory W.; Baliunas, Sallie L.; Donahue, Robert A.; Fekel, Francis C.; Soon, Willie

    2000-03-01

    We present the results of an analysis of time-series photometry, Ca II H and K spectrophotometry, and high-dispersion visible spectra of nine nearby Sun-like stars recently identified as having planets. For the six stars whose presumed planets have orbital periods of less than 4 months (? Boo, 51 Peg, ? And, ?1 Cnc, ? CrB, and 70 Vir), sine-curve fits to the photometric data show no variations with semiamplitude greater than 1 or 2 parts in 104. Photometric variations in 47 UMa are similarly small, although our photometric data of this star are slightly affected by variability of the comparison star. Nonvariability at this level of precision is sufficient to rule out surface magnetic activity as the cause of the observed radial-velocity variations in these seven stars and makes nonradial pulsations unlikely as well. Thus, our photometry provides indirect but strong support for true reflex motions-planets-in these seven stars, but cannot yet so support the planetary hypothesis for the two additional stars, 16 Cyg B and Gl 411. Continued photometric monitoring of the short-period systems may soon result in the direct detection of these planets in reflected light. We have used our photometric fluxes to search for possible transits of the extrasolar planets. Transits definitely do not occur in ? Boo, 51 Peg, ? And, and ?1 Cnc, and probably do not occur in ? CrB and 70 Vir. Our transit-search results are inconclusive for 47 UMa, and we cannot address the issue for 16 Cyg B and Gl 411. The precision of our photometry is sufficient to detect transits of planets even if they are not gas giants, as currently assumed, but much smaller objects with rocky compositions. The chance of finding at least one transit in the six stars is ~40%. We find significant year-to-year photometric variability only in ? Boo, which is not only the youngest star in the sample but also the star with the shallowest convective zone. The interseasonal range in its yearly mean photometric flux is ~0.002 mag, roughly twice the 0.0008 mag decadal variation in the Sun's total irradiance. Monitoring of the relative Ca II H and K fluxes began between 1966 and 1968 for 51 Peg, ? Boo, ? CrB, and Gl 411, between 1990 and 1993 for 47 UMa, 70 Vir, 16 Cyg B, and ?1 Cnc, and in 1996 for ? And. The data have been newly recalibrated for improved long-term instrumental stability, resulting in better precision of the Ca II records. Five of the nine stars in this study have little or no detectable year-to-year variation in Ca II flux. The remaining four show moderate or pronounced variability: ? Boo, whose radial-velocity and photometric variations have comparatively high amplitudes; Gl 411, whose planetary companion was inferred astrometrically, not spectroscopically; ?1 Cnc, which may undergo decadal cyclic activity; and ? And, which shows moderate year-to-year variability. Except for 47 UMa, intraseasonal variability consistent with rotation was detected in the Ca II records of all stars. However, the rotation periods determined for ? And, 70 Vir, and 16 Cyg B are of low confidence. An examination of the recalibrated Ca II records for 51 Peg finds a rotation period of 22 days, in contrast to our previous result of 37 days. Ages have been estimated from the mean Ca II flux and, where possible, the rotation period. We find general consistency with the ages determined by others comparing properties determined from high-resolution spectroscopy to evolutionary models, although the uncertainties are, in general, large. Based on observations made at Mount Wilson Observatory, operated by the Mount Wilson Institute, under an agreement with the Carnegie Institution of Washington and the automatic photoelectric telescope at Fairborn Observatory in the Patagonia Mountains of southern Arizona.

  7. Effects of APOE rs429358, rs7412 and GSTM1/GSTT1 Polymorphism on Plasma and Erythrocyte Antioxidant Parameters and Cognition in Old Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Linhong; Liu, Jinmeng; Dong, Li; Cai, Can; Wang, Sisi; Wang, Bo; Xiao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and oxidative damage were correlated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphism was proved to be associated with body antioxidant capacity and involved in the oxidative damage related chronic diseases. To explore the combined effects of APOE rs429358, rs7412 and GSTM1/T1 polymorphism on antioxidant parameters and cognition in old Chinese adults, a community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 Chinese adults aged from 55 to 75. Information on demography and lifestyle of the participants was collected with a questionnaire. Cognitive function was measured by using a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. Fasting venous blood samples were collected for APOE rs429358, rs7412 and GSTM1/T1 genotyping, and parameter measurement. No association of APOE rs7412, rs429358 and GSTM1/T1 polymorphisms with cognition was detected in the old Chinese adults. APOE rs429358, rs7412 polymorphism was mainly associated with plasma ?-tocopherol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels (p < 0.05). Interaction of APOE rs429358 and GSTT1 genotype on the plasma triglyceride (TG) level and erythrocyte catalase (CAT) and GST enzyme activities were detected (p < 0.05). The subjects with APOE rs429358 T/C + C/C and GSTT1- genotype were found to have the highest plasma TG level, erythrocyte CAT enzyme activity, and the lowest GST enzyme activity compared to subjects with other genotypes (p < 0.05). Lowest erythrocyte CAT enzyme activity and highest glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity were detected in the subjects with APOE rs7412 T/C + T/T and GSTM1+ genotype as compared with subjects with other genotypes. The levels of plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters were APOE genotype associated. GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotype modified the influence of APOE rs7412, rs429358 polymorphism on antioxidant parameters. PMID:26404360

  8. Effects of APOE rs429358, rs7412 and GSTM1/GSTT1 Polymorphism on Plasma and Erythrocyte Antioxidant Parameters and Cognition in Old Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Linhong; Liu, Jinmeng; Dong, Li; Cai, Can; Wang, Sisi; Wang, Bo; Xiao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) and oxidative damage were correlated with the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphism was proved to be associated with body antioxidant capacity and involved in the oxidative damage related chronic diseases. To explore the combined effects of APOE rs429358, rs7412 and GSTM1/T1 polymorphism on antioxidant parameters and cognition in old Chinese adults, a community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 Chinese adults aged from 55 to 75. Information on demography and lifestyle of the participants was collected with a questionnaire. Cognitive function was measured by using a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. Fasting venous blood samples were collected for APOE rs429358, rs7412 and GSTM1/T1 genotyping, and parameter measurement. No association of APOE rs7412, rs429358 and GSTM1/T1 polymorphisms with cognition was detected in the old Chinese adults. APOE rs429358, rs7412 polymorphism was mainly associated with plasma ?-tocopherol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels (p < 0.05). Interaction of APOE rs429358 and GSTT1 genotype on the plasma triglyceride (TG) level and erythrocyte catalase (CAT) and GST enzyme activities were detected (p < 0.05). The subjects with APOE rs429358 T/C + C/C and GSTT1? genotype were found to have the highest plasma TG level, erythrocyte CAT enzyme activity, and the lowest GST enzyme activity compared to subjects with other genotypes (p < 0.05). Lowest erythrocyte CAT enzyme activity and highest glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity were detected in the subjects with APOE rs7412 T/C + T/T and GSTM1+ genotype as compared with subjects with other genotypes. The levels of plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters were APOE genotype associated. GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotype modified the influence of APOE rs7412, rs429358 polymorphism on antioxidant parameters. PMID:26404360

  9. VIIRS Aerosol Products During the SEAC4RS Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remer, L. A.; Munchak, L. A.; Huang, J.; Martins, J. V.; Espinosa, R.; Orozco, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Studies of Emissions, Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) field experiment that took place during August and September 2013 offered an in depth portrait of the aerosol system over much of the continental United States. Heavily instrumented aircraft, including the NASA DC-8 sampled a wide variety of aerosol types including transported Saharan dust, both fresh and aged smoke from western wildfires, urban pollution plumes and also biogenic aerosol produced by the "green volcano" in the vegetated Ozarks. Complementing these aircraft measurements was an enhanced array of AERONET stations sprinkled across the country and also concentrated in a mesoscale array near the home base of Houston Texas. This rich collection of suborbital aerosol information permits a more comprehensive evaluation of the VIIRS aerosol product that includes validation of the products across the mesoscale and choices of case studies in which we can delve deeper into the VIIRS retrieval to test algorithm assumptions. We will compare VIIRS retrievals during SEAC4RS with MODIS retrievals, with AERONET observations and retrievals, and with measurements and retrievals from the Polar Imaging Nephelometer (PI-Neph) that flew aboard the NASA DC-8.

  10. Energy Star 

    E-print Network

    Reihl, K.; Tullos, A.

    2012-01-01

    Conference, Galveston, TX, October 9-11, 2012 Next Step: Energy Star Label ? Application Process ? Use of portfolio manager (EPA?s energy tracking tool) ? Utility Bills, Normalize climate conditions ? Professional Engineer performance verification... ? Use portfolio manager tool to achieve minimum rating of 69 ? EAc1.0 ? Optimize Energy Performance ? Use portfolio manager tool to achieve points, as listed below: Energy Star Rating LEED Points Energy Star Rating LEED Points 71 1 81 10 73 2...

  11. rs3806268 of NLRP3 gene polymorphism is associated with the development of primary gout

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jianping; Lin, Wen; Chen, Yunpeng; Wang, Xin; Yin, Zhong; Yao, Chunhong; Liu, Tangbing; Lv, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between seven functional SNPs in NALP3 gene and the susceptibility to primary gout. A total of 247 patients with primary gout and 247 controls were selected in this study. Genotyping of NALP3 rs4612666, rs3806268, rs12239046, rs10754558, rs7512998, rs12137901 and rs12565738 was performed using the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Comparison analysis showed that primary gout patients were more likely to have a higher body mass index, DBP, SBP, TG, urea nitrogen and uric acid (P < 0.05). According to logistic regression analysis, individuals carrying with the GG genotype of rs3806268 were associated with increased risk of primary gout when compared with the AA genotype (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.03-3.26). However, no significant associations were identified for the remaining SNPs. In conclusion, we found a significant association between rs3806268 in NLRP3 gene and the risk of primary gout in a Chinese population. Further clinical and genetic studies are required to investigate the mechanisms underlying the association between NALP3 polymorphisms and the development of primary gout. PMID:26722603

  12. HypoxamiRs and Cancer: From Biology to Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Harriet E.; Ivan, Cristina; Calin, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Hypoxia is a hallmark of the tumor microenvironment and represents a major source of failure in cancer therapy. Recent Advances: Recent work has generated extensive evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) are significant components of the adaptive response to low oxygen in tumors. Induction of specific miRNAs, collectively termed hypoxamiRs, has become an accepted feature of the hypoxic response in normal and transformed cells. Critical Issues: Overexpression of miR-210, the prototypical hypoxamiR, is detected in most solid tumors, and it has been linked to adverse prognosis in many tumor types. Several miR-210 target genes, including iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster scaffold protein (ISCU) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1-like (GPD1L), have been correlated with prognosis in an inverse fashion to miR-210, suggesting that their down- regulation by miR-210 occurs in vivo and contributes to tumor growth. Additional miRNAs are modulated by decreased oxygen tension in a more tissue-specific fashion, adding another level of complexity over the classic hypoxia-regulated gene network. Future Directions: From a biological standpoint, hypoxamiRs are emerging modifiers of cancer cell response to the adaptive challenges of the microenvironment. From a clinical perspective, assessing the status of these miRNAs may contribute to a detailed understanding of hypoxia-induced mechanisms of resistance and/or to the fine-tuning of future hypoxia-modifying therapies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1220–1238. PMID:24111776

  13. Radio stars.

    PubMed

    Hjellming, R M; Wade, C M

    1971-09-17

    Up to the present time six classes of radio stars have been established. The signals are almost always very faint and drastically variable. Hence their discovery has owed as much to serendipity as to the highly sophisticated equipment and techniques that have been used. When the variations are regular, as with the pulsars, this characteristic can be exploited very successfully in the search for new objects as well as in the detailed study of those that are already known. The detection of the most erratically variable radio stars, the flare stars and the x-ray stars, is primarily a matter of luck and patience. In the case of the novas, one at least knows where and oughly when to look for radio emission. A very sensitive interferometer is clearly the best instrument to use in the initial detection of a radio star. The fact that weak background sources are frequently present makes it essential to prove that the position of a radio source agrees with that of a star to within a few arc seconds. The potential of radio astronomy for the study of radio stars will not be realized until more powerful instruments than those that are available today can be utilized. So far, we have been able to see only the most luminous of the radio stars. PMID:17836594

  14. Einstein Observatory coronal temperatures of late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Collura, A.; Sciortino, S.; Vaiana, G. S.; Harnden, F. R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented of a survey of the coronal temperatures of late-type stars using the Einstein Observatory IPC. The spectral analysis shows that the frequently found one- and two-temperature descriptions are mainly influenced by the SNR of the data and that models using continuous emission measure distributions can provide equally adequate and physically more meaningful and more plausible descriptions. Intrinsic differences in differential emission measure distributions are found for four groups of stars. M dwarfs generally show evidence for high-temperature gas in conjunction with lower-temperature material, while main-sequence stars of types F and G have the high-temperature component either absent or very weak. Very hot coronae without the lower-temperature component appearing in dwarf stars are evident in most of the giant stars studied. RS CVn systems show evidence for extremely hot coronae, sometimes with no accompanying lower-temperature material.

  15. Polymorphisms in TRPV1 and TAS2Rs associate with sensations from sampled ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alissa L.; McGeary, John E.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic variation in chemosensory genes can explain variability in individual’s perception of and preference for many foods and beverages. To gain insight into variable preference and intake of alcoholic beverages, we explored individual variability in the responses to sampled ethanol. In humans, ethanol elicits sweet, bitter and burning sensations. Here, we explore the relationship between variation in ethanol sensations and polymorphisms in genes encoding bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) and a polymodal nociceptor (TRPV1). Methods Caucasian participants (n=93) were genotyped for 16 SNPs in TRPV1, 3 SNPs in TAS2R38 and 1 SNP in TAS2R13. Participants rated sampled ethanol on a generalized Labeled Magnitude Scale. Two stimuli were presented: a 16% ethanol whole mouth sip-and-spit solution with a single time-point rating of overall intensity, and a cotton swab saturated with 50% ethanol on the circumvallate papillae (CV) with repeated ratings made over 3 minutes. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the time-intensity data. Results The ethanol whole mouth solution had overall intensity ratings near ‘very strong’. Burning/stinging had the highest mean AUC values, followed by bitterness and sweetness. Whole mouth intensity ratings were significantly associated with burning/stinging and bitterness AUC values on the CV. Three TRPV1 SNPs (rs224547, rs4780521, rs161364) were associated with ethanol sensations on the CV, with two (rs224547 and rs4780521) exhibiting strong linkage disequilibrium. Additionally, the TAS2R38 SNPs rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939 formed a haplotype, and were associated with bitterness on the CV. Lastly, overall intensity for whole mouth ethanol associated with the TAS2R13 SNP rs1015443. Conclusions These data suggest genetic variations in TRPV1 and TAS2Rs influence sensations from sampled ethanol and may potentially influence how individuals initially respond to alcoholic beverages. PMID:25257701

  16. miR-449b rs10061133 and miR-4293 rs12220909 polymorphisms are associated with decreased esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Jianguo; Lu, Ting; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Yabiao; Guo, Shicheng; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Mengyun; Kolluri, Vijay Kumar; Qiu, Lixin; Shen, Fangyuan; Fan, Lixia; Li, Jin; Wang, Yanong; Wei, Qingyi; Jin, Li; Wang, Jiucun; Wang, Minghua

    2015-11-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most aggressive cancers in the world, 70 % of which are from China and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the major histopathological form (>90 %). The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mature sequence of microRNA (miRNA) (mmSNPs) could cause the alteration of microRNA expression and contribute to the susceptibility of cancers. To evaluate the association between mmSNPs and ESCC, a case-control study including 773 patients with ESCC and 882 gender- and age-matched controls was carried out to investigate the association of five mmSNPs (miR-449b rs10061133, miR-4293 rs12220909, miR-608 rs4919510, miR-627 rs2620381, and miR-646 rs6513497) with ESCC susceptibility. As a result, two SNPs, miR-449b rs10061133 and miR-4293 rs12220909, were associated with decreased ESCC risk. For miR-449b rs10061133 A>G, individuals carrying GG genotype had an odds ratio (OR) of 0.77 (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.62-0.97) compared with individuals with AA genotype. In the recessive model, the GG genotype also showed a protective effect on ESCC (OR?=?0.78, 95 % CI 0.63-0.97). For miR-4293 rs12220909 G>C, the heterozygous genotype GC was associated with a decreased ESCC risk (OR?=?0.77, 95 % CI 0.61-0.97) compared with GG genotype. The C allele conferred 23 % decrease in ESCC risk compared with the G allele in the allelic model (95 % CI 0.63-0.93). In the dominant model, the GC/CC genotypes decreased the risk of ESCC (adjusted OR?=?0.77, 95 % CI 0.61-0.96). This study provides the first evidence that miR-449b rs10061133 and miR-4293 rs12220909 are associated with ESCC risk in Chinese population. PMID:26055141

  17. High-Resolution N-Band Observations of the Nova Rs Ophiuchi: First Science with the Keck Interferometer Nuller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William

    2008-01-01

    We report new observations of the nova RS Ophiuchi using the Keck Interferometer Nulling Instrument (KIN), approximately 3.8 days following the most recent outburst that occurred on 2006 February 12. These observations represent the first scientific results from the KIN, which operates in N-band from 8 to 12.5 microns. The nulling technique is the sparse aperture equivalent of the conventional coronagraphic technique used in filled aperture telescopes. By fitting the unique KIN inner and outer spatial regime data, we have obtained an angular size of the mid-infrared continuum of 6.2,4.0, or 5.4 mas for a disk profile, Gaussian profile, and shell profile respectively. The data show evidence of enhanced neutral atomic hydrogen emission and atomic metals including silicon located in the inner spatial regime near the white dwarf relative to the outer regime. There are also nebular emission lines and evidence of hot silicate dust in the outer spatial region, centered at approximately 2.5E14 cm from the WD, that are not found in the inner regime. The nova flash in the outer spatial regime evidently excited these features before the blast wave reached these regions. These identifications support the following interpretation. The dust appears to be present between outbursts and was not created during the outburst event. We further discuss the present results in terms of a unifying model of the system that includes an increase in density in the plane of the orbit of the two stars created by a spiral shock wave caused by the motion of the stars through the cool wind of the red giant star. These data show the power and potential of the nulling technique which has been developed for the detection of Earthlike planets around nearby stars for the Terrestrial Planet Finder Mission and Darwin missions.

  18. Genetic variant in the BCL11A (rs1427407), but not HBS1-MYB (rs6934903) loci associate with fetal hemoglobin levels in Indian sickle cell disease patients.

    PubMed

    Bhanushali, Aparna A; Patra, P K; Nair, D; Verma, H; Das, B R

    2015-01-01

    India along with Nigeria and DRC contribute to 57% of the world sickle cell anemia population. The annual number of newborns in India with SCA was estimated at 44,000 in 2010. Even with this high prevalence there is minimal information about genetic factors that influence the disease course in Indian patients. The current study was conducted on 240 patients with SCD and 60 with sickle cell trait, to determine the association of genetic variants at the BCL11A (rs1427407) and HBS1-MYB (rs6934903) loci with fetal hemoglobin levels (HbF). Both these loci have been implicated with influencing HbF levels, a powerful modulator of the clinical and hematologic features of SCD. Our results indicate the BCL11A rs1427407 G>T variant to be significantly associated with HbF levels {19.12±6.61 (GG), 20.27±6.92 (GT) and 24.83±2.92 (TT) respectively} contributing to ~23% of the trait variance. Interestingly no association of the HBS1L-MYB rs6934903 with the HbF levels was seen. The present study indicates the BCL11A (rs1427407) but not HMIP (rs6934903) to be associated with elevated HbF levels in Indian patient. Further interrogation of additional variants at both the loci; as also a GWAS which may help uncover new loci controlling HbF levels. PMID:25457385

  19. 3.3V/5V Low Power RS232 3-Driver/5-Receiver Transceiver

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    1 LTC1348 3.3V/5V Low Power RS232 3-Driver/5-Receiver Transceiver SFEATURE D U ESCRIPTIO s Low Architecture The LTC® 1348 is a 3-driver/5-receiver RS232 transceiver with very low supply current. The charge. The transceiver oper- ates up to 120kbaud with all drivers loaded with 1000pF, 3k

  20. AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2004-100 Final Technical Report

    E-print Network

    Park, Kihong

    AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2004-100 Final Technical Report April 2004 SCALABLE PROTECTION AGAINST DDOS AND WORM FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY INFORMATION DIRECTORATE ROME RESEARCH SITE ROME, NEW YORK #12;STINFO FINAL). At NTIS it will be releasable to the general public, including foreign nations. AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2004-100 has

  1. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  2. Nanostructured lipid carrier surface modified with Eudragit RS 100 and its potential ophthalmic functions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenji; Li, Xuedong; Ye, Tiantian; Chen, Fen; Yu, Shihui; Chen, Jianting; Yang, Xinggang; Yang, Na; Zhang, Jinsong; Liu, Jinlu; Pan, Weisan; Kong, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the ocular performance of a cationic Eudragit (EDU) RS 100-coated nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). The genistein encapsulated NLC (GEN-NLC) was produced using the melt-emulsification technique followed by surface absorption of EDU RS 100. The EDU RS 100 increased the surface zeta potential from ?7.46 mV to +13.60 mV, by uniformly forming a spherical coating outside the NLC surface, as shown by transmission electron microscopy images. The EDU RS 100 on the NLC surface effectively improved the NLC stability by inhibiting particle size growth. The obtained EDU RS 100-GEN-NLC showed extended precorneal clearance and a 1.22-fold increase in AUC (area under the curve) compared with the bare NLC in a Gamma scintigraphic evaluation. The EDU RS 100 modification also significantly increased corneal penetration producing a 3.3-fold increase in apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) compared with references. Draize and cytotoxicity testing confirmed that the developed EDU RS 100-GEN-NLC was nonirritant to ocular tissues and nontoxic to corneal cells. These results indicate that the NLC surface modified by EDU RS 100 significantly improves the NLC properties and exhibits many advantages for ocular use. PMID:25246787

  3. GATA2 rs2335052 Polymorphism Predicts the Survival of Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Aidong; Di, Jiabo; Wang, Zaozao; Chen, Lei; Su, Xiangqian

    2015-01-01

    Background GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) is a transcription factor that has essential roles in hematologic malignancies and progression of various solid tumors. Our previous studies suggested that high GATA2 expression is associated with recurrence of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the influence of GATA2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the survival of CRC remains unknown. Methods We genotyped GATA2 SNP rs2335052 using Sanger sequencing after PCR amplification, and determined GATA2 expression by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 180 CRC patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression were used to analyze the association between the GATA2 rs2335052 genotypes and the clinical outcome of CRC. Results We found that there was no significant correlation between the rs2335052 genotypes and the expression of GATA2. However, the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis suggested that the carriers of the A-allele of SNP rs2335052 were significantly associated with increased risk of recurrence and reduced disease-free survival (DFS), compared with those carrying the variant genotype of GG in rs2335052 (P = 0.021). Moreover, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that GATA2 SNP rs2335052 was an independent risk factor for the DFS of CRC patients. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that GATA2 SNP rs2335052 is an independent predictor for prognosis of CRC patients. This raised the possibility that SNP rs2335052 may serve as a potential indicator for predicting recurrence of CRC after curative colectomy. PMID:26287967

  4. On r-th Root Extraction Algorithm in Fq + 1 (mod rs+1

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    On r-th Root Extraction Algorithm in Fq For q lrs + 1 (mod rs+1 ) with 0 komaton@skku.edu, achimheasal@nate.com, shkwon@skku.edu Abstract We present an r-th root extraction algorithm over a finite field Fq. Our algorithm precomputes a primitive rs -th root of unity where

  5. XRCC1 rs25487 polymorphism is associated with lung cancer risk in epidemiologically susceptible Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Ma, K W; Zhao, Y G; Wang, G J; Li, W

    2015-01-01

    Base excision repair (BER) plays an important role in maintaining genome integrity and anti-cancer drug resistance. Single nu-cleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in BER genes were detected in 500 lung cancer patients and 500 cancer-free controls. A logistic regression model was applied to analyze the relationship between lung cancer susceptibility and BER SNPs coupled with a wide range of epidemiological factors in a Chinese population. SNPs including rs25487 in the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 gene, rs1052133 in the 8-oxoguanine DNA gly-cosylase gene, and rs1136410 in the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 gene were identified. Multivariate analysis showed that the rs25487-AG geno-type was associated with a higher incidence of lung cancer compared with the GG genotype. The rs25487 SNP was associated with the pathological distribution of lung cancer. Moreover, rs1052133-GG was associated with early age of lung cancer onset compared with the CC genotype. Our data demonstrated that the SNPs rs25487 and rs1052133 are risk factors for lung cancer in epidemiologically susceptible Chinese people. PMID:26634519

  6. Texas A&M University RS certificate information. Revised 07/2014 1

    E-print Network

    Texas A&M University RS certificate information. Revised 07/2014 1 GRADUATE CERTIFICATE IN REMOTE, and it will appear on the official Texas A&M University transcript. This certificate is administered jointly through in the Department of Geography at 979.845.7128. #12;Texas A&M University RS certificate information. Revised 07

  7. Texas A&M University GIS or RS Graduate Certificate Application

    E-print Network

    Texas A&M University GIS or RS Graduate Certificate Application Please complete and return completed and sign in the space provided. The GIS and RS graduate certificates are administered jointly through the Departments of Ecosystem Science and Management and Geography. *The certification

  8. Fusion Engineering and Design 38 (1997) 115137 ARIES-RS divertor system selection and analysis

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    1997-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 38 (1997) 115­137 ARIES-RS divertor system selection and analysis C by the control of impurities and helium ash removal. For the ARIES-RS design, a double- null divertor configuration creates a practical means to enhance ash removal and pumping while focusing the flow of power

  9. Pre-mRNA splicing in the absence of an SR protein RS domain

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun; Krainer, Adrian R.

    2000-01-01

    SR proteins are essential pre-mRNA splicing factors that act at the earliest stages of splice-site recognition and spliceosome assembly, as well as later in the splicing pathway. SR proteins consist of one or two RNA-recognition motifs and a characteristic arginine/serine-rich C-terminal RS domain. The RS domain, which is extensively phosphorylated, mediates the subcellular localization of individual SR proteins and also functions as a splicing activation module, apparently by engaging in protein–protein interactions. The RS domain of SF2/ASF is dispensable for the concentration-dependent effects of this SR protein on alternative splice-site selection. However, this RS domain is highly conserved phylogenetically, and was shown to be required for constitutive splicing in vitro and for cell viability. Here, we demonstrate that the RS domain of SF2/ASF is, in fact, dispensable for splicing of several substrates, including constitutive and enhancer-dependent pre-mRNAs. The requirement for this RS domain is substrate specific, and correlates with the strength of the splicing signals. When the 3? splice site is weak, both the SF2/ASF RS domain and U2AF35 are required for splicing. These results show the existence of an RS domain-independent function of SR proteins in constitutive and enhancer-dependent splicing, and suggest mechanisms for their role in enhancer function besides U2AF recruitment. PMID:11124808

  10. GSA TEAs ToRs (revised August 2014) Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    GSA TEAs ToRs (revised August 2014) Page 1 of 2 PURPOSE OF THE AWARD: Every year, the GSA presents;GSA TEAs ToRs (revised August 2014) Page 2 of 2 Successful applications will be kept for 2 years after

  11. GSA TEAs ToRs (revised August 2014) Page 1 of 2

    E-print Network

    Calgary, University of

    GSA TEAs ToRs (revised August 2014) Page 1 of 2 PURPOSE OF THE AWARD: Every year, the GSA presents #12;GSA TEAs ToRs (revised August 2014) Page 2 of 2 Other Regulations: 1. The Teaching & Supervisory faith to remain for the full academic year. 2. The activities of the TEAs-administering committee

  12. 4 star 3 star 2 star 1 star unclassified CityU 15 10 35 48 7 0

    E-print Network

    Cheung, Yiu-ming

    1 4 star 3 star 2 star 1 star unclassified CityU 15 10 35 48 7 0 HKBU 15 3 35 49 11 2 LU clinical dentistry #12;2 4 star 3 star 2 star 1 star unclassified Panel Cost Centre Institution Number sciences #12;3 4 star 3 star 2 star 1 star unclassified Panel Cost Centre Institution Numb

  13. Association of IL-1? rs17561 and IL-1 RN rs315952 polymorphisms with Tourette syndrome: a family-based study

    PubMed Central

    He, Fan; Shao, Xiaohui; Yi, Mingji; Wang, Yu; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Liu, Shiguo

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Immune system dysregulation has been implicated to play a key role in pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS). IL-1? and IL-1RN are important inflammatory cytokines that mediate the inflammation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL-1? and IL-1RN and the susceptibility to TS in Chinese Han population. Methods: A total of 276 children with TS and their parents were recruited in the study. All DNA from our subjects were genotyped for SNPs of IL-1? rs17561 and IL-1RN rs315952 using predesigned TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. The genetic contributions of two polymorphisms were evaluated using transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and haplotype relative risk (HRR) design. In addition, to increase the efficiency of the test, the haplotype-based HRR (HHRR) was performed. Results: No significant differences were observed in allelic and genotypic frequency of rs17561 in IL-1? and rs315952 in IL-1RN between the transmitted group and non-transmitted group (for IL-1? rs17561: TDT=0.890, df=1, P=0.402; HRR=1.011, X2=3.016, P=0.082, 95% CI=0.999-1.024; for IL-1RN rs315952: TDT=0.095, df=1, P=0.805; HRR=0.984, X2=0.008, P=0.929, 95% CI=0.695-1.394). Similarly, the analysis of HHRR also did not support a significant association (for IL-1? rs17561: HHRR=1.226, X2=0.915, P=0.339, 95% CI=0.807-1.863; for IL-1RN rs315952: HHRR=0.963, X2=0.094, P=0.759, 95% CI=0.758-1.225). Conclusion: Our results suggest that IL-1? rs17561 and IL-1RN rs315952 polymorphisms may not be associated with susceptibility to TS in Chinese Han population. However, the results still need to be replicated in a larger sample size and different populations. PMID:26097611

  14. Accuracy Assessment and Correction of Vaisala RS92 Radiosonde Water Vapor Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Miloshevich, Larry M.; Vomel, Holger; Leblanc, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Relative humidity (RH) measurements from Vaisala RS92 radiosondes are widely used in both research and operational applications, although the measurement accuracy is not well characterized as a function of its known dependences on height, RH, and time of day (or solar altitude angle). This study characterizes RS92 mean bias error as a function of its dependences by comparing simultaneous measurements from RS92 radiosondes and from three reference instruments of known accuracy. The cryogenic frostpoint hygrometer (CFH) gives the RS92 accuracy above the 700 mb level; the ARM microwave radiometer gives the RS92 accuracy in the lower troposphere; and the ARM SurTHref system gives the RS92 accuracy at the surface using 6 RH probes with NIST-traceable calibrations. These RS92 assessments are combined using the principle of Consensus Referencing to yield a detailed estimate of RS92 accuracy from the surface to the lowermost stratosphere. An empirical bias correction is derived to remove the mean bias error, yielding corrected RS92 measurements whose mean accuracy is estimated to be +/-3% of the measured RH value for nighttime soundings and +/-4% for daytime soundings, plus an RH offset uncertainty of +/-0.5%RH that is significant for dry conditions. The accuracy of individual RS92 soundings is further characterized by the 1-sigma "production variability," estimated to be +/-1.5% of the measured RH value. The daytime bias correction should not be applied to cloudy daytime soundings, because clouds affect the solar radiation error in a complicated and uncharacterized way.

  15. Study on parallel and distributed management of RS data based on spatial database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yingbiao; Qian, Qinglan; Wu, Hongqiao; Liu, Shijin

    2009-10-01

    With the rapid development of current earth-observing technology, RS image data storage, management and information publication become a bottle-neck for its appliance and popularization. There are two prominent problems in RS image data storage and management system. First, background server hardly handle the heavy process of great capacity of RS data which stored at different nodes in a distributing environment. A tough burden has put on the background server. Second, there is no unique, standard and rational organization of Multi-sensor RS data for its storage and management. And lots of information is lost or not included at storage. Faced at the above two problems, the paper has put forward a framework for RS image data parallel and distributed management and storage system. This system aims at RS data information system based on parallel background server and a distributed data management system. Aiming at the above two goals, this paper has studied the following key techniques and elicited some revelatory conclusions. The paper has put forward a solid index of "Pyramid, Block, Layer, Epoch" according to the properties of RS image data. With the solid index mechanism, a rational organization for different resolution, different area, different band and different period of Multi-sensor RS image data is completed. In data storage, RS data is not divided into binary large objects to be stored at current relational database system, while it is reconstructed through the above solid index mechanism. A logical image database for the RS image data file is constructed. In system architecture, this paper has set up a framework based on a parallel server of several common computers. Under the framework, the background process is divided into two parts, the common WEB process and parallel process.

  16. A pre-outburst signal in the long-term optical light curve of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamakis, S.; Eyres, S. P. S.; Sarkar, A.; Walsh, R. W.

    2011-07-01

    Recurrent novae are binary stars in which a white dwarf accretes matter from a less evolved companion, either a red giant or a main-sequence star. They have dramatic optical brightenings of around 5-6 mag in V in less than a day, several times a century. These occur at variable and unpredictable intervals, and are followed by an optical decline over several weeks and activity from the X-ray to the radio. The unpredictability of recurrent novae and related stellar types can hamper systematic study of their outbursts. Here we analyse the long-term light curve of RS Ophiuchi, a recurrent nova with six confirmed outbursts, most recently in 2006 February. We confirm the previously suspected 1945 outburst, largely obscured in a seasonal gap. We also find a signal via wavelet analysis that can be used to predict an incipient outburst up to a few hundred days before hand. This has never before been possible. In addition, this may suggest that the preferred thermonuclear runaway mechanism for the outbursts will have to be modified, as no pre-outburst signal is anticipated in that case. If our result indeed points to gaps in our understanding of how outbursts are driven, we will need to study such objects carefully to determine if the white dwarf is growing in mass, an essential factor if these systems are to become Type Ia supernovae. Determining the likelihood of recurrent novae being an important source population will have implications for stellar and galaxy evolution.

  17. Binarity and multiperiodicity in high-amplitude delta Scuti stars .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derekas, A.; Kiss, L. L.; Csák, B.; Griffin, J.; Lindström, C.; Mészáros, Sz.; Székely, P.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Bedding, T. R.

    We present our first results for a sample of southern high-amplitude delta Scuti stars (HADS), based on a spectrophotometric survey started in 2003. For CY Aqr and AD CMi, we found very stable light and radial velocity (RV) curves; we confirmed the double-mode nature of ZZ Mic, BQ Ind and RY Lep. Finally, we detected gamma -velocity changes in RS Gru and RY Lep.

  18. Detecting the Companions and Ellipsoidal Variations of RS CVn Primaries. I. ? Geminorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Monnier, John D.; Henry, Gregory W.; Fekel, Francis C.; Williamson, Michael H.; Pourbaix, Dimitri; Latham, David W.; Latham, Christian A.; Torres, Guillermo; Baron, Fabien; Che, Xiao; Kraus, Stefan; Schaefer, Gail H.; Aarnio, Alicia N.; Korhonen, Heidi; Harmon, Robert O.; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Turner, Nils H.

    2015-07-01

    To measure the properties of both components of the RS Canum Venaticorum binary ? Geminorum (? Gem), we directly detect the faint companion, measure the orbit, obtain model-independent masses and evolutionary histories, detect ellipsoidal variations of the primary caused by the gravity of the companion, and measure gravity darkening. We detect the companion with interferometric observations obtained with the Michigan InfraRed Combiner at Georgia State University’s Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy Array with a primary-to-secondary H-band flux ratio of 270 ± 70. A radial velocity curve of the companion was obtained with spectra from the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph on the 1.5 m Tillinghast Reflector at Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory. We additionally use new observations from the Tennessee State University Automated Spectroscopic and Photometric Telescopes (AST and APT, respectively). From our orbit, we determine model-independent masses of the components ({M}1=1.28+/- 0.07 {M}? , {M}2=0.73+/- 0.03 {M}? ), and estimate a system age of 5? 1 Gyr. An average of the 27 year APT light curve of ? Gem folded over the orbital period (P=19.6027+/- 0.0005 days) reveals a quasi-sinusoidal signature, which has previously been attributed to active longitudes 180° apart on the surface of ? Gem. With the component masses, diameters, and orbit, we find that the predicted light curve for ellipsoidal variations due to the primary star partially filling its Roche lobe potential matches well with the observed average light curve, offering a compelling alternative explanation to the active longitudes hypothesis. Measuring gravity darkening from the light curve gives ? <; 0.1, a value slightly lower than that expected from recent theory.

  19. STARS no star on Kauai

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.

    1993-04-01

    The island of Kuai, home to the Pacific Missile Range Facility, is preparing for the first of a series of Star Wars rocket launches expected to begin early this year. The Strategic Defense Initiative plans 40 launches of the Stategic Target System (STARS) over a 10-year period. The focus of the tests appears to be weapons and sensors designed to combat multiple-warhead ICBMs, which will be banned under the START II Treaty that was signed in January. The focus of this article is to express the dubious value of testing the STARS at a time when their application will not be an anticipated problem.

  20. RASSF1A and the rs2073498 Cancer Associated SNP

    PubMed Central

    Donninger, Howard; Barnoud, Thibaut; Nelson, Nick; Kassler, Suzanna; Clark, Jennifer; Cummins, Timothy D.; Powell, David W.; Nyante, Sarah; Millikan, Robert C.; Clark, Geoffrey J.

    2011-01-01

    RASSF1A is one of the most frequently inactivated tumor suppressors yet identified in human cancer. It is pro-apoptotic and appears to function as a scaffolding protein that interacts with a variety of other tumor suppressors to modulate their function. It can also complex with the Ras oncoprotein and may serve to integrate pro-growth and pro-death signaling pathways. A SNP has been identified that is present in approximately 29% of European populations [rs2073498, A(133)S]. Several studies have now presented evidence that this SNP is associated with an enhanced risk of developing breast cancer. We have used a proteomics based approach to identify multiple differences in the pattern of protein/protein interactions mediated by the wild type compared to the SNP variant protein. We have also identified a significant difference in biological activity between wild type and SNP variant protein. However, we have found only a very modest association of the SNP with breast cancer predisposition. PMID:22649770

  1. Modelling of an Eclipsing RS CVn Binary: V405 And

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vida, Krisztián; Oláh, Katalin; K?vári, Zsolt

    2012-04-01

    V405 And is an ultrafast-rotating (Prot ~ 0.46 days) eclipsing binary. The system consists of a primary star with radiative core and convective envelope, and a fully convective secondary. Theories have shown that stellar structure can depend on magnetic activity, i.e., magnetically active M-dwarfs should have larger radii. Earlier light curve modelling of V405 And indeed showed this behaviour: we found that the radius of the primary is significantly larger than the theoretically predicted value for inactive main sequence stars (the discrepancy is the largest of all known objects), while the secondary fits well to the mass-radius relation. By modelling our recently obtained light curves, which show significant changes of the spotted surface of the primary, we can find further proof for this phenomenon.

  2. Association of ADORA1 rs2228079 and ADORA2A rs5751876 Polymorphisms with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome in the Polish Population

    PubMed Central

    Safranow, Krzysztof; ?ekanowski, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Background Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. Hyperactivity of dopaminergic transmission is considered a prime abnormality in the pathophysiology of tics. There are reciprocal antagonistic interactions between adenosine and dopamine transmission. The aim of the study was to analyze the association of two polymorphisms, rs2228079 in ADORA1 and rs5751876 in ADORA2A, with the risk of GTS and co-morbid disorders. Material and Methods A total of 162 Polish GTS patients and 270 healthy persons were enrolled in the study. Two polymorphisms were selected on the basis of knowledge of SNPs frequencies in ADORA1 and ADORA2A. Chi-square test was used for allelic and genotypic association studies. Association of genotypes with age of tic onset was analyzed with Mann-Whitney test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to find independent predictors of GTS risk. Results We found that the risk of GTS was associated with rs2228079 and rs5751876 polymorphisms. The GG+GT genotypes of rs2228079 in ADORA1 were underrepresented in GTS patients (p = 0.011), whereas T allele of rs5751876 in ADORA2A was overrepresented (p = 0.017). The GG genotype of rs2228079 was associated with earlier age of tic onset (p = 0.046). We found also that the minor allele G of rs2228079 was more frequent in GTS patients with depression as compared to the patients without depression (p = 0.015). Also the genotype GG was significantly more frequent in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder/behavior (OCD/OCB, p = 0.021) and depression (p = 0.032), as compared to the patients without these co-morbidities. The minor allele T frequency of rs5751876 was lower in GTS patients with co-morbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (p = 0.022), and TT+TC genotypes were less frequent in the non-OCD anxiety disorder group (p = 0.045). Conclusion ADORA1 and ADORA2A variants are associated with the risk of GTS, co-morbid disorders, and may affect the age of tic onset. PMID:26317759

  3. The enigmatic star EZ Pegasi - A mystery solved?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, S. B.; Bopp, B. W.

    1985-01-01

    EZ Peg, a ninth-magnitude G star that has been classified by various authors as an irregular variable, a U Gem system, and a contact binary, is shown to have all the spectroscopic and photometric characteristics of an active-chromosphere RS CVn binary. It is suggested that the reported outburst of 1943, when the spectrum appeared to be that of a B star, never occurred. The strong Ca II H and K reversals, viewed with low spectral resolution, caused the photospheric Ca II absorption to appear abnormally weak, mimicking a much earlier spectral type.

  4. Pioneering Better Science through the 3Rs: An Introduction to the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs)

    PubMed Central

    Burden, Natalie; Chapman, Kathryn; Sewell, Fiona; Robinson, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement, and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) is an independent scientific organization that is based in the United Kingdom, which was set up by the government to lead the discovery and application of new technologies and approaches that minimize the use of animals in research and improve animal welfare. The NC3Rs uses a range of strategies to improve and advance science through application of the 3Rs. These include funding basic research, open innovation (CRACK IT), and programs run by inhouse scientists. We present several case studies from the NC3Rs portfolio, featuring asthma research, the use of nonhuman primates in monoclonal antibody development, and CRACK IT. Finally, we anticipate the future, as we use our experience to move into new research fields and expand toward international collaboration. Here we highlight how equipping scientists with relevant and emerging 3Rs tools can help overcome the challenges and limitations of the use of animals in research to the benefit of the whole bioscience community. PMID:25836967

  5. Detecting the Companions and Ellipsoidal Variations of RS CVn Primaries. II. o Draconis, a Candidate for Recent Low-mass Companion Ingestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roettenbacher, Rachael M.; Monnier, John D.; Fekel, Francis C.; Henry, Gregory W.; Korhonen, Heidi; Latham, David W.; Muterspaugh, Matthew W.; Williamson, Michael H.; Baron, Fabien; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Che, Xiao; Harmon, Robert O.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Scott, Nicholas J.; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Turner, Nils H.

    2015-08-01

    To measure the stellar and orbital properties of the metal-poor RS CVn binary o Draconis (o Dra), we directly detect the companion using interferometric observations obtained with the Michigan InfraRed Combiner at Georgia State University's Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA) Array. The H-band flux ratio between the primary and secondary stars is the highest confirmed flux ratio (370 ± 40) observed with long-baseline optical interferometry. These detections are combined with radial velocity data of both the primary and secondary stars, including new data obtained with the Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph on the Tillinghast Reflector at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory and the 2 m Tennessee State University Automated Spectroscopic Telescope at Fairborn Observatory. We determine an orbit from which we find model-independent masses and ages of the components ({M}A=1.35+/- 0.05 {M}? , {M}B=0.99+/- 0.02 {M}? , system age = 3.0\\mp 0.5 Gyr). An average of a 23-year light curve of o Dra from the Tennessee State University Automated Photometric Telescope folded over the orbital period newly reveals eclipses and the quasi-sinusoidal signature of ellipsoidal variations. The modeled light curve for our system's stellar and orbital parameters confirm these ellipsoidal variations due to the primary star partially filling its Roche lobe potential, suggesting most of the photometric variations are not due to stellar activity (starspots). Measuring gravity darkening from the average light curve gives a best-fit of ? =0.07+/- 0.03, a value consistent with conventional theory for convective envelope stars. The primary star also exhibits an anomalously short rotation period, which, when taken with other system parameters, suggests the star likely engulfed a low-mass companion that had recently spun-up the star.

  6. Association between MC4R rs17782313 Polymorphism and Overeating Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Zeynep; Davis, Caroline; Loxton, Natalie J.; Kaplan, Allan S.; Levitan, Robert D.; Carter, Jacqueline C.; Kennedy, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Melanocortins play a crucial role in appetite and weight regulation. Although the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene has been repeatedly linked to obesity and antipsychotic-induced weight gain, the mechanism behind how it leads to this effect in still undetermined. The goal of this study was to conduct an in-depth and sophisticated analysis of MC4R polymorphisms, body mass index (BMI), eating behaviour, and depressed mood. Subjects/Methods We genotyped 328 individuals of European ancestry on the following MC4R markers based on the relevant literature on obesity and antipsychotic-induced weight gain: rs571312, rs17782313, rs489693, rs11872992, and rs8087522. Height and weight were measured, and information on depressed mood and overeating behaviours was obtained during the in-person assessment. Results BMI was associated with rs17782313 C allele; however this finding did not survive correction for multiple testing (p=0.018). Although rs17782313 was significantly associated with depressed mood and overeating behaviours, tests of indirect effects indicated that emotional eating and food cravings, rather than depressed mood, uniquely accounted for the effect of this marker and BMI (n=152). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the link between MC4R rs17782313, mood and overeating behaviour, as well as to demonstrate possible mechanisms behind MC4R’s influence on body weight. If replicated in a larger sample, these results may have important clinical implications, including potential for the use of MC4R agonists in the treatment of obesity and disordered eating. PMID:24827639

  7. The two-component system GrvRS (EtaRS) regulates ace expression in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jung Hyeob; Singh, Kavindra V; La Rosa, Sabina Leanti; Cohen, Ana Luisa V; Murray, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Expression of ace (adhesin to collagen of Enterococcus faecalis), encoding a virulence factor in endocarditis and urinary tract infection models, has been shown to increase under certain conditions, such as in the presence of serum, bile salts, urine, and collagen and at 46 °C. However, the mechanism of ace/Ace regulation under different conditions is still unknown. In this study, we identified a two-component regulatory system GrvRS as the main regulator of ace expression under these stress conditions. Using Northern hybridization and ?-galactosidase assays of an ace promoter-lacZ fusion, we found transcription of ace to be virtually absent in a grvR deletion mutant under the conditions that increase ace expression in wild-type OG1RF and in the complemented strain. Moreover, a grvR mutant revealed decreased collagen binding and biofilm formation as well as attenuation in a murine urinary tract infection model. Here we show that GrvR plays a major role in control of ace expression and E. faecalis virulence. PMID:25385790

  8. 78 FR 20386 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2012 Porsche GT3RS Passenger Cars...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...Nonconforming 2012 Porsche GT3RS Passenger Cars Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National...nonconforming 2012 Porsche GT3RS passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to...nonconforming 2012 Porsche GT3RS passenger cars are eligible for importation into the...

  9. PSR 0943+10: A Bare Strange Star?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.; Zhang, Bing

    1999-09-01

    Recent work by Rankin & Deshpande strongly suggests that there exist strong ``microstorms'' rotating around the magnetic axis of the 1.1 s pulsar PSR 0943+10. Such a feature hints that most probably the large-voltage vacuum gap proposed by Ruderman & Sutherland (RS) does exist in the pulsar polar cap. However, there are severe arguments against the formation of the RS-type gap in pulsars, since the binding energies of both the 56Fe ions and the electrons in a neutron star's surface layer are too small to prevent thermionic ejection of the particles from the surface. Here we propose that PSR 0943+10 (and probably also all of the other ``drifting'' pulsars) might be bare strange stars rather than normal neutron stars, in which the ``binding energy'' at the surface is merely infinity for the case of either a ``pulsar'' or an ``antipulsar.'' It is further proposed that identifying a drifting pulsar as an antipulsar is the key criterion for distinguishing strange stars from neutron stars.

  10. Three-dimensional view based on RS and GIS: three-dimensional simulation of Mount Taishan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoning; Yang, Fengjie; Zhen, Han; Liu, Qiaoxi; Zhang, Fengli

    2000-10-01

    It has not been satisfied with the need of visualization by 2D RS(remote sensing)image. The 3D simulation overlapped with RS image can reflect land forms more directly. This article is to simulate the Mount Taishan, which is world famous natural and cultural heritage, in 3D on the basis of RS and GIS for adapting to the developing of society. First generating DEM, then the TM image is overlaid DEM data and is shown in 3D with the 3D technique of ER mapper. This study takes guidance action on tour planning of Mount Taishan and tourists visiting the Mount Taishan.

  11. RS-34 (Peacekeeper Post Boost Propulsion System) Orbital Debris Application Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Burnside, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) lead a study to evaluate the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system as it applies to an orbital debris removal design reference mission. The existing RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper ICBM program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bi-propellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System. MSFC gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC is working closely with the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. Prior to pursuit of securing the hardware, MSFC commissioned the Advanced Concepts Office to understand the capability and potential applications for the RS-34 Phoenix stage as it benefits NASA, DoD, and commercial industry. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy multiple payloads at various orbital locations. The RS-34 Concept Study, preceded by a utilization study to understand how the unique capabilities of the RS-34 Phoenix and its application to six candidate missions, sought to further understand application for an orbital debris design reference mission as the orbital debris removal mission was found to closely mimic the heritage RS-34 mission. The RS-34 Orbital Debris Application Concept Study sought to identify multiple configurations varying the degree of modification to trade for dry mass optimization and propellant load for overall capability and evaluation of several candidate missions. The results of the RS-34 Phoenix Utilization Study show that the system is technically sufficient to successfully support all of the missions analyzed. The results and benefits of the RS-34 Orbital Debris Application Concept Study are presented in this paper.

  12. Cephalopods in neuroscience: regulations, research and the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, Graziano; Affuso, Andrea; Anderson, David B; Basil, Jennifer; Bonnaud, Laure; Botta, Giovanni; Cole, Alison; D'Angelo, Livia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Dennison, Ngaire; Dickel, Ludovic; Di Cosmo, Anna; Di Cristo, Carlo; Gestal, Camino; Fonseca, Rute; Grasso, Frank; Kristiansen, Tore; Kuba, Michael; Maffucci, Fulvio; Manciocco, Arianna; Mark, Felix Christopher; Melillo, Daniela; Osorio, Daniel; Palumbo, Anna; Perkins, Kerry; Ponte, Giovanna; Raspa, Marcello; Shashar, Nadav; Smith, Jane; Smith, David; Sykes, António; Villanueva, Roger; Tublitz, Nathan; Zullo, Letizia; Andrews, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Cephalopods have been utilised in neuroscience research for more than 100 years particularly because of their phenotypic plasticity, complex and centralised nervous system, tractability for studies of learning and cellular mechanisms of memory (e.g. long-term potentiation) and anatomical features facilitating physiological studies (e.g. squid giant axon and synapse). On 1 January 2013, research using any of the about 700 extant species of "live cephalopods" became regulated within the European Union by Directive 2010/63/EU on the "Protection of Animals used for Scientific Purposes", giving cephalopods the same EU legal protection as previously afforded only to vertebrates. The Directive has a number of implications, particularly for neuroscience research. These include: (1) projects will need justification, authorisation from local competent authorities, and be subject to review including a harm-benefit assessment and adherence to the 3Rs principles (Replacement, Refinement and Reduction). (2) To support project evaluation and compliance with the new EU law, guidelines specific to cephalopods will need to be developed, covering capture, transport, handling, housing, care, maintenance, health monitoring, humane anaesthesia, analgesia and euthanasia. (3) Objective criteria need to be developed to identify signs of pain, suffering, distress and lasting harm particularly in the context of their induction by an experimental procedure. Despite diversity of views existing on some of these topics, this paper reviews the above topics and describes the approaches being taken by the cephalopod research community (represented by the authorship) to produce "guidelines" and the potential contribution of neuroscience research to cephalopod welfare. PMID:24385049

  13. Abundance analysis of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi (2006 outburst)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ramkrishna; Mondal, Anindita

    2015-08-01

    We present an analysis of elemental abundances of ejecta of the recurrent nova RS Oph using published optical and near-infrared spectra during the 2006 outburst. We use the CLOUDY photoionization code to generate synthetic spectra by varying several parameters, the model generated spectra are then matched with the observed emission line spectra obtained at two epochs. We obtain the best fit model parameters through the ?2 minimization technique. Our model results fit well with observed optical and near-infrared spectra. The best-fit model parameters are compatible with a hot white dwarf source with TBB of 5.5-5.8 × 105 K and roughly constant a luminosity of 6-8 × 1036 ergs s-1. From the analysis we find the following abundances (by number) of elements with respect to solar: He/H = 1.8 ± 0.1, N/H = 12.0 ± 1.0, O/H = 1.0 ± 0.4, Ne/H = 1.5 ± 0.1, Si/H = 0.4 ± 0.1, Fe/H = 3.2 ± 0.2, Ar/H = 5.1 ± 0.1, and Al/H = 1.0 ± 0.1, all other elements were set at the solar abundance. This shows the ejecta are significantly enhanced, relative to solar, in helium, nitrogen, neon, iron and argon. Using the obtained parameter values, we estimate an ejected mass in the range of 3.4-4.9 × 10-6 M? which is consistent with observational results.

  14. Genome-wide association study-identified SNPs (rs3790844, rs3790843) in the NR5A2 gene and risk of pancreatic cancer in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Morimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Hiroshi; Matsuyama, Masato; Kuruma, Sawako; Egawa, Naoto; Nakao, Haruhisa; Mori, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Nojima, Masanori; Wakai, Kenji; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Takahashi, Mami; Shimada, Kazuaki; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Shogo; Lin, Yingsong

    2015-01-01

    We genotyped 2 SNPs (rs3790844 T/C and rs3790843 G/A) in the NR5A2 gene that were identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of pancreatic cancer in populations of mainly European ancestry, and we examined their associations with pancreatic cancer risk in a case-control study of 360 patients and 400 control subjects in Japan. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium (r(2)?=?0.80). For rs3790843, the multivariable-adjusted OR was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.41-1.36) and 0.60 (95%CI: 0.33-1.08) for subjects with the AG and AA genotype, respectively, compared to subjects with the GG genotype. The per allele OR was 0.78 (0.62-0.99) (P?=?0.046). For rs3790844, the multivariable-adjusted OR was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.37-1.14) and 0.47 (95%CI: 0.27-0.83) for subjects with the CT and CC genotype, respectively, compared to subjects with the TT genotype. The per allele OR was 0.70 (0.56-0.89) (P?=?0.003). Our case-control study found that rs3790843 and rs3790844 in the NR5A2 gene are associated with pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese subjects. The direction of association is consistent with the prior findings from GWASs. PMID:26592175

  15. Genome-wide association study-identified SNPs (rs3790844, rs3790843) in the NR5A2 gene and risk of pancreatic cancer in Japanese

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Makoto; Ohkawa, Shinichi; Morimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Hiroshi; Matsuyama, Masato; Kuruma, Sawako; Egawa, Naoto; Nakao, Haruhisa; Mori, Mitsuru; Matsuo, Keitaro; Hosono, Satoyo; Nojima, Masanori; Wakai, Kenji; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Takahashi, Mami; Shimada, Kazuaki; Nishiyama, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Shogo; Lin, Yingsong

    2015-01-01

    We genotyped 2 SNPs (rs3790844 T/C and rs3790843 G/A) in the NR5A2 gene that were identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of pancreatic cancer in populations of mainly European ancestry, and we examined their associations with pancreatic cancer risk in a case-control study of 360 patients and 400 control subjects in Japan. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium (r2?=?0.80). For rs3790843, the multivariable-adjusted OR was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.41–1.36) and 0.60 (95%CI: 0.33–1.08) for subjects with the AG and AA genotype, respectively, compared to subjects with the GG genotype. The per allele OR was 0.78 (0.62–0.99) (P?=?0.046). For rs3790844, the multivariable-adjusted OR was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.37–1.14) and 0.47 (95%CI: 0.27–0.83) for subjects with the CT and CC genotype, respectively, compared to subjects with the TT genotype. The per allele OR was 0.70 (0.56–0.89) (P?=?0.003). Our case-control study found that rs3790843 and rs3790844 in the NR5A2 gene are associated with pancreatic cancer risk in Japanese subjects. The direction of association is consistent with the prior findings from GWASs. PMID:26592175

  16. Construction, expression, and characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana 4CL and Arachis hypogaea RS fusion gene 4CL::RS in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erhao; Guo, Xuefeng; Meng, Zhifen; Wang, Jin; Sun, Jia; Yao, Xi; Xun, Hang

    2015-09-01

    Resveratrol is an important antioxidant that confers several beneficial effects on human health. 4-coumarate coenzyme A ligase (4CL) and resveratrol synthase (RS) are key rate-limiting enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol. Using gene fusion technology, the fusion gene, 4CL::RS, was constructed by the 4CL gene from Arabidopsis thaliana and RS gene from Arachis hypogaea. DNAMAN analysis showed that the fusion gene encoded a 964-amino acid protein with an approximate weight of 104.7 kDa and a pI of 5.63. A prokaryotic expression vector containing Nco-I and EcoR-I restriction sites, pET-30a/4CL::RS, was identified by liquid culture bacterial PCR, enzyme digestion, and sequencing, and then used in the induction of expression. Subsequently, a biosynthetic pathway of resveratrol was constructed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) that harbored pET-30a/4CL::RS. The recombinant strains were induced to express the fusion protein at 28 °C for 8 h. After bacterial cells were disrupted by hypothermic ultrasonication, the 4CL::RS fusion protein was thoroughly separated from tags using Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, and then detected by SDS-PAGE analysis. When the recombinant strains expressed the fusion protein, the precursor, p-coumaric acid, was converted to resveratrol. In the present study, the final concentration of resveratrol derived from 1 mM p-coumaric acid was 80.524 mg/L, with a 35.28 % (mol/mol) conversion yield. PMID:26092168

  17. Magnetic Inhibition of Convection and the Fundamental Properties of Low-mass Stars. I. Stars with a Radiative Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic fields are hypothesized to inflate the radii of low-mass stars—defined as less massive than 0.8 M ?—in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). We investigate this hypothesis using the recently introduced magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code. In particular, we focus on stars thought to have a radiative core and convective outer envelope by studying in detail three individual DEBs: UV Psc, YY Gem, and CU Cnc. Our results suggest that the stabilization of thermal convection by a magnetic field is a plausible explanation for the observed model-radius discrepancies. However, surface magnetic field strengths required by the models are significantly stronger than those estimated from observed coronal X-ray emission. Agreement between model predicted surface magnetic field strengths and those inferred from X-ray observations can be found by assuming that the magnetic field sources its energy from convection. This approach makes the transport of heat by convection less efficient and is akin to reduced convective mixing length methods used in other studies. Predictions for the metallicity and magnetic field strengths of the aforementioned systems are reported. We also develop an expression relating a reduction in the convective mixing length to a magnetic field strength in units of the equipartition value. Our results are compared with those from previous investigations to incorporate magnetic fields to explain the low-mass DEB radius inflation. Finally, we explore how the effects of magnetic fields might affect mass determinations using asteroseismic data and the implication of magnetic fields on exoplanet studies.

  18. Chameleon stars

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Singleton, Douglas

    2011-10-15

    We consider a gravitating spherically symmetric configuration consisting of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to ordinary matter in the form of a perfect fluid. For this system we find static, regular, asymptotically flat solutions for both relativistic and nonrelativistic cases. It is shown that the presence of the nonminimal interaction leads to substantial changes both in the radial matter distribution of the star and in the star's total mass. A simple stability test indicates that, for the choice of parameters used in the paper, the solutions are unstable.

  19. Chameleon stars

    E-print Network

    V. Dzhunushaliev; V. Folomeev; D. Singleton

    2011-08-22

    We consider a gravitating spherically symmetric configuration consisting of a scalar field non-minimally coupled to ordinary matter in the form of a perfect fluid. For this system we find static, regular, asymptotically flat solutions for both relativistic and non-relativistic cases. It is shown that the presence of the non-minimal interaction leads to substantial changes both in the radial matter distribution of the star and in the star's total mass. A simple stability test indicates that, for the choice of parameters used in the paper, the solutions are unstable.

  20. First Science with the Keck Interferometer Nuller High Spatial Resolution N-Band Observations of the Recurrent Nova RS Ophiuchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Richard K.; Danchi, W. C.; Traub, W.; Kuchner, M.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Akeson, R.; Colavita, M.; Greenhouse, M, A.; Koresko, C.; Serabyn, E.; Sokoloski, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    We report observations of the nova RS 0phiuchi using the Keck Interferometer Nuller (KIN) taken approximately 3.8 days following the most recent outburst that occurred on 2006 February 12. The KIN operates in N-band from approx. 8 to 12.5 microns in a nulling mode - the sparse aperture equivalent of the conventional coronagraphic technique used in filled aperture te1escopes. In this mode the stellar light is suppressed by a destructive fringe, effectively enhancing the contrast of the circumstellar material located near the star. In a second, constructive-fringe mode, the instrument detects primarily the light from the central, bright source. These are the outer and inner spatial regimes, resprectively. We will describe the capabilities of the KIN, including these unique modes, and outline how they were key in our discovery that dust does not appear to be created in the outburst as in previous models, but instead was created between nova events. We also show how these first results from the KIN are consistent with Spitzer data. The KIN data show evidence of enhanced neutral atomic hydrogen emission and atomic metals including silicon located in the inner spatial regime near the white dwarf (WD) relative to the outer regime. There are also nebular emission lines and evidence of hot silicate dust in the outer spatial region, centered at approximately 17 AU from the WD, that are not found in the inner regime. The KIN and Spitzer data suggest that these emissions were excited by the nova flash in the outer spatial regime before the blast wave reached these regions. We describe the present results in terms of a new model for dust creation in recurrent novae that includes an increase in density in the plane of the orbit of the two stars created by a spiral shock wave caused by the motion of the stars through the cool wind of the red giant star. These data show the power and potential of the nulling technique which has been developed for the detection of Earth-like planets around nearby stars for the Terrestrial Planet Finder and Darwin missions.

  1. FORM RS-2 (Revised 08/05) PERMIT FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Permit No.

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Eric E.

    laboratory Hazards within lab: Radioactive Materials, Compressed Gases, Biohazard, Sharps, Acids and Bases 646-5427 Fire/Police/Ambulance: 911 Envir. Health & Safety (or RSO, if needed): 646-3327 FORM RS-3

  2. THE THREE RS IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY: PERSPECTIVES OF SCIENTISTS AND REGULATORS

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    with industry priorities; examples included phenotypic characterization of GM animals and validation ..................................................................................................... 1 Animal use in the pharmaceutical industryTHE THREE RS IN THE PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY: PERSPECTIVES OF SCIENTISTS AND REGULATORS by NICOLE

  3. REPEATED SEQUENCES INCLUDING RS1100 FROM PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA AC100 FUNCTION AS IS ELEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several lines of evidence were obtained that the previously identified, repeated sequence RS1100 of Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100 undergoes transposition events. NA sequences flanking the chlorohydroxy hydroquinone (CHQ) degradative genes of this organism were examined from s...

  4. Consideration and Checkboxes: Incorporating Ethics and Science into the 3Rs

    PubMed Central

    Landi, Margaret S; Shriver, Adam J; Mueller, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Members of the research community aim to both produce high-quality research and ensure that harm is minimized in animals. The primary means of ensuring these goals are both met is the 3Rs framework of replacement, reduction, and refinement. However, some approaches to the 3Rs may result in a ‘check box mentality’ in which IACUC members, researchers, administrators, and caretakers check off a list of tasks to evaluate a protocol. We provide reasons for thinking that the 3Rs approach could be enhanced with more explicit discussion of the ethical assumptions used to arrive at an approved research protocol during IACUC review. Here we suggest that the notion of moral considerability, and all of the related issues it gives rise to, should be incorporated into IACUC discussions of 3Rs deliberations during protocol review to ensure that animal wellbeing is enhanced within the constraints of scientific investigation. PMID:25836970

  5. [Identification of the 1RS-7DS.7DL wheat-rye small segment translocation lines].

    PubMed

    Jun, Li; Xinguo, Zhu; Hongshen, Wan; Qin, Wang; Zongxiang, Tang; Shulan, Fu; Zujun, Yang; Manyu, Yang; Wuyun, Yang

    2015-06-01

    Rye (Secale cereale L., RR) is a valuable genetic resource for the improvement of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD). Transferring alien rye genes into wheat by distant hybridization and automatic chromosome doubling is an important and efficient method to boost agronomic traits, disease resistance and widening the gene pool in wheat. In this study, an octoploid triticale CD-13 (AABBDDRR) was obtained via automatic chromosome doubling by crossing landrace Penganbaimaizi (T. aestivum L., AABBDD) and rye "Qinling rye" (S. cereale cv. Qinling, RR). GISH and FISH analyses indicated that CD-13 contained a 1RS-7DS.7DL wheat-rye small segment translocation chromosome. In order to transfer the 1RS-7DS small segment translocation into hexaploid wheat, 58 lines of the F5 inbred population from the cross CD-13 x Chuanmai 42 were screened for rye chromosome segments by GISH and FISH analyses. The results showed that 13 lines contained the 1RS-7DS.7DL small segment translocation chromosome by reciprocal translocation between 1RS and 7DS. These translocation lines carrying 1RS small rye alien segment were tested for the translocation breakpoints and the presence of a storage protein locus Sec-1. The Sec-1 locus was absent in the line 811, a stable 1RS-7DS.7DL small segment translocation line. The translocation breakpoint of 1RS-7DS.7DL of this line was located in the interval of IB267-IAG95 around the telomere of 1RS chromosome. Thousand-kernel weight of the line 811 was much higher than the parent CD-13, but not significantly different from Chuanmai 42. This indicated that 1RS-7DS.7DL small segment translocation had no negative effect on thousand-kernel weight in the genetic background of Chuanmai 42. The line with 1RS-7DS.7DL translocation chromosomes can be used as a new genetic material for further studies of valuable genes and their genetic effect on 1RS small segment. PMID:26351056

  6. ADIPOQ polymorphism rs182052 is associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guiming; Gu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yao; Luo, Lei; Dong, Dahai; Wan, Fangning; Zhang, Hailiang; Shi, Guohai; Sun, Lijiang; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that low circulating adiponectin concentrations are associated with a higher risk of several cancers, including renal cell carcinoma. In this case–control study, we examined the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs182052G>A, rs266729C>G, and rs3774262G>A) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) in 1004 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) compared with a group of healthy subjects (n = 1108). Fasting serum adiponectin concentrations were also examined. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The association of serum adiponectin concentration with genetic variants was calculated using a multivariate linear regression model. A significantly higher ccRCC risk was associated with the rs182052 variant A allele (adjusted OR, 1.36 and 95% CI, 1.07–1.74 for AA vs GG, P = 0.013; adjusted OR, 1.27 and 95% CI, 1.04–1.56 for AA vs GG+AG, P = 0.019), and this positive association was more evident in overweight subjects. Fasting serum adiponectin was lower in subjects carrying A alleles of rs182052 in both ccRCC patients (? = ?0.399, P = 0.018) and healthy controls (? = ?0.371, P = 0.024). These results suggest that ADIPOQ rs182052 is significantly associated with ccRCC risk. In this case–control study, we examined the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs182052G>A, rs266729C>G, and rs3774262G>A) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) in 1004 patients with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) compared with a group of healthy subjects (n = 1108). Fasting serum adiponectin concentrations were also examined. Fasting serum adiponectin was lower in subjects carrying minor alleles of rs182052 in both ccRCC patients (? = ?0.399, P = 0.018) and healthy controls (? = ?0.371, P = 0.024). These results suggest that ADIPOQ rs182052 is significantly associated with ccRCC risk. PMID:25827778

  7. Survey of Canadian Animal-Based Researchers' Views on the Three Rs: Replacement, Reduction and Refinement

    PubMed Central

    Fenwick, Nicole; Danielson, Peter; Griffin, Gilly

    2011-01-01

    The ‘Three Rs’ tenet (replacement, reduction, refinement) is a widely accepted cornerstone of Canadian and international policies on animal-based science. The Canadian Council on Animal Care (CCAC) initiated this web-based survey to obtain greater understanding of ‘principal investigators’ and ‘other researchers’ (i.e. graduate students, post-doctoral researchers etc.) views on the Three Rs, and to identify obstacles and opportunities for continued implementation of the Three Rs in Canada. Responses from 414 participants indicate that researchers currently do not view the goal of replacement as achievable. Researchers prefer to use enough animals to ensure quality data is obtained rather than using the minimum and potentially waste those animals if a problem occurs during the study. Many feel that they already reduce animal numbers as much as possible and have concerns that further reduction may compromise research. Most participants were ambivalent about re-use, but expressed concern that the practice could compromise experimental outcomes. In considering refinement, many researchers feel there are situations where animals should not receive pain relieving drugs because it may compromise scientific outcomes, although there was strong support for the Three Rs strategy of conducting animal welfare-related pilot studies, which were viewed as useful for both animal welfare and experimental design. Participants were not opposed to being offered “assistance” to implement the Three Rs, so long as the input is provided in a collegial manner, and from individuals who are perceived as experts. It may be useful for animal use policymakers to consider what steps are needed to make replacement a more feasible goal. In addition, initiatives that offer researchers greater practical and logistical support with Three Rs implementation may be useful. Encouragement and financial support for Three Rs initiatives may result in valuable contributions to Three Rs knowledge and improve welfare for animals used in science. PMID:21857928

  8. A lack of association between the IKZF2 rs12619285 polymorphism and coronary heart disease

    PubMed Central

    YE, HUADAN; HONG, QINGXIAO; LI, YIRUN; XU, XUTING; HUANG, YI; XU, LIMIN; ZHOU, ANNAN; DENG, YOUPING; DUAN, SHIWEI

    2015-01-01

    The IKZF2 rs12619285 polymorphism is associated with the eosinophil count, which has multidimensional functions in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of the IKZF2 rs12619285 polymorphism to the risk of CHD in a Han Chinese population. In total, 721 CHD cases and 631 non-CHD controls were recruited for an association study of the IKZF2 rs12619285 polymorphism. Genotyping was performed using the melting temperature-shift polymerase chain reaction method. No statistically significant association was observed between the IKZF2 rs12619285 polymorphism and CHD (odds ratio, 1.139, 95% confidence interval, 0.927–1.334; P=0.17). In addition, subgroup analyses by gender or age were unable to identify any association between IKZF2 rs12619285 and CHD (P>0.05), and there was no significant correlation between IKZF2 rs12619285 and the severity of CHD (P>0.05). The power of the case-control study was determined to be 63.3%. In addition, the G allele frequency was calculated as 63.6% in the Han Chinese population, which was similar to the 59.3% recorded for the HapMap Chinese population of Han Chinese individuals living in Beijing, compared with 24.3% in European descendents (HapMap-CEU). Therefore, the results indicated that the IKZF2 rs12619285 polymorphism was not associated with CHD in a Han Chinese population. The discrepancy in the association between rs12619285 and CHD may be due to the ethnic differences between Han Chinese and European populations. PMID:25780427

  9. Brittle Star

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A tiny brittle star (the central disc is smaller than a dime) clings to the branches of a soft coral in a sample bucket brought into the shipboard laboratory from a submersible dive. This creature makes its home on the deep, dark ocean floor. ...

  10. STAR Highlights

    E-print Network

    Hiroshi Masui; for the STAR Collaboration

    2011-06-29

    We report selected results from STAR collaboration at RHIC, focusing on jet-hadron and jet-like correlations, quarkonium suppression and collectivity, di-electron spectrum in both p+p and Au+Au, and higher moments of net-protons as well as azimuthal anisotropy from RHIC Beam Energy Scan program.

  11. Star Power

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2014-11-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  12. Star Power

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  13. ADIPOQ polymorphism rs182052 is associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guiming; Gu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yao; Luo, Lei; Dong, Dahai; Wan, Fangning; Zhang, Hailiang; Shi, Guohai; Sun, Lijiang; Ye, Dingwei

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies have indicated that low circulating adiponectin concentrations are associated with a higher risk of several cancers, including renal cell carcinoma. In this case-control study, we examined the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs182052G>A, rs266729C>G, and rs3774262G>A) in the adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) in 1004 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) compared with a group of healthy subjects (n = 1108). Fasting serum adiponectin concentrations were also examined. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The association of serum adiponectin concentration with genetic variants was calculated using a multivariate linear regression model. A significantly higher ccRCC risk was associated with the rs182052 variant A allele (adjusted OR, 1.36 and 95% CI, 1.07-1.74 for AA vs GG, P = 0.013; adjusted OR, 1.27 and 95% CI, 1.04-1.56 for AA vs GG+AG, P = 0.019), and this positive association was more evident in overweight subjects. Fasting serum adiponectin was lower in subjects carrying A alleles of rs182052 in both ccRCC patients (? = -0.399, P = 0.018) and healthy controls (? = -0.371, P = 0.024). These results suggest that ADIPOQ rs182052 is significantly associated with ccRCC risk. PMID:25827778

  14. Association between JAK2 rs4495487 Polymorphism and Risk of Budd-Chiari Syndrome in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peijin; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Hui; Ma, He; Wang, Wei; Gao, Xiuyin; Xu, Hao; Lu, Zhaojun

    2015-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are the leading cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), and the C allele of JAK2 rs4495487 was reported to be an additional candidate locus that contributed to MPNs. In the present study, we examined the role of JAK2 rs4495487 in the etiology and clinical presentation of Chinese BCS patients. 300 primary BCS patients and 311 healthy controls were enrolled to evaluate the association between JAK2 rs4495487 polymorphism and risk of BCS. All subjects were detected for JAK2 rs4495487 by real-time PCR. Results. The JAK2 rs4495487 polymorphism was associated with JAK2 V617F-positive BCS patients compared with controls (P < 0.01). The CC genotype increased the risk of BCS in patients with JAK2 V617F mutation compared with individuals presenting TT genotype (OR = 13.60, 95% CI = 2.04–90.79) and non-CC genotype (OR = 12.00, 95% CI = 2.07–69.52). We also observed a significantly elevated risk of combined-type BCS associated with CC genotype in the recessive model (OR = 4.44, 95% CI = 1.31–15.12). This study provides statistical evidence that the JAK2 rs4495487 polymorphism is susceptibility factor JAK2 V617F positive BCS and combined BCS in China. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:26557140

  15. The use of systematic reviews and reporting guidelines to advance the implementation of the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Avey, Marc T; Fenwick, Nicole; Griffin, Gilly

    2015-03-01

    In 1959, Russell and Burch published The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, which included concrete advice on factors that they considered would govern progress in the implementation of these principles (enunciated as the 3Rs [Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement in animal-based studies]). One challenge to the implementation of the 3Rs was identified as information retrieval. Here, we further explore this challenge-the need for 'research on research'-and the role that systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can play in implementation of the 3Rs. First, we examine the 2-fold nature of the challenge of information retrieval: 1) the identification of relevant publications spread throughout a large population of nonrelevant publications and 2) the incomplete reporting of relevant details within those publications. Second, we evaluate how systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can be used generally to address this challenge. Third, we assess the explicit reporting of the 3Rs in a cohort of preclinical animal systematic reviews. Our results show that Reduction methods are the most commonly reported by authors of systematic reviews but that, in general, reporting on how findings relate to the 3Rs is limited at best. Although systematic reviews are excellent tools for resolving the challenge of information retrieval, their utility for making progress in implementation of the 3Rs may be limited unless authors improve their reporting of these principles. PMID:25836961

  16. Association of the NOTCH4 Gene Polymorphism rs204993 with Schizophrenia in the Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bao; Fan, Qian Rui; Li, Wen Hao; Lu, Ning; Fu, Dong Ke; Kang, Yan Jie; Wang, Na; Li, Teng; Wen, Xiao Peng; Li, Da Xu

    2015-01-01

    NOTCH4 regulates signaling pathways associated with neuronal maturation, a process involved in the development and patterning of the central nervous system. The NOTCH4 gene has also been identified as a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia (SCZ). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between NOTCH4 polymorphisms and SCZ in the Chinese Han population. The rs2071287 and rs204993 polymorphisms of the NOTCH4 gene were analyzed in 443 patients with SCZ and 628 controls of Han Chinese descent. Single SNP allele-, genotype-, and gender-specific associations were analyzed using different models (i.e., additive, dominant, and recessive models). This association study revealed that the rs204993 polymorphism is significantly associated with susceptibility for SCZ and that the AA genotype of rs204993 is associated with a higher risk for SCZ (P = 0.027; OR = 1.460; 95% CI, 1.043–2.054). Our data are consistent with those obtained in previous studies that suggested that rs204993 is associated with SCZ and that the AA genotype of rs204993 demonstrates a higher risk. Further large-scale association analyses in Han Chinese populations are warranted. PMID:26605328

  17. The Use of Systematic Reviews and Reporting Guidelines to Advance the Implementation of the 3Rs

    PubMed Central

    Avey, Marc T; Fenwick, Nicole; Griffin, Gilly

    2015-01-01

    In 1959, Russell and Burch published The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique, which included concrete advice on factors that they considered would govern progress in the implementation of these principles (enunciated as the 3Rs [Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement in animal-based studies]). One challenge to the implementation of the 3Rs was identified as information retrieval. Here, we further explore this challenge—the need for ‘research on research’—and the role that systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can play in implementation of the 3Rs. First, we examine the 2-fold nature of the challenge of information retrieval: 1) the identification of relevant publications spread throughout a large population of nonrelevant publications and 2) the incomplete reporting of relevant details within those publications. Second, we evaluate how systematic reviews and reporting guidelines can be used generally to address this challenge. Third, we assess the explicit reporting of the 3Rs in a cohort of preclinical animal systematic reviews. Our results show that Reduction methods are the most commonly reported by authors of systematic reviews but that, in general, reporting on how findings relate to the 3Rs is limited at best. Although systematic reviews are excellent tools for resolving the challenge of information retrieval, their utility for making progress in implementation of the 3Rs may be limited unless authors improve their reporting of these principles. PMID:25836961

  18. Influence of the hTERT rs2736100 polymorphism on telomere length in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Byung Joon; Yoon, Jung Hwan; Kim, Olga; Choi, Won Suk; Nam, Suk Woo; Lee, Jung Young; Park, Won Sang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the functional consequences of rs2736100 polymorphism in telomere length and examine its link to gastric cancer risk. METHODS: Telomere length and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA expression were measured in 35 gastric cancer tissues and 5 cell lines and correlated to rs2736100 polymorphism. The relationship between rs2736100 polymorphism and the risk of gastric cancer were examined in 243 gastric cancer patients and 246 healthy individuals. RESULTS: The rs2736100 A allele carrier is closely associated with reduced hTERT mRNA expression and shortened telomere length in gastric cancer tissue and cell lines. When gastric cancers were stratified by histological subtype, telomere length and hTERT mRNA levels were significantly increased in those with the C/C genotype in intestinal-type gastric cancer, but not in diffuse-type gastric cancer. Interestingly, there was no significant difference in the genotype and allele frequencies of the rs2736100 polymorphism between the patients with gastric cancer and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: The rs2736100 polymorphism of the hTERT gene is involved in the regulation of hTERT expression and telomere length, but not in the risk of gastric cancer. PMID:26309358

  19. Association between the rs342293 polymorphism and adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Siller-Matula, Jolanta M; Arbesu, Iciar; Jilma, Bernd; Maurer, Gerald; Lang, Irene M; Mannhalter, Christine

    2014-06-01

    The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs342293 has been shown to influence platelet number and mean platelet volume (MPV). We investigated the association between the rs342293 polymorphism and cardiovascular outcome in a prospective cohort study. The rs342293 polymorphism was analysed in 404 patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The rates of cardiac adverse events were recorded during two years of follow-up. The polymorphism was associated with MPV (median 10.1 fL, interquartile range [IQR]: 9.6 to 10.6 in patients with the CC-allele vs 10.4 fL, IQR: 9.9 to 11.1 in G>C SNP carriers; p<0.001), but not with platelet count. Survival analysis indicated that carriers of the rs342293 G variant had a substantially higher risk to develop cardiac adverse events compared with wild type carriers during two years of follow-up (33% vs 22%; adjusted hazard ratio = 1.63, 95% confidence interval = 1.06-2.52, p=0.027). The rs342293 SNP could explain 2.9% of the variability in MPV (p=0.01). In conclusion, patients undergoing coronary stenting who carry the G-variant of the rs342293 SNP which is associated with larger MPV are at higher risk for adverse cardiovascular outcome. PMID:24652536

  20. ROSAT all-sky survey observations of X-ray variability in cool giant stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, Bernhard; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    1994-01-01

    We have identified 24 active late-type giant stars, including 11 RS CVn systems, with soft X-ray count rates high enough to allow the detection of statistically significant variability on a Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) orbital timescale (96 minutes) as observed by the Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) during the all-sky survey. Our sensitivity typically lies in the range of 10% - 25%, depending on the source count rate. Comparison is made to the daily, nonflare solar soft X-ray variability as observed by the Solrad satellites during solar minimum in 1969 and solar maximum in 1975. Seven of the 24 stars show significant variability; in two of these cases (HR 3922 and HR 8448) major flares were observed in which the peak count rate is enhanced by at least a factor of 3 above quiescent. While HR 3922 (G5 III) is not (yet) classified as an RS CVn star, its flare is more energetic (3 x 10(exp 31) ergs/s) than previously observed RS CVn flares. The apparently single giant HR 8167 (G8 III) also shows two flares. While one might expect to find an anticorrelation between saturated coronae and variability, we find no evidence of this: the two stars in our sample with the highest ratio of f(sub x)/f(sub v) both show variability. We also point out that Capella (G6 III + F9 III) is one of the stars manifesting variability.

  1. Validation of rs2956540:G>C and rs3735520:G>A association with keratoconus in a population of European descent.

    PubMed

    Dudakova, Lubica; Palos, Michalis; Jirsova, Katerina; Stranecky, Viktor; Krepelova, Anna; Hysi, Pirro G; Liskova, Petra

    2015-10-01

    Corneal ectasias, among which keratoconus (KC) is the single most common entity, are one of the most frequent reasons for corneal grafting in developed countries and a threatening complication of laser in situ keratomileusis. Genome-wide association studies have previously found lysyl oxidase (LOX) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) associated with susceptibility to KC development. The aim of our study was to validate the effects of seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within LOX and HGF over KC. Unrelated Czech cases with KC of European descent (108 males and 57 females, 165 cases in total) and 193 population and gender-matched controls were genotyped using Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR assays. Fisher's exact tests were used to assess the strength of associations. Evidence for association was found for both of the tested loci. It was strongest for rs3735520:G>A near HGF (allelic test odds ratio (OR)=1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.98; P=0.018) with A allele being a risk factor and rs2956540:G>C (OR=0.69; 95% CI, 0.50-0.96; P=0.024) within LOX with C allele having a protective effect. This first independent association validation of rs2956540:G>C and rs3735520:G>A suggests that these SNPs may serve as genetic risk markers for KC in individuals of European descent. PMID:25735481

  2. Coordinated ultraviolet and radio observations of selected nearby stars. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, K.R.

    1987-09-01

    All of the US2 shifts assigned were successfully completed with simultaneous International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and the Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the proposed target stars. The target stars included dwarf M flare stars and RS CVn stars. The combined ultraviolet (IUE) and microwave (VLA) observations have provided important new insights to the radiation mechanisms at these two widely-separated regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The VLA results included the discovery of narrow-band microwave radiation and rapid time variations in the microwave radiation of dwarf M flare stars. The results indicate that conventional radiation mechanisms cannot explain the microwave emission from these stars. In general, ultraviolet variations and bursts occur when no similar variations are detected at microwave wavelengths and vice versa. Although these is some overlap, the variations in these two spectral regions are usually uncorrelated, suggesting that there is little interaction between the activity centers at the two associated atmospheric levels.

  3. Variable Stars Pulsating Stars: periodic

    E-print Network

    Basu, Shantanu

    's Laws (Kepler's 3rd Law ) imply . 14 2 3 2 G P GMR P = Note: free-fall time and pulsation time to novae in binary systems. Type II: End stage of massive star life. A rebound occurs after the collapse

  4. Effect of rs6983267 polymorphism in the 8q24 region and rs4444903 polymorphism in EGF gene on the risk of sporadic colorectal cancer in Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Daraei, A; Salehi, R; Salehi, M; Emami, M H; Janghorbani, M; Jonghorbani, M; Mohamadhashem, F; Tavakoli, H

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the major causes of cancer-related morbidity, mortality, and human health problem worldwide. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in different genes are reported to be effective in increased risk of CRC in different ethnic population. We conducted a case-control study in patients diagnosed with sporadic colorectal cancer (n = 115) and healthy controls based on colonoscopy evidences (n = 120).In this replicative study, we aimed to investigate the association of two previously reported polymorphisms, rs6983267 and rs4444903, with sporadic colorectal cancer in a subset of Iranian patients. Genotyping was performed via polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. A significant relation was found between rs6983267 variant in the 8q24 region and colorectal cancer. The distribution of G/G genotypes among sporadic CRC patients was more frequent than that in the control group (P value = 0.001). The frequency of the G allele in the colorectal cancer patient group was also higher than that in the control group (65% vs. 48%; P value = 0.001). Compared with GG genotype, individuals with G/T and T/T genotypes had lower risk to develop sporadic CRC (OR = 0.357, 95% CI = 0.201-0.635). For the rs4444903 SNP, no significant association (P value = 0.149) was found with colorectal cancer risk. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the 8q24 rs6983267 SNP may play a pivotal role in the development of sporadic CRC in Iranian population. Therefore, it may be included as a potential genetic susceptibility marker for sporadic CRC. PMID:21567271

  5. Converting neutron stars into strange stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    If strange matter is formed in the interior of a neutron star, it will convert the entire neutron star into a strange star. The proposed mechanisms are reviewed for strange matter seeding and the possible strange matter contamination of neutron star progenitors. The conversion process that follows seeding and the recent calculations of the conversion timescale are discussed.

  6. The 8q24 rs6983267G variant is associated with increased thyroid cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Sahasrabudhe, Ruta; Estrada, Ana; Lott, Paul; Martin, Lynn; Polanco Echeverry, Guadalupe; Velez, Alejandro; Neta, Gila; Takahasi, Meiko; Saenko, Vladimir; Mitsutake, Norisato; Jaeguer, Emma; Duque, Carlos Simon; Rios, Alejandro; Bohorquez, Mabel; Prieto, Rodrigo; Criollo, Angel; Echeverry, Magdalena; Tomlinson, Ian; Carmona, Luis G Carvajal

    2015-10-01

    The G allele of the rs6983267 single-nucleotide polymorphism, located on chromosome 8q24, has been associated with increased risk of several cancer types. The association between rs6983267G and thyroid cancer (TC) has been tested in different populations, mostly of European ancestry, and has led to inconclusive results. While significant associations have been reported in the British and Polish populations, no association has been detected in populations from Spain, Italy and the USA. To further investigate the role of rs6983267G in TC susceptibility, we evaluated rs6983267 genotypes in three populations of different continental ancestry (British Isles, Colombia and Japan), providing a total of 3067 cases and 8575 controls. We detected significant associations between rs6983267G and TC in the British Isles (odds ratio (OR)=1.19, 95% CI: 1.11-1.27, P=4.03×10(-7)), Japan (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.03-1.41, P=0.022) and a borderline significant association of similar effect direction and size in Colombia (OR=1.19, 95% CI: 0.99-1.44, P=0.069). A meta-analysis of our multi-ethnic study and previously published non-overlapping datasets, which included a total of 5484 cases and 12?594 controls, confirmed the association between rs6983267G and TC (P=1.23×10(-7), OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.08-1.18). Our results therefore support the notion that rs6983267G is a bona fide TC risk variant that increases the risk of disease by ?13%. PMID:26290501

  7. Synaptic pathology and therapeutic repair in adult retinoschisis mouse by AAV-RS1 transfer

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Jingxing; Vijayasarathy, Camasamudram; Ziccardi, Lucia; Chen, Shan; Zeng, Yong; Marangoni, Dario; Pope, Jodie G.; Bush, Ronald A.; Wu, Zhijian; Li, Wei; Sieving, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Strategies aimed at invoking synaptic plasticity have therapeutic potential for several neurological conditions. The human retinal synaptic disease X-linked retinoschisis (XLRS) is characterized by impaired visual signal transmission through the retina and progressive visual acuity loss, and mice lacking retinoschisin (RS1) recapitulate human disease. Here, we demonstrate that restoration of RS1 via retina-specific delivery of adeno-associated virus type 8-RS1 (AAV8-RS1) vector rescues molecular pathology at the photoreceptor–depolarizing bipolar cell (photoreceptor-DBC) synapse and restores function in adult Rs1-KO animals. Initial development of the photoreceptor-DBC synapse was normal in the Rs1-KO retina; however, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6/transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily M member 1–signaling (mGluR6/TRPM1-signaling) cascade was not properly maintained. Specifically, the TRPM1 channel and G proteins G?o, G?5, and RGS11 were progressively lost from postsynaptic DBC dendritic tips, whereas the mGluR6 receptor and RGS7 maintained proper synaptic position. This postsynaptic disruption differed from other murine night-blindness models with an electronegative electroretinogram response, which is also characteristic of murine and human XLRS disease. Upon AAV8-RS1 gene transfer to the retina of adult XLRS mice, TRPM1 and the signaling molecules returned to their proper dendritic tip location, and the DBC resting membrane potential was restored. These findings provide insight into the molecular plasticity of a critical synapse in the visual system and demonstrate potential therapeutic avenues for some diseases involving synaptic pathology. PMID:26098217

  8. Planck stars

    E-print Network

    Rovelli, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density --not by size-- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

  9. Planck stars

    E-print Network

    Carlo Rovelli; Francesca Vidotto

    2014-02-08

    A star that collapses gravitationally can reach a further stage of its life, where quantum-gravitational pressure counteracts weight. The duration of this stage is very short in the star proper time, yielding a bounce, but extremely long seen from the outside, because of the huge gravitational time dilation. Since the onset of quantum-gravitational effects is governed by energy density ---not by size--- the star can be much larger than planckian in this phase. The object emerging at the end of the Hawking evaporation of a black hole can then be larger than planckian by a factor $(m/m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P})^n$, where $m$ is the mass fallen into the hole, $m_{\\scriptscriptstyle P}$ is the Planck mass, and $n$ is positive. We consider arguments for $n=1/3$ and for $n=1$. There is no causality violation or faster-than-light propagation. The existence of these objects alleviates the black-hole information paradox. More interestingly, these objects could have astrophysical and cosmological interest: they produce a detectable signal, of quantum gravitational origin, around the $10^{-14} cm$ wavelength.

  10. Successful fabrication of a convex platform PMMA cell-counting slide using a high-precision perpendicular dual-spindle CNC machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shun-Tong; Chang, Chih-Hsien

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a novel approach to the fabrication of a biomedical-mold for producing convex platform PMMA (poly-methyl-meth-acrylate) slides for counting cells. These slides allow for the microscopic examination of urine sediment cells. Manufacturing of such slides incorporates three important procedures: (1) the development of a tabletop high-precision dual-spindle CNC (computerized numerical control) machine tool; (2) the formation of a boron-doped polycrystalline composite diamond (BD-PCD) wheel-tool on the machine tool developed in procedure (1); and (3) the cutting of a multi-groove-biomedical-mold array using the formed diamond wheel-tool in situ on the developed machine. The machine incorporates a hybrid working platform providing wheel-tool thinning using spark erosion to cut, polish, and deburr microgrooves on NAK80 steel directly. With consideration given for the electrical conductive properties of BD-PCD, the diamond wheel-tool is thinned to a thickness of 5 µm by rotary wire electrical discharge machining. The thinned wheel-tool can grind microgrooves 10 µm wide. An embedded design, which inserts a close fitting precision core into the biomedical-mold to create step-difference (concave inward) of 50 µm in height between the core and the mold, is also proposed and realized. The perpendicular dual-spindles and precision rotary stage are features that allow for biomedical-mold machining without the necessity of uploading and repositioning materials until all tasks are completed. A PMMA biomedical-slide with a plurality of juxtaposed counting chambers is formed and its usefulness verified.

  11. Time-series photometric spot modeling. 2: Fifteen years of photometry of the bright RS CVn binary HR 7275

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Hall, D. S.; Henry, G. W.

    1994-01-01

    We present a time-dependent spot modeling analysis of 15 consecutive years of V-band photometry of the long-period (P(sub orb) = 28.6 days) RS CVn binary HR 7275. This baseline in time is one of the longest, uninterrupted intervals a spotted star has been observed. The spot modeling analysis yields a total of 20 different spots throughout the time span of our observations. The distribution of the observed spot migration rates is consistent with solar-type differential rotation and suggests a lower limit of the differential-rotation coefficient of 0.022 +/-0.004. The observed, maximum lifetime of a single spot (or spot group) is 4.5 years, the minimum lifetime is approximately one year, but an average spot lives for 2.2 years. If we assume that the mechanical shear by differential rotation sets the upper limit to the spot lifetime, the observed maximum lifetime in turn sets an upper limit to the differential-rotation coefficient, namely 0.04 +/- 0.01. This would be differential rotation just 5 to 8 times less than the solar value and one of the strongest among active binaries. We found no conclusive evidence for the existence of a periodic phenomenon that could be attributed to a stellar magnetic cycle.

  12. RS-34 Phoenix In-Space Propulsion System Applied to Active Debris Removal Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esther, Elizabeth A.; Burnside, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    In-space propulsion is a high percentage of the cost when considering Active Debris Removal mission. For this reason it is desired to research if existing designs with slight modification would meet mission requirements to aid in reducing cost of the overall mission. Such a system capable of rendezvous, close proximity operations, and de-orbit of Envisat class resident space objects has been identified in the existing RS-34 Phoenix. RS-34 propulsion system is a remaining asset from the de-commissioned United States Air Force Peacekeeper program; specifically the pressure-fed storable bi-propellant Stage IV Post Boost Propulsion System. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) gained experience with the RS-34 propulsion system on the successful Ares I-X flight test program flown in the Ares I-X Roll control system (RoCS). The heritage hardware proved extremely robust and reliable and sparked interest for further utilization on other potential in-space applications. Subsequently, MSFC has obtained permission from the USAF to obtain all the remaining RS-34 stages for re-use opportunities. The MSFC Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) was commissioned to lead a study for evaluation of the Rocketdyne produced RS-34 propulsion system as it applies to an active debris removal design reference mission for resident space object targets including Envisat. Originally designed, the RS-34 Phoenix provided in-space six-degrees-of freedom operational maneuvering to deploy payloads at multiple orbital locations. The RS-34 Concept Study lead by sought to further understand application for a similar orbital debris design reference mission to provide propulsive capability for rendezvous, close proximity operations to support the capture phase of the mission, and deorbit of single or multiple large class resident space objects. Multiple configurations varying the degree of modification were identified to trade for dry mass optimization and propellant load. The results of the RS-34 Phoenix Concept Study show that the system is technically sufficient to successfully support all of the missions to rendezvous, capture, and de-orbit targets including Envisat and Hubble Space Telescope. The results and benefits of the RS-34 Orbital Debris Application Concept Study are presented in this paper.

  13. Phosphorylation of RS1 (RSC1A1) Steers Inhibition of Different Exocytotic Pathways for Glucose Transporter SGLT1 and Nucleoside Transporter CNT1, and an RS1-Derived Peptide Inhibits Glucose Absorption.

    PubMed

    Veyhl-Wichmann, Maike; Friedrich, Alexandra; Vernaleken, Alexandra; Singh, Smriti; Kipp, Helmut; Gorboulev, Valentin; Keller, Thorsten; Chintalapati, Chakravarthi; Pipkorn, Rüdiger; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal; Groll, Jürgen; Koepsell, Hermann

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake adapts rapidly to physiologic demands by changing transporter abundance in the plasma membrane. The human gene RSC1A1 codes for a 67-kDa protein named RS1 that has been shown to induce downregulation of the sodium-D-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and of the concentrative nucleoside transporter 1 (CNT1) in the plasma membrane by blocking exocytosis at the Golgi. Injecting RS1 fragments into Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing SGLT1 or CNT1 and measuring the expressed uptake of ?-methylglucoside or uridine 1 hour later, we identified a RS1 domain (RS1-Reg) containing multiple predicted phosphorylation sites that is responsible for this post-translational downregulation of SGLT1 and CNT1. Dependent on phosphorylation, RS1-Reg blocks the release of SGLT1-containing vesicles from the Golgi in a glucose-dependent manner or glucose-independent release of CNT1-containing vesicles. We showed that upregulation of SGLT1 in the small intestine after glucose ingestion is promoted by glucose-dependent disinhibition of the RS1-Reg-blocked exocytotic pathway of SGLT1 between meals. Mimicking phosphorylation of RS1-Reg, we obtained a RS1-Reg variant that downregulates SGLT1 in the brush-border membrane at high luminal glucose concentration. Because RS1 mediates short-term regulation of various transporters, we propose that the RS1-Reg-navigated transporter release from Golgi represents a basic regulatory mechanism of general importance, which implies the existence of receptor proteins that recognize different phosphorylated forms of RS1-Reg and of complex transporter-specific sorting in the trans-Golgi. RS1-Reg-derived peptides that downregulate SGLT1 at high intracellular glucose concentrations may be used for downregulation of glucose absorption in small intestine, which has been proposed as strategy for treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26464324

  14. When Stars Collide

    E-print Network

    E. Glebbeek; O. R. Pols

    2007-10-09

    When two stars collide and merge they form a new star that can stand out against the background population in a starcluster as a blue straggler. In so called collision runaways many stars can merge and may form a very massive star that eventually forms an intermediate mass blackhole. We have performed detailed evolution calculations of merger remnants from collisions between main sequence stars, both for lower mass stars and higher mass stars. These stars can be significantly brighter than ordinary stars of the same mass due to their increased helium abundance. Simplified treatments ignoring this effect give incorrect predictions for the collision product lifetime and evolution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.

  15. Genetic Association Between CD143 rs4340 Polymorphism and Pneumonia risk: A Meta Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Zhang, Kun; Qin, Haifeng; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Liyu; Cao, Yanyan

    2015-07-01

    rs4340 polymorphism at intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (CD143) gene was reported to repress cough reflex by reducing bradykinin and substance P levels, thus increasing the likelihood to develop pneumonia. There have been different reports regarding the correlation of CD143 rs4340 genotypes with pneumonia risk, which prompted us to perform a meta-analysis to determine the elusive association.We combined multiple keywords to identify the studies addressing the association between CD143 rs4340 genotypes and pneumonia risk covered in the EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, and CNKI databases. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the risk of pneumonia. The fixed-effects model (FEM) was used.A total of 10 studies were analyzed in this quantitative analysis. We found a strong association between rs4340 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and pneumonia risk using the recessive model (FEM: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.13-1.57). A significantly increased risk was also indicated under the recessive model in Asian populations (FEM: OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19-2.07), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (FEM: OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.60), and nosocomial pneumonia (NP) (FEM: OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.06-2.19).Our meta-analysis demonstrates that CD143 rs4340 polymorphism may represent a risk factor for pneumonia. PMID:26222869

  16. NQO1 gene rs1800566 variant is not associated with risk for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A possible role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis has been suggested. The detoxification enzyme NAD(P)H dehydrogenase, quinone 1 (NQO1) has been found up-regulated in MS lesions. A previous report described an association between the SNP rs1800566 in the NQO1 gene and the risk for MS in the Greek population. The aim of this study was to replicate a possible influence of the. SNP rs1800566 in the NQO1 gene in the risk for MS in the Spanish Caucasian population. Methods We analyzed allelic and genotypic frequency of NQO1 rs1800566 in 290 patients with MS and 310 healthy controls, using TaqMan Assays. Results NQO1 rs1800566 allelic and genotypic frequencies did not differ significantly between MS patients and controls, and were unrelated with age of onset of MS, gender, and clinical type of MS. Conclusions Our results indicate that NQO1 rs1800566 does not have an effect on MS disease risk. PMID:24755231

  17. Association of Pre-miR-146a rs2910164 Polymorphism with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Gu, Yulu; Liu, Xiaoli; Yu, Yaqin; Shi, Jieping; Yu, Qiong; Sun, Hui; Kanu, Joseph Sam; Zhan, Siyan; Liu, Yawen

    2015-01-01

    The incidence rate of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has increased over the past decades, but the pathogenesis remains unclear. rs2910164, located in pre-miR-146a, has been studied in PTCs with different ethnicity, but the results were inconsistent. Here we evaluate the association between rs2910164 polymorphism and PTC and investigate the effect of this polymorphism on patients' clinicopathological characteristics. 1238 PTC patients and 1275 controls, all Han population, from Northern China, were included in our study. rs2910164 was genotyped using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Analysis of inheritance model was performed using the SNPStats program. Strength of association was assessed by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Overall, no statistical difference in rs2910164 genotype distribution and allelic frequencies between cases and controls was found, and patients with different genotypes had similar clinicopathological characteristics in terms of stage, location, concurrent of benign thyroid tumor, and thyroiditis, while, as the number of G alleles increased, proportion of patients aged ?45 years and those without metastasis increased (Ptrend < 0.001 and Ptrend = 0.003, resp.). However, no association remained significant after Bonferroni correction under any model of inheritance. Our results suggest no association between rs2910164 polymorphism with PTC and patients' clinicopathological characteristics.

  18. The physiological target for LeuRS translational quality control is norvaline

    PubMed Central

    Cvetesic, Nevena; Palencia, Andrés; Halasz, Ivan; Cusack, Stephen; Gruic-Sovulj, Ita

    2014-01-01

    The fidelity of protein synthesis depends on the capacity of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARSs) to couple only cognate amino acid-tRNA pairs. If amino acid selectivity is compromised, fidelity can be ensured by an inherent AARS editing activity that hydrolyses mischarged tRNAs. Here, we show that the editing activity of Escherichia coli leucyl-tRNA synthetase (EcLeuRS) is not required to prevent incorrect isoleucine incorporation. Rather, as shown by kinetic, structural and in vivo approaches, the prime biological function of LeuRS editing is to prevent mis-incorporation of the non-standard amino acid norvaline. This conclusion follows from a reassessment of the discriminatory power of LeuRS against isoleucine and the demonstration that a LeuRS editing-deficient E. coli strain grows normally in high concentrations of isoleucine but not under oxygen deprivation conditions when norvaline accumulates to substantial levels. Thus, AARS-based translational quality control is a key feature for bacterial adaptive response to oxygen deprivation. The non-essential role for editing under normal bacterial growth has important implications for the development of resistance to antimicrobial agents targeting the LeuRS editing site. PMID:24935946

  19. Fire, A Test Bed for ARIES-RS/AT Advanced Physics and Plasma Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, Dale M.

    2005-04-15

    The overall vision for FIRE is to develop and test the fusion plasma physics and plasma technologies needed to realize capabilities of the ARIES-RS/AT power plant designs. The mission of FIRE is to attain, explore, understand and optimize a fusion dominated plasma which would be satisfied by producing DT fusion plasmas with nominal fusion gains {approx}10, self-driven currents of {approx}80%, fusion power {approx} 150 - 300 MW and pulse lengths up to 40 s. Achieving these goals will require the deployment of several key fusion technologies under conditions approaching those of ARIES-RS/AT. The FIRE plasma configuration with strong plasma shaping, a double null pumped divertor and all metal plasma facing components is a 40% scale model of the ARIES-RS/AT plasma configuration. 'Steady-state' advanced tokamak modes in FIRE with high {beta}, high bootstrap fraction and 100% non-inductive current drive are suitable for testing the physics of the ARIES-RS/AT operating modes. The development of techniques to handle power plant relevant exhaust power while maintaining low tritium inventory is a major objective for a burning plasma experiment. The FIRE H-modes and AT-modes result in fusion power densities from 3 - 10 MWm{sup -3} and neutron wall loading from 2 - 4 MW m{sup -2} which are at the levels expected from the ARIES-RS/AT design studies.

  20. FIRE, A Test Bed for ARIES-RS/AT Advanced Physics and Plasma Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dale M. Meade

    2004-10-21

    The overall vision for FIRE [Fusion Ignition Research Experiment] is to develop and test the fusion plasma physics and plasma technologies needed to realize capabilities of the ARIES-RS/AT power plant designs. The mission of FIRE is to attain, explore, understand and optimize a fusion dominated plasma which would be satisfied by producing D-T [deuterium-tritium] fusion plasmas with nominal fusion gains {approx}10, self-driven currents of {approx}80%, fusion power {approx}150-300 MW, and pulse lengths up to 40 s. Achieving these goals will require the deployment of several key fusion technologies under conditions approaching those of ARIES-RS/AT. The FIRE plasma configuration with strong plasma shaping, a double null pumped divertor and all metal plasma-facing components is a 40% scale model of the ARIES-RS/AT plasma configuration. ''Steady-state'' advanced tokamak modes in FIRE with high beta, high bootstrap fraction, and 100% noninductive current drive are suitable for testing the physics of the ARIES-RS/A T operating modes. The development of techniques to handle power plant relevant exhaust power while maintaining low tritium inventory is a major objective for a burning plasma experiment. The FIRE high-confinement modes and AT-modes result in fusion power densities from 3-10 MWm{sup -3} and neutron wall loading from 2-4 MWm{sup -2} which are at the levels expected from the ARIES-RS/AT design studies.

  1. Correlation between VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphism and glioma risk among Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guo-Zheng; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Jing; Diao, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the correlation between vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR2) polymorphism and glioma risk among Chinese population. Method: Case-control study design was adopted, and blood samples and clinical data of 250 glioma cases and 260 control subjects were collected. Epidemiological questionnaire survey was performed, and DNA extraction, concentration normalization and packaging were carried out using Qiagen Blood Kit. TaqMan method was performed for VEGFR2 rs2071559 genotyping. Results: C allele of VEGFR2 rs2071559 genotype was the susceptibility allele contributing to the risk of glioma (OR=1.813, 95% CI: 1.393-2.359, P=0.014). CC genotypes of VEGFR2 rs2071559 were associated with increased risk of glioma (OR=2.068, 95% CI: 1.164-3.674, P=0.014; Adjusted OR=1.883, 95% CI: 1.430~3.013, P=0.018). Conclusion: CC genotypes of VEGFR2 rs2071559 were associated with glioma risk among Chinese population. However, the role of VEGFR2 rs2071559 polymorphism in glioma susceptibility remains to be further clarified. PMID:26629211

  2. Anthrax toxin receptor 2 gene (ANTXR2) rs4333130 is associated with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Yanjuan

    2015-01-01

    Results of recent published studies on the association between the ANTXR2 rs4333130 polymorphism and the risk of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have often been conflicting. To make a more precise estimation of the potential relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. We conducted a comprehensive search in the electronic database of PubMed and Embase to retrieve relevant articles. Nine studies including 14,523 cases and 34,421 controls were finally selected in this meta-analysis. ANTXR2 rs4333130 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of AS (OR=0.87; 95% CI, 0.84-0.90; P<0.00001). In the subgroup analysis by race, ANTXR2 rs4333130 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of AS in both Asian (OR=0.80; 95% CI, 0.65-0.99; P=0.04) and Caucasian (OR=0.87; 95% CI, 0.84-0.90; P<0.00001). In the subgroup analysis by HLA-B27 status, HLA-B27 positive individuals with ANTXR2 rs4333130 showed decreased AS risk (OR=0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.96; P=0.002). However, HLA-B27 negative individuals with this polymorphism did not showed decreased AS risk (OR=0.96; 95% CI, 0.88-1.06; P=0.44). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested a significant association between ANTXR2 rs4333130 polymorphism and AS risk. PMID:26221317

  3. CLU rs2279590 polymorphism contributes to Alzheimer's disease susceptibility in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Zhang, Donghui; Jiang, Yongshuai; Wu, Lina; Shang, Hong; Liu, Jiafeng; Feng, Rennan; Liao, Mingzhi; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Yong; Liu, Guiyou; Li, Keshen

    2015-03-01

    It is reported that CLU rs2279590 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in European ancestry. Recent studies investigated rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian population (Chinese, Japanese and Korean). Four studies showed negative association and two studies showed weak association between rs2279590 and AD. We believe that the weak association or no association may be caused by the relatively small sample size in Asian population. Here, we reinvestigated the association in Asian population. Meanwhile, to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of the rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian and Caucasian populations, we searched the PubMed and AlzGene databases and selected 11 independent studies (6 studies in Asian population and 5 studies in Caucasian population) including 20,655 individuals (8,605 cases and 12,050 controls) for meta-analysis. Our results showed significant association between rs2279590 polymorphism and AD in Asian population with P = 2.00E-04 and P = 2.00E-04 using additive and recessive models, respectively. We observed no significant heterogeneity between Asian and Caucasian populations. We believe that our results may be helpful to understand the mechanisms of CLU in AD pathogenesis and will be useful for future genetic studies in AD. PMID:24947876

  4. Anthrax toxin receptor 2 gene (ANTXR2) rs4333130 is associated with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yanjuan

    2015-01-01

    Results of recent published studies on the association between the ANTXR2 rs4333130 polymorphism and the risk of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) have often been conflicting. To make a more precise estimation of the potential relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. We conducted a comprehensive search in the electronic database of PubMed and Embase to retrieve relevant articles. Nine studies including 14,523 cases and 34,421 controls were finally selected in this meta-analysis. ANTXR2 rs4333130 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of AS (OR=0.87; 95% CI, 0.84-0.90; P<0.00001). In the subgroup analysis by race, ANTXR2 rs4333130 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of AS in both Asian (OR=0.80; 95% CI, 0.65-0.99; P=0.04) and Caucasian (OR=0.87; 95% CI, 0.84-0.90; P<0.00001). In the subgroup analysis by HLA-B27 status, HLA-B27 positive individuals with ANTXR2 rs4333130 showed decreased AS risk (OR=0.89; 95% CI, 0.83-0.96; P=0.002). However, HLA-B27 negative individuals with this polymorphism did not showed decreased AS risk (OR=0.96; 95% CI, 0.88-1.06; P=0.44). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested a significant association between ANTXR2 rs4333130 polymorphism and AS risk. PMID:26221317

  5. Association of Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) rs53576 Polymorphism with Sociality: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingguang; Zhao, Yajun; Li, Rena; Broster, Lucas S.; Zhou, Chenglin; Yang, Suyong

    2015-01-01

    A common variant in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), rs53576, has been broadly linked to socially related personality traits and behaviors. However, the pattern of published results is inconsistent. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association. The literature was searched for relevant studies and effect sizes between individuals homozygous for the G allele (GG) and individuals with A allele carriers (AA/AG). Specifically, two indices of sociality were evaluated independently: i) general sociality (24 samples, n = 4955), i.e., how an individual responds to other people in general; and ii) close relationships (15 samples, n = 5262), i.e., how an individual responds to individuals with closed connections (parent-child or romantic relationship). We found positive association between the rs53576 polymorphism and general sociality (Cohen’s d = 0.11, p = .02); G allele homozygotes had higher general sociality than the A allele carriers. However, the meta-analyses did not detect significant genetic association between rs53576 and close relationships (Cohen’s d = 0.01, p = .64). In conclusion, genetic variation in the rs53576 influences general sociality, which further implies that it is worthy to systematically examine whether the rs53576 is a valid genetic marker for socially related psychiatric disorders. PMID:26121678

  6. Genetic Association Between CD143 rs4340 Polymorphism and Pneumonia risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Zhang, Kun; Qin, Haifeng; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Liyu; Cao, Yanyan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract rs4340 polymorphism at intron 16 of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (CD143) gene was reported to repress cough reflex by reducing bradykinin and substance P levels, thus increasing the likelihood to develop pneumonia. There have been different reports regarding the correlation of CD143 rs4340 genotypes with pneumonia risk, which prompted us to perform a meta-analysis to determine the elusive association. We combined multiple keywords to identify the studies addressing the association between CD143 rs4340 genotypes and pneumonia risk covered in the EMBASE, Google Scholar, PubMed, and CNKI databases. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the risk of pneumonia. The fixed-effects model (FEM) was used. A total of 10 studies were analyzed in this quantitative analysis. We found a strong association between rs4340 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and pneumonia risk using the recessive model (FEM: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.13–1.57). A significantly increased risk was also indicated under the recessive model in Asian populations (FEM: OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19–2.07), community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (FEM: OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08–1.60), and nosocomial pneumonia (NP) (FEM: OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.06–2.19). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that CD143 rs4340 polymorphism may represent a risk factor for pneumonia. PMID:26222869

  7. Association between rs12045440 Polymorphism in the CAPZB Intron and Serum TSH Concentrations in Chinese Thyroid Tumor Patients

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Shouhao; Lin, Shengli; Zou, Jidong; Wang, Yulong; Ji, Qinghai; Lv, Zhenghua

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of different genotypes of the lead single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs10917468 and rs12045440 in the CAPZB gene on the thyroid function in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and benign thyroid neoplasm (BN) patients. In the study, a significant association was detected between rs12045440 and serum TSH concentrations in thyroid tumor patients (p = 0.001). After the adjustment of relevant covariates, the difference between the mean serum TSH levels in different genotypes of rs12045440 was still significant in the BN group (p = 0.003) but was not significant in the PTC cases (p = 0.115). No significant association of rs10917468 with TSH levels was found. The SNP rs12045440 was associated with the serum TSH concentrations in Chinese thyroid tumor patients, especially in benign thyroid tumor cases. PMID:26273293

  8. Triggered Star Formation by Massive Stars

    E-print Network

    Hsu-Tai Lee; W. P. Chen

    2009-02-03

    We present our diagnosis of the role that massive stars play in the formation of low- and intermediate-mass stars in OB associations (the Lambda Ori region, Ori OB1, and Lac OB1 associations). We find that the classical T Tauri stars and Herbig Ae/Be stars tend to line up between luminous O stars and bright-rimmed or comet-shaped clouds; the closer to a cloud the progressively younger they are. Our positional and chronological study lends support to the validity of the radiation-driven implosion mechanism, where the Lyman continuum photons from a luminous O star create expanding ionization fronts to evaporate and compress nearby clouds into bright-rimmed or comet-shaped clouds. Implosive pressure then causes dense clumps to collapse, prompting the formation of low-mass stars on the cloud surface (i.e., the bright rim) and intermediate-mass stars somewhat deeper in the cloud. These stars are a signpost of current star formation; no young stars are seen leading the ionization fronts further into the cloud. Young stars in bright-rimmed or comet-shaped clouds are likely to have been formed by triggering, which would result in an age spread of several megayears between the member stars or star groups formed in the sequence.

  9. First 2.2 micrometer results from the iota interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, H. M.; Benson, J. A.; Carlton, N. P.; Coldwell, C.; Lacasse, M. G.; Nisenson, P.; Panasyuk, A.; Papaliolios, C.; Pearlman, R. D.; Reasenberg, R. D.

    1995-01-01

    We present the first infrared fringe visibility measurements made with the Infrared Optical Telescope Array on Mt. Hopkins. Effective temperatures are derived for RX Boo, RS Cnc, and Beta Peg. RX Boo is the coolest small-amplitude variable giant star to have an effective temperature determination. We compare the size of its photosphere at infrared wavelengths with the sizes of its SiO and H20 radio emission regions. We also discuss initial performance parameters for the interferometer.

  10. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars. PMID:17749544

  11. P-bRS: a physarum-based routing scheme for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingchuan; Wei, Wangyang; Zheng, Ruijuan; Wu, Qingtao

    2014-01-01

    Routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an extremely challenging issue due to the features of WSNs. Inspired by the large and single-celled amoeboid organism, slime mold Physarum polycephalum, we establish a novel selecting next hop model (SNH). Based on this model, we present a novel Physarum-based routing scheme (P-bRS) for WSNs to balance routing efficiency and energy equilibrium. In P-bRS, a sensor node can choose the proper next hop by using SNH which comprehensively considers the distance, energy residue, and location of the next hop. The simulation results show how P-bRS can achieve the effective trade-off between routing efficiency and energy equilibrium compared to two famous algorithms. PMID:24672326

  12. P-bRS: A Physarum-Based Routing Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wangyang; Zheng, Ruijuan; Wu, Qingtao

    2014-01-01

    Routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is an extremely challenging issue due to the features of WSNs. Inspired by the large and single-celled amoeboid organism, slime mold Physarum polycephalum, we establish a novel selecting next hop model (SNH). Based on this model, we present a novel Physarum-based routing scheme (P-bRS) for WSNs to balance routing efficiency and energy equilibrium. In P-bRS, a sensor node can choose the proper next hop by using SNH which comprehensively considers the distance, energy residue, and location of the next hop. The simulation results show how P-bRS can achieve the effective trade-off between routing efficiency and energy equilibrium compared to two famous algorithms. PMID:24672326

  13. TERT Polymorphism rs2853669 Influences on Lung Cancer Risk in the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Soo; Do, Sook Kyung; Choi, Jin Eun; Lee, Shin Yup; Lee, Jaehee; Cha, Seung Ick; Kim, Chang Ho; Park, Jae Yong

    2015-10-01

    Short telomeres are known as one of the risk factors for human cancers. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association between 6 polymorphisms, which were related with short telomere length in the Korean population, and lung cancer risk using 1,100 cases and 1,096 controls. Among the 6 polymorphisms, TERT rs2853669 was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk under a recessive model (odds ratio [OR]=1.38, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.05-1.81, P=0.02). The effect of rs2853669 on lung cancer risk was significant in younger individuals (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.18-2.54, P=0.005) and adenocarcinoma (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.07-2.07, P=0.02). Our results suggest that a common functional promoter polymorphism, TERT rs2853669, may influence both telomere length and lung cancer risk in the Korean population. PMID:26425038

  14. Prognostic impact of the TP53 rs1625895 polymorphism in DLBCL patients.

    PubMed

    Voropaeva, Elena N; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Pospelova, Tatiana I; Maksimov, Vladimir N

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify the association between the TP53 rs1625895 polymorphism and the efficiency of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisolone) therapy in 106 patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). All patients received six to eight courses of R-CHOP therapy as a first-line treatment. The rs1625895 polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction with restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. The G/G genotype of the TP53 rs1625895 polymorphism was shown to be associated with a high probability of R-CHOP therapy failure in DLBCL patients according to the probability of remission as well as 5-year overall and relapse-free survivals. PMID:25430047

  15. Determination of climatic potential of Qom province for rain fed wheat using RS and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdan Panah, H.; Soleimani Tabar, M.

    2010-09-01

    This investigation was done to determine climatic potential of Qom province for wheat culture using RS and GIS. After collecting meteorological and wheat phonological data of available stations in Qom and its adjacent provinces we analyzed the data to obtain agrometeorological indices which affects on growth and yield of wheat. In the next step for these indices (the maximum and minimum temperature, sunshine hours, relative humidity, slope, elevation, GDD,rainfall,wind.land use and thermal stresses) we prepared separate maps using GIS and RS. Finally the above mentioned layers were overlaid to obtain agroclimatic map of wheat in Qom province. Results showed that about 30.2 percent of province is very suitable,53.5 percent is suitable,15.2 percent is moderate and 1.1 percent is not suitable for wheat culturing. Key words: Agrometeorology, GIS, RS, Wheat

  16. The RNA-binding protein HOS5 and serine/arginine-rich proteins RS40 and RS41 participate in miRNA biogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Cui, Peng; Xiong, Liming

    2015-09-30

    MicroRNAs are a class of small regulatory RNAs that are generated from primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcripts with a stem-loop structure. Accuracy of the processing of pri-miRNA into mature miRNA in plants can be enhanced by SERRATE (SE) and HYPONASTIC LEAVES 1 (HYL1). HYL1 activity is regulated by the FIERY2 (FRY2)/RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain phosphatase-like 1 (CPL1). Here, we discover that HIGH OSMOTIC STRESS GENE EXPRESSION 5 (HOS5) and two serine/arginine-rich splicing factors RS40 and RS41, previously shown to be involved in pre-mRNA splicing, affect the biogenesis of a subset of miRNA. These proteins are required for correct miRNA strand selection and the maintenance of miRNA levels. FRY2 dephosphorylates HOS5 whose phosphorylation status affects its subnuclear localization. HOS5 and the RS proteins bind both intronless and intron-containing pri-miRNAs. Importantly, all of these splicing-related factors directly interact with both HYL1 and SE in nuclear splicing speckles. Our results indicate that these splicing factors are directly involved in the biogenesis of a group of miRNA. PMID:26227967

  17. TCEANC2 rs10788972 and rs12046178 variants in the PARK10 region in Chinese Han patients with sporadic Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yi; Tan, Ting; Deng, Xiong; Song, Zhi; Yang, Zhijian; Yang, Yan; Deng, Hao

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common chronic neuronal degeneration disorder with motor and nonmotor clinical features. The rs10788972 variant of the transcription elongation factor A (SII) N-terminal and central domain containing 2 (TCEANC2) gene in the PARK10 region was recently identified to be strongly related to sporadic PD in the American population. To evaluate whether the same variant is associated with sporadic PD in Chinese Han population, we researched 513 sporadic PD patients and 512 normal controls of Chinese Han ethnicity in Mainland China. No significant difference in genotypic and allelic distributions between patients and control groups for either rs10788972 (for genotypic distribution, ?(2) = 0.412, p = 0.814, and for allelic distribution, ?(2) = 0.280, p = 0.597) or its neighbor marker rs12046178 (for genotypic distribution, ?(2) = 1.500, p = 0.472, and for allelic distribution, ?(2) = 1.339, p = 0.247) was found. Our data suggest that neither variant is related to sporadic PD in Chinese Han population. PMID:26432391

  18. Is the COL5A1 rs12722 Gene Polymorphism Associated with Running Economy?

    PubMed Central

    Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Pasqua, Leonardo A.; Bueno, Salomão; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Matsuda, Monique; Marquezini, Monica; Saldiva, Paulo H.

    2014-01-01

    The COL5A1 rs12722 polymorphism is considered to be a novel genetic marker for endurance running performance. It has been postulated that COL5A1 rs12722 may influence the elasticity of tendons and the energetic cost of running. To date, there are no experimental data in the literature supporting the relationship between range of motion, running economy, and the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism. Therefore, the main purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of the COL5A1rs12722 polymorphism on running economy and range of motion. One hundred and fifty (n?=?150) physically active young men performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test, b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km•h?1 and 12 km•h?1) to determine the running economy, and c) a sit-and-reach test to determine the range of motion. All of the subjects were genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 single-nucleotide polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were TT?=?27.9%, CT?=?55.8%, and CC?=?16.3%. There were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for running economy measured at 10 km•h?1 (p?=?0.232) and 12 km•h?1 (p?=?0.259). Similarly, there were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for range of motion (p?=?0.337). These findings suggest that the previous relationship reported between COL5A1 rs12722 genotypes and running endurance performance might not be mediated by the energetic cost of running. PMID:25188268

  19. Is the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism associated with running economy?

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Pasqua, Leonardo A; Bueno, Salomão; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Matsuda, Monique; Marquezini, Monica; Saldiva, Paulo H

    2014-01-01

    The COL5A1 rs12722 polymorphism is considered to be a novel genetic marker for endurance running performance. It has been postulated that COL5A1 rs12722 may influence the elasticity of tendons and the energetic cost of running. To date, there are no experimental data in the literature supporting the relationship between range of motion, running economy, and the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism. Therefore, the main purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of the COL5A1rs12722 polymorphism on running economy and range of motion. One hundred and fifty (n = 150) physically active young men performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test, b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km · h(-1)) and 12 km · h(-1)) to determine the running economy, and c) a sit-and-reach test to determine the range of motion. All of the subjects were genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 single-nucleotide polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were TT = 27.9%, CT = 55.8%, and CC = 16.3%. There were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for running economy measured at 10 km · h(-1) (p = 0.232) and 12 km · h(-1) (p = 0.259). Similarly, there were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for range of motion (p = 0.337). These findings suggest that the previous relationship reported between COL5A1 rs12722 genotypes and running endurance performance might not be mediated by the energetic cost of running. PMID:25188268

  20. Prostate stem cell antigen variation rs2294008 associated with the risk of bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Maomao; Yu, Xi; Cheng, Liangliang; Huang, Yi; Weng, Guobin

    2015-01-01

    Several studies reported Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) rs2294008 was susceptibly associated with bladder cancer (BC) risk. However, the results were not entirely consistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between rs2294008 and BC risk. Comprehensive meta-analysis was preformed to provide a more precise assessment of the association between rs2294008 and BC risk. Twenty five studies involving 14,244 BC patients and 53,963 controls were included in our meta-analysis. The crude odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of the association. Pooled results indicated that the PSCA variant rs2294008-T was significantly connected with an increased risk of BC (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.12-1.18, P(z) < 0.0001). Moreover, stratified analyses showed that rs2294008 significantly increased BC risk in European (OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.15, P(z) < 0.0001), North American (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.12-1.24, P(z) < 0.0001), and Asian (OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.13-1.22, P(z) < 0.0001). In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that the PSCA rs2294008 is a risk factor for BC in European, Asian and North American. Further large case-control studies are needed to assess the relationship in other populations. Biologically functional studies are needed to verify the molecular mechanisms in the pathogenesis of BC. PMID:26550251

  1. Characterization of novel RS1 exonic deletions in juvenile X-linked retinoschisis

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Leera; Cukras, Catherine; Antolik, Christian; Craig, Candice; He, Hong; Li, Shibo; Hejtmancik, James F.; Sieving, Paul A.; Wang, Xinjing

    2013-01-01

    Purpose X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) is a vitreoretinal dystrophy characterized by schisis (splitting) of the inner layers of the neuroretina. Mutations within the retinoschisis (RS1) gene are responsible for this disease. The mutation spectrum consists of amino acid substitutions, splice site variations, small indels, and larger genomic deletions. Clinically, genomic deletions are rarely reported. Here, we characterize two novel full exonic deletions: one encompassing exon 1 and the other spanning exons 4–5 of the RS1 gene. We also report the clinical findings in these patients with XLRS with two different exonic deletions. Methods Unrelated XLRS men and boys and their mothers (if available) were enrolled for molecular genetics evaluation. The patients also underwent ophthalmologic examination and in some cases electroretinogram (ERG) recording. All the exons and the flanking intronic regions of the RS1 gene were analyzed with direct sequencing. Two patients with exonic deletions were further evaluated with array comparative genomic hybridization to define the scope of the genomic aberrations. After the deleted genomic region was identified, primer walking followed by direct sequencing was used to determine the exact breakpoints. Results Two novel exonic deletions of the RS1 gene were identified: one including exon 1 and the other spanning exons 4 and 5. The exon 1 deletion extends from the 5? region of the RS1 gene (including the promoter) through intron 1 (c.(?35)-1723_c.51+2664del4472). The exon 4–5 deletion spans introns 3 to intron 5 (c.185–1020_c.522+1844del5764). Conclusions Here we report two novel exonic deletions within the RS1 gene locus. We have also described the clinical presentations and hypothesized the genomic mechanisms underlying these schisis phenotypes. PMID:24227916

  2. Association of GDF1 rs4808863 with fetal congenital heart defects: a case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Qingqing; Wang, Li; Li, Xiaofei; Ma, Yuqing; Yao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Background Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common fetal defects and the most important cause of child mortality and morbidity. Objective To investigate the association between growth/differentiation factor 1 (GDF1) polymorphisms and fetal CHDs, by evaluating the association of GDF1 rs4808863 with fetal CHDs. Design A case–control study. Setting Beijing, China. Participants We selected 124 fetuses with a CHD and a normal karyotype and normal array-based comparative genomic hybridisation analysis and compared them with 124 normal fetuses matched for gestational age and sex. Fetuses with a CHD, from 20 to 32?weeks of gestation were included. Fetuses with any chromosomal abnormalities, and fetuses from multiple pregnancies and those carried by pregnant women with chronic diseases, were excluded from this research. DNA extraction and genotyping were carried out for all cases to investigate the genotype distributions of GDF1 rs4808863. Results A significant difference was noted for the CT phenotype of GDF1 rs4808863 between the controls and the fetuses with CHDs using homozygote and heterozygote comparisons. The minor allele (T allele) of GDF1 rs4808863 was associated with an increased risk of CHD (p<0.05). A statistically significant difference between controls and fetuses with CHDs was noted in a comparison with the mutation genotype CT+TT and wild-type genotype CC (p<0.05) using dominant modal analysis. After stratification analysis, the CT phenotype, the minor allele (T allele) and the mutation genotype CT+TT of the rs4808863 polymorphism were associated with atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD), left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) and left–right laterality defects (p<0.05). Conclusions Our results suggest that the GDF1 rs4808863 polymorphism contributes to an increased risk of fetal CHDs, especially the subtypes of AVSD, LVOTO and left–right laterality defects. PMID:26656983

  3. CHRNA4 rs1044396 is associated with smoking cessation in varenicline therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rocha Santos, Juliana; Tomaz, Paulo R. X.; Issa, Jaqueline S.; Abe, Tânia O.; Krieger, José E.; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Santos, Paulo C. J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The large individual variability in response to drugs for smoking cessation suggests that specific treatments can be more effective in particular subgroups of smokers. In the context of personalized medicine, the main aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the CHRNA4 and CHRNB2 polymorphisms are associated with response to smoking cessation therapies in patients from a smoker assistance program. Methods: This cohort study enrolled 483 smoking patients who received behavioral counseling and drug treatment (varenicline, bupropion, and/or nicotine replacement therapy). Smoking cessation success was considered for patients who completed 6 months of continuous abstinence. Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and Issa situational smoking scores were analyzed for nicotine dependence. The CHRNA4 (rs1044396 and rs2236196) and CHRNB2 (rs2072660 and rs2072661) polymorphisms were genotyped by high resolution melting analysis. Results: Patients with rs1044396 CC genotype had lower success rate in treatment with varenicline (29.5%) compared with carriers of CT or TT genotypes (50.9%; p = 0.007, n = 167). The CT or TT genotypes were associated with higher odds ratio for success (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.10–2.53, p = 0.02), in a multivariate model. We did not observe significant differences in the FTND and Issa scores according to the studied polymorphisms. Conclusion: The CHRNA4 rs1044396 is associated with smoking cessation in individuals on varenicline therapy. We suggest that this polymorphism influences the varenicline response, but replications of this finding are needed. PMID:25774163

  4. Composite spectra: XX. 45 Cancri. Two stars with very similar masses but quite different evolutionary states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, R. E. M.; Griffin, R. F.

    2015-02-01

    From accurate radial-velocity measurements covering 11 circuits of the orbit of the composite-spectrum binary 45 Cnc, together with high-resolution spectroscopy spanning nearly 3 circuits, we have (i) isolated cleanly the spectrum of the early-type secondary, (ii) classified the component spectra as G8 III and A3 III, (iii) derived the first double-lined orbit for the system and a mass ratio (M_1/M_2) of 1.035 ± 0.01, and (iv) extracted physical parameters for the component stars, deriving the masses and (log) luminosities of the G star and A star as 3.11 and 3.00 M?} R?, and 2.34 and 2.28 L?, respectively, with corresponding uncertainties of ±0.10 M? R? and ±0.09 L?. Since the mass ratio is close to unity, we argue that the more evolved component is unlikely to have been a red giant long enough to have made multiple ascents of the RGB, an argument that is supported somewhat by the rather high eccentricity of the orbit (e = 0.46) and the evolutionary time-scales of the two components, but chiefly by the presence of significant Li I in the spectrum of the cool giant.

  5. Implementation of RS-485 Communication between PLC and PC of Distributed Control System Based on VB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian Zhang, Chuan; Da Huang, Zhi; Qing Zhou, Gui; Chong, Kil To

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on achieving RS-485 communication between programmable logical controller (PLC) and PC based on visual basic 6.0 (VB6.0) on an experimental automatic production line. Mitsubishi FX2N PLCs and a PC are chosen as slave stations and main station, respectively. Monitoring software is developed using VB6.0 for data input/output, flow control and online parameters setting. As a result, all functions are fulfilled with robust performance. It is concluded from results that one PC can monitor several PLCs using RS-485 communication.

  6. A light-curve distortion-wave analysis of eight RS Canum Venaticorum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    A program of differential U,B,V photometry of 14 RS CVn systems carried out at Rosemary Hill Observatory in 1978 - 1981 is described, and an analysis of the light curves for the characteristic distortion wave for eight of the systems is presented. The V light curves of the systems are shown. Significant waves were observed in RS CVn, RZ Eri, and RW UMa. No significant waves were found in UX Com, GK Hya, AR Lac, LX Per, or TY Pyx. Unusual light curve distortions were observed in UX Com and AR Lac.

  7. R+S^2 theories of gravity without big-bang singularity

    E-print Network

    Jia-An Lu

    2015-02-10

    The R+S^2 theories of gravity, where S^2 denotes the quadratic torsion terms, are analyzed under three cases. In the first two cases, the matter fields are described by two different spin fluids which are not homogeneous and isotropic. In the third case, a homogeneous and isotropic torsion field is used. It is found that under all the three cases, the R+S^2 theories may avert the big-bang singularity of the Robertson--Walker universe, with three corresponding constraints on the parameters.

  8. Equations of State in the Hartle-Thorne Model of Neutron Stars Selecting Acceptable Variants of the Resonant Switch Model of Twin HF QPOs in the Atoll Source 4U 1636-53

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchlìk, Z.; Urbanec, M.; Kotrlovà, A.; Török, G.; Goluchovà, K.

    2015-06-01

    The Resonant Switch (RS) model of twin high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) observed in neutron star binary systems, based on switch of the twin oscillations at a resonant point, has been applied to the atoll source 4U 1636-53 under assumption that the neutron star exterior can be approximated by the Kerr geometry. Strong restrictions of the neutron star parameters M (mass) and a (spin) arise due to fitting the frequency pairs admitted by the RS model to the observed data in the regions related to the resonant points. The most precise variants of the RS model are those combining the relativistic precession frequency relations with their modifications. Here, the neutron star mass and spin estimates given by the RS model are confronted with a variety of equations of state (EoS) governing structure of neutron stars in the framework of the Hartle-Thorne theory of rotating neutron stars applied for the observationally given rotation frequency frot?580 Hz (or alternatively frot?290 Hz) of the neutron star in 4U 1636-53. It is shown that only two variants of the RS model based on the Kerr approximation are compatible with two EoS applied in the Hartle-Thorne theory for frot?580 Hz, while no variant of the RS model is compatible for frot?290 Hz. The two compatible variants of the RS model are those giving the best fits of the observational data. However, a self-consistency test by fitting the observational data to the RS model with oscillation frequencies governed by the Hartle-Thorne geometry described by three spacetime parameters M,a and (quadrupole moment) q related by the two available EoS puts strong restrictions. The test admits only one variant of the RS model of twin HF QPOs for the Hartle-Thorne theory with the EoS predicting the parameters of the neutron star M?2.10 M?, a?0.208, and q/a2?1.77.

  9. On stars and Steiner stars Adrian Dumitrescu

    E-print Network

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    On stars and Steiner stars Adrian Dumitrescu Csaba D. T´oth Guangwu Xu§ March 9, 2009 Abstract A Steiner star for a set P of n points in Rd connects an arbitrary point in Rd to all points of P, while a star connects one of the points in P to the remaining n - 1 points of P. All connections are realized

  10. ChemLabBox for SnifferStars

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2002-01-24

    The software entitled "ChemLabBox for SnifferStars" is used to collect, display, and save data from the Sandia National Laboratories chemical analysis system dubbed SnifferStar. Sensor data is streamed from a SnifferStar unit into a computer thru RS-232 in a manner that is not amendable to plotting. Also, there is no direct way to start and stop the unit as is. This software rearranges the data into something that can be easily plotted in real-time thenmore »saves the data into a text fild. In addition, this software provides the users a means to start and stop the hardware. This software was written specifically for SnifferStar. SnifferStar data is delivered at a very fast rate but for a short period of time. This software is written around that premise. It is written for Pentium or higher machines running Windows 95/98/ME/NT/2000/XP. Lockheed Martin is interested in using it for testing SnifferStar units before deployment. To date they have not indicated their intent to deliver the code either in part or whole as part of their product.« less

  11. WORLDLY | IntegRateD | peRsOnaLIzeD MBa We develop leaders

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    WORLDLY | IntegRateD | peRsOnaLIzeD MBa beyond business as usual #12;We develop leaders MBA programs. We aim to develop "worldly" leaders - exceptional individuals with a global perspective with a rigorous academic education integrated with the real world of business to create a meaningful learning

  12. HEUS-RS applications study, volume 1. [for Titan 3 and Thor launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies are given for sizing and integrating a high energy upper stage restartable solid motor into a flight stage with various payloads for use with Titan 3 and Thor launch vehicles. Motor and stage configurations are given along with performance evaluation of the HEUS-RS with the space shuttle.

  13. Crystal structure of DJ-1/RS and implication on familial Parkinson's disease1

    E-print Network

    Li, Lian

    Crystal structure of DJ-1/RS and implication on familial Parkinson's disease1 Qing Huaia , Yingjie, including cancer, Parkinson's disease, and male fer- tility. It is unknown how DJ-1 functions, the conformational changes may diminish the DJ-1 binding with its partner, leading to the familial Parkinson

  14. Research on agricultural ecology and environment analysis and modeling based on RS and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wensheng; Chen, Hongfu; Wang, Mingsheng

    2009-07-01

    Analysis of agricultural ecology and environment is based on the data of agricultural resources, which are obtained by RS monitoring. The over-exploitation of farmlands will cause structural changes of the soil composition, and damage the planting environment and the agro-ecosystem. Through the research on the dynamic monitoring methods of multitemporal RS images and GIS technology, the crop growth status, crop acreage and other relevant information in agricultural production are extracted based on the monitor and analysis of the conditions of the fields and crop growth. The agro-ecological GIS platform is developed with the establishment of the agricultural resources management database, which manages spatial data, RS data and attribute data of agricultural resources. Using the RS, GIS analysis results, the reasons of agro-ecological destruction are analyzed and the evaluation methods are established. This paper puts forward the concept of utilization capacity of farmland, which describes farmland space for development and utilization that is influenced by the conditions of the land, water resources, climate, pesticides and chemical fertilizers and many other agricultural production factors. Assessment model of agricultural land use capacity is constructed with the help of Fuzzy. Assessing the utilization capacity of farmland can be helpful to agricultural production and ecological protection of farmland. This paper describes the application of the capacity evaluation model with simulated data in two aspects, namely, in evaluating the status of farmland development and utilization and in optimal planting.

  15. Flight Force Measurements for a Micromechanical Flying Insect R. J. Wood R.S. Fearing

    E-print Network

    Wood, Robert

    Flight Force Measurements for a Micromechanical Flying Insect R. J. Wood R.S. Fearing Department Key to the success of the micromechanical flying insect project is developing sensors for flight force mounted force sensors. These sensors will have the dual function of stroke by stroke force

  16. Growth phase-dependent activation of the DccRS regulon of Campylobacter jejuni

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-component systems are widespread prokaryotic signal transduction devices which allow the regulation of cellular functions in response to changing environmental conditions. The two-component system DccRS (Cj1223-Cj1222) of Campylobacter jejuni is important for the colonization of chickens. Here w...

  17. AFRL-RI-RS-TR-2010-078 Final Technical Report

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AFRL/RIGA 525 Brooks Road Rome NY 13441-4505 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR'S ACRONYMAFRL-RI-RS-TR-2010-078 Final Technical Report March 2010 ADVANCED CYBER ATTACK MODELING, ANALYSIS RESEARCH LABORATORY INFORMATION DIRECTORATE ROME RESEARCH SITE ROME, NEW YORK #12;NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE

  18. AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2006-250 Final Technical Report

    E-print Network

    Noel, Steven

    Laboratory/IFGA 525 Brooks Rd Rome New York 13441-4505 11. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY REPORT NUMBER AFRLAFRL-IF-RS-TR-2006-250 Final Technical Report July 2006 INTEGRATION OF AUDIT DATA ANALYSIS. AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY INFORMATION DIRECTORATE ROME RESEARCH SITE ROME, NEW YORK #12;STINFO

  19. DHPG Activation of Group 1 mGluRs in BLA Enhances Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Jerry W.; Matus-Amat, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors are known to play an important role in both synaptic plasticity and memory. We show that activating these receptors prior to fear conditioning by infusing the group 1 mGluR agonist, (R.S.)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), into the basolateral region of the amygdala (BLA) of adult Sprague-Dawley rats…

  20. NLRP3 rs35829419 polymorphism is associated with increased susceptibility to multiple diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Fan, H W; Zhang, J Z; Wang, Y M; Xing, H J

    2015-01-01

    Using a meta-analysis framework, we investigated the association between the NLRP3 rs35829419 polymorphism and increased susceptibility to diverse diseases in humans. Relevant published studies were identified through a comprehensive and systematic electronic search, using the following scientific literature databases: Science Citation Index, the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Current Contents Index, Chinese Biomedical, the Chinese Journal Full-Text, and the Weipu Journal. Statistical analysis of data extracted from the selected high quality studies was performed using the Version 12.0 STATA software. A total of 13 case-control studies met our stringent inclusion and exclusion criteria for the present meta-analysis. These 13 high quality studies contained relevant information on 7719 patients with various diseases and 7094 healthy controls. Our meta-analysis results showed that the NLRP3 gene rs35829419 C>A polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing multiple diseases in humans under 5 genetic models (all P < 0.05). Data stratification and subgroup analysis based on the disease type revealed that rs35829419 C>A carriers displayed a markedly increase susceptibility to leprosy, colorectal cancer, HIV-1 infection, rheumatoid arthritis, abdominal aortic aneurysms, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, and atopic dermatitis. In summary, our meta-analysis results revealed the first identified strong correlation between the NLRP3 rs35829419 polymorphism and increased susceptibility to various diseases in humans. PMID:26535712

  1. Registration of a sunflower genetic stock (RS3) with reduced palmitic and stearic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stock, RS3 (PI 642702), having reduced levels of palmitic and stearic acids, was developed and released by the USDA-ARS and the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, Fargo, ND. This genetic stock provides an additional source of lower saturated fatt...

  2. Current Drive and Heating on ARIES-RS/AT, and FIRE-AT

    E-print Network

    - Choice of wave launchers · RFCD assessment for FIRE AT modes, based on ARIES experience: - without wall. Core accessibility 2. Current drive efficiency 3. Profile control capability 4. Experimental data baseCurrent Drive and Heating on ARIES-RS/AT, and FIRE-AT T.K. Mau University of California, San Diego

  3. BDNF polymorphism rs6265 and hippocampal structure and memory performance in healthy control subjects

    E-print Network

    on hippocampal structure, nor did it have a significant effect on memory performance, covarying for age. Age concluded that in a large cohort of healthy human subjects, the Met allele of rs6265 is not associated), and others have found induction of BDNF expression during periods of hippocampus-dependent learning (Hall et

  4. Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 5173-5192; doi:10.3390/rs5105173 Remote Sensing

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Remote Sens. 2013, 5, 5173-5192; doi:10.3390/rs5105173 Remote Sensing ISSN 2072-4292 www: fire detection; geosynchronous; remote sensing; infrared; FUEGO 1. Introduction 1.1. Overview Fire for a geosynchronous OPEN ACCESS #12;Remote Sens. 2013, 5 5174 satellite with modern imaging detectors, software

  5. Remote Sens. 2010, 2, 1157-1176; doi:10.3390/rs2041157 Remote Sensing

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Erle C.

    Remote Sens. 2010, 2, 1157-1176; doi:10.3390/rs2041157 Remote Sensing ISSN 2072-4292 www.mdpi.com/journal/remotesensing Article Remote Sensing of Vegetation Structure Using Computer Vision Jonathan P. Dandois and Erle C. Ellis spatial resolution 3D remote sensing of vegetation structure. OPEN ACCESS #12;Remote Sens. 2010, 2 1158

  6. Remote Sens. 2009, 1, 519-533; doi:10.3390/rs1030519 Remote Sensing

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Charles W.

    Remote Sens. 2009, 1, 519-533; doi:10.3390/rs1030519 Remote Sensing ISSN 2072-4292 www of Remotely Sensed Data Paul H. Evangelista 1, *, Thomas J. Stohlgren 2 , Jeffrey T. Morisette 2 and Sunil model (Maxent) for its application and performance in remotely sensing invasive Tamarix sp. Six Landsat

  7. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 13895-13920; doi:10.3390/rs71013895 remote sensing

    E-print Network

    Ellis, Erle C.

    Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 13895-13920; doi:10.3390/rs71013895 remote sensing ISSN 2072-4292 www, UAV-SFM remote sensing was used to produce 3D multispectral point clouds of Temperate Deciduous'. Future research should consider the role of image features as the fundamental unit of SFM remote sensing

  8. Remote Sensing 2010, 2, 1797-1825; doi:10.3390/rs2071797 Remote Sensing

    E-print Network

    Singer, Michael

    Remote Sensing 2010, 2, 1797-1825; doi:10.3390/rs2071797 Remote Sensing ISSN 1424-8220 www; hydraulic mining sediment; floodplain morphology OPEN ACCESS #12;Remote Sensing 2010, 2 1798 1. Introduction occur at a spatial scale that is ideal for study by remote sensing methods. Floodplain changes may

  9. Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 10501-10522; doi:10.3390/rs70810501 remote sensing

    E-print Network

    Stambaugh, Michael C

    Remote Sens. 2015, 7, 10501-10522; doi:10.3390/rs70810501 remote sensing ISSN 2072-4292 www. Keywords: CBI; drought; fire history; Landsat; dNBR; RdNBR; remote sensing OPEN ACCESS #12;Remote Sens. 2015, 7 10502 1. Introduction Despite burn severity metrics and classification through remote sensing

  10. A fast technique for computing syndromes of BCH and RS codes. [deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Miller, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    A combination of the Chinese Remainder Theorem and Winograd's algorithm is used to compute transforms of odd length over GF(2 to the m power). Such transforms are used to compute the syndromes needed for decoding CBH and RS codes. The present scheme requires substantially fewer multiplications and additions than the conventional method of computing the syndromes directly.

  11. Risk Driven Requirements Specification (RiDeRS) of IT-based Homecare Systems

    E-print Network

    Wieringa, Roel

    , and include patients, their family, nurses, and other health care actors. This means that the concept of riskRisk Driven Requirements Specification (RiDeRS) of IT-based Homecare Systems Mohammad Zarifi Eslami, IT- based care systems can also introduce new types of risks such as those related to availability

  12. 78 FR 22918 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (RS); Meeting of the Acrs Subcommittees on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (RS); Meeting of the Acrs Subcommittees on Reliability and PRA; Revision to Notice of Meetings The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA originally scheduled for the morning of April 24, 2013, has...

  13. Tactile AfterImages from Static Contact \\Lambda U. Singh and R.S. Fearing

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Tactile After­Images from Static Contact \\Lambda U. Singh and R.S. Fearing Department of Electrical­ scribes initial work in quantifying tactile ``after­images'' resulting from large loads applied over ``after­images'' from large loads pre­ sented to the subjects. We offer a possible explanation

  14. Main Engine Prototype Development for 2nd Generation RLV RS-83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vilja, John; Fisher, Mark; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation reports on the NASA project to develop a prototype for RS-83 engine designed for use on reusable launch vehicles (RLV). Topics covered include: program objectives, overview schedule, organizational chart, integrated systems engineering processes, requirement analysis, catastrophic engine loss, maintainability analysis tools, and prototype design analysis.

  15. New simple virtual walking method walking on the spot L. Yan, R.S. Allison

    E-print Network

    Allison, Robert

    the virtual environment and provides the ability to study human locomotion and navigation in a CAVE. Introduction and Motivation Presentation of effective virtual environments in CAVEs, and other projectorNew simple virtual walking method ­ walking on the spot L. Yan, R.S. Allison York University, 4700

  16. Aligning the 3Rs with new paradigms in the safety assessment of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Burden, Natalie; Mahony, Catherine; Müller, Boris P; Terry, Claire; Westmoreland, Carl; Kimber, Ian

    2015-04-01

    There are currently several factors driving a move away from the reliance on in vivo toxicity testing for the purposes of chemical safety assessment. Progress has started to be made in the development and validation of non-animal methods. However, recent advances in the biosciences provide exciting opportunities to accelerate this process and to ensure that the alternative paradigms for hazard identification and risk assessment deliver lasting 3Rs benefits, whilst improving the quality and relevance of safety assessment. The NC3Rs, a UK-based scientific organisation which supports the development and application of novel 3Rs techniques and approaches, held a workshop recently which brought together over 20 international experts in the field of chemical safety assessment. The aim of this workshop was to review the current scientific, technical and regulatory landscapes, and to identify key opportunities towards reaching these goals. Here, we consider areas where further strategic investment will need to be focused if significant impact on 3Rs is to be matched with improved safety science, and why the timing is right for the field to work together towards an environment where we no longer rely on whole animal data for the accurate safety assessment of chemicals. PMID:25932488

  17. Reactor Statics Module, RS-9: Multigroup Diffusion Program Using an Exponential Acceleration Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macek, Victor C.

    The nine Reactor Statics Modules are designed to introduce students to the use of numerical methods and digital computers for calculation of neutron flux distributions in space and energy which are needed to calculate criticality, power distribution, and fuel burnup for both slow neutron and fast neutron fission reactors. The last module, RS-9,…

  18. Liverpool Telescope Optical Photometry Following the 2006 Outburst of RS Ophiuchi

    E-print Network

    M. J. Darnley; R. A. Hounsell; M. F. Bode

    2008-09-26

    We present a preliminary report on the broadband optical photometry of the 2006 outburst of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi. These data were obtained using the robotic 2m Liverpool Telescope and cover the outburst from day 27 through day 548.

  19. Mapping the mouse brain with rs-fMRI: An optimized pipeline for functional network identification.

    PubMed

    Zerbi, Valerio; Grandjean, Joanes; Rudin, Markus; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    The use of resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) in translational research is a powerful tool to assess brain connectivity and investigate neuropathology in mouse models. However, despite encouraging initial results, the characterization of consistent and robust resting state networks in mice remains a methodological challenge. One key reason is that the quality of the measured MR signal is degraded by the presence of structural noise from non-neural sources. Notably, in the current pipeline of the Human Connectome Project, a novel approach has been introduced to clean rs-fMRI data, which involves automatic artifact component classification and data cleaning (FIX). FIX does not require any external recordings of physiology or the segmentation of CSF and white matter. In this study, we evaluated the performance of FIX for analyzing mouse rs-fMRI data. Our results showed that FIX can be easily applied to mouse datasets and detects true signals with 100% accuracy and true noise components with very high accuracy (>98%), thus reducing both within- and between-subject variability of rs-fMRI connectivity measurements. Using this improved pre-processing pipeline, maps of 23 resting state circuits in mice were identified including two networks that displayed default mode network-like topography. Hierarchical clustering grouped these neural networks into meaningful larger functional circuits. These mouse resting state networks, which are publicly available, might serve as a reference for future work using mouse models of neurological disorders. PMID:26296501

  20. Association between IL-21 gene rs907715 polymorphisms and Graves’ disease in a Southern Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    ZENG, HUA; YAN, HAIYAN; ZHANG, ZHIXIAN; FANG, WEIZHEN; DING, RUI; HUANG, LISI; CHEN, MEI; ZHANG, JIN

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a pleiotropic cytokine linking innate and adaptive immune responses, which has been reported to play a key role in multiple autoimmune diseases. The aim of the present case-control study was to investigate the genetic association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of rs907715 within the IL-21 gene and Graves’ disease (GD) in a Southern Chinese population. A total of 211 patients with GD and 212 control subjects were recruited for the study. IL-21 gene rs907715 polymorphisms were detected by direct DNA sequencing. The results indicated that the frequencies of the GG genotype and the G allele in GD patients were significantly increased when compared with the frequencies in the controls (P=6.7×10?3 and P=2.0×10?5, respectively). In addition, the frequency of the AA genotype was much lower in the patient group when compared with the control group (16.6 vs. 34.0%; P=4.0×10?5). Furthermore, the G allele of rs907715 was associated with relapse in GD patients. These observations indicated that polymorphisms of IL-21/rs907715 may affect the susceptibility to GD in a Southern Chinese population. The G allele was significantly associated with an increased risk of GD development, whereas the A allele may lower the susceptibility to GD. PMID:24944624

  1. 1 INTRODUCTION There is an increased use of remote sensing (RS) in

    E-print Network

    Grunwald, Sabine

    ecosystems J. Kim, S. Grunwald & T.Z. Osborne Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida Conservation Area-2A, the Florida Everglades, USA. Soil cores were collected (n=108) from the top 10 cm1 INTRODUCTION There is an increased use of remote sensing (RS) in digital soil mapping (DSM) due

  2. Does company compliance with RS-17 influence the characterization of a casual nexus in expert testimony?

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Manuela; Guimarães, Bruno; Sampaio, Breno

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether company compliance with RS-17 influences the characterization of the casual nexus in physical therapists' expert reports of cumulative trauma disorders in the labor court of Pernambuco, Brazil. Method: The sample was composed of seven physical therapists who provided expert testimony regarding cumulative trauma disorder cases in the labor court of Pernambuco, Brazil. Data collection was performed across two stages. In the first stage, the experts answered a sociodemographic survey and requested the identification numbers of recent cases where expert testimony was provided to characterize the causal nexus. In the second stage, the researchers went to the labor court to collect expert testimony data. These experts indicated that of 75 total cases, 31% (N=23) of the companies fulfilled RS-17, whereas 69% (N=52) did not comply with the law. Results: Among the organizations that complied with legislation, 30% of the analyzed expert testimonies showed a positive causal nexus. However, of the companies that did not comply with RS-17, 71% of the expert testimonies revealed a causal nexus. These results indicate that the breach of the law increases the probability that a causal nexus will be determined by 54.8%. Conclusion: The results showed that failure to comply with RS-17 significantly increases the probability that a causal nexus will be determined in physical therapists' expert testimony of cumulative trauma disorders. PMID:25714436

  3. Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors (mAChRs) in the Nervous System: Some Functions and Mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Brown, David

    ) to the Gi/Go (Pertussis toxin-sensitive) family of G proteins, though the functional coupling will alsoMuscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors (mAChRs) in the Nervous System: Some Functions and Mechanisms of this Symposium), it is the muscarinic receptor that is the most abundant and functionally predominant. Muscarinic

  4. O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conti, Peter S.; Underhill, Anne B.; Jordan, Stuart (editor); Thomas, Richard (editor)

    1988-01-01

    Basic information is given about O and Wolf-Rayet stars indicating how these stars are defined and what their chief observable properties are. Part 2 of the volume discussed four related themes pertaining to the hottest and most luminous stars. Presented are: an observational overview of the spectroscopic classification and extrinsic properties of O and Wolf-Rayet stars; the intrinsic parameters of luminosity, effective temperature, mass, and composition of the stars, and a discussion of their viability; stellar wind properties; and the related issues concerning the efforts of stellar radiation and wind on the immediate interstellar environment are presented.

  5. Equations of state in the Hartle-Thorne model of neutron stars selecting acceptable variants of the resonant switch model of twin HF QPOs in the atoll source 4U 1636-53

    E-print Network

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Kotrlova, Andrea; Torok, Gabriel; Goluchova, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    The Resonant Switch (RS) model of twin high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) observed in neutron star binary systems, based on switch of the twin oscillations at a resonant point, has been applied to the atoll source 4U 1636-53 under assumption that the neutron star exterior can be approximated by the Kerr geometry. Strong restrictions of the neutron star parameters M (mass) and a (spin) arise due to fitting the frequency pairs admitted by the RS model to the observed data in the regions related to the resonant points. The most precise variants of the RS model are those combining the relativistic precession frequency relations with their modifications. Here, the neutron star mass and spin estimates given by the RS model are confronted with a variety of equations of state (EoS) governing structure of neutron stars in the framework of the Hartle-Thorne theory of rotating neutron stars applied for the observationally given rotation frequency f_rot~580 Hz (or alternatively f_rot~290 Hz) of the neut...

  6. Isolation and mapping of human homologues of an imprinted mouse gene U2af1-rs1

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, Kazunori; Wang, Xudong; Hatada, Izuho

    1995-11-20

    We have isolated human homologues of the imprinted mouse gene, U2af1-rs1. Two different types of cDNAs and three distinct genomic DNAs belonging to different groups were isolated. We have identified chromosomal genes corresponding to each cDNA by restriction mapping and sequencing. Using both a panel of rodent/human somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization, group 1 and group 2 genes were mapped to chromosome 5q22 and chromosome Xp22.1, respectively. We designated group 1 and group 2 genes as human U2AF1-RS1 and U2AF1-RS2, respectively, because these genes corresponded to mouse U2af1-rs1 (chromosome 11) and U2af1-rs2 (chromosome X), which we also isolated and mapped. Amino acid sequences of human U2AF1-RS1 and U2AF-RS2 showed significant homology to U2AF small subunit. The group 3 gene, designated as U2AF1-RS3, of which the cDNA has not yet been isolated, was mapped to chromosome 19p13.2. 37 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Die psychische Bedeutung der Natur (LA GS/HS/RS/GY, B.Sc/M.Sc Bio)

    E-print Network

    Schubart, Christoph

    Seminar 54 868 Dittmer Die psychische Bedeutung der Natur (LA GS/HS/RS/GY, B.Sc/M.Sc Bio) 1-st., 14 Modulbezug LA: Freier Bereich B.Sc Bio: Berufsqualifizierende Veranstaltung / Seminar M.Sc Bio Lebensprozesse sowie Einstellungen gegenüber Umweltfragen. Adressatenkreis LA GS/HS/RS/GY, B.Sc/M.Sc Bio

  8. Radiation Dry Bias Correction of Vaisala RS92 Humidity Data and Its Impacts on Historical Radiosonde Data

    E-print Network

    Dai, Aiguo

    Radiation Dry Bias Correction of Vaisala RS92 Humidity Data and Its Impacts on Historical in the RS92 humidity data is its daytime solar radiation dry bias (SRDB). An algorithm [referred to as NCAR to relative humidity (RH) is a function of the measured RH and temperature, and the temperature solar

  9. Genetic Association Between CDKN1B rs2066827 Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yongchao; Gao, Kejian; Zhang, Miao; Zhou, Aiyan; Zhou, Xiaoming; Guan, Zhongan; Shi, Xuewen; Ge, Shujian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Much attention has been directed to the association between cancer risk and rs2066827 polymorphism of the CDKN1B gene. However, the results are indefinitive and inconclusive. This study was devised to evaluate the hypothesis that rs2066827 polymorphism is associated with the risk of cancer. Computer-based databases (EMBASE, PubMed, and CNKI) were used to seek all case–control studies evaluating rs2066827 polymorphism and susceptibility to cancer. The genetic risk was assessed by calculating pooled odds ratio (OR) with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Fixed-effects pooled ORs were calculated by the Mantel–Haenszel method (Ph?>?0.05), and random-effects pooled ORs were estimated by the DerSimonian–Laird method (Ph?rs2066827 polymorphism and cancer risk were available for 9038 cancer cases and 11,596 controls participating in 17 studies. Carriage of a TG genotype was associated with a minor but significant decrease in the risk of cancer (pooled OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86–0.99; model, TG vs. TT). We observed a moderately decreased risk of ovarian cancer based on 1829 cases and 2868 controls (pooled OR 0.85, 95% CI: 0.74–0.97; model, TG vs. TT). A slightly deceased risk of cancer was also indicated in Caucasians consisting of 6707 cases and 8279 controls (pooled OR 0.91, 95% CI: 0.85–0.98; model, TG vs. TT). These data suggest that carriage of a TG genotype at rs2066827 polymorphism may be associated with decreased susceptibility to cancer, ovarian cancer in particular. PMID:26579796

  10. Association between rs1344706 of ZNF804A and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Meiyan; Liu, Tongyang; Zhang, Jihong; Jia, Shuting; Tang, Wenru; Luo, Ying

    2014-12-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most serious mental diseases found in humans. Previous studies indicated that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 in the gene ZNF804A encoding zinc finger protein 804A was associated with schizophrenia in Caucasian population but not in Chinese Han population. However, current results are conflicting in Asian population. In the present study, a meta-analysis was performed to revisit the association between rs1344706 and the risk of schizophrenia in Asian, Caucasian and other populations. Electronic search of PubMed database identified 25 case-control studies with available genotype frequencies of rs1344706 for the meta-analysis, involving a total of 15,788 cases and 22,654 controls. A pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association. The current meta-analysis showed an association between rs1344706 and schizophrenia in Caucasian populations (P=0.028, OR=1.138, 95% CI: 1.014-1.278; P=0.004 for heterogeneity) and Asian populations (P=0.008, OR=1.092, 95% CI: 1.023-1.165; P=0.001 for heterogeneity), but not in other populations (P=0.286, OR=1.209, 95% CI: 0.853-1.714, P=0.120 for heterogeneity). Egger's test (P>0.05) and Begg's test (P>0.05) are both suggestive of the lack of publication bias for the included studies. Thus, the absence of association in other populations suggests a genetic heterogeneity in the susceptibility of schizophrenia and demonstrates the difficulties in replicating genome-wide association study findings regarding schizophrenia across different ethnic populations. To validate the association between rs1344706 and schizophrenia, further studies with larger participant populations worldwide are needed. PMID:25526981

  11. Association Between rs1344706 of ZNF804A and Schizophrenia: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Meiyan; Liu, Tongyang; Zhang, Jihong; Jia, Shuting; Tang, Wenru; Luo, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is one of the most serious mental diseases found in humans. Previous studies indicated that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 in the gene ZNF804A encoding zinc finger protein 804A was associated with schizophrenia in Caucasian population but not in Chinese Han population. However, current results are conflicting in Asian population. In the present study, a meta-analysis was performed to revisit the association between rs1344706 and the risk of schizophrenia in Asian, Caucasian and other populations. Electronic search of PubMed database identified 25 case–control studies with available genotype frequencies of rs1344706 for the meta-analysis, involving a total of 15,788 cases and 22,654 controls. A pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the association. The current meta-analysis showed an association between rs1344706 and schizophrenia in Caucasian populations (P = 0.028, OR = 1.138, 95% CI: 1.014–1.278; P = 0.004 for heterogeneity) and Asian populations (P = 0.008, OR = 1.092, 95% CI: 1.023–1.165; P = 0.001 for heterogeneity), but not in other populations (P = 0.286, OR = 1.209, 95% CI: 0.853–1.714, P = 0.120 for heterogeneity). Egger’s test (P > 0.05) and Begg’s test (P > 0.05) are both suggestive of the lack of publication bias for the included studies. Thus, the absence of association in other populations suggests a genetic heterogeneity in the susceptibility of schizophrenia and demonstrates the difficulties in replicating genome-wide association study findings regarding schizophrenia across different ethnic populations. To validate the association between rs1344706 and schizophrenia, further studies with larger participant populations worldwide are needed. PMID:25526981

  12. Genetic associations of CLU rs9331888 polymorphism with Alzheimer's disease: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Ping; Liu, Yuping; Lu, Wenxue; Liu, Qiaolan; Li, Tinxin; Gong, Bo

    2015-03-30

    Recent studies showed the Clusterin gene (CLU) is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, studies investigating the association of CLU single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9331888 with AD are controversial. We then performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between CLU SNP rs9331888 and AD. Computerized bibliographic searches of PUBMED and AlzGene database were conducted for the period up to July, 2014. The strength of the association between SNP rs9331888 and AD was estimated by odds ratios (ORs) and OR 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 11 studies composed of 8766 AD cases and 11,366 controls were included in this study. Significant association of SNP rs9331888 with AD was found in Caucasian population among allelic model (C vs. G: OR=1.12, 95%CI=1.06-1.17, P<0.001), additive model (CC vs. GG: OR=1.25, 95%CI=1.12-1.40, P<0.001), recessive model (CC vs. CG+GG: OR=1.20, 95%CI=1.07-1.34, P=0.001), and dominant model (CC+CG vs. GG: OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.06-1.21, P<0.001). No significant association among these models was found in Asian and overall populations. Sensitivity analysis found that one study caused the distinct heterogeneity in Asian subgroup. Our analysis demonstrated that CLU SNP rs9331888 might be associated with an increased AD risk in Caucasian population, but not in Asian population. PMID:25703218

  13. Low penetrance susceptibility to glioma is caused by the TP53 variant rs78378222

    PubMed Central

    Enciso-Mora, V; Hosking, F J; Di Stefano, A L; Zelenika, D; Shete, S; Broderick, P; Idbaih, A; Delattre, J-Y; Hoang-Xuan, K; Marie, Y; Labussière, M; Alentorn, A; Ciccarino, P; Rossetto, M; Armstrong, G; Liu, Y; Gousias, K; Schramm, J; Lau, C; Hepworth, S J; Schoemaker, M; Strauch, K; Müller-Nurasyid, M; Schreiber, S; Franke, A; Moebus, S; Eisele, L; Swerdlow, A; Simon, M; Bondy, M; Lathrop, M; Sanson, M; Houlston, R S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Most of the heritable risk of glioma is presently unaccounted for by mutations in known genes. In addition to rare inactivating germline mutations in TP53 causing glioma in the context of the Li-Fraumeni syndrome, polymorphic variation in TP53 may also contribute to the risk of developing glioma. Methods: To comprehensively evaluate the impact of variation in TP53 on risk, we analysed 23 tagSNPs and imputed 2377 unobserved genotypes in four series totaling 4147 glioma cases and 7435 controls. Results: The strongest validated association signal was shown by the imputed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs78378222 (P=6.86 × 10?24, minor allele frequency ?0.013). Confirmatory genotyping confirmed the high quality of the imputation. The association between rs78378222 and risk was seen for both glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and non-GBM tumours. We comprehensively examined the relationship between rs78378222 and overall survival in two of the case series totaling 1699 individuals. Despite employing statistical tests sensitive to the detection of differences in early survival, no association was shown. Conclusion: Our data provided strong validation of rs78378222 as a risk factor for glioma but do not support the tenet that the polymorphism being a clinically useful prognostic marker. Acquired TP53 inactivation is a common feature of glioma. As rs78378222 changes the polyadenylation signal of TP53 leading to impaired 3?-end processing of TP53 mRNA, the SNP has strong plausibility for being directly functional contributing to the aetiological basis of glioma. PMID:23571737

  14. Transforming growth factor-?1 rs1800469 polymorphism and periodontitis risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lei; Sun, Ya-Ping; Li, Da-Gang; Wang, Shao-Hua; Shao, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The association between TGF-?1 rs1800469 polymorphism and the risk of periodontitis was controversial and inconclusive. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the association between the TGF-?1 rs1800469 polymorphism and periodontitis risk. The electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science were searched for studies to include in the present meta-analysis. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to assess the strength of association between the TGF-?1 rs1800469 polymorphism and periodontitis risk. A total of 8 publications involving 923 cases and 892 controls met the inclusion criteria and were ultimately analyzed. In this meta-analysis, a significant association was detected between TGF-?1 rs1800469 polymorphism and periodontitis risk (OR=1.21; 95% CI, 1.05-1.39; P=0.008). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the significant association was only found among Asians (OR=1.23; 95% CI, 1.05-1.44; P=0.01), while no significant association was found among Caucasians (OR=1.16; 95% CI, 0.90-1.49; P=0.25). In the subgroup analysis by type and periodontitis, the significant association was only found among CP patients (OR=1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.37; P=0.03), while no significant association was found among AP patients (OR=1.27; 95% CI, 0.98-1.65; P=0.07). In addition, no significant association was found among non-smokers (OR=1.28; 95% CI, 0.93-1.76; P=0.13). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the TGF-?1 rs1800469 polymorphism is associated with periodontitis risk. Further studies analyzing gene-gene and gene-environment interactions are required. PMID:26629050

  15. Activity of young stars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamzin, S.

    2008-12-01

    The possibility to clarify the nature of activity of different types of young stars by means of ob- servations from orbital observatory WSO-UV is considered. These types include Herbig Ae/Be stars, T Tauri stars, brown dwarfs and FUORs. The problem of interstellar extinction law toward star formation regions is also discussed.

  16. Star Clusters Sterrenstelsels & Kosmos

    E-print Network

    Weijgaert, Rien van de

    Star Clusters Sterrenstelsels & Kosmos deel 2 1 #12;Types of star clusters 2 #12;Open or Galactic Clusters · "Open" or Galactic clusters are low mass, relatively small (~10 pc diameter) clusters of stars in the Galactic disk containing stars · The Pleiades cluster is a good example of an open cluster

  17. Egyptian "Star Clocks"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, Sarah

    Diagonal, transit, and Ramesside star clocks are tables of astronomical information occasionally found in ancient Egyptian temples, tombs, and papyri. The tables represent the motions of selected stars (decans and hour stars) throughout the Egyptian civil year. Analysis of star clocks leads to greater understanding of ancient Egyptian constellations, ritual astronomical activities, observational practices, and pharaonic chronology.

  18. Lifestyles of the Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cocoa Beach, FL. John F. Kennedy Space Center.

    Some general information on stars is provided in this National Aeronautics and Space Administration pamphlet. Topic areas briefly discussed are: (1) the birth of a star; (2) main sequence stars; (3) red giants; (4) white dwarfs; (5) neutron stars; (6) supernovae; (7) pulsars; and (8) black holes. (JN)

  19. High-resolution IR and radio observations of AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, G.; Cotton, W. D.; Millan-Gabet, R.; Mennesson, B.

    2015-04-01

    Aims: We present the results of observations with interferometers of a sample of pulsating asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the infrared and at radio wavelengths. The goal of these observations is to explore the extended stellar atmospheres and to establish links between the spatial scales of molecular envelopes and of the dust shell. This is the key to better understand the process of dust formation and therefore of mass loss. Methods: We used the ESO VLTI/MIDI interferometer in the N band, the Keck Interferometer in the K band, and NRAO VLBA observations of SiO masers at 7 mm wavelength of a sample of AGB stars: U Ari, W Cnc, RX Tau, RT Tau, RT Aql, S Ser, and V Mon. The various instruments probe different altitudes of the atmosphere of the AGB stars. They are sensitive to regions below the silicate dust condensation distance and provide the opportunity of finding hints about how dust and its precursors form in the extended atmosphere of an AGB star. The K-band observations are sensitive to water and carbon-monoxyde vapors. Unfortunately, we were only able to observe S Ser in this wavelength range. Results: We find a ratio of 2.2 between the molecular envelope radius and the photospheric size, which is consistent with previous results. The N-band observations are mostly sensitive to vapors of SiO and water and to dust (alumina and silicate). The silicate dust shell is fully resolved, and no precise parameters can be deduced from the N-band observations other than a spatial extension of at least 12-16 R? for our sample. The sizes found for the SiO region are consistent with the radii of the SiO maser rings provided by the VLBA observations. The sizes of the alumina and water vapor regions are systematically found to be larger. There is clear evidence that SiO is absent from regions farther from the star where silicate dust condenses. Conclusions: These observations support a possible scenario in which SiO is adsorbed by species such as corundum. An alternative explanation could be that SiO has chemically disappeared at this range of distances.

  20. Extragalactic Star Clusters: the Resolved Star Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, Anne; Meyer, M. J.; Jason, H.; Calzetti, D.

    2006-12-01

    The physical processes leading to the dissolution of star clusters is a topic barely studied and still not understood. We started a pilot project to develop a new approach to directly detect and study the properties of stellar clusters while they are being destroyed. Our technique currently under development makes use of the exceptional spatial resolution and sensitivity of the ACS camera onboard HST to resolve individual stars in nearby galaxies. PSF stellar photometry and color-magnitude diagrams allows us to separate the most massive stars (more likely to be in clusters) from the star field background. While applying the method to the normal spiral galaxy NGC1313, we found that the method of studying star clusters through resolved stars in nearby galaxies is even more powerful than we first expected. The stellar maps obtained for NGC1313 show that a large fraction of early B-type stars contained in the galaxy are already part of the star field background rather that being in star clusters. Such stars live for 5 to 25 Myr. Since most stars form in clusters, the presence of such massive stars in the field means that they must have left their birthplace very rapidly. It also means that the processes involved in the dissolution of the clusters are extremely efficient. The only plausible explanation for so many young stars to be in the field background is the infant mortality of star clusters. We will present the latest results on the two galaxies NGC 1313 and IC 2475 and discuss the potential of the new approach for studying extragalactic stellar clusters.

  1. A Super-Earth Transiting a Naked-Eye Star

    E-print Network

    Winn, Joshua Nathan

    We have detected transits of the innermost planet "e" orbiting 55 Cnc (V = 6.0), based on two weeks of nearly continuous photometric monitoring with the MOST space telescope. The transits occur with the period (0.74 days) ...

  2. IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Variable stars VARIABLE STARS

    E-print Network

    Petrovay, Kristóf

    IntrAst2 (Petrovay) Variable stars VARIABLE STARS Definitions: (a) Stars displaying brightness variations (in the optical domain) All stars are variables (a matter of sensitivity only). (b) Stars) A variable star is what is listed in GCVS or VSX GCVS: General Catalogue of Variable Stars; http

  3. The Astronomer Who Came in from the Cold: The Evolution of Observing Variable Stars Over Three Decades at Appalachian State's Dark Sky Observatory (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caton, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    (Abstract only) Variable star research has been my main work from my Ph.D. dissertation work through three decades of research at our Appalachian State University Dark Sky Observatory. I will present a review of that work and the evolution of technology that took me from in situ observing with a photometer in a cold dome to remote and automatic CCD observing today. The research targets included RS CVn stars, apsidal motion eclipsing binaries, Trojan planets, and exoplanets in binaries.

  4. Neutron Stars and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalerao, Varun

    2012-05-01

    My thesis centers around the study of neutron stars, especially those in massive binary systems. To this end, it has two distinct components: the observational study of neutron stars in massive binaries with a goal of measuring neutron star masses and participation in NuSTAR, the first imaging hard X-ray mission, one that is extremely well suited to the study of massive binaries and compact objects in our Galaxy. The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing high energy X-ray telescope to orbit. NuSTAR has an order-of-magnitude better angular resolution and has two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity than any currently orbiting hard X-ray telescope. I worked to develop, calibrate, and test CdZnTe detectors for NuSTAR. I describe the CdZnTe detectors in comprehensive detail here - from readout procedures to data analysis. Detailed calibration of detectors is necessary for analyzing astrophysical source data obtained by the NuSTAR. I discuss the design and implementation of an automated setup for calibrating flight detectors, followed by calibration procedures and results. Neutron stars are an excellent probe of fundamental physics. The maximum mass of a neutron star can put stringent constraints on the equation of state of matter at extreme pressures and densities. From an astrophysical perspective, there are several open questions in our understanding of neutron stars. What are the birth masses of neutron stars? How do they change in binary evolution? Are there multiple mechanisms for the formation of neutron stars? Measuring masses of neutron stars helps answer these questions. Neutron stars in high-mass X-ray binaries have masses close to their birth mass, providing an opportunity to disentangle the role of "nature" and "nurture" in the observed mass distributions. In 2006, masses had been measured for only six such objects, but this small sample showed the greatest diversity in masses among all classes of neutron star binaries. Intrigued by this diversity - which points to diverse birth masses - we undertook a systematic survey to measure the masses of neutron stars in nine high-mass X-ray binaries. In this thesis, I present results from this ongoing project. While neutron stars formed the primary focus of my work, I also explored other topics in compact objects. Appendix A describes the discovery and complete characterization of a 1RXS J173006.4+033813, a polar cataclysmic variable. Appendix B describes the discovery of a diamond planet orbiting a millisecond pulsar, and our search for its optical counterpart.

  5. Magnetic inhibition of convection and the fundamental properties of low-mass stars. I. Stars with a radiative core

    SciTech Connect

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian E-mail: brian.chaboyer@dartmouth.edu

    2013-12-20

    Magnetic fields are hypothesized to inflate the radii of low-mass stars—defined as less massive than 0.8 M {sub ?}—in detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs). We investigate this hypothesis using the recently introduced magnetic Dartmouth stellar evolution code. In particular, we focus on stars thought to have a radiative core and convective outer envelope by studying in detail three individual DEBs: UV Psc, YY Gem, and CU Cnc. Our results suggest that the stabilization of thermal convection by a magnetic field is a plausible explanation for the observed model-radius discrepancies. However, surface magnetic field strengths required by the models are significantly stronger than those estimated from observed coronal X-ray emission. Agreement between model predicted surface magnetic field strengths and those inferred from X-ray observations can be found by assuming that the magnetic field sources its energy from convection. This approach makes the transport of heat by convection less efficient and is akin to reduced convective mixing length methods used in other studies. Predictions for the metallicity and magnetic field strengths of the aforementioned systems are reported. We also develop an expression relating a reduction in the convective mixing length to a magnetic field strength in units of the equipartition value. Our results are compared with those from previous investigations to incorporate magnetic fields to explain the low-mass DEB radius inflation. Finally, we explore how the effects of magnetic fields might affect mass determinations using asteroseismic data and the implication of magnetic fields on exoplanet studies.

  6. The Shape of Near-Earth Asteroid 275677 (2000 RS11) From Inversion of Arecibo and Goldstone Radar Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, Kaley; Busch, Michael W.; Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, Marina; Howell, Ellen S.; Nolan, Michael C.; Springmann, Alessondra; Giorgini, Jon D.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Jao, Joseph S.

    2015-11-01

    We observed near-Earth asteroid 2000 RS11 with the Arecibo and Goldstone planetary radars during a 0.035 au approach in March 2014, obtaining delay-Doppler images between March 13 and March 17. The finest-resolution images have range resolution of 7.5 m/pixel and show that RS11 is a contact binary with complex topography. We used the SHAPE software package (Magri et al., Icarus 186, 156–160 2007) to create a physical model of RS11 and its spin state from these delay-Doppler images.The rotation period of RS11 is well constrained from optical lightcurves, P = 4.444 ± 0.001 h (Warner et al., Minor Planet Bulletin 41, 160; 2014 and Benishek, Minor Planet Bulletin 41, 257; 2014). We found two possible pole directions and corresponding shape models, mirror images of one another, which provide equally good fits to the radar data. RS11’s pole direction is either (? , ?) = (155°, 30°) ± 10° or (335°, -30°) ± 10° in J2000 ecliptic coordinates. The most likely pole directions of RS11 are not aligned with the heliocentric orbit normal and instead have an obliquity within 10° of 56° or 124°.Our best-fit shape models are 1400-vertex polyhedra comprising two lobes in contact. The lengths of RS11’s principal axes are 698 ± 71 m, 578 ± 59 m, and 758 ± 77 m. RS11 has a volume of 0.086 ± 0.026 km^3. The long axis of RS11’s larger lobe is 751 ± 77 m and the long axis of the smaller lobe is 398 ± 41 m; the volume ratio between these lobes is roughly 2.7 ± 10%. Spectral data informs us that RS11 is an S-class object (Lazzarin et al., Icarus 169, 379; 2004).RS11's shape is unusual compared with those of other contact binary NEAs imaged by radar. Its larger lobe is flattened. Additionally, while the neck between the smaller and larger lobes of most contact binaries is located near the larger lobe's longest principal axis (such as in the cases of 25143 Itokawa and 4179 Toutatis), RS11's neck is near its larger lobe's shortest principal axis. RS11 is the first asteroid of this type for which we have a shape model.

  7. Duplex High-Resolution Melting Assay for the Simultaneous Genotyping of IL28B rs12979860 and PNPLA3 rs738409 Polymorphisms in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

    PubMed Central

    Enache, Elena L.; Sin, Anca; Bancu, Ligia; Ramière, Christophe; Diaz, Olivier; André, Patrice; Enache, Liviu S.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is a major burden for public health worldwide. Although newer direct-acting antivirals show good efficacy, their cost precludes their wide adoption in resource-limited regions. Thus, strategies are being developed to help identify patients with high susceptibility to response to classic PEG-interferon + ribavirin therapy. IL28B polymorphism rs12979860 C/T is an important predictor for an efficient response to interferon-based therapy. A genetic variant in adiponutrin (PNPLA3) gene, rs738409 C/G, is associated with steatosis, severity, and progression of liver fibrosis in CHC patients, and predicts treatment outcome in difficult-to-cure HCV-infected patients with advanced fibrosis. We developed a rapid and inexpensive assay based on duplex high-resolution melting (HRM) for the simultaneous genotyping of these two polymorphisms. The assay validation was performed on synthetic DNA templates and 132 clinical samples from CHC patients. When compared with allele-specific PCR and sequencing, our assay showed 100% (95% CI: 0.9724–1) accuracy, with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Our assay was robust against concentration and quality of DNA samples, melting curve normalization intervals, HRM analysis algorithm, and sequence variations near the targeted SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism). This duplex assay should provide useful information for patient-oriented management and clinical decision-making in CHC. PMID:26389885

  8. A radio survey of weak T Tauri stars in Taurus-Auriga

    SciTech Connect

    O'neal, D.; Feigelson, E.D.; Mathieu, R.D.; Myers, P.C. Wisconsin Univ., Madison Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA )

    1990-11-01

    A multi-epoch 5 GHz survey of candidate or confirmed weak T Tauri stars in the Taurus-Auriga molecular cloud complex was conducted with the Very Large Array. The stars were chosen from those having detectable X-ray or chromospheric emission, and weak-emission-line pre-main-sequence stars found by other means. Snapshots of 99 VLA fields containing 119 candidate stars were obtained with a sensitivity of 0.7 mJy; most fields were observed on two or three dates. Nine radio sources coincident with cataloged stars were found. One may be an RS CVn binary system; the other eight are pre-main-sequence stars. Three of the detected stars - HD 283447, V410 Tau, and FK X-ray 1 - were previously known radio sources. Five new detections are Herbig's Anon 1, Hubble 4, HDE 283572, Elias 12, and HK Tau/c. At least five of the sources are variable, and no linear or circular polarization was found. Several lines of evidence suggest that the radio-detected weak T Tauri stars are quite young, perhaps younger on average than nondetected stars. 54 refs.

  9. Photometry of Variable Stars from THU-NAOC Transient Survey I: The First 2 Years

    E-print Network

    Yao, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Tianmeng; Chen, Juncheng; Yuan, Wenlong; Mo, Jun; Li, Wenxiong; Jin, Zhiping; Wu, Xuefeng; Nie, JunDan; Zhou, Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the detections of stellar variabilities from the first 2-year observations of sky area of about 1300 square degrees from the Tsinghua University-NAOC Transient Survey (TNTS). A total of 1237 variable stars (including 299 new ones) were detected with brightness = 0.1 mag on a timescale from a few hours to few hundred days. Among such detections, we tentatively identified 661 RR Lyrae stars, 431 binaries, 72 Semiregular pulsators, 29 Mira stars, 11 slow irregular variables, 11 RS Canum Venaticorum stars, 7 Gamma Doradus stars, 5 long period variables, 3 W Virginis stars, 3 Delta Scuti stars, 2 Anomalous Cepheids, 1 Cepheid, and 1 nove-like star based on their time-series variability index Js and their phased diagrams. Moreover, we found that 14 RR Lyrae stars show the Blazhko effect and 67 contact eclipsing binaries exhibit the O'Connell effect. Since the period and amplitude of light variations of RR Lyrae variables depend on their chemical compositions, their photometric observations ...

  10. Vitamin D3 Receptor (VDR) Gene rs2228570 (Fok1) and rs731236 (Taq1) Variants Are Not Associated with the Risk for Multiple Sclerosis: Results of a New Study and a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Elena; Agúndez, José A. G.; Martínez, Carmen; Benito-León, Julián; Millán-Pascual, Jorge; Calleja, Patricia; Díaz-Sánchez, María; Pisa, Diana; Turpín-Fenoll, Laura; Alonso-Navarro, Hortensia; Ayuso-Peralta, Lucía; Torrecillas, Dolores; Plaza-Nieto, José Francisco; Jiménez-Jiménez, Félix Javier

    2013-01-01

    Background Some epidemiological, genetic, and experimental data suggest a possible role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Data on the possible contribution of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene to the risk for MS are controversial. Several studies suggested an interaction between some SNPs in the VDR gene and HLADRB1*1501 in the risk for MS. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate a possible influence of the SNPs rs2228570 and rs731236 in the VDR gene in the risk for MS. A secondary objective was to address the possible interactions between VDR genes and HLADRB1*1501. Methods We analyzed the allelic and genotype frequency of VDR rs2228570, rs731236, and HLADRB1*1501 (rs3135388) in 303 patients with MS and 310 healthy controls, using TaqMan Assays. We also conducted a meta-analysis, that was carried out by using the software Meta-Disc 1.1.1 (http://www.hrc.es/investigacion/metadisc.html; Unit of Clinical Statistics, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain). Heterogeneity between studies in terms of degree of association was tested using the Q-statistic. Results VDR rs2228570 and rs731236 allelic and genotype frequencies did not differ significantly between MS patients and controls, and were unrelated with the age of onset of MS, gender, and course of MS. HLADRB1*1501 showed a high association with the risk of developing MS 4.76(95% C.I. ?=?3.14–7.27; p<0.0001). The meta-analysis, after excluding data of one study that was responsible of heterogeneity for rs731236 polymorphism, showed lack of relation of both SNPs with the risk for MS. HLADRB1*1501 showed lack of interaction with VDR rs2228570 and rs731236 in increasing MS risk. Conclusions These results suggest that VDR rs2228570 and rs731236 polymorphisms are not related with the risk for MS, and did not confirm interaction between these VDR SNPs and HLADRB1 in the risk for MS. PMID:23840333

  11. Universal pathway for posttransfer editing reactions: insights from the crystal structure of TtPheRS with puromycin.

    PubMed

    Tworowski, Dmitry; Klipcan, Liron; Peretz, Moshe; Moor, Nina; Safro, Mark G

    2015-03-31

    At the amino acid binding and recognition step, phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) faces the challenge of discrimination between cognate phenylalanine and closely similar noncognate tyrosine. Resampling of Tyr-tRNA(Phe) to PheRS increasing the number of correctly charged tRNA molecules has recently been revealed. Thus, the very same editing site of PheRS promotes hydrolysis of misacylated tRNA species, associated both with cis- and trans-editing pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus PheRS (TtPheRS) at 2.6 Å resolution, in complex with phenylalanine and antibiotic puromycin mimicking the A76 of tRNA acylated with tyrosine. Starting from the complex structure and using a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach, we investigate the pathways of editing reaction catalyzed by TtPheRS. We show that both 2' and 3' isomeric esters undergo mutual transformation via the cyclic intermediate orthoester, and the editing site can readily accommodate a model of Tyr-tRNA(Phe) where deacylation occurs from either the 2'- or 3'-OH. The suggested pathway of the hydrolytic reaction at the editing site of PheRS is of sufficient generality to warrant comparison with other class I and class II aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. PMID:25775602

  12. A Polymorphism (rs1801018, Thr7Thr) of BCL2 is Associated with Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Eun, Young Gyu; Hong, Il Ki; Kim, Su Kang; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Kwon, Sam; Chung, Dae Han

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Among the apoptosis signals, B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) is a well-known regulator of apoptosis with anti-apoptotic properties. We investigated here whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the BCL2 were associated with host susceptibility of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) occurrence and clinicopathologic parameters. Methods Ninety-two PTC patients and 222 control subjects were recruited. One promoter SNP (rs2279115, -938A/C) and one synonymous SNP (rs1801018, Thr7Thr) in the BCL2 gene were selected and genotyped using direct sequencing. Multiple logistic regression models were performed to evaluate odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P-values. Results rs1801018 of the BCL2 gene was not associated with the development of PTC. In the clinicopathologic features, rs1801018 SNP was associated with the number and location. The G allele frequency of rs1801018 in PTC patients with multifocality (13.3%) was about four-fold higher than that in PTC patients with unifocality (3.4%). The G allele frequency of rs1801018 in PTC patients with both lobes (15.4%) was increased by about five-fold, compared to PTC patients with one lobe (3.2%). Conclusion The results suggest that synonymous SNP rs1801018 and the G allele of the BCL2 gene may be associated with the multifocality and bilaterality of PTC in Korean population. PMID:21949582

  13. Association between NKX2-5 rs29784 and infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in Chinese Han population

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Zhiqiang; Liang, Peizhi; Li, Qingning; Nie, Yuqiang; Zhang, Youxiang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rs11712066 and rs573872 near MBNL1, rs29784 near NKX2-5) with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) in Chinese Han population. Methods: A total of 47 family trios consisting of infants with IHPS and their healthy biological parents were recruited for this study. Genotypes were determined using direct sequencing. Transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was performed for family-based association analysis. Results: Genotypic distributions of three SNPs in both groups (patients and proband’s parents) were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). There were significant preferential transmission of A allele of rs29784 from the parents to affected offspring (TDT: x2 = 5.444, P = 0.0196). However, other two polymorphism loci (rs11712066 and rs573872) were not significant susceptibility loci for IHPS in Chinese Han population. Conclusions: We found that there was a significant association between rs29784 and IHPS. PMID:25932253

  14. Contribution of Human Fc?Rs to Disease with Evidence from Human Polymorphisms and Transgenic Animal Studies.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Caitlin; Gouel-Chéron, Aurélie; Jönsson, Friederike; Bruhns, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of human IgG antibodies predominantly rely on a family of receptors for the Fc portion of IgG, Fc?Rs: Fc?RI, Fc?RIIA, Fc?RIIB, Fc?RIIC, Fc?RIIIA, Fc?RIIIB, FcRL5, FcRn, and TRIM21. All Fc?Rs bind IgG at the cell surface, except FcRn and TRIM21 that bind IgG once internalized. The affinity of Fc?Rs for IgG is determined by polymorphisms of human Fc?Rs and ranges from 2?×?10(4) to 8?×?10(7)?M(-1). The biological functions of Fc?Rs extend from cellular activation or inhibition, IgG-internalization/endocytosis/phagocytosis to IgG transport and recycling. This review focuses on human Fc?Rs and intends to present an overview of the current understanding of how these receptors may contribute to various pathologies. It will define Fc?Rs and their polymorphic variants, their affinity for human IgG subclasses, and review the associations found between Fc?R polymorphisms and human pathologies. It will also describe the human Fc?R-transgenic mice that have been used to study the role of these receptors in autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergic disease models. PMID:24910634

  15. Contribution of Human Fc?Rs to Disease with Evidence from Human Polymorphisms and Transgenic Animal Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gillis, Caitlin; Gouel-Chéron, Aurélie; Jönsson, Friederike; Bruhns, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The biological activities of human IgG antibodies predominantly rely on a family of receptors for the Fc portion of IgG, Fc?Rs: Fc?RI, Fc?RIIA, Fc?RIIB, Fc?RIIC, Fc?RIIIA, Fc?RIIIB, FcRL5, FcRn, and TRIM21. All Fc?Rs bind IgG at the cell surface, except FcRn and TRIM21 that bind IgG once internalized. The affinity of Fc?Rs for IgG is determined by polymorphisms of human Fc?Rs and ranges from 2?×?104 to 8?×?107?M?1. The biological functions of Fc?Rs extend from cellular activation or inhibition, IgG-internalization/endocytosis/phagocytosis to IgG transport and recycling. This review focuses on human Fc?Rs and intends to present an overview of the current understanding of how these receptors may contribute to various pathologies. It will define Fc?Rs and their polymorphic variants, their affinity for human IgG subclasses, and review the associations found between Fc?R polymorphisms and human pathologies. It will also describe the human Fc?R-transgenic mice that have been used to study the role of these receptors in autoimmune, inflammatory, and allergic disease models. PMID:24910634

  16. Topoisomerase II? binding protein 1 c.*229C>T (rs115160714) gene polymorphism and endometrial cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Forma, Ewa; Wójcik-Krowiranda, Katarzyna; Jó?wiak, Pawe?; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Bie?kiewicz, Andrzej; Bry?, Magdalena; Krze?lak, Anna

    2014-07-01

    TopBP1 (topoisomerase II? binding protein 1) protein is involved in DNA replication, DNA damage checkpoint response and transcriptional regulation. In this study we investigated whether alterations in the TopBP1 gene can influence the risk of endometrial cancer. We examined the association between five single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs185903567, rs116645643, rs115160714, rs116195487, and rs112843513) located in the 3'UTR region of the TopBP1 gene and endometrial cancer risk as well as allele-specific gene expression. One hundred twenty-one endometrial cancer patients were genotyped for these SNPs. Allele-specific TopBP1 mRNA and protein expressions were determined by real time PCR and western blotting methods, respectively. Only one SNP (rs115160714) showed an association with endometrial cancer. Compared to homozygous common allele carriers, heterozygous for the T variant had significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer [adjusted odds ratio (OR)?=?5.59, 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.96-15.91, p?=?0.0003]. Mean TopBP1 mRNA and protein expression were higher in the individuals with the CT genotype. There was a significant association between the rs115160714 and tumor grade and FIGO classification. Most carriers of minor allele had a high grade tumors (G3) classified as FIGO III/IV. The results of our study raise a possibility that a genetic variation of TopBP1 may be implicated in the etiology of endometrial cancer. PMID:24346708

  17. RANK rs1805034 T>C Polymorphism Is Associated with Susceptibility of Esophageal Cancer in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weifeng; Wang, Xu; Lv, Lu; Shao, Aizhong; Shi, Yijun; Ding, Guowen; Chen, Suocheng; Gu, Haiyong

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal cancer remains the sixth leading cause of cancer associated death and eighth most common cancer worldwide. Genetic factors, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), may contribute to the carcinogenesis of esophageal cancer. Here, we conducted a hospital based case-control study to evaluate the genetic susceptibility of functional SNPs on the development of esophageal cancer. A total of 629 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cases and 686 controls were enrolled for this study. The OPG rs3102735 T>C, rs2073618 G>C, RANK rs1805034 T>C, RANKL rs9533156 T>C and rs2277438 A>G were determined by ligation detection reaction method. Our findings suggested that RANK rs1805034 T>C is associated with the susceptibility of ESCC, which is more evident in male and elder (?63) patients. Our study provides the first evidence that functional polymorphisms RANK rs1805034 T>C may be an indicator for individual susceptibility to ESCC. However, further larger studies among different ethnic populations are warranted to verify our conclusion. PMID:25019155

  18. Hyper X-ray Flares on Active Stars Detected with MAXI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higa, Masaya; Tsuboi, Yohko; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Tomida, Hiroshi; Matsuoka, Masaru; aff002

    2014-08-01

    MAXI started its operation in 2009 August. Owing to its unprecedentedly high sensitivity as an all-sky X-ray monitor and to its capability of real-time data transfer, we have detected 56 strong flares from twenty-one active stars (eleven RS CVn systems, one Algol system, seven dMe stars, one dKe star and one Young Stellar Object). These flares have large X-ray luminosity of 6 × 1030 -5 × 1033 ergs s-1 in the 2-20 keV band. The flares can be thought to be high ends among their own categories. During the flare from AT Mic on 2012 April 18th, one of the largest X-ray luminosities was recorded as a dMe star, 6 × 1032 ergs s-1 in the 2-20 keV band. It is larger than its bolometric luminosity by 4 times. The total energy emitted during the flare is 1036 ergs in the same band. Such total energy can be obtained on large flares from RS CVn system, but not on any other flares from dMe stars. In this proceeding, we report on the present situation in characteristics of hyper X-ray flares on each stellar categories.

  19. Variable stars in the open cluster NGC 2141

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yang-Ping

    2015-05-01

    We report the results of a search for variable stars in the open cluster NGC 2141. Ten variable stars are detected, among which nine are new variable stars and they are classified as three short-period W UMa-type eclipsing binaries, two EA-type eclipsing binaries, one EB-type eclipsing binary, one very short-period RS CVn-type eclipsing binary, one d-type RR Lyrae variable star, and one unknown type of variable star. The membership and physical properties are discussed, based on their light curves, positions in the color magnitude diagrams, spatial locations and periods. A known EB-type eclipsing binary is also identified as a blue straggler candidate in the cluster. Furthermore, we find that all eclipsing contact binaries have prominent asymmetric eclipses and display the O'Connell effect, which increases with a decrease in orbital periods. This suggests that the O'Connell effect is probably related to the evolution of the orbital period in short period eclipsing binary systems. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  20. A Nematode Calreticulin, Rs-CRT, Is a Key Effector in Reproduction and Pathogenicity of Radopholus similis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Wang, Ke; Xie, Hui; Wang, Yan-Tao; Wang, Dong-Wei; Xu, Chun-Lin; Huang, Xin; Wang, De-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Radopholus similis is a migratory plant-parasitic nematode that causes severe damage to many agricultural and horticultural crops. Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca2+-binding multifunctional protein that plays key roles in the parasitism, immune evasion, reproduction and pathogenesis of many animal parasites and plant nematodes. Therefore, CRT is a promising target for controlling R. similis. In this study, we obtained the full-length sequence of the CRT gene from R. similis (Rs-crt), which is 1,527-bp long and includes a 1,206-bp ORF that encodes 401 amino acids. Rs-CRT and Mi-CRT from Meloidogyne incognita showed the highest similarity and were grouped on the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. Rs-crt is a multi-copy gene that is expressed in the oesophageal glands and gonads of females, the gonads of males, the intestines of juveniles and the eggs of R. similis. The highest Rs-crt expression was detected in females, followed by juveniles, eggs and males. The reproductive capability and pathogenicity of R. similis were significantly reduced after treatment with Rs-crt dsRNA for 36 h. Using plant-mediated RNAi, we confirmed that Rs-crt expression was significantly inhibited in the nematodes, and resistance to R. similis was significantly improved in transgenic tomato plants. Plant-mediated RNAi-induced silencing of Rs-crt could be effectively transmitted to the F2 generation of R. similis; however, the silencing effect of Rs-crt induced by in vitro RNAi was no longer detectable in F1 and F2 nematodes. Thus, Rs-crt is essential for the reproduction and pathogenicity of R. similis. PMID:26061142

  1. Fine-structure mapping of the complex locus Odc-rs5 relative to Igk and distal loci.

    PubMed

    Richards-Smith, B A; Elliott, R W

    1992-01-01

    Odc-rs5 was previously identified as a complex locus closely linked to the Igk complex on mouse Chromosome (Chr) 6 and comprising at least five copies of a sequence related to the mRNA encoding ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in the genomes of mice of some inbred strains and at least seven copies in others (Richards-Smith and Elliott, Mammalian Genome 2: 215, 1992). In the present study, Odc-rs5 was shown to be composed of at least seven copies of the ODC sequence in both the Odc-rs5a and Odc-rs5b haplotypes. Based upon the distribution of DNA restriction fragments (RFs) that had previously been associated with Odc-rs5a or Odc-rs5b among 42 mice of inbred laboratory strains having various haplotypes at Igk and in mice of two congenic strains [B6.PL-Ly-2a, Ly-3a(75NS)/Cy and B6.PL-Ly-2a,Ly-3a(85NS)/Cy] and a backcross-derived stock (NAK) known to be recombinant within Igk, a fine structure map of Odc-rs5 was deduced relative to Igk and more distal loci. Odc-rs5-derived RFs were located to three distinct regions within and/or distal to Igk and to a fourth site between (Ly-3, Ly-2) and Raf-1. Additionally, DNAs from 19 mice of inbred strains and random-bred stocks derived from wild progenitors trapped at various locations were analyzed and found to exhibit an unexpected variety of combinations of RFs associated with the two Odc-rs5 haplotypes most frequently observed among inbred laboratory strains of mice. PMID:1362101

  2. A Structural Basis for Reversible Photoswitching of Absorbance Spectra in Red Fluorescent Protein rsTagRFP

    SciTech Connect

    Pletnev, Sergei; Subach, Fedor V.; Dauter, Zbigniew; Wlodawer, Alexander; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2012-09-05

    rsTagRFP is the first monomeric red fluorescent protein (FP) with reversibly photoswitchable absorbance spectra. The switching is realized by irradiation of rsTagRFP with blue (440 nm) and yellow (567 nm) light, turning the protein fluorescence ON and OFF, respectively. It is perhaps the most useful probe in this color class that has yet been reported. Because of the photoswitchable absorbance, rsTagRFP can be used as an acceptor in photochromic Foerster resonance energy transfer. Yellow FPs, YPet and mVenus, are demonstrated to be excellent photochromic Foerster resonance energy transfer donors for the rsTagRFP acceptor in its fusion constructs. Analysis of X-ray structures has shown that photoswitching of rsTagRFP is accompanied by cis-trans isomerization and protonation/deprotonation of the chromophore, with the deprotonated cis- and protonated trans-isomers corresponding to its ON and OFF states, respectively. Unlike in other photoswitchable FPs, both conformers of rsTagRFP chromophore are essentially coplanar. Two other peculiarities of the rsTagRFP chromophore are an essentially hydrophobic environment of its p-hydroxyphenyl site and the absence of direct hydrogen bonding between this moiety and the protein scaffold. The influence of the immediate environment on rsTagRFP chromophore was probed by site-directed mutagenesis. Residues Glu145 and His197 were found to participate in protonation/deprotonation of the chromophore accompanying the photoswitching of rsTagRFP fluorescence, whereas residues Met160 and Leu174 were shown to spatially restrict chromophore isomerization, favoring its radiative decay.

  3. Molecular cloning of AtRS4, a seed specific multifunctional RFO synthase/galactosylhydrolase in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Gangl, Roman; Behmüller, Robert; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2015-01-01

    Stachyose is among the raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs) one of the major water-soluble carbohydrates next to sucrose in seeds of a number of plant species. Especially in leguminous seeds, e.g. chickpea, stachyose is reported as the major component. In contrast to their ambiguous potential as essential source of carbon for germination, RFOs are indigestible for humans and can contribute to diverse abdominal disorders. In the genome of Arabidopsis thaliana, six putative raffinose synthase genes are reported, whereas little is known about these putative raffinose synthases and their biochemical characteristics or their contribution to the RFO physiology in A. thaliana. In this paper, we report on the molecular cloning, functional expression in Escherichia coli and purification of recombinant AtRS4 from A. thaliana and the biochemical characterisation of the putative stachyose synthase (AtSTS, At4g01970) as a raffinose and high affinity stachyose synthase (Km for raffinose 259.2 ± 21.15 ?M) as well as stachyose and galactinol specific galactosylhydrolase. A T-DNA insertional mutant in the AtRS4 gene was isolated. Only semi-quantitative PCR from WT siliques showed a specific transcriptional AtRS4 PCR product. Metabolite measurements in seeds of ?AtRS4 mutant plants revealed a total loss of stachyose in ?AtRS4 mutant seeds. We conclude that AtRS4 is the only stachyose synthase in the genome of A. thaliana that AtRS4 represents a key regulation mechanism in the RFO physiology of A. thaliana due to its multifunctional enzyme activity and that AtRS4 is possibly the second seed specific raffinose synthase beside AtRS5, which is responsible for Raf accumulation under abiotic stress. PMID:26483807

  4. A Nematode Calreticulin, Rs-CRT, Is a Key Effector in Reproduction and Pathogenicity of Radopholus similis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu; Wang, Ke; Xie, Hui; Wang, Yan-Tao; Wang, Dong-Wei; Xu, Chun-Lin; Huang, Xin; Wang, De-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Radopholus similis is a migratory plant-parasitic nematode that causes severe damage to many agricultural and horticultural crops. Calreticulin (CRT) is a Ca2+-binding multifunctional protein that plays key roles in the parasitism, immune evasion, reproduction and pathogenesis of many animal parasites and plant nematodes. Therefore, CRT is a promising target for controlling R. similis. In this study, we obtained the full-length sequence of the CRT gene from R. similis (Rs-crt), which is 1,527-bp long and includes a 1,206-bp ORF that encodes 401 amino acids. Rs-CRT and Mi-CRT from Meloidogyne incognita showed the highest similarity and were grouped on the same branch of the phylogenetic tree. Rs-crt is a multi-copy gene that is expressed in the oesophageal glands and gonads of females, the gonads of males, the intestines of juveniles and the eggs of R. similis. The highest Rs-crt expression was detected in females, followed by juveniles, eggs and males. The reproductive capability and pathogenicity of R. similis were significantly reduced after treatment with Rs-crt dsRNA for 36 h. Using plant-mediated RNAi, we confirmed that Rs-crt expression was significantly inhibited in the nematodes, and resistance to R. similis was significantly improved in transgenic tomato plants. Plant-mediated RNAi-induced silencing of Rs-crt could be effectively transmitted to the F2 generation of R. similis; however, the silencing effect of Rs-crt induced by in vitro RNAi was no longer detectable in F1 and F2 nematodes. Thus, Rs-crt is essential for the reproduction and pathogenicity of R. similis. PMID:26061142

  5. The Millennium Star Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnott, R. W.

    1997-08-01

    Derived from Hipparcos and Tycho observations, the Millennium Star Atlas is a set of 1548 charts covering the entire sky to about magnitude 11. It stands apart from all previous printed atlases in completeness to magnitude 10 and in uniformity around the sky. The generous chart scale has made possible a number of innovations never before seen in a star atlas: arrows on high-proper-motion stars, double-star ticks conveying separation and position angle for a specific modern epoch, distance labels for nearby stars, and variable stars coded by amplitude, period, and type. Among the nonstellar objects plotted, more than 8000 galaxies are shown with aspect ratio and orientation.

  6. The Pistol Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najarro, F.; Figer, D. F.

    1998-06-01

    Results of an spectroscopic investigation of the Pistol star are presented. The near-infrared spectra and photometry data are fit with stellar wind models to find that the star is extraordinarily luminous, L = 106.7±0.5 L?, making it one of the most luminous stars known. Coupled with the relatively cool temperature, Teff = 10^{4.17_{ - 0.06}^{ + 0.19} } K, the star is clearly in violation of the Humphreys-Davidson limit. The derived line of sight velocity of the star assures its membership in the Quintuplet cluster. This, along with the inferred extinction, places the star at the Galactic Center.

  7. Asymmetric photolysis of /RS/-leucine with circularly polarized ultraviolet light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flores, J. J.; Bonner, W. A.; Massey, G. A.

    1977-01-01

    (RS)-leucine in 0.1 M HCl solution has been subjected to photolysis with 212.8-nm right (R-) and left circularly polarized light (LCPL) obtained from a laser source. RCPL preferentially photolyzed the (R)-leucine component and LCPL the (S)-leucine component of the RS substrate. The enantiomeric excess produced were 1.98% for the 59% conversion with RCPL and 2.50% for the 75% conversion with LCPL. These 'equal and opposite' effects represent the second highest enantiomeric enrichments yet reported for an asymmetric photolysis and the first ever reported for a prebiotically important substrate - an amino acid. Implications regarding the origin of optical activity are briefly discussed.

  8. SSME to RS-25: Challenges of Adapting a Heritage Engine to a New Vehicle Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2015-01-01

    A key constituent of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) architecture is the RS-25 engine, also known as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). This engine was selected largely due to the maturity and extensive experience gained through 30-plus years of service. However, while the RS-25 is a highly mature system, simply unbolting it from the Space Shuttle and mounting it on the new SLS vehicle is not a "plug-and-play" operation. In addition to numerous technical integration and operational details, there were also hardware upgrades needed. While the magnitude of effort is less than that needed to develop a new clean-sheet engine system, this paper describes some of the expected and unexpected challenges encountered to date on the path to the first flight of SLS.

  9. Russell and Burch's 3Rs Then and Now: The Need for Clarity in Definition and Purpose

    PubMed Central

    Tannenbaum, Jerrold; Bennett, B Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Russell and Burch's The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique was first published in 1959. A Special Edition containing the original text was reissued in 1992, after its ideas had gained widespread interest in the scientific community. In the Principles, Russell and Burch proposed a new applied science that would improve the treatment of laboratory animals while advancing the quality of science in studies that use animals. They introduced and defined the terms replacement, reduction, and refinement, which subsequently have become known as ‘alternatives’ or ‘alternative methods’ for minimizing the potential for animal pain and distress in biomedical research. Here we describe and explain the original definitions of the 3Rs in the Principles, examine how current definitions differ among themselves and from Russell and Burch's definitions, and suggest relevant considerations for evaluating all definitions of the 3Rs. PMID:25836957

  10. The place of experimental design and statistics in the 3Rs.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard M A; Browne, William J

    2014-01-01

    The 3Rs--replacement, reduction, and refinement--can be applied to any animal experiment by researchers and other bodies seeking to conduct those studies in as humane a manner as possible. Key to the success of this endeavor is an appreciation of the principles of good experimental design and analysis; these need to be considered in concert before any data is collected. Indeed, many of the principles central to helping achieve the objectives of the 3Rs-such as conducting valid, reliable, and efficient experiments; clearly and transparently reporting findings; and ensuring that an appreciation and understanding of animal welfare plays a central role in laboratory practice-are to the betterment of research per se. PMID:25541549

  11. Russell and Burch's 3Rs then and now: the need for clarity in definition and purpose.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Jerrold; Bennett, B Taylor

    2015-03-01

    Russell and Burch's The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique was first published in 1959. A Special Edition containing the original text was reissued in 1992, after its ideas had gained widespread interest in the scientific community. In the Principles, Russell and Burch proposed a new applied science that would improve the treatment of laboratory animals while advancing the quality of science in studies that use animals. They introduced and defined the terms replacement, reduction, and refinement, which subsequently have become known as 'alternatives' or 'alternative methods' for minimizing the potential for animal pain and distress in biomedical research. Here we describe and explain the original definitions of the 3Rs in the Principles, examine how current definitions differ among themselves and from Russell and Burch's definitions, and suggest relevant considerations for evaluating all definitions of the 3Rs. PMID:25836957

  12. [Mapping a new secalin locus on the rye iRS arm].

    PubMed

    Kozub, N O; Motsny?, I I; Sozinov, I O; Blium, Ia B; Sizinov, O O

    2014-01-01

    A gene designated Sec-N encoding secalin was mapped in the introgressive winter common wheat line Hostianum 273/97 (H273) with the wheat-rye substitution (1B)1R from the octoploid triticale AD825. F2 seeds from crossing the line H273 with the line Hostianum 242/97-2 carrying the wheat-rye 1BL/1RS translocation were analysed. The studied component on the SDS-electrophoregram of total proteins was revealed to be a monomeric secalin which is encoded by the gene at the new locus Sec-N located distally with respect to the Sec-1 locus at a distance of 21.4 +/- 2.5% (22.9 +/- 3.1 cM). The arrangement of the secalin loci on the 1RS arm indicates that the Sec-N locus is to be homoeologous to the Gli-1 loci of common wheat. PMID:25184199

  13. Dynamical analysis of tRNA Gln-GlnRS complex using normal mode calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Shugo; Ikeguchi, Mitsunori; Shimizu, Kentaro

    2003-04-01

    We applied normal mode calculation in internal coordinates to a complex of glutamine transfer RNA (tRNA Gln) and glutaminyl-tRNA synthetase (GlnRS). Calculated deviations of atoms agreed well with those obtained from X-ray data. The differences of motions corresponding to low mode frequencies between the free state and the complex state were analyzed. For GlnRS, many motions in the free state were conserved in the complex state, while the dynamics of tRNA Gln was largely affected by the complex formation. Superimposed images of the conserved and non-conserved motions of tRNA Gln clearly indicated the restricted direction of motions in the complex.

  14. Detrusor Underactivity: Pathophysiological Considerations, Models and Proposals for Future Research. ICI-RS 2013

    PubMed Central

    van Koeveringe, Gommert A.; Rademakers, Kevin L.J.; Birder, Lori A.; Korstanje, Cees; Daneshgari, Firouz; Ruggieri, Michael R.; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Fry, Christopher; Wagg, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Aims Detrusor underactivity, resulting in either prolonged or inefficient voiding, is a common clinical problem for which treatment options are currently limited. The aim of this report is to summarize current understanding of the clinical observation and its underlying pathophysiological entities. Methods This report results from presentations and subsequent discussion at the International Consultation on Incontinence Research Society (ICI-RS) in Bristol, 2013. Results and Conclusions The recommendations made by the ICI-RS panel include: Development of study tools based on a system’s pathophysiological approach, correlation of in vitro and in vivo data in experimental animals and humans, and development of more comprehensive translational animal models. In addition, there is a need for longitudinal patient data to define risk groups and for the development of screening tools. In the near-future these recommendations should lead to a better understanding of detrusor underactivity and its pathophysiological background. PMID:24839258

  15. Crystallization of lysozyme with (R)-, (S)- and (RS)-2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol

    PubMed Central

    Stauber, Mark; Jakoncic, Jean; Berger, Jacob; Karp, Jerome M.; Axelbaum, Ariel; Sastow, Dahniel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Hrnjez, Bruce J.; Asherie, Neer

    2015-01-01

    Chiral control of crystallization has ample precedent in the small-molecule world, but relatively little is known about the role of chirality in protein crystallization. In this study, lysozyme was crystallized in the presence of the chiral additive 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) separately using the R and S enantiomers as well as with a racemic RS mixture. Crystals grown with (R)-MPD had the most order and produced the highest resolution protein structures. This result is consistent with the observation that in the crystals grown with (R)-MPD and (RS)-MPD the crystal contacts are made by (R)-MPD, demonstrating that there is preferential interaction between lysozyme and this enantiomer. These findings suggest that chiral interactions are important in protein crystallization. PMID:25760593

  16. Crystallization of lysozyme with (R)-, (S)- and (RS)-2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stauber, Mark; Jakoncic, Jean; Berger, Jacob; Karp, Jerome M.; Axelbaum, Ariel; Sastow, Dahniel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Hrnjez, Bruce J.; Asherie, Neer

    2015-03-01

    Chiral control of crystallization has ample precedent in the small-molecule world, but relatively little is known about the role of chirality in protein crystallization. In this study, lysozyme was crystallized in the presence of the chiral additive 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol (MPD) separately using the R and S enantiomers as well as with a racemic RS mixture. Crystals grown with (R)-MPD had the most order and produced the highest resolution protein structures. This result is consistent with the observation that in the crystals grown with (R)-MPD and (RS)-MPD the crystal contacts are made by (R)-MPD, demonstrating that there is preferential interaction between lysozymemore »and this enantiomer. These findings suggest that chiral interactions are important in protein crystallization.« less

  17. Detection of the Molecular Zeeman Effect in Circular Polarization on Cool Active Stars

    E-print Network

    S. V. Berdyugina; P. Petit; D. M. Fluri; N. Afram; J. Arnaud

    2007-03-21

    We report on the first ever detection of circular polarization in molecular lines forming in magnetic regions on the surfaces of active stars. The new observations were obtained with the high-resolution spectropolarimeter ESPaDOnS recently installed at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. In July 2005 we carried out a survey of 17 G-K-M stars including active main-sequence dwarfs and RS CVn-type giants and subgiants. All stars were found to possess surface magnetic fields producing average atomic Stokes V signals of 0.05% to 0.5%. Three stars clearly showed circular polarization in molecular lines of 0.5% to 1%. The molecular Stokes V signal is reminiscent of that observed in sunspots.

  18. Molecular cytogenetic identification of a novel 1AL.1RS translocation line with powdery mildew resistance.

    PubMed

    Lu, M; Wang, L; Zhang, J; Sun, S; Li, Y; Du, W; Wu, J; Zhao, J; Yang, Q; Chen, X

    2014-01-01

    A wheat germplasm line 13-2-2 with resistance to powdery mildew was isolated; this line was derived from common wheat cv. W770B and rye, Secale cereale L. (2n = 2x = 14, RR). The line was characterized based on cytological, genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR), and simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses. The mitotic and meiotic investigations showed that the chromosome number and configuration of 13-2-2 were 2n = 42 = 21 II. GISH using rye genomic DNA as a probe detected a pair of R genome chromosome arms with strong hybridization signals in 13-2-2. Three 1RS chromosome-specific SCAR markers amplified 1RS specific bands in line 13-2-2. We screened 320 SSR primer pairs on the long or short arms from seven wheat homoeologous groups in the translocation line and parents. However, only three 1AS primers could not be amplified in line 13-2-2, whereas the others were amplified. Thus, these markers suggested that the line 13-2-2 was 1AL.1RS translocation line. Line 13-2-2 was immune to powdery mildew after inoculation with Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici isolates E05 and E07 during the adult plant stages. In contrast, the maternal parent W770B, Kavkaz with Pm8, and Amigo with Pm17 were heavily infected with spores and had reaction response scores of susceptible. Thus, the new wheat-rye 1AL.1RS translocation line with resistance to powdery mildew could be a new and valuable donor source for wheat improvement. The molecular markers developed in this study might also be useful tools for marker-assisted selection. PMID:25526189

  19. Association of STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism with autoimmune diseases: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ya-Ling; Wu, Hua; Shen, Xi; Li, Pei-Qiang; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Liang, Li; Tian, Wei-Hua; Zhang, Li-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2012-09-01

    The association between the signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) gene rs7574865 single nucleotide polymorphism and different autoimmune diseases remains controversial and ambiguous. We conducted this study to investigate whether combined evidence shows the association between STAT4 rs7574865 polymorphism and autoimmune diseases. Comprehensive Medline search and review of the references were used to get the relevant reports published before September 2011. Meta-analysis was conducted for genotype T/T (recessive effect), T/T + G/T (dominant effect) and T allele in random effects models. 40 studies with 90 comparisons including 32 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 19 rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 3 type 1 diabetes (T1D), 11 Systemeric Sclerosis (SSc), 4 inflammatory bowed diseases (IBD), 3 Primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS), 4 juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), 2 Primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), 1 Autoimmune thyroid diseases, 1 multiple sclerosis, 1 Psoriasis, 1 Wegener's granulomatosis, 1 Type 2 diabetes, and 1 giant cell arteritis disease were available for this meta-analysis. The overall odds ratios for rs7574865 T-allele significantly increased in SLE, RA, T1D, SSc, JIA, and APS (OR = 1.56, 1.25, 1.13, 1.34, 1.25, and 2.15, respectively, P < 0.00001) and in IBD-UC and pSS (OR = 1.11 and 1.33, respectively, P < 0.05). This meta-analysis demonstrates that the STAT4 rs7574865 T allele confers susceptibility to SLE, RA, T1D, SSc, JIA, APS, IBD-UC, and pSS patients, supporting the hypothesis of association between STAT4 gene polymorphism and subgroup of autoimmune diseases. PMID:22714917

  20. Altitude misestimation caused by the Vaisala RS80 pressure bias and its impact on meteorological profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inai, Y.; Shiotani, M.; Fujiwara, M.; Hasebe, F.; Vömel, H.

    2015-10-01

    Previous research has found that conventional radiosondes equipped with a traditional pressure sensor can be subject to a pressure bias, particularly in the stratosphere. This study examines this pressure bias and the resulting altitude misestimation, and its impact on temperature, ozone, and water vapor profiles is considered using data obtained between December 2003 and January 2010 during the Soundings of Ozone and Water in the Equatorial Region (SOWER) campaigns. The payload consisted of a radiosonde (Vaisala RS80), ozone and water vapor sondes, and a global positioning system (GPS) sensor. More than 30 soundings are used in this study. As GPS height data are thought to be highly accurate, they can be used to calculate pressure. The RS80 pressure bias in the tropical stratosphere is estimated to be -0.4 ± 0.2 hPa (1?) between 20 and 30 km. As this pressure bias is negative throughout the stratosphere, it leads to systematic overestimation of geopotential height by 43 ± 23, 110 ± 40, and 240 ± 92 m (1?) at 20, 25, and 30 km, respectively when it is calculated by using the hypsometric equation. Because of the altitude overestimation, we see some offsets in observation parameters having a vertical gradient such as temperature, ozone, and water vapor. Those offsets in the meteorological soundings obtained using the RS80 may have generated an artificial trend in the meteorological records when radiosondes were changed from the RS80, which had no GPS unit, to the new ones with a GPS unit. Therefore, it is important to take those offsets into account in climate change studies.

  1. PSCA rs2294008 C > T polymorphism contributes to gastric and bladder cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Xi-Jing; Ma, Yun-Feng; Ma, Xiao-Bin; Dai, Zhi-Ming; Lv, Ye; Lin, Shuai; Liu, Xing-Han; Yang, Peng-Tao; Dai, Zhi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies suggested genetic variations in PSCA (prostate stem cell antigen) may confer the susceptibility of cancer. Many case–control studies have reported the relationship between PSCA rs2294008 C > T polymorphism and cancer, especially gastric cancer and bladder cancer. However, the results are inconsistent. This meta-analysis is aimed at evaluating the association of rs2294008 polymorphism with cancer risk. Methods The databases of PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched for related publications. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of the associations. Fixed models were used when heterogeneity among studies was not detected, otherwise the random model was used. Results Twenty-six studies from 24 articles with 30,050 multiple cancer cases and 51,670 controls were pooled into this meta-analysis. The results showed that the rs2294008 polymorphism was associated with increased cancer risk in any genetic model (T vs C, OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08–1.28; TT vs CC, OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.14–1.62; TC vs CC, OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.17–1.44; TT + TC vs CC, OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.18–1.49; TT vs TC + CC, OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02–1.30). In stratified analysis by cancer type, we found that the T allele had a significant high risk of gastric and bladder cancer, but not in other cancers. In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, increased cancer risk was found in both Asians and Caucasians. Conclusion Our study suggested that the PSCA rs2294008 C > T polymorphism is a risk factor for cancer, especially in gastric and bladder cancer. PMID:25709466

  2. Ultrasensitive resonance scattering (RS) spectral detection for trace tetracycline in milk using aptamer-coated nanogold (ACNG) as a catalyst.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanfang; He, Lan; Zhan, Shenshan; Wu, Yuangen; Liu, Le; Zhi, Wenting; Zhou, Pei

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an ultrasensitive resonance scattering (RS) method to detect tetracycline (TET) in milk based on the competition of aptamers between nanogold and TET, aggregation of naked nanogold, nanocatalytic Fehling reaction, and RS signals of catalytic product Cu?O cubic. The detection principle was confirmed by the nanoparticle size analyzer (NANOS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The variations of RS intensity had good linear correlation with TET concentrations, and the limit of detection was calculated as 11.6 nM. The proposed method was successfully applied for analysis of TET in milk, with total recoveries ranging from 105 to 109%. PMID:24400926

  3. SerRS-tRNASec complex structures reveal mechanism of the first step in selenocysteine biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caiyan; Guo, Yu; Tian, Qingnan; Jia, Qian; Gao, Yuanzhu; Zhang, Qinfen; Zhou, Chun; Xie, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Selenocysteine (Sec) is found in the catalytic centers of many selenoproteins and plays important roles in living organisms. Malfunctions of selenoproteins lead to various human disorders including cancer. Known as the 21st amino acid, the biosynthesis of Sec involves unusual pathways consisting of several stages. While the later stages of the pathways are well elucidated, the molecular basis of the first stage—the serylation of Sec-specific tRNA (tRNASec) catalyzed by seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS)—is unclear. Here we present two cocrystal structures of human SerRS bound with tRNASec in different stoichiometry and confirm the formation of both complexes in solution by various characterization techniques. We discovered that the enzyme mainly recognizes the backbone of the long variable arm of tRNASec with few base-specific contacts. The N-terminal coiled-coil region works like a long-range lever to precisely direct tRNA 3? end to the other protein subunit for aminoacylation in a conformation-dependent manner. Restraints of the flexibility of the coiled-coil greatly reduce serylation efficiencies. Lastly, modeling studies suggest that the local differences present in the D- and T-regions as well as the characteristic U20:G19:C56 base triple in tRNASec may allow SerRS to distinguish tRNASec from closely related tRNASer substrate. PMID:26433229

  4. Bitter peptides activate hTAS2Rs, the human bitter receptors

    PubMed Central

    Maehashi, Kenji; Matano, Mami; Wang, Hong; Vo, Lynn A.; Yamamoto, Yasushi; Huang, Liquan

    2008-01-01

    Fermented food contains numerous peptides derived from material proteins. Bitter peptides formed during the fermentation process are responsible for the bitter taste of fermented food. We investigated whether human bitter receptors (hTAS2Rs) recognize bitterness of peptides with a heterologous expression system. HEK293 cells expressing hTAS2R1, hTAS2R4, hTAS2R14, and hTAS2R16 responded to bitter casein digests. Among those cells, the hTAS2R1-expressing cell was most strongly activated by the synthesized bitter peptides Gly-Phe and Gly-Leu, and none of the cells was activated by the non-bitter dipeptide Gly-Gly. The results showed that these bitter peptides, as well as many other bitter compounds, activate hTAS2Rs, suggesting that humans utilize these hTAS2Rs to recognize and perceive the structure and bitterness of peptides. PMID:18037373

  5. Quantum mechanical sectors in thermal N=4 super-Yang Mills on R×S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmark, Troels; Orselli, Marta

    2006-11-01

    We study the thermodynamics of U(N)N=4 super-Yang-Mills (SYM) on R×S with non-zero chemical potentials for the SU(4) R-symmetry. We find that when we are near a point with zero temperature and critical chemical potential, N=4 SYM on R×S reduces to a quantum mechanical theory. We identify three such critical regions giving rise to three different quantum mechanical theories. Two of them have a Hilbert space given by the SU(2) and SU(2|3) sectors of N=4 SYM of recent interest in the study of integrability, while the third one is the half-BPS sector dual to bubbling AdS geometries. In the planar limit the three quantum mechanical theories can be seen as spin chains. In particular, we identify a near-critical region in which N=4 SYM on R×S essentially reduces to the ferromagnetic XXX Heisenberg spin chain. We find furthermore a limit in which this relation becomes exact.

  6. An Overview of Ozone Variability during SEAC4RS from the Seacions Ozonesonde Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A. M.; Ott, L. E.; Duncan, B. N.; Miller, S. K.; Witte, J. C.; Selkirk, H. B.; Morris, G. A.; Stauffer, R. M.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Fishman, J.; Minschwaner, K. R.; Johnson, B. J.; Newchurch, M.

    2014-12-01

    We designed a coordinated ozonesonde network for SEAC4RS in order to provide points of consistent ground-based sampling, targets for aircraft and satellite validation, and a dataset for evaluation and/or assimilation with regional and global models that cover the troposphere and stratosphere. Daily ozonesonde launches took place at Aura or Suomi/NPP overpass times in SEACIONS (Southeast America Consortium for Intensive Ozonesonde Network Study) working with 4 stations from our previous IONS campaigns (INTEX-A [2004], INTEX-B [2006]): Boulder, CO; Soccoro, NM; Houston, TX; and Huntsville, AL. This complement provided coverage for the SEAC4RS western region, where we expected to find North American Monsoon and wildfire influences and the south central US, where SEAC4RS targeted convection and the DC-8 sampled for sources of biogenic gases and aerosols. SEACIONS added two new stations: St. Louis, MO, where the Saint Louis University has a ground station in its "ozone garden"; and Tallahassee, FL. Highlights of ozone variability at each site are presented as well as case studies based on soundings and aircraft data. We focus on stratospheric intrusion episodes, using a high-resolution version of the GEOS-5 model with stratospheric tracers to elucidate ozone origins.

  7. The association of PTPN22 rs2476601 with juvenile idiopathic arthritis is specific to females.

    PubMed

    Chiaroni-Clarke, R C; Li, Y R; Munro, J E; Chavez, R A; Scurrah, K J; Pezic, A; Akikusa, J D; Allen, R C; Piper, S E; Becker, M L; Thompson, S D; Lie, B A; Flato, B; Forre, O; Punaro, M; Wise, C; Saffery, R; Finkel, T H; Hakonarson, H; Ponsonby, A-L; Ellis, J A

    2015-10-01

    A preponderance of females develop autoimmune disease, including juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), yet the reason for this bias remains elusive. Evidence suggests that genetic risk of disease may be influenced by sex. PTPN22 rs2476601 is associated with JIA and numerous other autoimmune diseases, and has been reported to show female-specific association with type 1 diabetes. We performed main effect and sex-stratified association analyses to determine whether a sex-specific association exists in JIA. As expected, rs2476601 was associated with JIA in our discovery (413 cases and 690 controls) and replication (1008 cases and 9284 controls) samples. Discovery sample sex-stratified analyses demonstrated an association specifically in females (odds ratio (OR)=2.35, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.52-3.63, P=0.00011) but not males (OR=0.91, 95% CI=0.52-1.60, P=0.75). This was similarly observed in the replication sample. There was evidence for genotype-by-sex interaction (Pinteraction=0.009). The association between rs2476601 and JIA appears restricted to females, partly accounting for the predominance of females with this disease. PMID:26291515

  8. SSME to RS-25: Challenges of Adapting a Heritage Engine to a New Vehicle Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2015-01-01

    Following the cancellation of the Constellation program and retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA initiated the Space Launch System (SLS) program to provide next-generation heavy lift cargo and crew access to space. A key constituent of the SLS architecture is the RS-25 engine, also known as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). The RS-25 was selected to serve as the main propulsion system for the SLS core stage in conjunction with the solid rocket boosters. This selection was largely based on the maturity and extensive experience gained through 135 missions, 3000+ ground tests, and over a million seconds total accumulated hot-fire time. In addition, there were also over a dozen functional flight assets remaining from the Space Shuttle program that could be leveraged to support the first four flights. However, while the RS-25 is a highly mature system, simply unbolting it from the Space Shuttle boat-tail and installing it on the new SLS vehicle is not a "plug-and-play" operation. In addition to numerous technical integration details involving changes to significant areas such as the environments, interface conditions, technical performance requirements, operational constraints and so on, there were other challenges to be overcome in the area of replacing the obsolete engine control system (ECS). While the magnitude of accomplishing this effort was less than that needed to develop and field a new clean-sheet engine system, the path to the first flight of SLS has not been without unexpected challenges.

  9. Parameterization of Observed Saturn Z-Mode Wave Power for r < 4Rs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Ye, S.; Averkamp, T. F.; Horne, R. B.; Shprits, Y.; Woodfield, E. E.; Gurnett, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent work has shown that z-mode/electron wave-particle interactions can lead to electron acceleration in the Saturn magnetosphere. These electrons may then form a partial source of Saturn's radiation belt which peaks in the range ~2Rs < r ~4Rs. The wave acceleration process depends on the local plasma density and on the distribution of z-mode wave power in frequency and spatial coordinates. In this study we bin the z-mode wave power observed by the Cassini radio and plasma wave science (RPWS) investigation in the region r < 4Rs at Saturn, where the condition fp/fc < 1 can be met (fp = plasma freq., fc = cyclotron freq.). The spatial bins include L-shell (based on a magnetic field model), latitude, and local time. Within each spatial bin we calculate the mean power-versus-frequency profile relative to fc, which can then be analytically fit. One goal of the study is to provide a database for use in quasilinear models requiring the calculation of pitch angle and momentum diffusion coefficients. In this report we present our initial findings.

  10. The Evolution of Animal Welfare and the 3Rs in Brazil, China, and India

    PubMed Central

    Bayne, Kathryn; Ramachandra, Gudde S; Rivera, Ekaterina A; Wang, Jianfei

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, scientific collaborations and contracts cross country borders. The need for assurance that the quality of animal welfare and the caliber of animal research conducted are equivalent among research partners around the globe is of concern to the scientific and laboratory animal medicine communities, the general public, and other key stakeholders. Therefore, global harmonization of animal care and use standards and practices, with the welfare of the animals as a cornerstone, is essential. In the evolving global landscape of enhanced attention to animal welfare, a widely accepted path to achieving this goal is the successful integration of the 3Rs in animal care and use programs. Currently, awareness of the 3Rs, their implementation, and the resulting animal care and use standards and practices vary across countries. This variability has direct effects on the animals used in research and potentially the data generated and may also have secondary effects on the country's ability to be viewed as a global research partner. Here we review the status of implementation of the 3Rs worldwide and focus on 3 countries–Brazil, China and India–with increasing economic influence and an increasing footprint in the biomedical research enterprise. PMID:25836965

  11. ?-XRF/?-RS vs. SR ?-XRD for pigment identification in illuminated manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Snickt, G.; de Nolf, W.; Vekemans, B.; Janssens, K.

    2008-07-01

    For the non-destructive identification of pigments and colorants in works of art, in archaeological and in forensic materials, a wide range of analytical techniques can be used. Bearing in mind that every method holds particular limitations, two complementary spectroscopic techniques, namely confocal ?-Raman spectroscopy (?-RS) and ?-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (?-XRF), were joined in one instrument. The combined ?-XRF and ?-RS device, called PRAXIS unites both complementary techniques in one mobile setup, which allows ?- and in situ analysis. ?-XRF allows one to collect elemental and spatially-resolved information in a non-destructive way on major and minor constituents of a variety of materials. However, the main disadvantages of ?-XRF are the penetration depth of the X-rays and the fact that only elements and not specific molecular combinations of elements can be detected. As a result ?-XRF is often not specific enough to identify the pigments within complex mixtures. Confocal Raman microscopy (?-RS) can offer a surplus as molecular information can be obtained from single pigment grains. However, in some cases the presence of a strong fluorescence background limits the applicability. In this paper, the concrete analytical possibilities of the combined PRAXIS device are evaluated by comparing the results on an illuminated sheet of parchment with the analytical information supplied by synchrotron radiation ?-X-ray diffraction (SR ?-XRD), a highly specific technique.

  12. Genetic polymorphism of LDLR (rs688) is associated with primary intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiann-Der; Hsiao, Kuang-Ming; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Kuo, Ya-Wen; Huang, Yen-Chu; Hsu, Huan-Lin; Lin, Ya-Hui; Wu, Chih-Ying; Huang, Ying-Chih; Lee, Meng; Yang, Hsin-Ta; Hsu, Chia-Yu; Pan, Yi-Ting

    2014-02-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage is the third most common cause of cerebrovascular disease. Some polymorphisms that affect clotting factors increase the risk of thrombosis. However, few reports have analyzed the effect of polymorphisms on the hemostatic state in bleeding disorders. The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) has been shown to contribute to factor VIII (FVIII) homeostasis, which represents a link between LDLR and hemostasis. FVIII plays a pivotal role in the coagulation cascade. Patients with high levels of FVIII are at an increased risk of arterial and venous thrombosis. On the other hand, patients with insufficient FVIII tend to bleed excessively, such as in hemophilia A. In a previous study, analysis of the genetic LDLR variant rs688 provided evidence suggesting that genetic polymorphisms of rs688 are associated with thrombotic cardiovascular diseases. The current study aimed to investigate the potential role of rs688 in primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH). This genetic association study was conducted within an isolated Taiwanese population (447 PICH patients and 430 controls). Genotypes C/C and C/T were used as the reference genotypes, and the genotype T/T was found to be associated with a 73% decreased risk of PICH. The preliminary evidence suggests that genetic polymorphisms of LDLR are associated with PICH. PMID:24295502

  13. Correlations between the COMT gene rs4680 polymorphism and susceptibility to ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Pan, W; Liao, H

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the correlations between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4680 in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene and susceptibility to ovarian cancer. A computer search was carried out for relevant case-control studies published between January 2000 to January 2014 in databases such as Ovid, EBSCO, PubMed, CNKI, CBMDISC, VIP, and WanFang Data. The literature was screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. A meta-analysis was performed by calculating the combined odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using the RevMan 5.0. A total of 7 case-control studies were selected, which included 1439 cases and 2927 control subjects. Meta-analysis showed that the rs4680 polymorphism was not associated with ovarian cancer [GG vs (GA+AA): OR = 1.02, 95%CI = 0.88-1.19; G vs A allele: OR = 1.0, 95%CI = 0.90-1.11]. We, therefore, conclude that the COMT rs4680 polymorphism is not associated with susceptibility to ovarian cancer. PMID:26681027

  14. The Supersoft X-ray Phase of Nova RS Ophiuchi 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Beardmore, A. P.; Bode, M. F.; Goad, M. R.; O'Brien, T. J.; Starrfield, S.; Rauch, T.; Ness, J.-U.; Krautter, J.; Schwarz, G.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.; Drake, J. J.; Evans, A.; Eyres, S. P. S.

    2011-02-01

    Swift X-ray observations of the ~60 day supersoft phase of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi (RS Oph) 2006 show the progress of nuclear burning on the white dwarf (WD) in exquisite detail. First seen 26 days after the optical outburst, this phase started with extreme variability likely due to variable absorption, although intrinsic WD variations are not excluded. About 32 days later, a steady decline in count rate set in. NLTE model atmosphere spectral fits during the supersoft phase show that the effective temperature of the WD increases from ~65 eV to ~90 eV during the extreme variability phase, falling slowly after about day 60 and more rapidly after day 80. The bolometric luminosity is seen to be approximately constant and close to Eddington from day 45 up to day 60, the subsequent decline possibly signaling the end of extensive nuclear burning. Before the decline, a multiply-periodic ~35 s modulation of the soft X-rays was present and may be the signature of a nuclear fusion driven instability. Our measurements are consistent with a WD mass near the Chandrasekhar limit; combined with a deduced accumulation of mass transferred from its binary companion, this leads us to suggest that RS Oph is a strong candidate for a future supernova explosion. The main uncertainty now is whether the WD is the CO type necessary for a Type Ia supernova. This may be confirmed by detailed abundance analyses of spectroscopic data from the outbursts.

  15. THE SUPERSOFT X-RAY PHASE OF NOVA RS OPHIUCHI 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Beardmore, A. P.; Goad, M. R.; Bode, M. F.; O'Brien, T. J.; Starrfield, S.; Rauch, T.; Ness, J.-U.; Krautter, J.; Schwarz, G.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.; Drake, J. J.; Evans, A.; Eyres, S. P. S.

    2011-02-01

    Swift X-ray observations of the {approx}60 day supersoft phase of the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi (RS Oph) 2006 show the progress of nuclear burning on the white dwarf (WD) in exquisite detail. First seen 26 days after the optical outburst, this phase started with extreme variability likely due to variable absorption, although intrinsic WD variations are not excluded. About 32 days later, a steady decline in count rate set in. NLTE model atmosphere spectral fits during the supersoft phase show that the effective temperature of the WD increases from {approx}65 eV to {approx}90 eV during the extreme variability phase, falling slowly after about day 60 and more rapidly after day 80. The bolometric luminosity is seen to be approximately constant and close to Eddington from day 45 up to day 60, the subsequent decline possibly signaling the end of extensive nuclear burning. Before the decline, a multiply-periodic {approx}35 s modulation of the soft X-rays was present and may be the signature of a nuclear fusion driven instability. Our measurements are consistent with a WD mass near the Chandrasekhar limit; combined with a deduced accumulation of mass transferred from its binary companion, this leads us to suggest that RS Oph is a strong candidate for a future supernova explosion. The main uncertainty now is whether the WD is the CO type necessary for a Type Ia supernova. This may be confirmed by detailed abundance analyses of spectroscopic data from the outbursts.

  16. Polyvalent cation receptor proteins (CaRs) are salinity sensors in fish.

    PubMed

    Nearing, J; Betka, M; Quinn, S; Hentschel, H; Elger, M; Baum, M; Bai, M; Chattopadyhay, N; Brown, E M; Hebert, S C; Harris, H W

    2002-07-01

    To determine whether calcium polyvalent cation-sensing receptors (CaRs) are salinity sensors in fish, we used a homology-based cloning strategy to isolate a 4.1-kb cDNA encoding a 1,027-aa dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) kidney CaR. Expression studies in human embryonic kidney cells reveal that shark kidney senses combinations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) ions at concentrations present in seawater and kidney tubules. Shark kidney is expressed in multiple shark osmoregulatory organs, including specific tubules of the kidney, rectal gland, stomach, intestine, olfactory lamellae, gill, and brain. Reverse transcriptase-PCR amplification using specific primers in two teleost fish, winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), reveals a similar pattern of CaR tissue expression. Exposure of the lumen of winter flounder urinary bladder to the CaR agonists, Gd(3+) and neomycin, reversibly inhibit volume transport, which is important for euryhaline teleost survival in seawater. Within 24-72 hr after transfer of freshwater-adapted Atlantic salmon to seawater, there are increases in their plasma Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) that likely serve as a signal for internal CaRs, i.e., brain, to sense alterations in salinity in the surrounding water. We conclude that CaRs act as salinity sensors in both teleost and elasmobranch fish. Their tissue expression patterns in fish provide insights into CaR functions in terrestrial animals including humans. PMID:12093923

  17. SerRS-tRNASec complex structures reveal mechanism of the first step in selenocysteine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caiyan; Guo, Yu; Tian, Qingnan; Jia, Qian; Gao, Yuanzhu; Zhang, Qinfen; Zhou, Chun; Xie, Wei

    2015-12-01

    Selenocysteine (Sec) is found in the catalytic centers of many selenoproteins and plays important roles in living organisms. Malfunctions of selenoproteins lead to various human disorders including cancer. Known as the 21st amino acid, the biosynthesis of Sec involves unusual pathways consisting of several stages. While the later stages of the pathways are well elucidated, the molecular basis of the first stage-the serylation of Sec-specific tRNA (tRNA(Sec)) catalyzed by seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS)-is unclear. Here we present two cocrystal structures of human SerRS bound with tRNA(Sec) in different stoichiometry and confirm the formation of both complexes in solution by various characterization techniques. We discovered that the enzyme mainly recognizes the backbone of the long variable arm of tRNA(Sec) with few base-specific contacts. The N-terminal coiled-coil region works like a long-range lever to precisely direct tRNA 3' end to the other protein subunit for aminoacylation in a conformation-dependent manner. Restraints of the flexibility of the coiled-coil greatly reduce serylation efficiencies. Lastly, modeling studies suggest that the local differences present in the D- and T-regions as well as the characteristic U20:G19:C56 base triple in tRNA(Sec) may allow SerRS to distinguish tRNA(Sec) from closely related tRNA(Ser) substrate. PMID:26433229

  18. Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) complexes bearing bipyridine and the N-heterocyclic carbene-based C^N^C pincer ligand: an experimental and density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Chung, Lai-Hon; Cho, Ka-Sin; England, Jason; Chan, Siu-Chung; Wieghardt, Karl; Wong, Chun-Yuen

    2013-09-01

    Ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) complexes [M(C^N^C)(N^N)L](n+) (L = Cl(-), n = 1; L = CH3CN, t-BuNC, n = 2) containing a neutral tridentate N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-based pincer ligand, either 2,6-bis(1-butylimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine (C(1)^N^C(1)) or 2,6-bis(3-butylbenzimidazol-2-ylidene)pyridine (C(2)^N^C(2)), and a neutral 2,2'-bipyridine-type aromatic diimine have been prepared. Investigations into the effects of varying M (Ru and Os), C^N^C, N^N, and L on the structural, electrochemical, absorption, and emission characteristics associated with [M(C^N^C)(N^N)L](n+) are presented. Interestingly, spectroscopic findings and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations in this work support a d?(Ru(II)/Os(II)) ? ?*(N^N) metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) assignment for the lowest-energy transition in [M(C^N^C)(N^N)L](n+) and not a d?(Ru(II)/Os(II)) ? ?*(C^N^C) MLCT assignment. This is in stark contrast to [Ru(tpy)(bpy)Cl](+) and [Os(tpy)(bpy)Cl](+) (tpy = 2,2':6',2?-terpyridine, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) for which the lowest-energy transitions are assigned as d?(Ru/Os) ? ?*(tpy) MLCT transitions. [Ru(II)(C^N^C)(N^N)L](n+) is emissive with emission maxima of around 600-700 nm observed upon photoexcitation of their d?(Ru(II)) ? ?*(N^N) MLCT bands. The electronic structures for [Ru(C^N^C)(N^N)Cl](0) have also been probed by spectroelectrochemistry, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and DFT calculations, which reveal that the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs) for [Ru(C^N^C)(N^N)Cl](+) are N^N-based. PMID:23952294

  19. Quark core stars, quark stars and strange stars

    SciTech Connect

    Grassi, F.

    1988-01-01

    A recent one flavor quark matter equation of state is generalized to several flavors. It is shown that quarks undergo a first order phase transition. In addition, this equation of state depends on just one parameter in the two flavor case, two parameters in the three flavor case, and these parameters are constrained by phenomenology. This equation of state is then applied to the hadron-quark transition in neutron stars and the determination of quark star stability, the investigation of strange matter stability and possible strange star existence. 43 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Rising Stars "Welcome to MIT! The Rising Stars Work-

    E-print Network

    Gabrieli, John

    EECS Rising Stars 2013 #12;"Welcome to MIT! The Rising Stars Work- shop has again brought together EECS RISING STARS From the 2013 Rising Stars Workshop Chairs Welcome to the 2013 Rising Stars in EECS universities or research positions in industry labs. The Rising Stars workshop is open to outstanding female Ph

  1. Star Formation in Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  2. Star Formation Ralf Klessen

    E-print Network

    Klessen,Ralf

    bangl) Stars form in galaxies and protogalaxies star formation at high redshift (Hubble Ultra-Deep Field, from HST Web site) #12;Antennae galaxy NGC4038/39 distance: 19.2Mpc vis. Magn: 11.2 optical: white

  3. Intrinsically variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohm-Vitense, Erika; Querci, Monique

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of intrinsically variable stars are examined, reviewing the results of observations obtained with the IUE satellite since its launch in 1978. Selected data on both medium-spectral-class pulsating stars (Delta Cep stars, W Vir stars, and related groups) and late-type variables (M, S, and C giants and supergiants) are presented in spectra, graphs, and tables and described in detail. Topics addressed include the calibration of the the period-luminosity relation, Cepheid distance determination, checking stellar evolution theory by the giant companions of Cepheids, Cepheid masses, the importance of the hydrogen convection zone in Cepheids, temperature and abundance estimates for Population II pulsating stars, mass loss in Population II Cepheids, SWP and LWP images of cold giants and supergiants, temporal variations in the UV lines of cold stars, C-rich cold stars, and cold stars with highly ionized emission lines.

  4. Astrophysics: Stars fight back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.

    2014-12-01

    Galaxies contain fewer stars than predicted. The discovery of a massive galactic outflow of molecular gas in a compact galaxy, which forms stars 100 times faster than the Milky Way, may help to explain why. See Letter p.68

  5. Phosphodiesterase 3A rs7134375 single nucleotide polymorphism and serum lipid levels

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WEI; YIN, RUI-XING; WU, DONG-FENG; AUNG, LYNN HTET HTET; HUANG, PING; ZENG, XIAO-NA; HUANG, KE-KE; LIN, QUAN-ZHEN; WU, JIAN; GUO, TAO

    2014-01-01

    The association between the phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) rs7134375 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and serum lipid levels are not well understood in the general population. The present study was performed in order to detect the association between the rs7134375 SNP and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Mulao and Han populations. The genotypes of the PDE3A rs7134375 SNP in 761 subjects of the Mulao population and 774 subjects of the Han Chinese population were determined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. It was observed that serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels were higher in the Mulao population than in the Han population (P<0.05 for each). The frequencies of the C and A alleles were 72.14 and 27.86% in the Mulao population, and 78.55 and 21.45% in the Han population (P<0.01), respectively. The frequencies of the CC, CA and AA genotypes were 52.04, 40.21 and 7.75% in the Mulao population, and 61.50, 34.11 and 4.39% in the Han population (P<0.01), respectively. The frequencies of the C and A alleles were 74.89 and 25.11% in Mulao females, and 68.08 and 31.92% in Mulao males (P<0.01), respectively. The serum triglyceride (TG) levels were different among the genotypes in the Mulao population; however, not in the Han population (P<0.01), and the A allele carriers exhibited lower TG levels than the A allele noncarriers. The serum lipid parameters were also correlated with several environmental factors in the two ethnic groups (P<0.05-0.001). It was concluded that the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the rs7134375 SNP are different between the Mulao and Han populations. In addition, the PDE3A rs7134375 SNP is associated with serum TG levels in the Mulao population, however, not in the Han population. PMID:24604378

  6. Association between SERPING1 rs2511989 polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration: Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yi; Li, Ze-Dong; Fang, Xin-Yu; Shi, Xue-Feng; Chen, Song; Tang, Xin

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the association between SERPING1 rs2511989 (G>A) polymorphism and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS A number of electronic databases (up to July 15, 2014) were searched independently by two investigators. A Meta-analysis was performed on the association between SERPING1 rs2511989 polymorphism and AMD. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. RESULTS Eight studies with 16 cohorts consisting of 9163 cases and 6813 controls were included in this Meta-analysis. There was no significant association between rs2511989 polymorphism and AMD under all genetic models in overall estimates (A vs G: OR= 0.938, 95%CI =0.858-1.025; AA vs GG:OR =0.871, 95%CI =0.719-1.056; AG vs GG: OR =0.944, 95%CI =0.845-1.054; AA+AG vs GG: OR =0.927, 95% CI =0.823-1.044; AA vs AG+GG: OR =0.890, 95%CI =0.780-1.034). Cumulative Meta-analyses also showed a trend of no association between rs2511989 polymorphism and AMD as information accumulated by year. Subgroup analysis and Meta-regression analysis indicated that age-matching status was the main source of heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis found the results in overall comparisons and subgroup comparisons of white subjects under the allele model were found to have significantly statistical differences after studies deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were excluded (overall: OR=0.918, 95%CI = 0.844-0.999, P =0.049; whites: OR =0.901, 95%CI = 0.817-0.994, P =0.038). However, the results were not sufficiently robust for further sensitivity analysis and statistical differences disappeared on applying Bonferroni correction (with a significance level set at 0.05/25). CONCLUSION This Meta-analysis indicates that SERPING1 rs2511989 polymorphism and AMD tend to have no association with each other. Age matching status is a big confounding factor, and more studies with subtle designs are warranted in future. PMID:25938061

  7. Reference quality upper-air measurements: GRUAN data processing for the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirksen, R. J.; Sommer, M.; Immler, F. J.; Hurst, D. F.; Kivi, R.; Vömel, H.

    2014-12-01

    The GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) data processing for the Vaisala RS92 radiosonde was developed to meet the criteria for reference measurements. These criteria stipulate the collection of metadata, the use of well-documented correction algorithms, and estimates of the measurement uncertainty. An important and novel aspect of the GRUAN processing is that the uncertainty estimates are vertically resolved. This paper describes the algorithms that are applied in version 2 of the GRUAN processing to correct for systematic errors in radiosonde measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and wind, as well as how the uncertainties related to these error sources are derived. Currently, the RS92 is launched on a regular basis at 13 out of 15 GRUAN sites. An additional GRUAN requirement for performing reference measurements with the RS92 is that the manufacturer-prescribed procedure for the radiosonde's preparation, i.e. heated reconditioning of the sensors and recalibration during ground check, is followed. In the GRUAN processing however, the recalibration of the humidity sensors that is applied during ground check is removed. For the dominant error source, solar radiation, laboratory experiments were performed to investigate and model its effect on the RS92's temperature and humidity measurements. GRUAN uncertainty estimates are 0.15 K for night-time temperature measurements and approximately 0.6 K at 25 km during daytime. The other uncertainty estimates are up to 6% relative humidity for humidity, 10-50 m for geopotential height, 0.6 hPa for pressure, 0.4-1 m s-1 for wind speed, and 1° for wind direction. Daytime temperature profiles for GRUAN and Vaisala processing are comparable and consistent within the estimated uncertainty. GRUAN daytime humidity profiles are up to 15% moister than Vaisala processed profiles, of which two-thirds is due to the radiation dry bias correction and one-third is due to an additional calibration correction. Redundant measurements with frost point hygrometers (CFH and NOAA FPH) show that GRUAN-processed RS92 humidity profiles and frost point data agree within 15% in the troposphere. No systematic biases occur, apart from a 5% dry bias for GRUAN data around -40 °C at night.

  8. Dibaryons in neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Olinto, A.V.; Haensel, P.; Frieman, J.A.

    1991-06-01

    The effects are studied of H-dibaryons on the structure of neutron stars. It was found that H particles could be present in neutron stars for a wide range of dibaryon masses. The appearance of dibaryons softens the equations of state, lowers the maximum neutron star mass, and affects the transport properties of dense matter. The parameter space is constrained for dibaryons by requiring that a 1.44 solar mass neutron star be gravitationally stable.

  9. Dibaryons in neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olinto, Angela V.; Haensel, Pawel; Frieman, Joshua A.

    1991-01-01

    The effects are studied of H-dibaryons on the structure of neutron stars. It was found that H particles could be present in neutron stars for a wide range of dibaryon masses. The appearance of dibaryons softens the equations of state, lowers the maximum neutron star mass, and affects the transport properties of dense matter. The parameter space is constrained for dibaryons by requiring that a 1.44 solar mass neutron star be gravitationally stable.

  10. Chromospheres of Coronal Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Wood, Brian E.

    1996-01-01

    We summarize the main results obtained from the analysis of ultraviolet emission line profiles of coronal late-type stars observed with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The excellent GHRS spectra provide new information on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena in the chromospheres and transition regions of these stars. One exciting new result is the discovery of broad components in the transition region lines of active stars that we believe provide evidence for microflare heating in these stars.

  11. America's Star Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  12. Star formation Simon Goodwin

    E-print Network

    Crowther, Paul

    Star formation Simon Goodwin Dept Physics & Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield, S3 7RH, UK. s.goodwin@sheffield.ac.uk 1 Abstract Stars are one of the most important consituents of the Universe, and understanding their formation is crucial to many areas of astrophysics. Stars form from dense

  13. Genetic polymorphisms of CCL1 rs2072069 G/A and TLR2 rs3804099 T/C in pulmonary or meningeal tuberculosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue; Bu, Hui; Hong, Kun; Yin, Hua; Zou, Yue-Li; Geng, Shu-Jun; Zheng, Ming-Ming; He, Jun-Ying

    2015-01-01

    CCL1, one of the members of the CC chemokine family, is an inflammatory mediator that stimulates the migration of human monocytes. CCL1 expression is induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TLR ligands in macrophage. TLR2 plays critical role in host immune response against M. tuberculosis infection by regulating the macrophage activation and cytokine secretion. M. tuberculosis causes different clinical forms of tuberculosis (TB) disease. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CCL1 gene and TLR2 gene may be associated with the development of different clinical forms of TB, depending on the different immune mechanisms. This study was to evaluate the possible association between CCL1 rs2072069 G/A or/and TLR2 rs3804099 T/C (T597C) polymorphisms and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) or/and tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in a sample of the Chinese adult population. A case-control study was designed to compare the allele frequency and genotype distribution between control (n=386) and TB (n=341) who had either PTB (n=230) or TBM (n=111). The genotype typing was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. TLR2 variant genotype 597CC was associated with susceptibility to PTB rather than to TBM. In the male PTB subgroup, 597CC genotype was identified in a higher rate, compared with male control subgroup. This study demonstrates that T597C polymorphism of TLR2 is a risk factor for susceptibility to PTB rather than to TBM in a sample of Chinese adult population. Patient gender may affect the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection. TLR2 gene may influence the development of PTB and TBM by different immune mechanisms. PMID:26722451

  14. Genetic polymorphisms of CCL1 rs2072069 G/A and TLR2 rs3804099 T/C in pulmonary or meningeal tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Bu, Hui; Hong, Kun; Yin, Hua; Zou, Yue-Li; Geng, Shu-Jun; Zheng, Ming-Ming; He, Jun-Ying

    2015-01-01

    CCL1, one of the members of the CC chemokine family, is an inflammatory mediator that stimulates the migration of human monocytes. CCL1 expression is induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and TLR ligands in macrophage. TLR2 plays critical role in host immune response against M. tuberculosis infection by regulating the macrophage activation and cytokine secretion. M. tuberculosis causes different clinical forms of tuberculosis (TB) disease. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CCL1 gene and TLR2 gene may be associated with the development of different clinical forms of TB, depending on the different immune mechanisms. This study was to evaluate the possible association between CCL1 rs2072069 G/A or/and TLR2 rs3804099 T/C (T597C) polymorphisms and pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) or/and tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in a sample of the Chinese adult population. A case-control study was designed to compare the allele frequency and genotype distribution between control (n=386) and TB (n=341) who had either PTB (n=230) or TBM (n=111). The genotype typing was performed using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. TLR2 variant genotype 597CC was associated with susceptibility to PTB rather than to TBM. In the male PTB subgroup, 597CC genotype was identified in a higher rate, compared with male control subgroup. This study demonstrates that T597C polymorphism of TLR2 is a risk factor for susceptibility to PTB rather than to TBM in a sample of Chinese adult population. Patient gender may affect the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection. TLR2 gene may influence the development of PTB and TBM by different immune mechanisms. PMID:26722451

  15. NADPH: ferredoxin oxidoreductase acts as a paraquat diaphorase and is a member of the soxRS regulon.

    PubMed Central

    Liochev, S I; Hausladen, A; Beyer, W F; Fridovich, I

    1994-01-01

    Soluble extracts of Escherichia coli contain four NADPH:paraquat diaphorases that were separable by anion-exchange HPLC over Mono Q. One of these was induced when the cells were exposed to paraquat. This was the case in a soxRS-competent strain but not in a soxRS-null strain, while a soxRS-constitutive strain overexpressed this diaphorase without the stimulus of exposure to paraquat. This NADPH:paraquat diaphorase could use cytochrome c or nitroblue tetrazolium as an electron acceptor, whereas O2 was a relatively poor acceptor. This diaphorase was identified as the NADPH:ferredoxin reductase. A role for reduced ferredoxin and flavodoxin in the adaptive soxRS response to oxidative stress and in the regulation of the redox status of soxR is discussed. Images PMID:8108411

  16. Protective Role of the Interleukin 33 rs3939286 Gene Polymorphism in the Development of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Robustillo-Villarino, Montserrat; García-Bermúdez, Mercedes; Llorca, Javier; Corrales, Alfonso; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Ubilla, Begoña; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Mijares, Verónica; Pina, Trinitario; Blanco, Ricardo; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J.; Ramírez Huaranga, Marco A.; Mínguez Sánchez, María D.; Tejera Segura, Beatriz; Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; Vicente, Esther; Carmona, F. David; Castañeda, Santos; Martín, Javier; González-Gay, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether the interleukin-33 (IL-33)-interleukin-1 receptor like 1 (IL-1RL1) signaling pathway is implicated in the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods A total of 576 Spanish RA patients from Northern Spain were genotyped for 6 well-known IL33-IL1RL1 polymorphisms (IL33 rs3939286, IL33 rs7025417, IL33 rs7044343, IL1RL1 rs2058660, IL1RL1 rs2310173 and IL1RL1 rs13015714) by TaqMan genotyping assay. The presence of subclinical atherosclerosis was determined by the assessment of carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) by carotid ultrasound (US). Results RA patients carrying the TT genotype of the IL33 rs3939286 polymorphism had lower cIMT values than those homozygous for the CC genotype (mean ± standard deviation (SD): 0.71 ± 0.14 mm versus 0.76 ± 0.16 mm, respectively) while patients carrying the CT genotype had intermediate cIMT values (mean ± SD: 0.73 ± 0.17 mm). Moreover, RA patients carrying the mutant allele T of the IL33 rs3939286 polymorphism exhibited significantly lower cIMT values than those carrying the wild allele C (mean ± SD: 0.72 ± 0.16 mm versus 0.75 ± 0.18 mm respectively; p = 0.04). The association of both genotype and allele frequencies of IL33 rs3939286 and cIMT levels remained statistically significant after adjustment for sex, age at the time of US study, follow-up and center (p = 0.006 and p = 0.0023, respectively), evidencing that the potential effect conferred by IL33 rs3939286 may be independent of confounder factors. No association with other IL33-IL1RL1 genetic variants was observed. Conclusions In conclusion, our results may suggest a potential protective effect of the IL33 rs3939286 allele T in the risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with RA. PMID:26571131

  17. A VLA radio-continuum survey of a sample of confirmed and marginal barium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Stephen A.; Simon, Theodore; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported from a 6-cm VLA survey of five confirmed Ba II stars and eight mild Ba II stars, undertaken to search for evidence of gyrosynchrotron emission or thermal emission from the primary star's wind that is enhanced or photoionized by a white dwarf companion. Of these 13 stars, only Beta UMi was detected as a possible radio source at a flux level of 0.11 mJy (3sigma). The 6-cm radio luminosities (L6) of the other stars are as small as log L6 less than or equal to 14.0 and are an order of magnitude or more lower than the average levels found in RS CVn systems, but are consistent with the L6 upper limits previously found for stars of spectral type similar to the Ba II stars and normal elemental abundances. The upper limit to the radio luminosity for the possible mild Ba II star 56 Peg, when combined with its previously known X-ray luminosity, may provide useful constraints on the various models that have been proposed for this interesting object, once its orbital period is known.

  18. Rs710521[A] on chromosome 3q28 close to TP63 is associated with increased urinary bladder cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Marie-Louise; Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Orlich, Michael; Ovsiannikov, Daniel; Moormann, Oliver; Guballa, Christoph; Kress, Alexander; Truss, Michael C; Gerullis, Holger; Otto, Thomas; Barski, Dimitri; Niegisch, Günter; Albers, Peter; Frees, Sebastian; Brenner, Walburgis; Thüroff, Joachim W; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Seidel, Thilo; Roth, Gerhard; Dietrich, Holger; Ebbinghaus, Rainer; Prager, Hans M; Bolt, Hermann M; Falkenstein, Michael; Zimmermann, Anna; Klein, Torsten; Reckwitz, Thomas; Roemer, Hermann C; Löhlein, Dietrich; Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Schöps, Wolfgang; Beg, Anwer E; Aslam, Muhammad; Bánfi, Gergely; Romics, Imre; Ickstadt, Katja; Schwender, Holger; Winterpacht, Andreas; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2010-12-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs710521[A], located near TP63 on chromosome 3q28, was identified to be significantly associated with increased bladder cancer risk. To investigate the association of rs710521[A] and bladder cancer by new data and by meta-analysis including all published data, rs710521 was studied in 1,425 bladder cancer cases and 1,740 controls that had not been included in previous studies. Blood samples were collected from 1995 to 2010 in Germany (n = 948/1,258), Hungary (n = 262/65), Venezuela (n = 112/190) and Pakistan (n = 103/227) supplemented by a meta-analysis of 5,695 cases and 40,187 controls. Detection of a A/G substitution (rs710521) on chromosome 3q28, position 191128627 was done via fast real-time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR). Rs710521[A] is associated with increased risk in the unadjusted analysis (OR = 1.21; 95% Cl = 1.04-1.40; P = 0.011) and in the recessive model adjusted for age, gender, smoking habits and ethnicity (OR = 1.23; 95% Cl = 1.05-1.44; P = 0.010). No difference between individuals occupationally exposed versus not occupationally exposed to urinary bladder carcinogens was observed concerning the relevance of rs710521[A]. Similarly, rs710521[A] did not confer different susceptibility in smokers and non-smokers. Performing a meta-analysis of 5,695 cases and 40,187 controls including all published studies on rs710521, a convincing association with bladder cancer risk was obtained (OR = 1.18; 95% Cl = 1.12-1.25; P < 0.0001). However, the odds ratio is relatively small. PMID:21063684

  19. The rs5743708 gene polymorphism in the TLR2 gene contributes to the risk of tuberculosis disease

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xu-Guang; Xia, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs5743708 in TLR2 gene might be associated with the susceptibility to tuberculosis disease. Owing to mixed and inconclusive results, we conducted a meta-analysis to systematically summarize and clarify the association between the rs5743708 gene polymorphism in the TLR2 gene and the risk of tuberculosis disease. Methods: A systematic search of studies on the association of the rs5743708 gene polymorphism in the TLR2 gene with susceptibility to tuberculosis disease was conducted in PubMed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to pool the effect size. Results: A total of nineteen case-control studies from 13 articles on rs2910164 and 3 studies on the rs5743708 gene polymorphism in the TLR2 gene and the risk of tuberculosis disease were included. A significant relationship between the rs5743708 gene polymorphism in the TLR2 gene and tuberculosis disease was discovered in an allelic genetic model (OR: 2.801, 95% CI: 2.130-3.683, P=0.000), a homozygote model (OR: 5.795, 95% CI: 1.982-16.941, P=0.001), a heterozygote model (OR: 2.628, 95% CI: 1.888-3.569, P=0.000), a dominant genetic model (OR: 2.786, 95% CI: 2.003-3.877, P=0.000) and a recessive genetic model OR: (5.568, 95% CI: 1.907-16.255, P=0.002). In sub-group analysis base on ethnicity, significance was observed between the Caucasian group and the Asian group. Conclusions: The rs5743708 gene polymorphism in the TLR2 gene contributes to the risk of tuberculosis disease. Individuals with the rs5743708 gene polymorphism in the TLR2 gene are under a higher risk for tuberculosis disease. PMID:26617949

  20. Multiple functional variants in long-range enhancer elements contribute to the risk of SNP rs965513 in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Huiling; Li, Wei; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Srinivas, Mukund; Wang, Yanqiang; Akagi, Keiko; Wang, Yao; Wu, Dayong; Wang, Qianben; Jin, Victor; Symer, David E.; Shen, Rulong; Phay, John; Nagy, Rebecca; de la Chapelle, Albert

    2015-01-01

    The [A] allele of SNP rs965513 in 9q22 has been consistently shown to be highly associated with increased papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) risk with an odds ratio of ?1.8 as determined by genome-wide association studies, yet the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Previously, we noted that the expression of two genes in the region, forkhead box E1 (FOXE1) and PTC susceptibility candidate 2 (PTCSC2), is regulated by rs965513 in unaffected thyroid tissue, but the underlying mechanisms were not elucidated. Here, we fine-mapped the 9q22 region in PTC and controls and detected an ?33-kb linkage disequilibrium block (containing the lead SNP rs965513) that significantly associates with PTC risk. Chromatin characteristics and regulatory element signatures in this block disclosed at least three regulatory elements functioning as enhancers. These enhancers harbor at least four SNPs (rs7864322, rs12352658, rs7847449, and rs10759944) that serve as functional variants. The variant genotypes are associated with differential enhancer activities and/or transcription factor binding activities. Using the chromosome conformation capture methodology, long-range looping interactions of these elements with the promoter region shared by FOXE1 and PTCSC2 in a human papillary thyroid carcinoma cell line (KTC-1) and unaffected thyroid tissue were found. Our results suggest that multiple variants coinherited with the lead SNP and located in long-range enhancers are involved in the transcriptional regulation of FOXE1 and PTCSC2 expression. These results explain the mechanism by which the risk allele of rs965513 predisposes to thyroid cancer. PMID:25918370

  1. A vacuolar processing enzyme RsVPE1 gene of radish is involved in floral bud abortion under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Qing-Fei; Huang, Wei-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Xin-Ling; Hui, Mai-Xia; Zhang, Ming-Ke; Zhang, Lu-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Radish floral bud abortion (FBA) is an adverse biological phenomenon that occurs during reproduction. Although FBA is a frequent occurrence, its molecular mechanism remains unknown. A transcript-derived fragment (TDF72), which was obtained by cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP), was up-regulated in the aborted buds and exhibited 89% sequence homology with the At?VPE gene. In this study, TDF72 was used to clarify the role of VPE in FBA by isolation of the VPE gene RsVPE1 from radish flower buds. The full-length genomic DNA was 2346 bp including nine exons and eight introns. The full-length cDNA was 1825 bp, containing a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1470 bp, which encoded a predicted protein containing 489 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular mass of 53.735 kDa. Expression analysis demonstrated that RsVPE1 was expressed in all tested organs of radish at different levels. Highest expression was detected in aborted flower buds, suggesting that RsVPE1 has a role in FBA. In order to analyze the role of RsVPE1 in FBA, RsVPE1 was overexpressed in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Aborted flower buds appeared in transgenic plants subjected to heat stress. In addition, RsVPE1 expression in the transgenic plants reached a maximum when subjected to heat stress for 24 h and increased by 2.1-fold to 2.8-fold in three homozygous transgenic lines. These results indicated that RsVPE1 led to FBA when its expression levels exceeded a particular threshold, and provided evidence for the involvement of RsVPE1 in promoting FBA under heat stress. PMID:23807498

  2. Non-neuronal cholinergic system in regulation of immune function with a focus on ?7 nAChRs.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Koichiro; Fujii, Takeshi; Moriwaki, Yasuhiro; Misawa, Hidemi; Horiguchi, Kazuhide

    2015-11-01

    In 1929, Dale and Dudley described the first reported natural occurrence of acetylcholine (ACh) in an animal's body. They identified this ACh in the spleens of horses and oxen, which we now know suggests possible involvement of ACh in the regulation of lymphocyte activity and immune function. However, the source and function of splenic ACh were left unexplored for several decades. Recent studies on the source of ACh in the blood revealed ACh synthesis catalyzed by choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in CD4(+) T cells. T and B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) all express all five muscarinic ACh receptor subtypes (mAChRs) and several subtypes of nicotinic AChRs (nAChRs), including ?7 nAChRs. Stimulation of these mAChRs and nAChRs by their respective agonists causes functional and biochemical changes in the cells. Using AChR knockout mice, we found that M1/M5 mAChR signaling up-regulates IgG1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, while ?7 nAChR signaling has the opposite effect. These findings suggest that ACh synthesized by T cells acts in an autocrine/paracrine fashion at AChRs on various immune cells to modulate immune function. In addition, an endogenous allosteric and/or orthosteric ?7 nAChR ligand, SLURP-1, facilitates functional development of T cells and increases ACh synthesis via up-regulation of ChAT mRNA expression. SLURP-1 is expressed in CD205(+) DCs residing in the tonsil in close proximity to T cells, macrophages and B cells. Collectively, these findings suggest that ACh released from T cells along with SLURP-1 regulates cytokine production by activating ?7 nAChRs on various immune cells, thereby facilitating T cell development and/or differentiation, leading to immune modulation. PMID:25907239

  3. Massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae galaxies

    E-print Network

    Bradley C. Whitmore

    2006-12-22

    Large numbers of young stars are formed in merging galaxies, such as the Antennae galaxies. Most of these stars are formed in compact star clusters (i.e., super star clusters), which have been the focus of a large number of studies. However, an increasing number of projects are beginning to focus on the individual stars as well. In this contribution, we examine a few results relevant to the triggering of star and star cluster formation; ask what fraction of stars form in the field rather than in clusters; and begin to explore the demographics of both the massive stars and star clusters in the Antennae.

  4. Variable stars in the Bochum Galactic Disk Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaderhandt, L.; Barr Domínguez, A.; Chini, R.; Hackstein, M.; Haas, M.; Pozo Nuñez, F.; Murphy, M.

    2015-09-01

    We present a first overview of variable stars in the Bochum Galactic Disk Survey (GDS) with emphasis on eclipsing binaries (EBs). This ongoing survey is performed by a robotic twin refractor at the Universitätssternwarte Bochum located near Cerro Armazones in Chile. It comprises a mosaic of 268 fields in a stripe of {? b = ± 3o} along the Galactic plane observed once per month simultaneously in the Sloan r and i filters with a detection limit of {r_s ˜ 16} mag and {i_s ˜ 15} mag. The data from the first three years until the end of February 2014 yields a total of 41 718 variable stars with variability amplitudes between 0.1-6 mag. A cross-match with SIMBAD identified 11 465 of these variables unambiguously, while 2184 had multiple matches; most of the remaining stars could be matched with 2MASS objects. Among the SIMBAD-listed objects with single matches, only 1982 turned out as known variables while a further 256 are suspected of variability. That leaves a total of 39 480 potentially new variables. The group of known variables comprises 419 stars (21 %) that are classified as EBs while 443 (22 %) are of other types; for the remaining 1120 catalogued variables (57 %) the type is unknown. Investigating variability as a function of spectral type, we find that SIMBAD provides spectral types for 2811 (25 %) of the identified stars. Spectral classes B (26 %), A (20 %), and M (25%) contain the most numerous variables, while all other classes contribute less than 10 % each. More than half of the B (55 %) and A (56 %) stars are designated as EBs, suggesting that hundreds of new B- and A-type EBs may be contained in the GDS archive. In contrast, among the numerous M stars no EBs are known.

  5. 'Abnormal' angle response curves of TW/Rs for near zero tilt and high tilt channeling implants

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Baonian; Gossmann, Hans-Joachim; Toh, Terry; Colombeau, Benjamin; Todorov, Stan; Sinclair, Frank; Shim, Kyu-Ha; Henry, Todd

    2012-11-06

    Angle control has been widely accepted as the key requirement for ion implantation in semiconductor device processing. From an ion implanter point of view, the incident ion direction should be measured and corrected by suitable techniques, such as XP-VPS for the VIISta implanter platform, to ensure precision ion placement in device structures. So called V-curves have been adopted to generate the wafer-based calibration using channeling effects as the Si lattice steer ions into a channeling direction. Thermal Wave (TW) or sheet resistance (Rs) can be used to determine the minimum of the angle response curve. Normally it is expected that the TW and Rs have their respective minima at identical angles. However, the TW and Rs response to the angle variations does depend on factors such as implant species, dose, and wafer temperature. Implant damage accumulation effects have to be considered for data interpretation especially for some 'abnormal' V-curve data. In this paper we will discuss some observed 'abnormal' angle responses, such as a) TW/Rs reverse trend for Arsenic beam, 2) 'W' shape of Rs Boron, and 3) apparent TW/Rs minimum difference for high tilt characterization, along with experimental data and TCAD simulations.

  6. Eco-Geographical Diversification of Bitter Taste Receptor Genes (TAS2Rs) among Subspecies of Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Takashi; Sugawara, Tohru; Go, Yasuhiro; Udono, Toshifumi; Hirai, Hirohisa; Imai, Hiroo

    2012-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have region-specific difference in dietary repertoires from East to West across tropical Africa. Such differences may result from different genetic backgrounds in addition to cultural variations. We analyzed the sequences of all bitter taste receptor genes (cTAS2Rs) in a total of 59 chimpanzees, including 4 putative subspecies. We identified genetic variations including single-nucleotide variations (SNVs), insertions and deletions (indels), gene-conversion variations, and copy-number variations (CNVs) in cTAS2Rs. Approximately two-thirds of all cTAS2R haplotypes in the amino acid sequence were unique to each subspecies. We analyzed the evolutionary backgrounds of natural selection behind such diversification. Our previous study concluded that diversification of cTAS2Rs in western chimpanzees (P. t. verus) may have resulted from balancing selection. In contrast, the present study found that purifying selection dominates as the evolutionary form of diversification of the so-called human cluster of cTAS2Rs in eastern chimpanzees (P. t. schweinfurthii) and that the other cTAS2Rs were under no obvious selection as a whole. Such marked diversification of cTAS2Rs with different evolutionary backgrounds among subspecies of chimpanzees probably reflects their subspecies-specific dietary repertoires. PMID:22916235

  7. Association study of BCL9 gene polymorphism rs583583 with schizophrenia and negative symptoms in Japanese population

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Hiroki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kushima, Itaru; Koide, Takayoshi; Banno, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Yukako; Shiino, Tomoko; Yoshimi, Akira; Oya-Ito, Tomoko; Xing, Jingrui; Wang, Chenyao; Takasaki, Yuto; Aleksic, Branko; Okada, Takashi; Ikeda, Masashi; Inada, Toshiya; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio

    2015-01-01

    B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 (BCL9) is located within the schizophrenia (SCZ) suspected locus chr1q21.1. A recent study reported that a single nucleotide polyphormism (SNP) within BCL9 (rs583583) is associated with negative symptoms of Schizophrenia, as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), in the Caucasian population. We therefore investigated genetic association of rs583583, and its effect on negative symptoms in the Japanese patients. For association analysis, we used a Japanese sample set comprising 1089 SCZ and 950 controls (CON). Analysis of the effect of rs586586 on negative symptoms as examined by PANSS was investigated using 280 SCZ. Furthermore, for analysis of cognitive performance, we investigated 90 SCZ and 51 CON using the Continuous Performance Test (CPT-IP) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) Keio version. We did not detect association between rs583583 and SCZ. Furthermore, rs583583 was not associated with PANSS negative scores or with CPT-IT or WCST cognitive tests. Considering the results of our previous study, combined with the results of the current study of rs583583, we argue that BCL9 most likely does not harbor a common genetic variant that can increase the risk for SCZ in the Japanese population. PMID:26494551

  8. The Role of CzcRS Two-Component Systems in the Heavy Metal Resistance of Pseudomonas putida X4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pulin; Chen, Xi; Huang, Qiaoyun; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    The role of different czcRS genes in metal resistance and the cross-link between czcRS and czcCBA in Pseudomonas putida X4 were studied to advance understanding of the mechanisms by which P. putida copes with metal stress. Similar to P. putida KT2440, two complete czcRS1 and czcRS2 two-component systems, as well as a czcR3 without the corresponding sensing component were amplified in P. putida X4. The histidine kinase genes czcS1 and czcS2 were inactivated and fused to lacZ by homologous recombination. The lacZ fusion assay revealed that Cd2+ and Zn2+ caused a decrease in the transcription of czcRS1, whereas Cd2+ treatment enhanced the transcription of czcRS2. The mutation of different czcRSs showed that all czcRSs are necessary to facilitate full metal resistance in P. putida X4. A putative gene just downstream of czcR3 is related to metal ion resistance, and its transcription was activated by Zn2+. Data from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) strongly suggested that czcRSs regulate the expression of czcCBA, and a cross-link exists between different czcRSs. PMID:26225958

  9. Association between rs10118757(A/G) in methylthioadenosine phosphorylase gene and coronary artery disease in Chinese Hans.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaofei; Zhang, Yuan; Rao, Shaoqi; Su, Dongfang; Feng, Dan; Wang, Min; Li, Xinrui; Li, Dan; Guo, Honghui; Zuo, Xiaoyu; Xia, Min; Ouyang, Haimei; Ling, Wenhua; Qiu, Jian

    2013-09-10

    Studies focusing on the association of gene methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) are limited. In this study, we explored the effects of rs10118757 in MTAP gene on CAD and MI by performing association analysis in a Chinese Han population. rs10118757 was genotyped in 1007 CAD patients (including 338 MI patients) and 885 healthy controls. Allelic analysis showed that allele A of rs10118757 was associated with increased risk of CAD, with OR (95%CI)=1.193 (1.035-1.376), and P=0.015. After adjusted for age, BMI, gender, hypertension and smoking, rs10118757 was still significantly associated with CAD under additive and dominant models, with OR (95%CI)=1.252 (1.070-1.465), P=0.005, and OR (95%CI)=1.698 (1.168-2.467), P=0.006, respectively. Compared to additive model, dominant model may be the best-fitting model (P=6.63E-10 vs P=6.70E-10). As reported previously, rs10118757 was not associated with MI in the current study. Our study firstly reported that SNP rs10118757 was associated with CAD risk in a Chinese Han population, indicating that MTAP gene may play a potential role in the pathophysiological process of CAD. PMID:23462334

  10. Association study of BCL9 gene polymorphism rs583583 with schizophrenia and negative symptoms in Japanese population.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Hiroki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kushima, Itaru; Koide, Takayoshi; Banno, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Yukako; Shiino, Tomoko; Yoshimi, Akira; Oya-Ito, Tomoko; Xing, Jingrui; Wang, Chenyao; Takasaki, Yuto; Aleksic, Branko; Okada, Takashi; Ikeda, Masashi; Inada, Toshiya; Iidaka, Tetsuya; Iwata, Nakao; Ozaki, Norio

    2015-01-01

    B-cell CLL/lymphoma 9 (BCL9) is located within the schizophrenia (SCZ) suspected locus chr1q21.1. A recent study reported that a single nucleotide polyphormism (SNP) within BCL9 (rs583583) is associated with negative symptoms of Schizophrenia, as measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), in the Caucasian population. We therefore investigated genetic association of rs583583, and its effect on negative symptoms in the Japanese patients. For association analysis, we used a Japanese sample set comprising 1089 SCZ and 950 controls (CON). Analysis of the effect of rs586586 on negative symptoms as examined by PANSS was investigated using 280 SCZ. Furthermore, for analysis of cognitive performance, we investigated 90 SCZ and 51 CON using the Continuous Performance Test (CPT-IP) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) Keio version. We did not detect association between rs583583 and SCZ. Furthermore, rs583583 was not associated with PANSS negative scores or with CPT-IT or WCST cognitive tests. Considering the results of our previous study, combined with the results of the current study of rs583583, we argue that BCL9 most likely does not harbor a common genetic variant that can increase the risk for SCZ in the Japanese population. PMID:26494551

  11. Genetic variant of IL28B rs12979860, as predictive marker of interferon-based therapy in Pakistani population.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Manzoor, Sobia; Azam, Sikandar; Resham, Saleha

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes and genetic variants of interleukin 28B (IL28B) are significantly associated with interferon plus ribavirin treatment of HCV infection. We investigated the distribution of HCV genotypes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL28B (rs12979860 and rs8099917) in Pakistani population. IL28B genotyping was performed by allele-specific PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR in 140 chronic hepatitis C patients (CHC) and 120 healthy controls. HCV genotype 3 (HCVG3) was the most prevalent genotype, 71.4% (n = 100/140) and with the highest treatment response of 90% (n = 90/100). The overall treatment response of all the HCV genotypes was 82% (n = 115/140). The distribution of IL28B rs12979860CC genotype in treatment responder and non-responder groups was 40.8% (n = 47/115) and 16% (n = 4/25) respectively. IL28B rs12979860CC genotype demonstrated a significant correlation (p = 0.019) with interferon-based therapy of HCV infection. However, there was no observed association of IL28B rs8099917 polymorphism with treatment response in CHC patients (p = 0.264). In conclusion, HCV genotypes and IL28B rs12979860 are predictive markers for the efficiency of interferon plus ribavirin combinational therapy of HCV infection. We recommend the inclusion of testing for these markers in the clinical criteria for decision making for HCV therapy in Pakistani population. PMID:25703417

  12. First magnetic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanyuk, Iosif I.; Kudryavtsev, Dimitry O.

    2009-04-01

    This contribution dedicated to the analysis of the magnetism of chemically peculiar (CP) stars of the upper Main Sequence. We use our own measurements and published data to compile a catalog of magnetic CP stars containing a total of 326 objects with confidently detected magnetic fields and 29 stars which are very likely to possess magnetic field. Our analysis shows that the number of magnetic CP stars decreases with increasing field strength in accordance with exponential law, hotter and faster rotating stars have stronger fields. Intensity of depressions in the continua correlates with the magnetic field strength.

  13. Strange Quark Star Crusts

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Andrew W.

    2007-02-27

    If strange quark matter is absolutely stable, some neutron stars may be strange quark stars. Strange quark stars are usually assumed to have a simple liquid surface. We show that if the surface tension of droplets of quark matter in the vacuum is sufficiently small, droplets of quark matter on the surface of a strange quark star may form a solid crust on top of the strange quark star. This solid crust can significantly modify the predictions for the photon emission for the surface in an observable way.

  14. Rotating Skyrmion Stars

    E-print Network

    Rachid OUYED

    2001-11-17

    In a previous paper, using an equation of state of dense matter representing a fluid of Skyrmions we constructed the corresponding non-rotating compact-star models in hydrostatic equilibrium; these are mostly fluid stars (the Skyrmion fluid) thus naming them {\\it Skyrmion Stars}. Here we generalize our previous calculations by constructing equilibrium sequences of rotating Skyrmion stars in general relativity using the computer code {\\it RNS} developed by Stergioulas. We calculated their masses and radii to be 0.4 \\le M/M_{\\odot} \\le 3.45, and 13.0 {\\rm km}\\le R\\le 23.0 {\\rm km}, respectively (R being the circumferential radius of the star). The period of the maximally rotating Skyrmion stars is calculated to be 0.8 {\\rm ms}\\le P \\le 2.0 {\\rm ms}. We find that a gap (the height between the star surface and the inner stable circular orbit) starts to appear for M\\sim 2.0M_{\\odot}. Specifically, the Skyrmion star mass range with an existing gap is calculated to be 1.8 Skyrmion star candidate in the 4U 1636-53 system. We discuss the difficulties encountered by our model in the 4U 0614+09 case with the highest known Quasi-Periodic Oscillation frequency of 1329 Hz. A comparative study of Skyrmion stars and models of neutron stars based on recent/modern equations of state is also presented.

  15. A Star's Close Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    The potential planet-forming disk (or 'protoplanetary disk') of a sun-like star is being violently ripped away by the powerful winds of a nearby hot O-type star in this image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. At up to 100 times the mass of sun-like stars, O stars are the most massive and energetic stars in the universe.

    The O star can be seen to the right of the image, as the large orange spot with the white center. To the left, the comet-like structure is actually a neighboring solar system that is being destroyed by the O star's powerful winds and intense ultraviolet light.

    In a process called 'photoevaporation,' immense output from the O star heats up the nearby protoplanetary disk so much that gas and dust boil off, and the disk can no longer hold together. Photon (or light) blasts from the O star then strip the potential planet-forming disk off its neighbor star by blowing away evaporated material. This effect is illustrated in the smaller system's comet-like structure.

    The system is located about 2,450 light-years away in the star-forming cloud IC 1396. The image was taken with Spitzer's multiband imaging photometer instrument at 24 microns. The picture is a pseudo-color stretch representing intensity. Yellow and white represent hot areas, whereas purple and blue represent relatively cooler, fainter regions.

  16. Ponderable soliton stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Hong-Yee

    1990-01-01

    The theory of Lee and Pang (1987), who obtained solutions for soliton stars composed of zero-temperature fermions and bosons, is applied here to quark soliton stars. Model soliton stars based on a simple physical model of the proton are computed, and the properties of the solitons are discussed, including the important problem of the existence of a limiting mass and thus the possible formation of black holes of primordial origin. It is shown that there is a definite mass limit for ponderable soliton stars, so that during cooling a soliton star might reach a stage beyond which no equilibrium configuration exists and the soliton star probably will collapse to become a black hole. The radiation of ponderable soliton stars may alter the short-wavelength character of the cosmic background radiation, and may be observed as highly redshifted objects at z of about 100,000.

  17. White dwarfs - fossil stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kawaler, S.D.; Winget, D.E.

    1987-08-01

    The structure and properties of white dwarfs are analyzed. The physical structure of white dwarf interiors is balanced by a quantum-mechanical effect known as electron degeneracy pressure. Besides preventing gravitational collapse, the degenerate electrons also control the thermal structure of the stars. The transport of energy in the interior and near the surface of the stars is discussed. The surface composition of the white dwarfs is examined. It is observed that the surface of the stars contains only one element; 80 percent of the stars contain only H and the remaining stars contain He. It is determined that the intense gravity of the stars leads to a layering arrangement of material within the star. The origin and evolution of white dwarfs, in particular their crystal stage, are described.

  18. Are neutron stars Q-stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahcall, Safi; Lynn, Bryan W.; Selipsky, Stephen B.

    1990-02-01

    We show that certain classical solutions of hadronic effective field theories can model neutron stars. Within the uncertainties of what is known from laboratory measurements of nuclear physics, these solutions, called Q-stars, may have masses much larger (>> 3 M solar) or may be able to rotate faster (Prot < 0.5 ms) than previously believed possible. Stable chunks of nuclear density baryonic matter varying in size from 10-12 cm to several kilometers may also exist. Cygnus X-1, LMC X-3, and the SN1987A remnant are candidates for Q-stars.

  19. Regulation of GABA Equilibrium Potential by mGluRs in Rat Hippocampal CA1 Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Rajput, Padmesh S.; Kumar, Ujendra; Sastry, Bhagavatula R.

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium potential for GABA-A receptor mediated currents (EGABA) in neonatal central neurons is set at a relatively depolarized level, which is suggested to be caused by a low expression of K+/Cl- co-transporter (KCC2) but a relatively high expression of Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1). Theta-burst stimulation (TBS) in stratum radiatum induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. In the current study, the effects of TBS on EGABA in neonatal and juvenile hippocampal CA1 neurons and the underlying mechanisms were examined. Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are suggested to modulate KCC2 and NKCC1 levels in cortical neurons. Therefore, the involvement of mGluRs in the regulation of KCC2 or NKCC1 activity, and thus EGABA, following TBS was also investigated. Whole-cell patch recordings were made from Wistar rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, in a slice preparation. In neonates, TBS induces a positive shift in EGABA, which was prevented by NKCC1 antisense but not NKCC1 sense mRNA. (RS)-a-Methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG), a group I and II mGluR antagonist, blocked TBS-induced shifts in both juvenile and neonatal hippocampal neurons. While blockade of mGluR1 or mGluR5 alone could interfere with TBS-induced shifts in EGABA in neonates, only a combined blockade could do the same in juveniles. These results indicate that TBS induces a negative shift in EGABA in juvenile hippocampal neurons but a positive shift in neonatal hippocampal neurons via corresponding changes in KCC2 and NKCC1 expressions, respectively. mGluR activation seems to be necessary for both shifts to occur while the specific receptor subtype involved seems to vary. PMID:26389591

  20. Factors stimulating or obstructing the implementation of the 3Rs in the regulatory process.

    PubMed

    Schiffelers, Marie-Jeanne W A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Fentener van Vlissingen, J Martje; Kuil, Janne; Remie, Rene; Thuring, Joop W G M; Vaal, Manon A; Hendriksen, Coenraad F M

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 30% of animal use within the European Union (EU) is done to meet regulatory requirements. The tests are often repetitive in nature and may cause severe suffering, due to the procedures used and to rigidly predefined end points. In addition, product evaluation procedures often take long and are very expensive. Over the last decades the heavy reliance on animal experimentation in this area has met serious objections, both ethical and economical in nature. This study describes obstacles and opportunities to implement the 3Rs in regulatory animal testing. The findings are based primarily on interviews with legislators, regulators, industry, science and animal welfare organisations and reflect shared perceptions of these respondents. In order to increase the application of the 3Rs in regulatory testing a number of technical, political and social obstacles must be overcome. This study offers insight into the persistent character of regulatory animal testing and can function as a starting point for further discussion on how to tackle these problems. To this end, several recommendations are made ranging from strategic test approaches and data sharing to strengthening the policy network and improving communication between 3Rs experts and regulators. The study is an initiative of the national project group "Regulatory Animal Testing", which consists of a group of Dutch experts on animal testing working for a variety of organisations in the field.1 They felt the need for cooperation to initiate a discussion at relevant levels and to identify possible solutions in order to implement the objectives of the three R's in testing for regulatory purposes without loss of scrutiny in safety and/or efficacy evaluation needed for product release. PMID:18288426