Kulkarni, A. K.; Romanova, M. M.
2008-10-29
We present results of 3D simulations of MHD instabilities at the accretion disk-magnetosphere boundary. The instability is Rayleigh-Taylor, and develops for a fairly broad range of accretion rates and stellar rotation rates and magnetic fields. It produces tall, thin tongues of plasma that penetrate the magnetosphere in the equatorial plane. The shape and number of the tongues changes with time on the inner-disk dynamical timescale. In contrast with funnel flows, which deposit matter mainly in the polar region, the tongues deposit matter much closer to the stellar equator. The instability appears for relatively small misalignment angles, {theta} < or approx. 30 deg., between the star's rotation and magnetic axes, and is associated with higher accretion rates. The hot spots and light curves during accretion through instability are generally much more chaotic than during stable accretion. The unstable state of accretion has possible implications for quasi-periodic oscillations and intermittent pulsations from accreting systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkanarni, Akshay Kishor
We present results of three-dimensional (3D) simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities at the accretion disk-magnetosphere boundary in accreting magnetized stars. The instability is Rayleigh-Taylor, and develops for a fairly broad range of accretion rates and stellar rotation rates and magnetic fields. It manifests itself in the form of tall, thin tongues of plasma that penetrate the magnetosphere in the equatorial plane, instead of flowing around the magnetosphere as in the canonical accretion picture. The shape and number of the tongues changes with time on the inner-disk dynamical timescale. In contrast with funnel flows, which deposit matter mainly in the polar region, the tongues deposit matter much closer to the stellar equator. The instability appears for relatively small misalignment angles, theta ≲ 30°, between the star's rotation and magnetic axes, and is associated with relatively high accretion rates. We then calculate the photometric variability due to emission from the hot spots that the accreting matter produces on the stellar surface. For neutron stars, we take relativistic effects into account in calculating the observed energy flux. Our goal is to compare the features of the lightcurve during stable and unstable accretion, and to look for possible quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), which produce broad peaks in the Fourier power spectra of these objects. The lightcurves during stable accretion show periodicity at the star's frequency and sometimes twice that, due to the presence of two funnel streams that produce antipodal hotspots near the magnetic poles. On the other hand, lightcurves during unstable accretion are more chaotic due to the stochastic behaviour of the tongues, and produce noisier power spectra. However, the power spectra do show some signs of quasi-periodic variability. Most importantly, the rotation frequency of the tongues and the resulting hotspots is close to the inner-disk orbital frequency, except in the most
Star-triangle relation for a three-dimensional model
Bazhanov, V.V. Institute for High Eenrgy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region ); Baxter, R.J. Australian National Univ., Canberra )
1993-06-01
The solvable sl(n)-chiral Potts model can be interpreted as a three-dimensional lattice model with local interactions. To within a minor modification of the boundary conditions it is an Ising-type model on the body-centered cubic lattice with two- and three-spin interactions. The corresponding local Boltzmann weights obey a number of simple relations, including a restricted star-triangle relation, which is a modified version of the well-known star-triangle relation appearing in two-dimensional models. It is shown that these relations lead to remarkable symmetry properties of the Boltzmann weight function of an elementary cube of the lattice, related to the spatial symmetry group of the cubic lattice. These symmetry properties allow one to prove the commutativity of the row-to-row transfer matrices, bypassing the tetrahedron relation. The partition function per site for the infinite lattice is calculated exactly. 20 refs., 4 figs.
Global simulations of the three-dimensional magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leboeuf, J. N.; Tajima, T.; Kennel, C. F.; Dawson, J. M.
1981-01-01
Global three-dimensional computer simulations of the magnetosphere using a particle MHD code, reproduce the steady-state Dungey magnetospheric topology in three dimensions. The formation of a compression zone downstream of the tail neutral line that is probably bounded by wake shocks is observed. This compression zone changes its cross-section with distance downstream.
Three dimensional global modeling of atmospheric CO2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fung, I.; Hansen, J.; Rind, D.
1983-01-01
A model was developed to study the prospects of extracting information on carbon dioxide sources and sinks from observed CO2 variations. The approach uses a three dimensional global transport model, based on winds from a 3-D general circulation model (GCM), to advect CO2 noninteractively, i.e., as a tracer, with specified sources and sinks of CO2 at the surface. The 3-D model employed is identified and biosphere, ocean and fossil fuel sources and sinks are discussed. Some preliminary model results are presented.
Horseshoe Drag in Three-dimensional Globally Isothermal Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masset, F. S.; Benítez-Llambay, P.
2016-01-01
We study the horseshoe dynamics of a low-mass planet in a three-dimensional, globally isothermal, inviscid disk. We find, as reported in previous work, that the boundaries of the horseshoe region (separatrix sheets) have cylindrical symmetry about the disk’s rotation axis. We interpret this feature as arising from the fact that the whole separatrix sheets have a unique value of Bernoulli’s constant, and that this constant does not depend on altitude, but only on the cylindrical radius, in barotropic disks. We next derive an expression for the torque exerted by the horseshoe region on the planet, or horseshoe drag. Potential vorticity is not materially conserved as in two-dimensional flows, but it obeys a slightly more general conservation law (Ertel’s theorem) that allows an expression for the horseshoe drag identical to the expression in a two-dimensional disk to be obtained. Our results are illustrated and validated by three-dimensional numerical simulations. The horseshoe region is found to be slightly narrower than previously extrapolated from two-dimensional analyses with a suitable softening length of the potential. We discuss the implications of our results for the saturation of the corotation torque, and the possible connection to the flow at the Bondi scale, which the present analysis does not resolve.
Three Dimensional Simulation of the Magnetic Stress in a Neutron Star Crust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, T. S.; Hollerbach, R.
2015-05-01
We present the first fully self-consistent three dimensional model of a neutron star's magnetic field, generated by electric currents in the star's crust via the Hall effect. We find that the global-scale field converges to a dipolar Hall-attractor state, as seen in recent axisymmetric models, but that small-scale features in the magnetic field survive even on much longer time scales. These small-scale features propagate toward the dipole equator, where the crustal electric currents organize themselves into a strong equatorial jet. By calculating the distribution of magnetic stresses in the crust, we predict that neutron stars with fields stronger than 1 014 G can still be subject to starquakes more than 1 05 yr after their formation.
Three dimensional simulation of the magnetic stress in a neutron star crust.
Wood, T S; Hollerbach, R
2015-05-15
We present the first fully self-consistent three dimensional model of a neutron star's magnetic field, generated by electric currents in the star's crust via the Hall effect. We find that the global-scale field converges to a dipolar Hall-attractor state, as seen in recent axisymmetric models, but that small-scale features in the magnetic field survive even on much longer time scales. These small-scale features propagate toward the dipole equator, where the crustal electric currents organize themselves into a strong equatorial jet. By calculating the distribution of magnetic stresses in the crust, we predict that neutron stars with fields stronger than 10^{14} G can still be subject to starquakes more than 10^{5} yr after their formation. PMID:26024158
Pliocene three-dimensional global ocean temperature reconstruction
Dowsett, H.J.; Robinson, M.M.; Foley, K.M.
2009-01-01
The thermal structure of the mid-Piacenzian ocean is obtained by combining the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping Project (PRISM3) multiproxy sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstruction with bottom water temperature estimates from 27 locations produced using Mg/Ca paleothermometry based upon the ostracod genus Krithe. Deep water temperature estimates are skewed toward the Atlantic Basin (63% of the locations) and represent depths from 1000m to 4500 m. This reconstruction, meant to serve as a validation data set as well as an initialization for coupled numerical climate models, assumes a Pliocene water mass framework similar to that which exists today, with several important modifications. The area of formation of present day North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) was expanded and extended further north toward the Arctic Ocean during the mid-Piacenzian relative to today. This, combined with a deeper Greenland-Scotland Ridge, allowed a greater volume of warmer NADW to enter the Atlantic Ocean. In the Southern Ocean, the Polar Front Zone was expanded relative to present day, but shifted closer to the Antarctic continent. This, combined with at least seasonal reduction in sea ice extent, resulted in decreased Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production (relative to present day) as well as possible changes in the depth of intermediate waters. The reconstructed mid-Piacenzian three-dimensional ocean was warmer overall than today, and the hypothesized aerial extent of water masses appears to fit the limited stable isotopic data available for this time period. ?? Author(s) 2009.
Pliocene three-dimensional global ocean temperature reconstruction
Dowsett, H.J.; Robinson, M.M.; Foley, K.M.
2009-01-01
A snapshot of the thermal structure of the mid-Piacenzian ocean is obtained by combining the Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping Project (PRISM3) multiproxy sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstruction with bottom water tempera-5 ture estimates produced using Mg/Ca paleothermometry. This reconstruction assumes a Pliocene water mass framework similar to that which exists today, with several important modifications. The area of formation of present day North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) was expanded and extended further north toward the Arctic Ocean during the mid-Piacenzian relative to today. This, combined with a deeper Greenland-Scotland Ridge, allowed a greater volume of warmer NADW to enter the Atlantic Ocean. In the Southern Ocean, the Polar Front Zone was expanded relative to present day, but shifted closer to the Antarctic continent. This, combined with at least seasonal reduction in sea ice extent, resulted in decreased Antarctic BottomWater (AABW) production (relative to present day) as well as possible changes in the depth of intermediate wa15 ters. The reconstructed mid-Piacenzian three-dimensional ocean was warmer overall than today, and the hypothesized aerial extent of water masses appears to fit the limited stable isotopic data available for this time period. ?? Author(s) 2009.
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the combustion of a neutron star into a quark star
Herzog, Matthias; Roepke, Friedrich K.
2011-10-15
We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of turbulent combustion converting a neutron star into a quark star. Hadronic matter, described by a microphysical finite-temperature equation of state, is converted into strange quark matter. We assume this phase, represented by a bag-model equation of state, to be absolutely stable. Following the example of thermonuclear burning in white dwarfs leading to type Ia supernovae, we treat the conversion process as a potentially turbulent deflagration. Solving the nonrelativistic Euler equations using established numerical methods we conduct large eddy simulations including an elaborate subgrid scale model, while the propagation of the conversion front is modeled with a level-set method. Our results show that for large parts of the parameter space the conversion becomes turbulent and therefore significantly faster than in the laminar case. Despite assuming absolutely stable strange quark matter, in our hydrodynamic approximation an outer layer remains in the hadronic phase, because the conversion front stops when it reaches conditions under which the combustion is no longer exothermic.
A THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL ASSESSMENT OF THE GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE
The distributions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the global environment have been studied typically with box/fugacity models with simplified treatments of atmospheric transport processes1. Such models are incapable of simulating the complex three-dimensional mechanis...
A Three-Dimensional Global Hybrid Model of the Magnetosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, X.; Lin, Y.; Lu, S.; Perez, J. D.; Lu, Q.
2013-12-01
A 3-D global hybrid simulation code with domain including both the dayside and night side magnetosphere of the Earth has been developed to study the coupling between the solar wind and the magnetosphere. A Cartesian coordinate system is used, with the simulation domain extends from x = -60 RE to +23RE, y = -30 RE to 30RE, and z = -30 RE to 30RE. Nonuniform cell grids are used, with a higher resolution around the regions of the near-Earth plasma sheet. The inner boundary is located at r =3.5 RE. In the simulation, ions are treated as fully kinetic particles, where electrons are treated as a massless fluid. In addition, a cold ion fluid is assumed in the inner magnetosphere within r<6RE. The bow shock and the Earth's magnetosphere form from the interaction between the solar wind and the dipole geomagnetic field. The solar wind carrying the IMF flows into domain from the upstream boundary at x=23RE, while the free conditions are applied at all the other sides of the boundaries. The inner boundary condition at r= 3.5Re is determined by mapping the parallel currents and electric field to the ionosphere. The details of hybrid code and its benchmark are presented. The global structure of the magnetosphere is shown for various solar wind and IMF conditions.
Global existence of the three-dimensional viscous quantum magnetohydrodynamic model
Yang, Jianwei; Ju, Qiangchang
2014-08-15
The global-in-time existence of weak solutions to the viscous quantum Magnetohydrodynamic equations in a three-dimensional torus with large data is proved. The global existence of weak solutions to the viscous quantum Magnetohydrodynamic equations is shown by using the Faedo-Galerkin method and weak compactness techniques.
Three-dimensional molecular line transfer: a simulated star-forming region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rundle, David; Harries, Tim J.; Acreman, David M.; Bate, Matthew R.
2010-09-01
We present the first non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), comoving frame molecular line calculations of a star-forming cluster simulated using smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), from which we derive high-resolution synthetic observations. We have resampled a particle representation on to an adaptive mesh and self-consistently solved the equations of statistical equilibrium in the comoving frame, using TORUS, a three-dimensional adaptive mesh refined radiative transfer code. We verified the applicability of the code to the conditions of the SPH simulation by testing its output against other codes. We find that the level populations obtained for optically thick and thin scenarios closely match the ensemble average of the other codes. We have used the code to obtain non-LTE level populations of multiple molecular species throughout the cluster and have created three-dimensional velocity-resolved spatial maps of the emergent intensity. Line profiles of cores traced by N2H+ (1-0) are compared to probes of low-density gas, 13CO (1-0) and C18O (1-0), surrounding the cores along the line of sight. The relative differences of the line centre velocities are shown to be small compared to the velocity dispersion, matching recent observations. We conclude that one cannot reject competitive accretion as a viable theory of star formation based on observed velocity profiles.
The Stellar Cusp in the Galactic Center: Three-Dimensional Orbits of Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chappell, Samantha; Ghez, Andrea M.; Boehle, Anna; Yelda, Sylvana; Sitarski, Breann; Witzel, Gunther; Do, Tuan; Lu, Jessica R.; Morris, Mark; Becklin, Eric E.
2015-01-01
We present new findings from our long term study of the nuclear star cluster around the Galaxy's central supermassive blackhole (SMBH). Measurements where made using speckle and laser guided adaptive optics imaging and integral field spectroscopy on the Keck telescopes. We report 13 new measurable accelerating sources around the SMBH, down to ~17 mag in K band, only 4 of which are known to be young stars, the rest are either known to be old stars or have yet to be spectral typed. Thus we more than double the number of measured accelerations for the known old stars and unknown spectral type population (increasing the number from 6 to 15). Previous observations suggest a flat density profile of late-type stars, contrary to the theorized Bahcall-Wolf cusp (Bahcall & Wolf 1976, 1977; Buchholz et al. 2009; Do et al. 2009; Bartko et al. 2010). With three-dimensional orbits of significantly accelerating sources, we will be able to better characterize the stellar cusp in the Galactic center, including the slope of the stellar density profile.
MHD Field Line Resonances and Global Modes in Three-Dimensional Magnetic Fields
C.Z. Cheng
2002-05-30
By assuming a general isotropic pressure distribution P = P (y,a), where y and a are three-dimensional scalar functions labeling the field lines with B = -y x -a, we have derived a set of MHD eigenmode equations for both global MHD modes and field line resonances (FLR). Past MHD theories are restricted to isotropic pressures with P = P (y only). The present formulation also allows the plasma mass density to vary along the field line. The linearized ideal-MHD equations are cast into a set of global differential equations from which the field line resonance equations of the shear Alfvin waves and slow magnetosonic modes are naturally obtained for general three-dimensional magnetic field geometries with flux surfaces. Several new terms associated with the partial derivative of P with respect to alpha are obtained. In the FLR equations, a new term is found in the shear Alfvin FLR equation due to the geodesic curvature and the pressure gradient in the poloidal flux surface. The coupling between the shear Alfvin waves and the magnetosonic waves is through the combined effects of geodesic magnetic field curvature and plasma pressure as previously derived. The properties of the FLR eigenfunctions at the resonance field lines are investigated, and the behavior of the FLR wave solutions near the FLR surface are derived. Numerical solutions of the FLR equations for three-dimensional magnetospheric fields in equilibrium with high plasma pressure will be presented in a future publication.
Global Well-Posedness of an Inviscid Three-Dimensional Pseudo-Hasegawa-Mima Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Chongsheng; Farhat, Aseel; Titi, Edriss S.
2013-04-01
The three-dimensional inviscid Hasegawa-Mima model is one of the fundamental models that describe plasma turbulence. The model also appears as a simplified reduced Rayleigh-Bénard convection model. The mathematical analysis of the Hasegawa-Mima equation is challenging due to the absence of any smoothing viscous terms, as well as to the presence of an analogue of the vortex stretching terms. In this paper, we introduce and study a model which is inspired by the inviscid Hasegawa-Mima model, which we call a pseudo-Hasegawa-Mima model. The introduced model is easier to investigate analytically than the original inviscid Hasegawa-Mima model, as it has a nicer mathematical structure. The resemblance between this model and the Euler equations of inviscid incompressible fluids inspired us to adapt the techniques and ideas introduced for the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional Euler equations to prove the global existence and uniqueness of solutions for our model. This is in addition to proving and implementing a new technical logarithmic inequality, generalizing the Brezis-Gallouet and the Brezis-Wainger inequalities. Moreover, we prove the continuous dependence on initial data of solutions for the pseudo-Hasegawa-Mima model. These are the first results on existence and uniqueness of solutions for a model that is related to the three-dimensional inviscid Hasegawa-Mima equations.
Three-dimensional Numerical Simulations of Magnetized Winds of Solar-like Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vidotto, A. A.; Opher, M.; Jatenco-Pereira, V.; Gombosi, T. I.
2009-07-01
By means of self-consistent three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) numerical simulations, we analyze magnetized solar-like stellar winds and their dependence on the plasma-β parameter (the ratio between thermal and magnetic energy densities). This is the first study to perform such analysis solving the fully ideal three-dimensional MHD equations. We adopt in our simulations a heating parameter described by γ, which is responsible for the thermal acceleration of the wind. We analyze winds with polar magnetic field intensities ranging from 1 to 20 G. We show that the wind structure presents characteristics that are similar to the solar coronal wind. The steady-state magnetic field topology for all cases is similar, presenting a configuration of helmet streamer-type, with zones of closed field lines and open field lines coexisting. Higher magnetic field intensities lead to faster and hotter winds. For the maximum magnetic intensity simulated of 20 G and solar coronal base density, the wind velocity reaches values of ~1000 km s-1 at r ~ 20r 0 and a maximum temperature of ~6 × 106 K at r ~ 6r 0. The increase of the field intensity generates a larger "dead zone" in the wind, i.e., the closed loops that inhibit matter to escape from latitudes lower than ~45° extend farther away from the star. The Lorentz force leads naturally to a latitude-dependent wind. We show that by increasing the density and maintaining B 0 = 20 G the system recover back to slower and cooler winds. For a fixed γ, we show that the key parameter in determining the wind velocity profile is the β-parameter at the coronal base. Therefore, there is a group of magnetized flows that would present the same terminal velocity despite its thermal and magnetic energy densities, as long as the plasma-β parameter is the same. This degeneracy, however, can be removed if we compare other physical parameters of the wind, such as the mass-loss rate. We analyze the influence of γ in our results and we
High-precision spectroscopy of late-type stars with three-dimensional model stellar atmospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collet, Remo
2015-08-01
Classical spectroscopic analyses of late-type stars generally rely on the use of synthetic spectra computed with stationary, one-dimensional (1D), hydrostatic model stellar atmospheres to quantitatively interpret observations. Recent years, however, have seen a rapid development in the field of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical modelling of stellar atmospheres and stellar spectra.In this contribution, I will present results from realistic, time-dependent, hydrodynamical 3D simulations of stellar atmospheres of solar- and late-type stars, covering a wide range of stellar parameters and compositions, from main sequence to red giant branch and with metallicities from [Fe/H]=+0.5 down to [Fe/H]=-4. These 3D model atmospheres have been generated using a custom version of the radiation-magnetohydrodynamics Stagger-Code which implements state-of-the-art input micro-physics, equation of state and opacity data, and a realistic treatment of non-grey radiative transfer.I will describe the main properties of the simulations and discuss the application of 3D model atmospheres to spectral line-formation calculations and high-precision spectroscopy of late-type stars. I will illustrate the main effects of 3D modelling of stellar atmospheres and stellar spectra on the predicted strengths and shapes of spectral lines, highlighting the systematic differences with respect to calculations based on classical, 1D, hydrostatic models.In particular, I will present the results of spectroscopic carbon, nitrogen and oxygen abundance determinations based on the analysis of CH, NH, CN and OH molecular bands with 3D model stellar atmospheres. I will show that the differences with respect to classical analyses based on 1D models can be significant and of the order of 0.5 to 1 dex in terms of logarithmic abundances of these important elements.Finally, I will also discuss the application of 3D models to the analysis and interpretation of data from large-scale space-born and ground
Global Strong Well-Posedness of the Three Dimensional Primitive Equations in {L^p}-Spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hieber, Matthias; Kashiwabara, Takahito
2016-09-01
In this article, an {L^p}-approach to the primitive equations is developed. In particular, it is shown that the three dimensional primitive equations admit a unique, global strong solution for all initial data {a in [X_p,D(A_p)]_{1/p}} provided {p in [6/5,infty)}. To this end, the hydrostatic Stokes operator {A_p} defined on {X_p}, the subspace of {L^p} associated with the hydrostatic Helmholtz projection, is introduced and investigated. Choosing {p} large, one obtains global well-posedness of the primitive equations for strong solutions for initial data {a} having less differentiability properties than {H^1}, hereby generalizing in particular a result by Cao and Titi (Ann Math 166:245-267, 2007) to the case of non-smooth initial data.
Kienreich, I. W.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M. E-mail: mat@igam.uni-graz.a
2009-10-01
We present the first observations of a global coronal wave ('EIT wave') from the two STEREO satellites in quadrature. The wave's initiation site was at the disk center in STEREO-B and precisely on the limb in STEREO-A. These unprecedented observations from the STEREO Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EUVI) instruments enable us to gain insight into the wave's kinematics, initiation, and three-dimensional structure. The wave propagates globally over the whole solar hemisphere visible to STEREO-B with a constant velocity of {approx}263 +- 16 km s{sup -1}. From the two STEREO observations, we derive a height of the wave in the range of {approx}80-100 Mm. Comparison of the wave kinematics with the early phase of the erupting coronal mass ejection (CME) structure indicates that the wave is initiated by the CME lateral expansion, and then propagates freely with a velocity close to the fast magnetosonic speed in the quiet solar corona.
UTILIZATION OF MULTIPLE MEASUREMENTS FOR GLOBAL THREE-DIMENSIONAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS
Wang, A. H.; Wu, S. T.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Hill, Frank
2011-05-01
Magnetic field measurements, line of sight (LOS) and/or vector magnetograms, have been used in a variety of solar physics studies. Currently, the global transverse velocity measurements near the photosphere from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) are available. We have utilized these multiple observational data, for the first time, to present a data-driven global three-dimensional and resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation, and to investigate the energy transport across the photosphere to the corona. The measurements of the LOS magnetic field and transverse velocity reflect the effects of convective zone dynamics and provide information from the sub-photosphere to the corona. In order to self-consistently include the observables on the lower boundary as the inputs to drive the model, a set of time-dependent boundary conditions is derived by using the method of characteristics. We selected GONG's global transverse velocity measurements of synoptic chart CR2009 near the photosphere and SOLIS full-resolution LOS magnetic field maps of synoptic chart CR2009 on the photosphere to simulate the equilibrium state and compute the energy transport across the photosphere. To show the advantage of using both observed magnetic field and transverse velocity data, we have studied two cases: (1) with the inputs of the LOS magnetic field and transverse velocity measurements, and (2) with the input of the LOS magnetic field and without the input of transverse velocity measurements. For these two cases, the simulation results presented here are a three-dimensional coronal magnetic field configuration, density distributions on the photosphere and at 1.5 solar radii, and the solar wind in the corona. The deduced physical characteristics are the total current helicity and the synthetic emission. By comparing all the physical parameters of case 1 and case 2 and their synthetic emission images with the EIT image, we find that using both the measured magnetic field and the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Chang-Goo; Ostriker, Eve C.; Kim, Woong-Tae
2013-10-01
The energy and momentum feedback from young stars has a profound impact on the interstellar medium (ISM), including heating and driving turbulence in the neutral gas that fuels future star formation. Recent theory has argued that this leads to a quasi-equilibrium self-regulated state, and for outer atomic-dominated disks results in the surface density of star formation ΣSFR varying approximately linearly with the weight of the ISM (or midplane turbulent + thermal pressure). We use three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations to test the theoretical predictions for thermal, turbulent, and vertical dynamical equilibrium, and the implied functional dependence of ΣSFR on local disk properties. Our models demonstrate that all equilibria are established rapidly, and that the expected proportionalities between mean thermal and turbulent pressures and ΣSFR apply. For outer disk regions, this results in ΣSFR ∝ Σ&sqrt;{ρsd}, where Σ is the total gas surface density and ρsd is the midplane density of the stellar disk (plus dark matter). This scaling law arises because ρsd sets the vertical dynamical time in our models (and outer disk regions generally). The coefficient in the star formation law varies inversely with the specific energy and momentum yield from massive stars. We find proportions of warm and cold atomic gas, turbulent-to-thermal pressure, and mean velocity dispersions that are consistent with solar-neighborhood and other outer disk observations. This study confirms the conclusions of a previous set of simulations, which incorporated the same physics treatment but was restricted to radial-vertical slices through the ISM.
Kim, Chang-Goo; Ostriker, Eve C.; Kim, Woong-Tae E-mail: eco@astro.princeton.edu
2013-10-10
The energy and momentum feedback from young stars has a profound impact on the interstellar medium (ISM), including heating and driving turbulence in the neutral gas that fuels future star formation. Recent theory has argued that this leads to a quasi-equilibrium self-regulated state, and for outer atomic-dominated disks results in the surface density of star formation Σ{sub SFR} varying approximately linearly with the weight of the ISM (or midplane turbulent + thermal pressure). We use three-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic simulations to test the theoretical predictions for thermal, turbulent, and vertical dynamical equilibrium, and the implied functional dependence of Σ{sub SFR} on local disk properties. Our models demonstrate that all equilibria are established rapidly, and that the expected proportionalities between mean thermal and turbulent pressures and Σ{sub SFR} apply. For outer disk regions, this results in Σ{sub SFR}∝Σ√(ρ{sub sd}), where Σ is the total gas surface density and ρ{sub sd} is the midplane density of the stellar disk (plus dark matter). This scaling law arises because ρ{sub sd} sets the vertical dynamical time in our models (and outer disk regions generally). The coefficient in the star formation law varies inversely with the specific energy and momentum yield from massive stars. We find proportions of warm and cold atomic gas, turbulent-to-thermal pressure, and mean velocity dispersions that are consistent with solar-neighborhood and other outer disk observations. This study confirms the conclusions of a previous set of simulations, which incorporated the same physics treatment but was restricted to radial-vertical slices through the ISM.
On the Global Distribution of Three-Dimensional Eliassen-Palm Fluxes by Stationary Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, G. H.
1985-01-01
The global distribution of three dimensional EP fluxes is investigated by using statistics for Dec. 1980 to Feb. 1981 and June to August 1981 calculated from operational analyses. Results at 1000 and 150 mb are given. During the Northern Hemisphere (NH) winter strong upward fluxes can be seen at 1000 mb in the lee of the Himalayas and Rockies, windward of the Canadian Rockies in the east Pacific, to the north of the Atlantic stormtrack and over the west Pacific in a region of strong land sea thermal contrast. Upward fluxes also appear near the west coasts of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) subtropical continents regions of strong land sea thermal contrast. At 150 mb (Fig. 1b) the strongest upward flux now occurs south of Alaska. The horizontal fluxes imply poleward propagation from the convection over Indonesia to 20 N, a region where the assumptions underlying EP fluxes are not well met. Equatorward propagation dominates the NH midlatitude except over the Pacific. The fluxes given offer hints of the sources of stationary waves, but also show several puzzling features and a rather cavalier disregard of regions of easterly wind. The physical meaning and interpretation of three dimensional EP fluxes is not yet clear.
Lihoreau, Mathieu; Ings, Thomas C; Chittka, Lars; Reynolds, Andy M
2016-01-01
Simulated annealing is a powerful stochastic search algorithm for locating a global maximum that is hidden among many poorer local maxima in a search space. It is frequently implemented in computers working on complex optimization problems but until now has not been directly observed in nature as a searching strategy adopted by foraging animals. We analysed high-speed video recordings of the three-dimensional searching flights of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) made in the presence of large or small artificial flowers within a 0.5 m(3) enclosed arena. Analyses of the three-dimensional flight patterns in both conditions reveal signatures of simulated annealing searches. After leaving a flower, bees tend to scan back-and forth past that flower before making prospecting flights (loops), whose length increases over time. The search pattern becomes gradually more expansive and culminates when another rewarding flower is found. Bees then scan back and forth in the vicinity of the newly discovered flower and the process repeats. This looping search pattern, in which flight step lengths are typically power-law distributed, provides a relatively simple yet highly efficient strategy for pollinators such as bees to find best quality resources in complex environments made of multiple ephemeral feeding sites with nutritionally variable rewards. PMID:27459948
Lihoreau, Mathieu; Ings, Thomas C.; Chittka, Lars; Reynolds, Andy M.
2016-01-01
Simulated annealing is a powerful stochastic search algorithm for locating a global maximum that is hidden among many poorer local maxima in a search space. It is frequently implemented in computers working on complex optimization problems but until now has not been directly observed in nature as a searching strategy adopted by foraging animals. We analysed high-speed video recordings of the three-dimensional searching flights of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) made in the presence of large or small artificial flowers within a 0.5 m3 enclosed arena. Analyses of the three-dimensional flight patterns in both conditions reveal signatures of simulated annealing searches. After leaving a flower, bees tend to scan back-and forth past that flower before making prospecting flights (loops), whose length increases over time. The search pattern becomes gradually more expansive and culminates when another rewarding flower is found. Bees then scan back and forth in the vicinity of the newly discovered flower and the process repeats. This looping search pattern, in which flight step lengths are typically power-law distributed, provides a relatively simple yet highly efficient strategy for pollinators such as bees to find best quality resources in complex environments made of multiple ephemeral feeding sites with nutritionally variable rewards. PMID:27459948
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lihoreau, Mathieu; Ings, Thomas C.; Chittka, Lars; Reynolds, Andy M.
2016-07-01
Simulated annealing is a powerful stochastic search algorithm for locating a global maximum that is hidden among many poorer local maxima in a search space. It is frequently implemented in computers working on complex optimization problems but until now has not been directly observed in nature as a searching strategy adopted by foraging animals. We analysed high-speed video recordings of the three-dimensional searching flights of bumblebees (Bombus terrestris) made in the presence of large or small artificial flowers within a 0.5 m3 enclosed arena. Analyses of the three-dimensional flight patterns in both conditions reveal signatures of simulated annealing searches. After leaving a flower, bees tend to scan back-and forth past that flower before making prospecting flights (loops), whose length increases over time. The search pattern becomes gradually more expansive and culminates when another rewarding flower is found. Bees then scan back and forth in the vicinity of the newly discovered flower and the process repeats. This looping search pattern, in which flight step lengths are typically power-law distributed, provides a relatively simple yet highly efficient strategy for pollinators such as bees to find best quality resources in complex environments made of multiple ephemeral feeding sites with nutritionally variable rewards.
Global climate changes as forecast by Goddard Institute for Space Studies three-dimensional model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hansen, J.; Fung, I.; Lacis, A.; Rind, D.; Lebedeff, S.; Ruedy, R.; Russell, G.
1988-01-01
The global climate effects of time-dependent atmospheric trace gas and aerosol variations are simulated by NASA-Goddard's three-dimensional climate model II, which possesses 8 x 10-deg horizontal resolution, for the cases of a 100-year control run and three different atmospheric composition scenarios in which trace gas growth is respectively a continuation of current exponential trends, a reduced linear growth, and a rapid curtailment of emissions due to which net climate forcing no longer increases after the year 2000. The experiments begin in 1958, run to the present, and encompass measured or estimated changes in CO2, CH4, N2O, chlorofluorocarbons, and stratospheric aerosols. It is shown that the greenhouse warming effect may be clearly identifiable in the 1990s.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rastigejev, Y.; Semakin, A. N.
2013-12-01
Accurate numerical simulations of global scale three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport models (CTMs) are essential for studies of many important atmospheric chemistry problems such as adverse effect of air pollutants on human health, ecosystems and the Earth's climate. These simulations usually require large CPU time due to numerical difficulties associated with a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, nonlinearity and large number of reacting species. In our previous work we have shown that in order to achieve adequate convergence rate and accuracy, the mesh spacing in numerical simulation of global synoptic-scale pollution plume transport must be decreased to a few kilometers. This resolution is difficult to achieve for global CTMs on uniform or quasi-uniform grids. To address the described above difficulty we developed a three-dimensional Wavelet-based Adaptive Mesh Refinement (WAMR) algorithm. The method employs a highly non-uniform adaptive grid with fine resolution over the areas of interest without requiring small grid-spacing throughout the entire domain. The method uses multi-grid iterative solver that naturally takes advantage of a multilevel structure of the adaptive grid. In order to represent the multilevel adaptive grid efficiently, a dynamic data structure based on indirect memory addressing has been developed. The data structure allows rapid access to individual points, fast inter-grid operations and re-gridding. The WAMR method has been implemented on parallel computer architectures. The parallel algorithm is based on run-time partitioning and load-balancing scheme for the adaptive grid. The partitioning scheme maintains locality to reduce communications between computing nodes. The parallel scheme was found to be cost-effective. Specifically we obtained an order of magnitude increase in computational speed for numerical simulations performed on a twelve-core single processor workstation. We have applied the WAMR method for numerical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haschke, Raoul; Grebel, Eva K.; Duffau, Sonia
2012-10-01
The new data for Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE III) survey allow us to study the three-dimensional distribution of stars corresponding to young (a few tens to a few hundreds of millions of years) and old (typically older than ~9 Gyr) populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) traced by these variable stars. We estimate the distance to 16,949 RR Lyrae stars by using their photometrically estimated metallicities. Furthermore, the periods of 1849 Cepheids are used to determine their distances. Three-dimensional maps are obtained by using individual reddening estimates derived from the intrinsic color of these stars. The resulting median distances of the RR Lyrae stars and Cepheids appear to resolve the long and short distance scale problem for our sample. With median distances of 53.1 ± 3.2 kpc for the RR Lyrae stars and 53.9 ± 1.8 kpc for the Cepheids, these two distance indicators are in very good agreement with each other in contrast to a number of earlier studies. Individual reddening estimates allow us to resolve the distance discrepancies often observed while comparing Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars. For both stellar populations we find the inclination angle of the LMC to be 32° ± 4° and the mean position angle to be 115° ± 15°. The position angle increases with galactocentric radius, indicative of mild twisting. Within the innermost 7° of the LMC covered by OGLE III, the change in position angle amounts to more than 10°. The depth of the Cepheids is found to be 1.7 ± 0.2 kpc. The bar stands out as an overdensity both in RR Lyrae stars and in Cepheids. In RR Lyrae stars the bar can be traced as a protruding overdensity with a line-of-sight depth of almost 5 kpc in front of the main body of the disk.
Three-Dimensional Nuclear Chart--Understanding Nuclear Physics and Nucleosynthesis in Stars
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Koura, Hiroyuki
2014-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) nuclear charts were created using toy blocks, which represent the atomic masses per nucleon number and the total half-lives for each nucleus in the entire region of the nuclear mass. The bulk properties of the nuclei can be easily understood by using these charts. Subsequently, these charts were used in outreach activities…
Evolution of flux ropes in the magnetotail: A three-dimensional global hybrid simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, S.; Lin, Y.; Lu, Q. M.; Wang, X. Y.; Wang, R. S.; Huang, C.; Wu, M. Y.; Wang, S.
2015-05-01
Flux ropes in the Earth's magnetotail are widely believed to play a crucial role in energy transport during substorms and the generation of energetic particles. Previous kinetic simulations are limited to the local-scale regime, and thus cannot be used to study the structure associated with the geomagnetic field and the global-scale evolution of the flux ropes. Here, the evolution of flux ropes in the magnetotail under a steady southward interplanetary magnetic field are studied with a newly developed three-dimensional global hybrid simulation model for dynamics ranging from the ion Larmor radius to the global convection time scales. Magnetic reconnection with multiple X-lines is found to take place in the near-tail current sheet at geocentric solar magnetospheric distances x = - 30 R E ˜ - 15 R E around the equatorial plane ( z = 0 ). The magnetotail reconnection layer is turbulent, with a nonuniform structure and unsteady evolution, and exhibits properties of typical collisionless fast reconnection with the Hall effect. A number of small-scale flux ropes are generated through the multiple X-line reconnection. The diameter of the flux ropes is several R E , and the spatial scale of the flux ropes in the dawn-dusk direction is on the order of several R E and does not extend across the entire section of the magnetotail, contrary to previous models and MHD simulation results and showing the importance of the three-dimensional effects. The nonuniform and unsteady multiple X-line reconnection with particle kinetic effects leads to various kinds of flux rope evolution: The small-scale flux ropes propagate earthward or tailward after formation, and eventually merge into the near-Earth region or the mid-/distant-tail plasmoid, respectively. During the propagation, some of the flux ropes can be tilted in the geocentric solar magnetospheric ( x , y ) plane with respect to the y (dawn-dusk) axis. Coalescence between flux ropes is also observed. At the same time, the
Evolution of flux ropes in the magnetotail: A three-dimensional global hybrid simulation
Lu, S.; Lin, Y.; Wang, X. Y.; Lu, Q. M. Huang, C.; Wu, M. Y.; Wang, S.; Wang, R. S.
2015-05-15
Flux ropes in the Earth's magnetotail are widely believed to play a crucial role in energy transport during substorms and the generation of energetic particles. Previous kinetic simulations are limited to the local-scale regime, and thus cannot be used to study the structure associated with the geomagnetic field and the global-scale evolution of the flux ropes. Here, the evolution of flux ropes in the magnetotail under a steady southward interplanetary magnetic field are studied with a newly developed three-dimensional global hybrid simulation model for dynamics ranging from the ion Larmor radius to the global convection time scales. Magnetic reconnection with multiple X-lines is found to take place in the near-tail current sheet at geocentric solar magnetospheric distances x=−30R{sub E}∼−15R{sub E} around the equatorial plane (z=0). The magnetotail reconnection layer is turbulent, with a nonuniform structure and unsteady evolution, and exhibits properties of typical collisionless fast reconnection with the Hall effect. A number of small-scale flux ropes are generated through the multiple X-line reconnection. The diameter of the flux ropes is several R{sub E}, and the spatial scale of the flux ropes in the dawn-dusk direction is on the order of several R{sub E} and does not extend across the entire section of the magnetotail, contrary to previous models and MHD simulation results and showing the importance of the three-dimensional effects. The nonuniform and unsteady multiple X-line reconnection with particle kinetic effects leads to various kinds of flux rope evolution: The small-scale flux ropes propagate earthward or tailward after formation, and eventually merge into the near-Earth region or the mid-/distant-tail plasmoid, respectively. During the propagation, some of the flux ropes can be tilted in the geocentric solar magnetospheric (x,y) plane with respect to the y (dawn-dusk) axis. Coalescence between flux ropes is also observed. At the same time, the
Global Non-spherical Oscillations in Three-dimensional 4π Simulations of the H-ingestion Flash
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Herwig, Falk; Woodward, Paul R.; Lin, Pei-Hung; Knox, Mike; Fryer, Chris
2014-09-01
We performed three-dimensional simulations of proton-rich material entrainment into 12C-rich He-shell flash convection and the subsequent H-ingestion flash that took place in the post-asymptotic giant branch star Sakurai's object. Observations of the transient nature and anomalous abundance features are available to validate our method and assumptions, with the aim of applying them to very low-metallicity stars in the future. We include nuclear energy feedback from H burning and cover the full 4π geometry of the shell. Runs on 7683 and 15363 grids agree well with each other and have been followed for 1500 minutes and 1200 minutes. After an 850 minute long quiescent entrainment phase, the simulations enter into a global non-spherical oscillation that is launched and sustained by individual ignition events of H-rich fluid pockets. Fast circumferential flows collide at the antipode and cause the formation and localized ignition of the next H-overabundant pocket. The cycle repeats for more than a dozen times while its amplitude decreases. During the global oscillation, the entrainment rate increases temporarily by a factor of ≈100. Entrained entropy quenches convective motions in the upper layer until the burning of entrained H establishes a separate convection zone. The lower-resolution run hints at the possibility that another global oscillation, perhaps even more violent, will follow. The location of the H-burning convection zone agrees with a one-dimensional model in which the mixing efficiency is calibrated to reproduce the light curve. The simulations have been performed at the NSF Blue Waters supercomputer at NCSA.
GLOBAL NON-SPHERICAL OSCILLATIONS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL 4π SIMULATIONS OF THE H-INGESTION FLASH
Herwig, Falk; Woodward, Paul R.; Lin, Pei-Hung; Knox, Mike; Fryer, Chris
2014-09-01
We performed three-dimensional simulations of proton-rich material entrainment into {sup 12}C-rich He-shell flash convection and the subsequent H-ingestion flash that took place in the post-asymptotic giant branch star Sakurai's object. Observations of the transient nature and anomalous abundance features are available to validate our method and assumptions, with the aim of applying them to very low-metallicity stars in the future. We include nuclear energy feedback from H burning and cover the full 4π geometry of the shell. Runs on 768{sup 3} and 1536{sup 3} grids agree well with each other and have been followed for 1500 minutes and 1200 minutes. After an 850 minute long quiescent entrainment phase, the simulations enter into a global non-spherical oscillation that is launched and sustained by individual ignition events of H-rich fluid pockets. Fast circumferential flows collide at the antipode and cause the formation and localized ignition of the next H-overabundant pocket. The cycle repeats for more than a dozen times while its amplitude decreases. During the global oscillation, the entrainment rate increases temporarily by a factor of ≈100. Entrained entropy quenches convective motions in the upper layer until the burning of entrained H establishes a separate convection zone. The lower-resolution run hints at the possibility that another global oscillation, perhaps even more violent, will follow. The location of the H-burning convection zone agrees with a one-dimensional model in which the mixing efficiency is calibrated to reproduce the light curve. The simulations have been performed at the NSF Blue Waters supercomputer at NCSA.
Three-dimensional Content-Based Cardiac Image Retrieval using global and local descriptors
Bergamasco, Leila C. C.; Nunes, Fátima L. S.
2015-01-01
The increase in volume of medical images generated and stored has created difficulties in accurate image retrieval. An alternative is to generate three-dimensional (3D) models from such medical images and use them in the search. Some of the main cardiac illnesses, such as Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), have deformation in the heart’s shape as one of the main symptoms, which can be identified faster in a 3D object than in slices. This article presents techniques developed to retrieve 3D cardiac models using global and local descriptors within a content-based image retrieval system. These techniques were applied in pre-classified 3D models with and without the CHF disease and they were evaluated by using Precision vs. Recall metric. We observed that local descriptors achieved better results than a global descriptor, reaching 85% of accuracy. The results confirmed the potential of using 3D models retrieval in the medical context to aid in the diagnosis. PMID:26958280
Three-dimensional Content-Based Cardiac Image Retrieval using global and local descriptors.
Bergamasco, Leila C C; Nunes, Fátima L S
2015-01-01
The increase in volume of medical images generated and stored has created difficulties in accurate image retrieval. An alternative is to generate three-dimensional (3D) models from such medical images and use them in the search. Some of the main cardiac illnesses, such as Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), have deformation in the heart's shape as one of the main symptoms, which can be identified faster in a 3D object than in slices. This article presents techniques developed to retrieve 3D cardiac models using global and local descriptors within a content-based image retrieval system. These techniques were applied in pre-classified 3D models with and without the CHF disease and they were evaluated by using Precision vs. Recall metric. We observed that local descriptors achieved better results than a global descriptor, reaching 85% of accuracy. The results confirmed the potential of using 3D models retrieval in the medical context to aid in the diagnosis. PMID:26958280
The Hermean Bow Shock and Ion Foreshock as Seen by Three-Dimensional Global Hybrid Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chanteur, G. M.; Modolo, R.; Leblanc, F.
2015-12-01
The thinness of the Hermean magnetosheath evidenced by Mariner 10 and MESSENGER observations results from the small average standoff distance of the Bow Shock equal to 1.45RM and has important consequences especially in the region of the parallel shock. The magnetopause is clearly identified in front of the perpendicular shock meanwhile it is hardly recognized in front of the parallel shock due to a strong interaction between the shock and the magnetospheric boundary mediated by the magnetosheath flow. This interaction is investigated by means of three-dimensional global hybrid simulations for different IMF orientations and by varying the spatial resolution of the simulations between 120 and 40km. Accordingly to MESSENGER observations (Anderson et al, 2012) the planetary magnetic field implemented in the simulations combines a dipole and a quadrupole axisymmetric sources (Richer et al, 2012). References Anderson, B. J., C. L. Johnson, H. Korth, R. M. Winslow, J. E. Borovsky, M. E. Purucker, J. A. Slavin, S. C. Solomon, M.T. Zuber, and R. L. McNutt Jr. (2012), Low-degree structure in Mercury's planetary magnetic field, J. Geophys. Res.,117, E00L12, doi:10.1029/2012JE004159. Richer, E., R. Modolo, G. M. Chanteur, S. Hess, and F. Leblanc (2012), A global hybrid model for Mercury's interaction with the solar wind: Case study of the dipole representation, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A10228, doi:10.1029/2012JA017898.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Hongyu; Crawford, James H.; Pierce, Robert B.; Norris, Peter; Platnick, Steven E.; Chen, Gao; Logan, Jennifer A.; Yantosca, Robert M.; Evans, Mat J.; Kittaka, Chieko; Feng, Yan; Tie, Xuexi
2006-01-01
Clouds exert an important influence on tropospheric photochemistry through modification of solar radiation that determines photolysis frequencies (J-values). We assess the radiative effect of clouds on photolysis frequencies and key oxidants in the troposphere with a global three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM) driven by assimilated meteorological observations from the Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation system (GEOS DAS) at the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO). We focus on the year of 2001 with the GEOS-3 meteorological observations. Photolysis frequencies are calculated using the Fast-J radiative transfer algorithm. The GEOS-3 global cloud optical depth and cloud fraction are evaluated and generally consistent with the satellite retrieval products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Results using the linear assumption, which assumes linear scaling of cloud optical depth with cloud fraction in a grid box, show global mean OH concentrations generally increase by less than 6% because of the radiative effect of clouds. The OH distribution shows much larger changes (with maximum decrease of approx.20% near the surface), reflecting the opposite effects of enhanced (weakened) photochemistry above (below) clouds. The global mean photolysis frequencies for J[O1D] and J[NO2] in the troposphere change by less than 5% because of clouds; global mean O3 concentrations in the troposphere increase by less than 5%. This study shows tropical upper tropospheric O3 to be less sensitive to the radiative effect of clouds than previously reported (approx.5% versus approx.20-30%). These results emphasize that the dominant effect of clouds is to influence the vertical redistribution of the intensity of photochemical activity while global average effects remain modest, again contrasting with previous studies. Differing vertical distributions
Jiang, Yan-Fei; Stone, James M.; Davis, Shane W.
2014-12-01
We study super-Eddington accretion flows onto black holes using a global three-dimensional radiation magneto-hydrodynamical simulation. We solve the time-dependent radiative transfer equation for the specific intensities to accurately calculate the angular distribution of the emitted radiation. Turbulence generated by the magneto-rotational instability provides self-consistent angular momentum transfer. The simulation reaches inflow equilibrium with an accretion rate ∼220 L {sub Edd}/c {sup 2} and forms a radiation-driven outflow along the rotation axis. The mechanical energy flux carried by the outflow is ∼20% of the radiative energy flux. The total mass flux lost in the outflow is about 29% of the net accretion rate. The radiative luminosity of this flow is ∼10 L {sub Edd}. This yields a radiative efficiency ∼4.5%, which is comparable to the value in a standard thin disk model. In our simulation, vertical advection of radiation caused by magnetic buoyancy transports energy faster than photon diffusion, allowing a significant fraction of the photons to escape from the surface of the disk before being advected into the black hole. We contrast our results with the lower radiative efficiencies inferred in most models, such as the slim disk model, which neglect vertical advection. Our inferred radiative efficiencies also exceed published results from previous global numerical simulations, which did not attribute a significant role to vertical advection. We briefly discuss the implications for the growth of supermassive black holes in the early universe and describe how these results provided a basis for explaining the spectrum and population statistics of ultraluminous X-ray sources.
Flock, M.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Klahr, H.; Turner, N. J.; Henning, Th.
2011-07-10
We present full 2{pi} global three-dimensional stratified magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of accretion disks. We interpret our results in the context of protoplanetary disks. We investigate the turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) using the PLUTO Godunov code in spherical coordinates with the accurate and robust HLLD Riemann solver. We follow the turbulence for more than 1500 orbits at the innermost radius of the domain to measure the overall strength of turbulent motions and the detailed accretion flow pattern. We find that regions within two scale heights of the midplane have a turbulent Mach number of about 0.1 and a magnetic pressure two to three orders of magnitude less than the gas pressure, while in those outside three scale heights the magnetic pressure equals or exceeds the gas pressure and the turbulence is transonic, leading to large density fluctuations. The strongest large-scale density disturbances are spiral density waves, and the strongest of these waves has m = 5. No clear meridional circulation appears in the calculations because fluctuating radial pressure gradients lead to changes in the orbital frequency, comparable in importance to the stress gradients that drive the meridional flows in viscous models. The net mass flow rate is well reproduced by a viscous model using the mean stress distribution taken from the MHD calculation. The strength of the mean turbulent magnetic field is inversely proportional to the radius, so the fields are approximately force-free on the largest scales. Consequently, the accretion stress falls off as the inverse square of the radius.
Haschke, Raoul; Grebel, Eva K.; Duffau, Sonia
2012-10-01
The new data for Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE III) survey allow us to study the three-dimensional distribution of stars corresponding to young (a few tens to a few hundreds of millions of years) and old (typically older than {approx}9 Gyr) populations of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) traced by these variable stars. We estimate the distance to 16,949 RR Lyrae stars by using their photometrically estimated metallicities. Furthermore, the periods of 1849 Cepheids are used to determine their distances. Three-dimensional maps are obtained by using individual reddening estimates derived from the intrinsic color of these stars. The resulting median distances of the RR Lyrae stars and Cepheids appear to resolve the long and short distance scale problem for our sample. With median distances of 53.1 {+-} 3.2 kpc for the RR Lyrae stars and 53.9 {+-} 1.8 kpc for the Cepheids, these two distance indicators are in very good agreement with each other in contrast to a number of earlier studies. Individual reddening estimates allow us to resolve the distance discrepancies often observed while comparing Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars. For both stellar populations we find the inclination angle of the LMC to be 32 Degree-Sign {+-} 4 Degree-Sign and the mean position angle to be 115 Degree-Sign {+-} 15 Degree-Sign . The position angle increases with galactocentric radius, indicative of mild twisting. Within the innermost 7 Degree-Sign of the LMC covered by OGLE III, the change in position angle amounts to more than 10 Degree-Sign . The depth of the Cepheids is found to be 1.7 {+-} 0.2 kpc. The bar stands out as an overdensity both in RR Lyrae stars and in Cepheids. In RR Lyrae stars the bar can be traced as a protruding overdensity with a line-of-sight depth of almost 5 kpc in front of the main body of the disk.
Haschke, Raoul; Grebel, Eva K.; Duffau, Sonia
2012-10-01
We use data on variable stars from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment survey to determine the three-dimensional structure of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Deriving individual distances to RR Lyrae stars and Cepheids, we investigate the distribution of these tracers of the old and young populations in the SMC. Photometrically estimated metallicities are used to determine the distances to 1494 RR Lyrae stars, which have typical ages greater than 9 Gyr. For 2522 Cepheids, with ages of a few tens to a few hundred Myr, distances are calculated using their period-luminosity relation. Individual reddening estimates from the intrinsic color of each star are used to obtain high precision three-dimensional maps. The distances of RR Lyrae stars and Cepheids are in very good agreement with each other. The median distance of the RR Lyrae stars is found to be 61.5 {+-} 3.4 kpc. For the Cepheids, a median distance of 63.1 {+-} 3.0 kpc is obtained. Both populations show an extended scale height, with 2.0 {+-} 0.4 kpc for the RR Lyrae stars and 2.7 {+-} 0.3 kpc for the Cepheids. This confirms the large depth of the SMC suggested by a number of earlier studies. The young population is very differently oriented than the old stars. While we find an inclination angle of 7 Degree-Sign {+-} 15 Degree-Sign and a position angle of 83 Degree-Sign {+-} 21 Degree-Sign for the RR Lyrae stars, for the Cepheids an inclination of 74 Degree-Sign {+-} 9 Degree-Sign and a position angle of 66 Degree-Sign {+-} 15 Degree-Sign is obtained. The RR Lyrae stars show a fairly homogeneous distribution, while the Cepheids roughly follow the distribution of the bar, with their northeastern part being closer to us than the southwestern part of the bar. Interactions between the SMC, Large Magellanic Cloud, and Milky Way are presumably responsible for the tilted, elongated structure of the young population of the SMC.
Development of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code on CDC star-100 computer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vatsa, V. N.; Goglia, G. L.
1978-01-01
A three-dimensional code in body-fitted coordinates was developed using MacCormack's algorithm. The code is structured to be compatible with any general configuration, provided that the metric coefficients for the transformation are available. The governing equations are developed in primitive variables in order to facilitate the incorporation of physical boundary conditions and turbulence-closure models. MacCormack's two-step, unsplit, time-marching algorithm is used to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations until steady-state solution is achieved. Cases discussed include (1) flat plate in supersonic free stream; (2) supersonic flow along an axial corner; (3) subsonic flow in an axial corner at M infinity = 0.95; and (4) supersonic flow in an axial corner at M infinity 1.5.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Y.; Wang, X. Y.; Lu, S.; Perez, J. D.; Lu, Q.
2014-09-01
Dynamics of the near-Earth magnetotail associated with substorms during a period of extended southward interplanetary magnetic field is studied using a three-dimensional (3-D) global hybrid simulation model that includes both the dayside and nightside magnetosphere, for the first time, with physics from the ion kinetic to the global Alfvénic convection scales. It is found that the dayside reconnection leads to the penetration of the dawn-dusk electric field through the magnetopause and thus a thinning of the plasma sheet, followed by the magnetotail reconnection with 3-D, multiple flux ropes. Ion kinetic physics is found to play important roles in the magnetotail dynamics, which leads to the following results: (1) Hall electric fields in the thin current layer cause a systematic dawnward ion drift motion and thus a dawn-dusk asymmetry of the plasma sheet with a higher (lower) density on the dawnside (duskside). Correspondingly, more reconnection occurs on the duskside. Bidirectional fast ions are generated due to acceleration in reconnection, and more high-speed earthward flow injections are found on the duskside than the dawnside. Such finding of the dawn-dusk asymmetry is consistent with recent satellite observations. (2) The injected ions undergo the magnetic gradient and curvature drift in the dipole-like field, forming a ring current. (3) Ion particle distributions reveal multiple populations/beams at various distances in the tail. (4) Dipolarization of the tail magnetic field takes place due to the pileup of the injected magnetic fluxes and thermal pressure of injected ions, where the fast earthward flow is stopped. Oscillation of the dipolarization front is developed at the fast-flow braking, predominantly on the dawnside. (5) Kinetic compressional wave turbulence is present around the dipolarization front. The cross-tail currents break into small-scale structures with k⟂ρi˜1, where k⟂ is the perpendicular wave number. A sharp dip of magnetic field
Brun, A. S. E-mail: palacios@graal.univ-montp2.fr
2009-09-10
With the development of one-dimensional stellar evolution codes including rotation and the increasing number of observational data for stars of various evolutionary stages, it becomes more and more possible to follow the evolution of the rotation profile and angular momentum distribution in stars. In this context, understanding the interplay between rotation and convection in the very extended envelopes of giant stars is very important considering that all low- and intermediate-mass stars become red giants after the central hydrogen burning phase. In this paper, we analyze the interplay between rotation and convection in the envelope of red giant stars using three-dimensional numerical experiments. We make use of the Anelastic Spherical Harmonics code to simulate the inner 50% of the envelope of a low-mass star on the red giant branch. We discuss the organization and dynamics of convection, and put a special emphasis on the distribution of angular momentum in such a rotating extended envelope. To do so, we explore two directions of the parameter space, namely, the bulk rotation rate and the Reynolds number with a series of four simulations. We find that turbulent convection in red giant stars is dynamically rich, and that it is particularly sensitive to the rotation rate of the star. Reynolds stresses and meridional circulation establish various differential rotation profiles (either cylindrical or shellular) depending on the convective Rossby number of the simulations, but they all agree that the radial shear is large. Temperature fluctuations are found to be large and in the slowly rotating cases, a dominant l = 1 temperature dipole influences the convective motions. Both baroclinic effects and turbulent advection are strong in all cases and mostly oppose one another.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, San; Lu, Quanming; Lin, Yu; Wang, Xueyi; Ge, Yasong; Wang, Rongsheng; Zhou, Meng; Fu, Huishan; Huang, Can; Wu, Mingyu; Wang, Shui
2015-08-01
Dipolarization fronts (DFs) as earthward propagating flux ropes (FRs) in the Earth's magnetotail are presented and investigated with a three-dimensional (3-D) global hybrid simulation for the first time. In the simulation, several small-scale earthward propagating FRs are found to be formed by multiple X line reconnection in the near tail. During their earthward propagation, the magnetic field Bz of the FRs becomes highly asymmetric due to the imbalance of the reconnection rates between the multiple X lines. At the later stage, when the FRs approach the near-Earth dipole-like region, the antireconnection between the southward/negative Bz of the FRs and the northward geomagnetic field leads to the erosion of the southward magnetic flux of the FRs, which further aggravates the Bz asymmetry. Eventually, the FRs merge into the near-Earth region through the antireconnection. These earthward propagating FRs can fully reproduce the observational features of the DFs, e.g., a sharp enhancement of Bz preceded by a smaller amplitude Bz dip, an earthward flow enhancement, the presence of the electric field components in the normal and dawn-dusk directions, and ion energization. Our results show that the earthward propagating FRs can be used to explain the DFs observed in the magnetotail. The thickness of the DFs is on the order of several ion inertial lengths, and the electric field normal to the front is found to be dominated by the Hall physics. During the earthward propagation from the near-tail to the near-Earth region, the speed of the FR/DFs increases from ~150 km/s to ~1000 km/s. The FR/DFs can be tilted in the GSM (x, y) plane with respect to the y (dawn-dusk) axis and only extend several Earth radii in this direction. Moreover, the structure and evolution of the FRs/DFs are nonuniform in the dawn-dusk direction, which indicates that the DFs are essentially 3-D.
Three-Dimensional Spectroscopy and Star Formation Histories of Field E+A Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Charles T.; Wolf, Marsha; Hooper, Eric J.; Bather, Joshua
2015-02-01
We present the initial results of an integral field spectroscopic survey of E+A galaxies in the field, which combined with radio continuum measurements and multi-wavelength photometry and imaging provides significant insight into the dynamical and star formation histories of these transitioning post-starburst systems. We focus on the E+A galaxy known as G515 (z = 0.088), a massive merger remnant that began its star formation quenching process ~ 1.0 Gyr ago. Its relatively young stellar population contrasts with its light profile and kinematics, which are more consistent with a slowly-rotating, early-type galaxy.
Wang, Chao; Xu, Yuci; Li, Weihua; Lin, Zhiqun
2016-08-01
The influence of star-like architecture on phase behavior of star-like block copolymer under cylindrical confinement differs largely from the bulk (i.e., nonconfinement). A set of intriguing self-assembled morphologies and the corresponding phase diagrams of star-like (AB)f diblock copolymers with different numbers of arms f (i.e., f = 3, 9, 15, and 21) in four scenarios (ϕA = 0.3 and V0 > 0; ϕA = 0.3 and V0 < 0; ϕA = 0.7 and V0 > 0; and ϕA = 0.7 and V0 < 0 (where ϕA is the volume fraction of A block) and V0 < 0 and V0 > 0 represent that the pore wall of cylindrical confinement prefers the inner A block (i.e., A-preferential) and B block (i.e., B-preferential), respectively) were for the first time scrutinized by employing the pseudospectral method of self-consistent mean-field theory. Surprisingly, a new nanoscopic phase, that is, perforated-lamellae-on-cylinder (denoted PC), was observed in star-like (AB)3 diblock copolymer at ϕA = 0.3 and V0 > 0. With a further increase in f, a single lamellae (denoted L1) was found to possess a larger phase region. Under the confinement of A-preferential wall (i.e., V0 < 0) at ϕA = 0.3, PC phase became metastable and its free energy increased as f increased. Quite intriguingly, when ϕA = 0.7 and V0 > 0, where an inverted cylinder was formed in bulk, the PC phase became stable, and its free energy decreased as f increased, suggesting the propensity to form PC phase under this condition. Moreover, in stark contrast to the phase transition of C1 → L1 → PC (C1, a single cylindrical microdmain) at ϕA = 0.3 and V0 > 0, when subjected to the A-preferential wall (ϕA = 0.7), a different phase transition sequence (i.e., C1 → PC → L1) was identified due to the formation of a double-layer structure. On the basis of our calculations, the influence of star-like architecture on (AB)f diblock copolymer under the imposed cylindrical confinement, particularly the shift of the phase boundaries as a function of f, was thoroughly
Three-dimensional Spectral Classification of Low-Metallicity Stars Using Artificial Neural Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snider, Shawn; Allende Prieto, Carlos; von Hippel, Ted; Beers, Timothy C.; Sneden, Christopher; Qu, Yuan; Rossi, Silvia
2001-11-01
We explore the application of artificial neural networks (ANNs) for the estimation of atmospheric parameters (Teff, logg, and [Fe/H]) for Galactic F- and G-type stars. The ANNs are fed with medium-resolution (Δλ~1-2 Å) non-flux-calibrated spectroscopic observations. From a sample of 279 stars with previous high-resolution determinations of metallicity and a set of (external) estimates of temperature and surface gravity, our ANNs are able to predict Teff with an accuracy of σ(Teff)=135-150 K over the range 4250<=Teff<=6500 K, logg with an accuracy of σ(logg)=0.25-0.30 dex over the range 1.0<=logg<=5.0 dex, and [Fe/H] with an accuracy σ([Fe/H])=0.15-0.20 dex over the range -4.0<=[Fe/H]<=0.3. Such accuracies are competitive with the results obtained by fine analysis of high-resolution spectra. It is noteworthy that the ANNs are able to obtain these results without consideration of photometric information for these stars. We have also explored the impact of the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) on the behavior of ANNs and conclude that, when analyzed with ANNs trained on spectra of commensurate S/N, it is possible to extract physical parameter estimates of similar accuracy with stellar spectra having S/N as low as 13. Taken together, these results indicate that the ANN approach should be of primary importance for use in present and future large-scale spectroscopic surveys.
Stereographic projection for three-dimensional global discontinuous Galerkin atmospheric modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blaise, Sébastien; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Deleersnijder, Eric
2015-09-01
A method to solve the three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations on the sphere is suggested, based on a stereographic projection with a high-order mapping of the elements from the stereographic space to the sphere. The projection is slightly modified, in order to take into account the domain thickness without introducing any approximation about the aspect ratio (deep-atmosphere). In a discontinuous Galerkin framework, the elements alongside the equator are exactly represented using a nonpolynomial geometry, in order to avoid the numerical issues associated with the seam connecting the two hemispheres. This is an crucial point, necessary to avoid mass loss and spurious deviations of the velocity. The resulting model is validated on idealized three-dimensional atmospheric test cases on the sphere, demonstrating the good convergence properties of the scheme, its mass conservation, and its satisfactory behavior in terms of accuracy and low numerical dissipation. A simulation is performed on a variable resolution unstructured grid, producing accurate results despite a substantial reduction of the number of elements.
Silva, Kyle; Rand, Stephanie; Cancel, David; Chen, Yuxi; Kathirithamby, Rani; Stern, Michelle
2015-12-01
The lack of access to prostheses is a global problem, partially caused by the high cost associated with the current manufacturing process. Three-dimensional printing is gaining use in the medical field, and one such area is prosthetics. In addition to using cost-effective materials, this technology allows for rapid prototyping, making it an efficient solution for the development of affordable prostheses. If the rehabilitation medicine community embraces this novel technology, we can help alleviate the global disparity of access to prostheses. PMID:26709247
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, Danniella Muheim; Griffin, O. Hayden, Jr.; Vidussoni, Marco A.
1990-01-01
A practical example of applying two- to three-dimensional (2- to 3-D) global/local finite element analysis to laminated composites is presented. Cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates of 0.1-in. (0.254-cm) thickness with central circular holes ranging from 1 to 6 in. (2.54 to 15.2 cm) in diameter, subjected to in-plane compression were analyzed. Guidelines for full three-dimensional finite element analysis and two- to three-dimensional global/local analysis of interlaminar stresses at straight free edges of laminated composites are included. The larger holes were found to reduce substantially the interlaminar stresses at the straight free-edge in proximity to the hole. Three-dimensional stress results were obtained for thin laminates which require prohibitive computer resources for full three-dimensional analyses of comparative accuracy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alexander, M. Joan
2015-08-01
Satellite limb-sounding methods provide the best global temperature data available for simultaneous measurement of gravity wave horizontal and vertical structures needed to estimate momentum flux and constrain wave effects on general circulation. Gravity waves vary in the three spatial dimensions and time, so the ideal measurement observes all three dimensions at high resolution nearly simultaneously. High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) measurements give near-simultaneous profiles in close proximity and at high vertical resolution, but these coincident profiles lie only along the plane of the measurement track. Here we combine HIRDLS and radio occultation data sets to obtain three-dimensional properties of gravity waves on a global scale as well as seasonal variations. The results show dramatic changes from previous estimates using either data set alone. Changes include much larger momentum fluxes and latitudinal variations in propagation direction that support an enhanced role for gravity wave forcing of middle atmosphere circulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larios, Adam; Titi, Edriss S.
2014-03-01
We prove existence, uniqueness, and higher-order global regularity of strong solutions to a particular Voigt-regularization of the three-dimensional inviscid resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Specifically, the coupling of a resistive magnetic field to the Euler-Voigt model is introduced to form an inviscid regularization of the inviscid resistive MHD system. The results hold in both the whole space and in the context of periodic boundary conditions. Weak solutions for this regularized model are also considered, and proven to exist globally in time, but the question of uniqueness for weak solutions is still open. Furthermore, we show that the solutions of the Voigt regularized system converge, as the regularization parameter , to strong solutions of the original inviscid resistive MHD, on the corresponding time interval of existence of the latter. Moreover, we also establish a new criterion for blow-up of solutions to the original MHD system inspired by this Voigt regularization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larios, Adam; Titi, Edriss S.
2013-05-01
We prove existence, uniqueness, and higher-order global regularity of strong solutions to a particular Voigt-regularization of the three-dimensional inviscid resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Specifically, the coupling of a resistive magnetic field to the Euler-Voigt model is introduced to form an inviscid regularization of the inviscid resistive MHD system. The results hold in both the whole space {{R}^3} and in the context of periodic boundary conditions. Weak solutions for this regularized model are also considered, and proven to exist globally in time, but the question of uniqueness for weak solutions is still open. Furthermore, we show that the solutions of the Voigt regularized system converge, as the regularization parameter {α → 0}, to strong solutions of the original inviscid resistive MHD, on the corresponding time interval of existence of the latter. Moreover, we also establish a new criterion for blow-up of solutions to the original MHD system inspired by this Voigt regularization.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, C.-C.; Liou, K.; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.; Fry, C. D.; Plunkett, S.
2012-05-01
There were nineteen flare associated coronal mass ejection (CME) events that were reported during the Halloween 2003 epoch from 19 October to 20 November [1]. Ten of these CMEs were associated with class X flares, 8 CMEs were associated with class M flares, and one CME was associated with a class C flare. Using a well-developed hybrid code, HAFv2+3DMHD, the evolution and interactions of 16 out of 19 interplanetary CMEs from 21 October to 17 November 2003 were simulated and investigated. The HAFv2+3DMHD model combines two physical base simulation codes: the Hakamada-Akasofu-Fry code (HAFv2) and a fully three-dimensional, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic code. We compared simulated solar wind velocity, number density, temperature, and magnetic fields with those observed by the ACE spacecraft. We have demonstrated that our global three-dimensional (3-D) simulation model is capable of simulating the evolution and interaction of multiple CMEs in a realistic and continually changing complicated solar wind structure during uniquely severe space weather conditions at Earth. This study clearly demonstrates that the HAFv2+3DMHD model can be a useful tool for space weather operations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suen, Anthony; Hoff, David
2012-07-01
We prove the global-in-time existence of weak solutions of the equations of compressible magnetohydrodynamics in three space dimensions with initial data small in L 2 and initial density positive and essentially bounded. A great deal of information concerning partial regularity is obtained: velocity, vorticity, and magnetic field become relatively smooth in positive time ( H 1 but not H 2) and singularities in the pressure cancel those in a certain multiple of the divergence of the velocity, thus giving concrete expression to conclusions obtained formally from the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions.
Strong ''Quantum'' Chaos in the Global Ballooning Mode Spectrum of Three-Dimensional Plasmas
Dewar, R. L.; Cuthbert, P.; Ball, R.
2001-03-12
The spectrum of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure-driven (ballooning) modes in strongly nonaxisymmetric toroidal systems is difficult to analyze numerically owing to the singular nature of ideal MHD caused by lack of an inherent scale length. In this paper, ideal MHD is regularized by using a k -space cutoff, making the ray tracing for the WKB ballooning formalism a chaotic Hamiltonian billiard problem. The minimum width of the toroidal Fourier spectrum needed for resolving toroidally localized ballooning modes with a global eigenvalue code is estimated from the Weyl formula. This phase-space-volume estimation method is applied to two stellarator cases.
Leek, E Charles; Roberts, Mark; Oliver, Zoe J; Cristino, Filipe; Pegna, Alan J
2016-08-01
Here we investigated the time course underlying differential processing of local and global shape information during the perception of complex three-dimensional (3D) objects. Observers made shape matching judgments about pairs of sequentially presented multi-part novel objects. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to measure perceptual sensitivity to 3D shape differences in terms of local part structure and global shape configuration - based on predictions derived from hierarchical structural description models of object recognition. There were three types of different object trials in which stimulus pairs (1) shared local parts but differed in global shape configuration; (2) contained different local parts but shared global configuration or (3) shared neither local parts nor global configuration. Analyses of the ERP data showed differential amplitude modulation as a function of shape similarity as early as the N1 component between 146-215ms post-stimulus onset. These negative amplitude deflections were more similar between objects sharing global shape configuration than local part structure. Differentiation among all stimulus types was reflected in N2 amplitude modulations between 276-330ms. sLORETA inverse solutions showed stronger involvement of left occipitotemporal areas during the N1 for object discrimination weighted towards local part structure. The results suggest that the perception of 3D object shape involves parallel processing of information at local and global scales. This processing is characterised by relatively slow derivation of 'fine-grained' local shape structure, and fast derivation of 'coarse-grained' global shape configuration. We propose that the rapid early derivation of global shape attributes underlies the observed patterns of N1 amplitude modulations. PMID:27396674
Natural biogeochemical cycle of mercury in a global three-dimensional ocean tracer model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yanxu; Jaeglé, Lyatt; Thompson, LuAnne
2014-05-01
We implement mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry in the offline global 3-D ocean tracer model (OFFTRAC) to investigate the natural Hg cycle, prior to any anthropogenic input. The simulation includes three Hg tracers: dissolved elemental (Hg0aq), dissolved divalent (HgIIaq), and particle-bound mercury (HgPaq). Our Hg parameterization takes into account redox chemistry in ocean waters, air-sea exchange of Hg0, scavenging of HgIIaq onto sinking particles, and resupply of HgIIaq at depth by remineralization of sinking particles. Atmospheric boundary conditions are provided by a global simulation of the natural atmospheric Hg cycle in the GEOS-Chem model. In the surface ocean, the OFFTRAC model predicts global mean concentrations of 0.16 pM for total Hg, partitioned as 80% HgIIaq, 14% Hg0aq, and 6% HgPaq. Total Hg concentrations increase to 0.38 pM in the thermocline/intermediate waters (between the mixed layer and 1000 m depth) and 0.82 pM in deep waters (below 1000 m), reflecting removal of Hg from the surface to the subsurface ocean by particle sinking followed by remineralization at depth. Our model predicts that Hg concentrations in the deep North Pacific Ocean (>2000 m) are a factor of 2-3 higher than in the deep North Atlantic Ocean. This is the result of cumulative input of Hg from particle remineralization as deep waters transit from the North Atlantic to the North Pacific on their ~2000 year journey. The model is able to reproduce the relatively uniform concentrations of total Hg observed in the old deep waters of the North Pacific Ocean (observations: 1.2 ± 0.4 pM; model: 1.1 ± 0.04 pM) and Southern Ocean (observations: 1.1 ± 0.2 pM; model: 0.8 ± 0.02 pM). However, the modeled concentrations are factors of 5-6 too low compared to observed concentrations in the surface ocean and in the young water masses of the deep North Atlantic Ocean. This large underestimate for these regions implies a factor of 5-6 anthropogenic enhancement in Hg concentrations.
Optimal estimation of regional N2O emissions using a three-dimensional global model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, J.; Golombek, A.; Prinn, R.
2004-12-01
In this study, we use the MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) model and Kalman filtering techniques to optimally estimate N2O emissions from seven source regions around the globe. The MATCH model was used with NCEP assimilated winds at T62 resolution (192 longitude by 94 latitude surface grid, and 28 vertical levels) from July 1st 1996 to December 31st 2000. The average concentrations of N2O in the lowest four layers of the model were then compared with the monthly mean observations from six national/global networks (AGAGE, CMDL (HATS), CMDL (CCGG), CSIRO, CSIR and NIES), at 48 surface sites. A 12-month-running-mean smoother was applied to both the model results and the observations, due to the fact that the model was not able to reproduce the very small observed seasonal variations. The Kalman filter was then used to solve for the time-averaged regional emissions of N2O for January 1st 1997 to June 30th 2000. The inversions assume that the model stratospheric destruction rates, which lead to a global N2O lifetime of 130 years, are correct. It also assumes normalized emission spatial distributions from each region based on previous studies. We conclude that the global N2O emission flux is about 16.2 TgN/yr, with {34.9±1.7%} from South America and Africa, {34.6±1.5%} from South Asia, {13.9±1.5%} from China/Japan/South East Asia, {8.0±1.9%} from all oceans, {6.4±1.1%} from North America and North and West Asia, {2.6±0.4%} from Europe, and {0.9±0.7%} from New Zealand and Australia. The errors here include the measurement standard deviation, calibration differences among the six groups, grid volume/measurement site mis-match errors estimated from the model, and a procedure to account approximately for the modeling errors.
Evaluation and intercomparison of three-dimensional global marine carbon cycle models
Caldeira, K., LLNL
1998-07-01
The addition of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere from fossil fuel burning and deforestation has profound implications for the future of the earth`s climate and hence for humankind itself. Society is looking toward the community of environmental scientists to predict the consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide so that sound input can be provided to economists, environmental engineers, and, ultimately, policy makers. Environmental scientists have responded to this challenge through the creation of several ambitious, highly-coordinated programs, each focused on a different aspect of the climate system. Recognizing that numerical models, be they relatively simple statistical-empirical models or highly complex process-oriented models, are the only means for predicting the future of the climate system, all of these programs include the development of accurate, predictive models as a central goal. The Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) is one such program, and was built on the well-founded premise that biological, chemical and physical oceanographic processes have a profound influence on the C0{sub 2} content of the atmosphere. The, cap-stone, phase of JGOFS, the Synthesis and Modeling Project (SMP), is charged with the development of models that can be used in the prediction of future air-sea partitioning of C0{sub 2}. JGOFS, particularly the SMP phase, has a number of interim goals as well, including the determination of fluxes and inventories of carbon in the modern ocean that air germane to the air-sea partitioning of C0{sub 2}. Models have a role to play here too, because many of these fluxes and inventories, such as the distributions of anthropogenic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), new primary production and aphotic zone remineralization, while not amenable to direct observation on the large scale, can be determined using a variety of modeling approaches (Siegenthaler and Oeschger, 1987; Maier-Reimer and Hasselman, 1987, Bacastow and Maier
GLOBAL STAR FORMATION REVISITED
Silk, Joseph; Norman, Colin E-mail: norman@stsci.edu
2009-07-20
A general treatment of disk star formation is developed from a dissipative multiphase model, with the dominant dissipation due to cloud collisions. The Schmidt-Kennicutt (SK) law emerges naturally for star-forming disks and starbursts. We predict that there should be an inverse correlation between Tully-Fisher law and SK law residuals. The model is extended to include a multiphase treatment of supernova feedback that leads to a turbulent pressure-regulated generalization of the star formation law and is applicable to gas-rich starbursts. Enhanced pressure, as expected in merger-induced star formation, enhances star formation efficiency. An upper limit is derived for the disk star formation rate in starbursts that depends on the ratio of global ISM to cloud pressures. We extend these considerations to the case where the interstellar gas pressure in the inner galaxy is dominated by outflows from a central active galactic nucleus (AGN). During massive spheroid formation, AGN-driven winds trigger star formation, resulting in enhanced supernova feedback and outflows. The outflows are comparable to the AGN-boosted star formation rate and saturate in the super-Eddington limit. Downsizing of both SMBH and spheroids is a consequence of AGN-driven positive feedback. Bondi accretion feeds the central black hole with a specific accretion rate that is proportional to the black hole mass. AGN-enhanced star formation is mediated by turbulent pressure and relates spheroid star formation rate to black hole accretion rate. The relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion has a coefficient (Salpeter time to gas consumption time ratio) that provides an arrow of time. Highly efficient, AGN-boosted star formation can occur at high redshift.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuznetsova, M.M.; Sibeck, D.; Hesse, M.; Rastatter, L.; Toth, G.
2008-01-01
We performed high resolution global MHD simulations of THEMIS dayside crossings events in May -June 2007. We found that magnetopause surface is not in steady-state even during extended periods of steady solar wind conditions. The so-called tilted reconnection lines become unstable due to formation of pressure bubbles, strong core field flux tubes, vortices, and traveling magnetic field cavities. The topology of FTEs differ from that in two dimension cartoons representing obliquely oriented quasi-2D flux rope. The structure of FTE is changing at spatial scales of 1 -2 Re. Closely located space probes can observe completely different signatures. Branches of bent flux rope can move in opposite directions. THEMIS and Cluster observations are consistent with signatures predicted by simulations.
Strong ''Quantum'' Chaos in the Global Ballooning Mode Spectrum of Three-dimensional Plasmas
R. L. Dewar; P. Cuthbert; R. Ball
2000-11-29
The spectrum of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure-driven (ballooning) modes in strongly nonaxisymmetric toroidal systems is difficult to analyze numerically owing to the singular nature of ideal MHD caused by lack of an inherent scale length. In this paper, ideal MHD is regularized by using a k-space cutoff, making the ray tracing for the WKB ballooning formalism a chaotic Hamiltonian billiard problem. The minimum width of the toroidal Fourier spectrum needed for resolving toroidally localized ballooning modes with a global eigenvalue code is estimated from the Weyl formula. This phase-space-volume estimation method is applied to ballooning-unstable plasma equilibria in the H-1NF helical axis stellarator and the Large Helical Device (LHD).
Lara-Lopez, Maritza A.; Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R.; Hopkins, Andrew M.
2013-02-20
We demonstrate that the space formed by the star formation rate (SFR), gas-phase metallicity (Z), and stellar mass (M {sub *}) can be reduced to a plane, as first proposed by Lara-Lopez et al. We study three different approaches to find the best representation of this 3D space, using a principal component analysis (PCA), a regression fit, and binning of the data. The PCA shows that this 3D space can be adequately represented in only two dimensions, i.e., a plane. We find that the plane that minimizes the {chi}{sup 2} for all variables, and hence provides the best representation of the data, corresponds to a regression fit to the stellar mass as a function of SFR and Z, M {sub *}= f(Z, SFR). We find that the distribution resulting from the median values in bins for our data gives the highest {chi}{sup 2}. We also show that the empirical calibrations to the oxygen abundance used to derive the Fundamental Metallicity Relation have important limitations, which contribute to the apparent inconsistencies. The main problem is that these empirical calibrations do not consider the ionization degree of the gas. Furthermore, the use of the N2 index to estimate oxygen abundances cannot be applied for 12 + log(O/H) {approx}> 8.8 because of the saturation of the [N II] {lambda}6584 line in the high-metallicity regime. Finally, we provide an update of the Fundamental Plane derived by Lara-Lopez et al.
Atherton, C.S.
1995-01-05
Two of the most important chemically reactive tropospheric gases are ozone (O{sub 3}) and the hydroxyl radical (OH). Although ozone in the stratosphere is a necessary protector against the sun`s radiation, tropospheric ozone is actually a pollutant which damages materials and vegetation, acts as a respiratory irritant, and is a greenhouse gas. One of the two main sources of ozone in the troposphere is photochemical production. The photochemistry is initiated when hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) react with nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} = NO + NO{sub 2}) in the presence of sunlight. Reaction with the hydroxyl radical, OH, is the main sink for many tropospheric gases. The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive and has a lifetime on the order of seconds. Its formation is initiated by the photolysis of tropospheric ozone. Tropospheric chemistry involves a complex, non-linear set of chemical reactions between atmospheric species that vary substantially in time and space. To model these and other species on a global scale requires the use of a global, three-dimensional chemistry, transport, and deposition (CTD) model. In this work, I developed two such three dimensional CTD models. The first model incorporated the chemistry necessary to model tropospheric ozone production from the reactions of nitrogen oxides with carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH{sub 4}). The second also included longer-lived alkane species and the biogenic hydrocarbon isoprene, which is emitted by growing plants and trees. The models` ability to predict a number of key variables (including the concentration of O{sub 3}, OH, and other species) were evaluated. Then, several scenarios were simulated to understand the change in the chemistry of the troposphere since preindustrial times and the role of anthropogenic NO{sub x} on present day conditions.
NO(y) from sub-sonic aircraft emissions - A global three-dimensional model study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasibhatla, Prasad S.
1993-08-01
The 11-level Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global chemical transport model (GCTM), which explicitly treats NO(x), HNO3, and PAN as transported species, has been used to assess the impact of sub-sonic aircraft emissions on the distribution of reactive nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) in the atmosphere. A 3D aircraft source inventory compiled by Boeing and McDonnell Douglas has been used, in conjunction with previously compiled surface-based fossil-fuel combustion and stratospheric source inventories. Consistent with previous 2D model calculations, we find that aircraft emissions have a significant impact on upper tropospheric NO(x) and HNO3 budgets in the mid- and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The relative impact of the aircraft source on upper tropospheric NO(x) levels at mid- and high northern latitudes varies longitudinally, and that in certain regions the aircraft source dominates the total NO(x) budget. Aircraft emissions appear to only minimally impact the NO(y) budget in the Northern Hemisphere lower troposphere, and in much of the Southern Hemisphere. Comparisons of model results with NO(y) measurements at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, and over western Alaska suggest that sources other than surface-based fossil-fuel combustion, stratospheric NO(x) production, and aircraft emissions, are significant in determining the free tropospheric NO(y) budget in these regions.
Three-dimensional Kinetic-MHD Model of the Global Heliosphere with the Heliopause-surface Fitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izmodenov, V. V.; Alexashov, D. B.
2015-10-01
This paper provides a detailed description of the latest version of our model of the solar wind (SW) interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM). This model has already been applied to the analysis of Lyα absorption spectra toward nearby stars and for analyses of Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/SWAN data. Katushkina et al. (this issue) used the model results to analyze IBEX-Lo data. At the same time, the details of this model have not yet been published. This is a three-dimensional (3D) kinetic-magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) model that takes into account SW and interstellar plasmas (including α particles in SW and helium ions in LISM), the solar and interstellar magnetic fields, and interstellar hydrogen atoms. The latitudinal dependence of SW and the actual flow direction of the interstellar gas with respect to the Sun are also taken into account in the model. It was very essential that our numerical code was developed in such a way that any numerical diffusion or reconnection across the heliopause were not allowed in the model. The heliospheric current sheet is a rotational discontinuity in the ideal MHD and can be treated kinematically. In the paper, we focus in particular on the effects of the heliospheric magnetic field and on the heliolatitudinal dependence of SW.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Bu, Defu; Shang, Hsien; Gu, Pin-Gao
2014-07-01
The regular satellites found around Neptune (≈17 M ⊕) and Uranus (≈14.5 M ⊕) suggest that past gaseous circumplanetary disks may have co-existed with solids around sub-Neptune-mass protoplanets (<17 M ⊕). These disks have been shown to be cool, optically thin, and quiescent, with low surface densities and low viscosities. Numerical studies of the formation are difficult and technically challenging. As an introductory attempt, three-dimensional global simulations are performed to explore the formation of circumplanetary disks around sub-Neptune-mass protoplanets embedded within an isothermal protoplanetary disk at the inviscid limit of the fluid in the absence of self-gravity. Under such conditions, a sub-Neptune-mass protoplanet can reasonably have a rotationally supported circumplanetary disk. The size of the circumplanetary disk is found to be roughly one-tenth of the corresponding Hill radius, which is consistent with the orbital radii of irregular satellites found for Uranus. The protoplanetary gas accretes onto the circumplanetary disk vertically from high altitude and returns to the protoplanetary disk again near the midplane. This implies an open system in which the circumplanetary disk constantly exchanges angular momentum and material with its surrounding prenatal protoplanetary gas.
Wang, Hsiang-Hsu; Shang, Hsien; Gu, Pin-Gao; Bu, Defu
2014-07-20
The regular satellites found around Neptune (≈17 M{sub ⊕}) and Uranus (≈14.5 M{sub ⊕}) suggest that past gaseous circumplanetary disks may have co-existed with solids around sub-Neptune-mass protoplanets (<17 M{sub ⊕}). These disks have been shown to be cool, optically thin, and quiescent, with low surface densities and low viscosities. Numerical studies of the formation are difficult and technically challenging. As an introductory attempt, three-dimensional global simulations are performed to explore the formation of circumplanetary disks around sub-Neptune-mass protoplanets embedded within an isothermal protoplanetary disk at the inviscid limit of the fluid in the absence of self-gravity. Under such conditions, a sub-Neptune-mass protoplanet can reasonably have a rotationally supported circumplanetary disk. The size of the circumplanetary disk is found to be roughly one-tenth of the corresponding Hill radius, which is consistent with the orbital radii of irregular satellites found for Uranus. The protoplanetary gas accretes onto the circumplanetary disk vertically from high altitude and returns to the protoplanetary disk again near the midplane. This implies an open system in which the circumplanetary disk constantly exchanges angular momentum and material with its surrounding prenatal protoplanetary gas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, D.; Yan, X. Y.; Nishikawa, K.-I.; Lembege, B.
2006-06-01
The change of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction from northward to duskward has an important impact on the inner magnetosphere. This impact is analyzed with the help of a new parallel version of the global three-dimensional full particle simulation code. For northward IMF, bands of weak magnetic field (sash) form poleward of the cusp at high latitudes in each hemisphere. These sashes move to the equator (within opposite quadrants) as the IMF rotates duskward and merge into one another to form the characteristic ``Crosstail-S'' within the neutral sheet of the magnetotail. These macroscopic magnetic patterns (sashes and Crosstail-S) evidenced herein are in a good agreement with results of previous 3D MHD simulations and experimental observations. Moreover, the analysis of particle fluxes shows that ``sashes'' and ``Crosstail-S'' act as magnetic groove to facilitate the entry and injection of magnetosheath particles into the inner magnetosphere. Injected particles are accelerated after the IMF changes its direction from northward to duskward.
Agosti, Valeria; Vitale, Carmine; Avella, Dario; Rucco, Rosaria; Santangelo, Gabriella; Sorrentino, Pierpaolo; Varriale, Pasquale; Sorrentino, Giuseppe
2016-04-01
The Global Postural Reeducation (GPR) method is a physical therapy based on the stretching of antigravity muscle chains with the parallel enhancement of the basal tone of antagonistic muscles addressed to improve static and dynamic stability. Through a three-dimensional motion analysis (3DMA) system, our study aims to investigate whether in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients a GPR program results in a more physiological gait pattern. The kinematic parameters of gait of twenty subjects with clinically diagnosed PD were calculated. The patients were randomly assigned to a study (10 or control (10) group. All subjects underwent neurological and 3DMA assessments at entry time (t 0), at 4 weeks (t 1, end of GPR program), and at 8 and 12 weeks (t 2 and t 3, follow-up evaluation). The study group underwent a four-week GPR program, three times a week, for 40 min individual sessions. Kinematic gait parameters of thigh (T), knee (K) and ankle (A) and UPDRS-III scores were evaluated. At the end of the GPR program, we observed an improvement of the kinematic gait pattern, documented by the increase in KΔc and TΔc values that respectively express the flexion amplitude of knee and thigh. The amelioration was persistent at follow-up assessments, with a parallel enhancement in clinical parameters. GPR intervention shows a long-term efficacy on gait pattern in PD patients. Furthermore, we validated 3DMA as a valuable tool to study the kinematics of gait thus refining the understanding of the effects of specific rehabilitation programs. PMID:26700803
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balkanski, Yves J.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Gardner, Geraldine M.; Graustein, William C.; Turekian, Karl K.
1993-01-01
A global three-dimensional model is used to investigate the transport and tropospheric residence time of Pb-210, an aerosol tracer produced in the atmosphere by radioactive decay of Rn-222 emitted from soils. The model uses meteorological input with 4 deg x 5 deg horizontal resolution and 4-hour temporal resolution from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies general circulation model (GCM). It computes aerosol scavenging by convective precipitation as part of the wet convective mass transport operator in order to capture the coupling between vertical transport and rainout. Scavenging in convective precipitation accounts for 74% of the global Pb-210 sink in the model; scavenging in large-scale precipitation accounts for 12%, and scavenging in dry deposition accounts for 14%. The model captures 63% of the variance of yearly mean Pb-210 concentrations measured at 85 sites around the world with negligible mean bias, lending support to the computation of aerosol scavenging. There are, however, a number of regional and seasonal discrepancies that reflect in part anomalies in GCM precipitation. Computed residence times with respect to deposition for Pb-210 aerosol in the tropospheric column are about 5 days at southern midlatitudes and 10-15 days in the tropics; values at northern midlatitudes vary from about 5 days in winter to 10 days in summer. The residence time of Pb-210 produced in the lowest 0.5 km of atmosphere is on average four times shorter than that of Pb-210 produced in the upper atmosphere. Both model and observations indicate a weaker decrease of Pb-210 concentrations between the continental mixed layer and the free troposphere than is observed for total aerosol concentrations; an explanation is that Rn-222 is transported to high altitudes in wet convective updrafts, while aerosols and soluble precursors of aerosols are scavenged by precipitation in the updrafts. Thus Pb-210 is not simply a tracer of aerosols produced in the continental boundary layer, but
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tsugawa, T.; Nishi, N.; Odagi, Y.; Yoshida, D.
2009-12-01
Three-dimensional display of the Earth is a most effective way to impress audiences how the Earth looks and make them understand the Earth is one system. There are several projects to display global data on 3D globes, such as Science on a Sphere by NOAA and Geo Cosmos by Miraikan, Japan. They have made great successes to provide audiences opportunities to learn the geoscience outputs through feeling that they are standing in front of the "real" Earth. However, those systems are too large, complicated, and expensive to be used in classrooms and local science museums. We developed an easy method to display global geoscience data in three dimensions without any complex and expensive systems. The method uses a normal PC projector, a PC and a hemispheric screen. To display the geoscience data, virtual globe software, such as Google Earth and NASA World Wind, are used. The virtual globe software makes geometry conversion. That is, the fringe areas are shrunken as it is looked from the space. Thus, when the image made by the virtual globe is projected on the hemispheric screen, it is reversely converted to its original shape on the Earth. This method does not require any specific software, projectors and polarizing glasses to make 3D presentation of the Earth. Only a hemispheric screen that can be purchased with $50 for 60cm diameter is necessary. Dagik Earth is the project that develops and demonstrates the educational programs of geoscience in classrooms and science museums using this 3D Earth presentation method. We have developed a few programs on aurora and weather system, and demonstrated them in under-graduate level classes and science museums, such as National Museum of Nature and Science,Tokyo, Shizuoka Science Center and Kyoto University Museum, since 2007. Package of hardware, geoscience data plot, and textbook have been developed to be used as short-term rental to schools and science museums. Portability, low cost and easiness of development new contents are
Lopez-Camara, D.; Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2013-04-10
We present the results of special relativistic, adaptive mesh refinement, 3D simulations of gamma-ray burst jets expanding inside a realistic stellar progenitor. Our simulations confirm that relativistic jets can propagate and break out of the progenitor star while remaining relativistic. This result is independent of the resolution, even though the amount of turbulence and variability observed in the simulations is greater at higher resolutions. We find that the propagation of the jet head inside the progenitor star is slightly faster in 3D simulations compared to 2D ones at the same resolution. This behavior seems to be due to the fact that the jet head in 3D simulations can wobble around the jet axis, finding the spot of least resistance to proceed. Most of the average jet properties, such as density, pressure, and Lorentz factor, are only marginally affected by the dimensionality of the simulations and therefore results from 2D simulations can be considered reliable.
Nucci, M. C.; Busso, M. E-mail: busso@fisica.unipg.it
2014-06-01
The advection of thermonuclear ashes by magnetized domains emerging near the H shell was suggested to explain asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star abundances. Here we verify this idea quantitatively through exact MHD models. Starting with a simple two-dimensional (2D) geometry and in an inertia frame, we study plasma equilibria avoiding the complications of numerical simulations. We show that below the convective envelope of an AGB star, variable magnetic fields induce a natural expansion, permitted by the almost ideal MHD conditions, in which the radial velocity grows as the second power of the radius. We then study the convective envelope, where the complexity of macroturbulence allows only for a schematic analytical treatment. Here the radial velocity depends on the square root of the radius. We then verify the robustness of our results with 3D calculations for the velocity, showing that for both studied regions the solution previously found can be seen as a planar section of a more complex behavior, in which the average radial velocity retains the same dependency on the radius found in 2D. As a final check, we compare our results to approximate descriptions of buoyant magnetic structures. For realistic boundary conditions, the envelope crossing times are sufficient to disperse in the huge convective zone any material transported, suggesting magnetic advection as a promising mechanism for deep mixing. The mixing velocities are smaller than for convection but larger than for diffusion and adequate for extra mixing in red giants.
Ting, Claire S; Hsieh, Chyongere; Sundararaman, Sesh; Mannella, Carmen; Marko, Michael
2007-06-01
In an age of comparative microbial genomics, knowledge of the near-native architecture of microorganisms is essential for achieving an integrative understanding of physiology and function. We characterized and compared the three-dimensional architecture of the ecologically important cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus in a near-native state using cryo-electron tomography and found that closely related strains have diverged substantially in cellular organization and structure. By visualizing native, hydrated structures within cells, we discovered that the MED4 strain, which possesses one of the smallest genomes (1.66 Mbp) of any known photosynthetic organism, has evolved a comparatively streamlined cellular architecture. This strain possesses a smaller cell volume, an attenuated cell wall, and less extensive intracytoplasmic (photosynthetic) membrane system compared to the more deeply branched MIT9313 strain. Comparative genomic analyses indicate that differences have evolved in key structural genes, including those encoding enzymes involved in cell wall peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Although both strains possess carboxysomes that are polygonal and cluster in the central cytoplasm, the carboxysomes of MED4 are smaller. A streamlined cellular structure could be advantageous to microorganisms thriving in the low-nutrient conditions characteristic of large regions of the open ocean and thus have consequences for ecological niche differentiation. Through cryo-electron tomography we visualized, for the first time, the three-dimensional structure of the extensive network of photosynthetic lamellae within Prochlorococcus and the potential pathways for intracellular and intermembrane movement of molecules. Comparative information on the near-native structure of microorganisms is an important and necessary component of exploring microbial diversity and understanding its consequences for function and ecology. PMID:17449628
Bisikalo, D.; Kaygorodov, P.; Ionov, D.; Shematovich, V.; Lammer, H.; Fossati, L.
2013-02-10
Hubble Space Telescope transit observations in the near-UV performed in 2009 made WASP-12b one of the most 'mysterious' exoplanets; the system presents an early ingress, which can be explained by the presence of optically thick matter located ahead of the planet at a distance of {approx}4-5 planet radii. This work follows previous attempts to explain this asymmetry with an exospheric outflow or a bow shock, induced by a planetary magnetic field, and provides a numerical solution of the early ingress, though we did not perform any radiative transfer calculation. We performed pure 3D gas dynamic simulations of the plasma interaction between WASP-12b and its host star and describe the flow pattern in the system. In particular, we show that the overfilling of the planet's Roche lobe leads to a noticeable outflow from the upper atmosphere in the direction of the L{sub 1} and L{sub 2} points. Due to the conservation of the angular momentum, the flow to the L{sub 1} point is deflected in the direction of the planet's orbital motion, while the flow toward L{sub 2} is deflected in the opposite direction, resulting in a non-axisymmetric envelope, surrounding the planet. The supersonic motion of the planet inside the stellar wind leads to the formation of a bow shock with a complex shape. The existence of the bow shock slows down the outflow through the L{sub 1} and L{sub 2} points, allowing us to consider a long-living flow structure that is in the steady state.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Douglass, Anne R.; Rood, Richard B.; Jackman, Charles H.; Weaver, Clark J.
1994-01-01
Two-dimensional (zonally averaged) photochemical models are commonly used for calculations of ozone changes due to various perturbations. These include calculating the ozone change expected as a result of change in the lower stratospheric composition due to the exhaust of a fleet of supersonic aircraft flying in the lower stratosphere. However, zonal asymmetries are anticipated to be important to this sort of calculation. The aircraft are expected to be restricted from flying over land at supersonic speed due to sonic booms, thus the pollutant source will not be zonally symmetric. There is loss of pollutant through stratosphere/troposphere exchange, but these processes are spatially and temporally inhomogeneous. Asymmetry in the pollutant distribution contributes to the uncertainty in the ozone changes calculated with two dimensional models. Pollutant distributions for integrations of at least 1 year of continuous pollutant emissions along flight corridors are calculated using a three dimensional chemistry and transport model. These distributions indicate the importance of asymmetry in the pollutant distributions to evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on ozone. The implications of such pollutant asymmetries to assessment calculations are discussed, considering both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Do, T.; Martinez, G. D.; Yelda, S.; Ghez, A.; Bullock, J.; Kaplinghat, M.; Lu, J. R.; Peter, A. H. G.; Phifer, K.
2013-12-01
We present three-dimensional (3D) kinematic observations of stars within the central 0.5 pc of the Milky Way (MW) nuclear star cluster (NSC) using adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy from the Keck telescopes. Recent observations have shown that the cluster has a shallower surface density profile than expected for a dynamically relaxed cusp, leading to important implications for its formation and evolution. However, the true 3D profile of the cluster is unknown due to the difficulty in de-projecting the stellar number counts. Here, we use spherical Jeans modeling of individual proper motions and radial velocities to constrain, for the first time, the de-projected spatial density profile, cluster velocity anisotropy, black hole mass (M BH), and distance to the Galactic center (R 0) simultaneously. We find that the inner stellar density profile of the late-type stars, ρ(r)vpropr -γ, have a power law slope \\gamma =0.05_{-0.60}^{+0.29}, much more shallow than the frequently assumed Bahcall-Wolf slope of γ = 7/4. The measured slope will significantly affect dynamical predictions involving the cluster, such as the dynamical friction time scale. The cluster core must be larger than 0.5 pc, which disfavors some scenarios for its origin. Our measurement of M_{BH}=5.76_{-1.26}^{+1.76}\\times 10^6 M ⊙ and R_0=8.92_{-0.55}^{+0.58} kpc is consistent with that derived from stellar orbits within 1'' of Sgr A*. When combined with the orbit of S0-2, the uncertainty on R 0 is reduced by 30% (8.46_{-0.38}^{+0.42}\\ kpc). We suggest that the MW NSC can be used in the future in combination with stellar orbits to significantly improve constraints on R 0.
Richards, Mercedes T.; Agafonov, Michail I.; Sharova, Olga I. E-mail: agfn@nirfi.sci-nnov.ru
2012-11-20
Time-resolved H{alpha} spectra of magnetically active interacting binaries have been used to create three-dimensional (3D) Doppler tomograms by means of the Radioastronomical Approach. This is the first 3D reconstruction of {beta} Per, with RS Vul for comparison. These 3D tomograms have revealed evidence of the mass transfer process (gas stream, circumprimary emission, localized region, absorption zone), as well as loop prominences and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in {beta} Per and RS Vul that could not be discovered from two-dimensional tomograms alone. The gas stream in both binaries may have been deflected beyond the central plane by the donor star's magnetic field. The stream was more elongated along the predicted trajectory in RS Vul than in {beta} Per, but not as pronounced as in U CrB (stream state). The loop prominence reached maximum V{sub z} velocities of {+-}155 km s{sup -1} in RS Vul compared to {+-}120 km s{sup -1} in {beta} Per, while the CME reached a maximum V{sub z} velocity of +150 km s{sup -1} in RS Vul and +100 km s{sup -1} in {beta} Per. The 3D tomograms show that the gas flows are not symmetric relative to the central plane and are not confined to that plane, a result confirmed by recent 15 GHz VLBI radio images of {beta} Per. Both the 3D H{alpha} tomography and the VLBI radio images support an earlier prediction of the superhump phenomenon in {beta} Per: that the gas between the stars is threaded with a magnetic field even though the hot B8V mass-gaining star is not known to have a magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, Mark Z.; Ginnebaugh, Diana L.
2010-07-01
To date, gas photochemistry has not been simulated beyond a few hundred reactions in a three-dimensional (3-D) atmospheric model. Here, we treat 4675 gases and 13,626 tropospheric and stratospheric reactions in the 3-D GATOR-GCMOM climate-pollution model and compare results with data and with results from a condensed 152-gas/297-reaction mechanism when the model was nested at increasing resolution from the globe to California to Los Angeles. Gases included C1-C12 organic degradation products and H-, O-, N-, Cl-, Br-, Fl-, and S-containing inorganics. Organic reactions were from the Master Chemical Mechanism. Photolysis coefficients for 2644 photoprocesses and heating rates for 1909 photolyzing gases were solved with an online radiative code in each grid cell using quantum yield/cross section data over 86 UV/visible wavelengths. Spatial/temporal emissions of > 110 gases were derived from the 2005 U.S. National Emission Inventory. The condensed mechanism was a modified Carbon-Bond IV (MCBIV). Three-day simulation results indicate that the more-explicit mechanism reduced the O3 gross error against data versus the MCBIV error against data by only ˜2 percentage points (from 28.3% to 26.5%) and NO2 and HCHO by ˜6 percentage points in Los Angeles. While more-explicit photochemistry improved results, the condensed mechanism was not the main source of ozone error. The more explicit mechanism, which treated absorptive heating by more photolyzing gases, also resulted in a different magnitude of feedbacks to meteorological variables and back to gases themselves than did the less-explicit mechanism. The computer time for all processes in GATOR-GCMOM with the more explicit mechanism (solved with SMVGEAR II in all domains) was only ˜3.7 times that with the MCBIV despite the factors of 31 and 46 increases in numbers of species and reactions, respectively.
Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org
2012-09-01
It has been suggested that the transition between magnetorotationally active and dead zones in protoplanetary disks should be prone to the excitation of vortices via Rossby wave instability (RWI). However, the only numerical evidence for this has come from alpha disk models, where the magnetic field evolution is not followed, and the effect of turbulence is parameterized by Laplacian viscosity. We aim to establish the phenomenology of the flow in the transition in three-dimensional resistive-magnetohydrodynamical models. We model the transition by a sharp jump in resistivity, as expected in the inner dead zone boundary, using the PENCIL CODE to simulate the flow. We find that vortices are readily excited in the dead side of the transition. We measure the mass accretion rate finding similar levels of Reynolds stress at the dead and active zones, at the {alpha} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -2} level. The vortex sits in a pressure maximum and does not migrate, surviving until the end of the simulation. A pressure maximum in the active zone also triggers the RWI. The magnetized vortex that results should be disrupted by parasitical magneto-elliptic instabilities, yet it subsists in high resolution. This suggests that either the parasitic modes are still numerically damped or that the RWI supplies vorticity faster than they can destroy it. We conclude that the resistive transition between the active and dead zones in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, if sharp enough, can indeed excite vortices via RWI. Our results lend credence to previous works that relied on the alpha-disk approximation, and caution against the use of overly reduced azimuthal coverage on modeling this transition.
Thorstensen, Anders; Dalen, Håvard; Hala, Pavel; Kiss, Gabriel; D'hooge, Jan; Torp, Hans; Støylen, Asbjørn; Amundsen, Brage
2013-07-01
We aimed to compare three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography in the evaluation of patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI), using late-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (LE-MRI) as a reference method. Echocardiography and LE-MRI were performed approximately 1 month after first-time MI in 58 patients. Echocardiography was also performed on 35 healthy controls. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction by 3D echocardiography (3D-LVEF), 3D wall-motion score (WMS), 2D-WMS, 3D speckle tracking-based longitudinal, circumferential, transmural and area strain, and 2D speckle tracking-based longitudinal strain (LS) were measured. The global correlations to infarct size by LE-MRI were significantly higher (P < 0.03) for 3D-WMS and 2D-WMS compared with 3D-LVEF and the 4 different measurements of 3D strain, and 2D global longitudinal strain (GLS) was more closely correlated to LE-MRI than 3D GLS (P < 0.03). The segmental correlations to infarct size by LE-MRI were also significantly higher (P < 0.04) for 3D-WMS, 2D-WMS, and 2D LS compared with the other indices. Three-dimensional WMS showed a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 72% for identification of LV infarct size >12%, and a sensitivity of 73% and a specificity of 95% for identification of segments with transmural infarct extension. Three-dimensional WMS and 2D gray-scale echocardiography showed the strongest correlations to LE-MRI. The tested 3D strain method suffers from low temporal and spatial resolution in 3D acquisitions and added diagnostic value could not be proven. PMID:23347171
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golombek, A.; Prinn, R. G.
1986-01-01
The use of a three-dimensional spectral model to study the tropospheric and stratospheric circulation, chemistry, and photochemistry of the CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CH3CCl3, CCl4, and N2O atmospheric species is examined. The components of the model are described. Lifetime, regional, and global trends and budgets for the species are evaluated. Calculated horizontal, vertical, and temporal distributions of the atmospheric species are compared with observations; good correlation is detected. The differences observed between calculated and observed surface distributions of CH3CCl3 and the vertical distribution of CCl4 are analyzed. The calculated global atmospheric lifetimes of CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CCl4, and N2O are 73, 210, 48, and 182 years, respectively.
Assimilation of SeaWiFS Ocean Chlorophyll Data into a Three-Dimensional Global Ocean Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gregg, Watson W.
2005-01-01
Assimilation of satellite ocean color data is a relatively new phenomenon in ocean sciences. However, with routine observations from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), launched in late 1997, and now with new data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradometer (MODIS) Aqua, there is increasing interest in ocean color data assimilation. Here SeaWiFS chlorophyll data were assimilated with an established thre-dimentional global ocean model. The assimilation improved estimates of hlorophyll and primary production relative to a free-run (no assimilation) model. This represents the first attempt at ocean color data assimilation using NASA satellites in a global model. The results suggest the potential of assimilation of satellite ocean chlorophyll data for improving models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scott, D. K.; Neilsen, T. L.; Weston, C.; Frazier, C.; Smith, T.; Shumway, A.
2015-12-01
Global measurements of vertically-resolved atmospheric wind profiles offer the potential for improved weather forecasts and superior predictions of atmospheric wind patterns. A small-satellite constellation that uses a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) instrument onboard 12U CubeSats can provide measurements of global tropospheric wind profiles from space at a very low cost. These small satellites are called FTS CubeSats. This presentation will describe a spacecraft concept that provides a stable, robust platform to host the FTS payload. Of importance to the payload are power, data, station keeping, thermal, and accommodations that enable high spectral measurements to be made from a LEO orbit. The spacecraft concept draws on Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL) heritage and the recent success of the Dynamic Ionosphere Cubesat Experiment (DICE) and HyperAngular Rainbow Polarimeter (HARP) missions. Working with team members, SDL built a prototype observatory (spacecraft and payload) for testing and proof of concept.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rusomarov, N.; Kochukhov, O.; Piskunov, N.; Jeffers, S. V.; Johns-Krull, C. M.; Keller, C. U.; Makaganiuk, V.; Rodenhuis, M.; Snik, F.; Stempels, H. C.; Valenti, J. A.
2013-10-01
Context. High-resolution spectropolarimetric observations provide simultaneous information about stellar magnetic field topologies and three-dimensional distributions of chemical elements. High-quality spectra in the Stokes IQUV parameters are currently available for very few early-type magnetic chemically peculiar stars. Here we present analysis of a unique full Stokes vector spectropolarimetric data set, acquired for the cool magnetic Ap star HD 24712 with a recently commissioned spectropolarimeter. Aims: The goal of our work is to examine the circular and linear polarization signatures inside spectral lines and to study variation of the stellar spectrum and magnetic observables as a function of rotational phase. Methods: HD 24712 was observed with the HARPSpol instrument at the 3.6-m ESO telescope over a period of 2010-2011. We achieved full rotational phase coverage with 43 individual Stokes parameter observations. The resulting spectra have a signal-to-noise ratio of 300-600 and resolving power exceeding 105. The multiline technique of least-squares deconvolution (LSD) was applied to combine information from the spectral lines of Fe-peak and rare earth elements. Results: We used the HARPSPol spectra of HD 24712 to study the morphology of the Stokes profile shapes in individual spectral lines and in LSD Stokes profiles corresponding to different line masks. From the LSD Stokes V profiles we measured the longitudinal component of the magnetic field, ⟨Bz⟩, with an accuracy of 5-10 G. We also determined the net linear polarization from the LSD Stokes Q and U profiles. Combining previous ⟨Bz⟩ measurements with our data allowed us to determine an improved rotational period of the star, Prot = 12.45812 ± 0.00019 d. We also measured the longitudinal magnetic field from the cores of Hα and Hβ lines. The analysis of ⟨Bz⟩ measurements showed no evidence for a significant radial magnetic field gradient in the atmosphere of HD 24712. We used our ⟨Bz⟩ and
Do, T.; Martinez, G. D.; Bullock, J.; Kaplinghat, M.; Peter, A. H. G.; Yelda, S.; Ghez, A.; Phifer, K.; Lu, J. R.
2013-12-10
We present three-dimensional (3D) kinematic observations of stars within the central 0.5 pc of the Milky Way (MW) nuclear star cluster (NSC) using adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy from the Keck telescopes. Recent observations have shown that the cluster has a shallower surface density profile than expected for a dynamically relaxed cusp, leading to important implications for its formation and evolution. However, the true 3D profile of the cluster is unknown due to the difficulty in de-projecting the stellar number counts. Here, we use spherical Jeans modeling of individual proper motions and radial velocities to constrain, for the first time, the de-projected spatial density profile, cluster velocity anisotropy, black hole mass (M {sub BH}), and distance to the Galactic center (R {sub 0}) simultaneously. We find that the inner stellar density profile of the late-type stars, ρ(r)∝r {sup –γ}, have a power law slope γ=0.05{sub −0.60}{sup +0.29}, much more shallow than the frequently assumed Bahcall-Wolf slope of γ = 7/4. The measured slope will significantly affect dynamical predictions involving the cluster, such as the dynamical friction time scale. The cluster core must be larger than 0.5 pc, which disfavors some scenarios for its origin. Our measurement of M{sub BH}=5.76{sub −1.26}{sup +1.76}×10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} and R{sub 0}=8.92{sub −0.55}{sup +0.58} kpc is consistent with that derived from stellar orbits within 1'' of Sgr A*. When combined with the orbit of S0-2, the uncertainty on R {sub 0} is reduced by 30% (8.46{sub −0.38}{sup +0.42} kpc). We suggest that the MW NSC can be used in the future in combination with stellar orbits to significantly improve constraints on R {sub 0}.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strahan, Susan E.; Douglass, Anne R.
2004-01-01
The Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) has integrated two 36-year simulations of an ozone recovery scenario with an offline chemistry and tra nsport model using two different meteorological inputs. Physically ba sed diagnostics, derived from satellite and aircraft data sets, are d escribed and then used to evaluate the realism of temperature and transport processes in the simulations. Processes evaluated include barri er formation in the subtropics and polar regions, and extratropical w ave-driven transport. Some diagnostics are especially relevant to sim ulation of lower stratospheric ozone, but most are applicable to any stratospheric simulation. The global temperature evaluation, which is relevant to gas phase chemical reactions, showed that both sets of me teorological fields have near climatological values at all latitudes and seasons at 30 hPa and below. Both simulations showed weakness in upper stratospheric wave driving. The simulation using input from a g eneral circulation model (GMI(GCM)) showed a very good residual circulation in the tropics and Northern Hemisphere. The simulation with inp ut from a data assimilation system (GMI(DAS)) performed better in the midlatitudes than it did at high latitudes. Neither simulation forms a realistic barrier at the vortex edge, leading to uncertainty in the fate of ozone-depleted vortex air. Overall, tracer transport in the offline GML(GCM) has greater fidelity throughout the stratosphere tha n it does in the GMI(DAS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tassara, Andrés.; Echaurren, Andrés.
2012-04-01
We present an upgraded version of a previously published 3-D density model of the Andean subduction zone between 18°S and 45°S. This model consists of 3-D bodies of constant density, which geometry is constrained by independent seismic data and is triangulated from vertical cross-sections. These bodies define the first-order morphology and internal structure of the subducted Nazca slab and South American Plate. The new version of the density model results after forward modelling the Bouguer anomaly as computed from the most recent version of the Earth Gravitational Model (EGM2008). The 3-D density model incorporates new seismic information to better constrain the geometry of the subducted slab and continental Moho (CMH) and has a trench-parallel resolution doubling the resolution of the previous model. As an example of the potential utility of our model, we compare the geometry of the subducted slab and CMH against the corresponding global models Slab1.0 and Crust2.0, respectively. This exercise demonstrates that, although global models provide a good first-order representation of the slab and upper-plate crustal geometries, they show large discrepancies (up to ±40 km) with our upgraded model for some well-constrained areas. The geometries of the slab, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary below the continent, CMH and intracrustal density discontinuity that we present here as Supporting Information can be used to study Andean geodynamic processes from a wide range of quantitative approaches.
Easter, R.C.; Saylor, R.D.; Chapman, E.G.
1993-12-01
The GChM atmospheric chemistry and transport model has been used to analyze the mid-tropospheric CO dataset obtained from NASA`s Measurement of Air Pollution by Satellites (MAPS) program. Fourteen simulations with a 3.75 horizontal resolution have been performed, including a base case and 13 sensitivity runs. The model reproduces many, but not all, of the major features of the MAPS dataset. Locations of peak CO mixing ratios associated with biomass burning as observed in the MAPS experiment are slightly farther south than the model result, indicating either greater horizontal transport than present in the model representation or a spatial difference between the location of modeled biomass fires and actual fires. The current version of GChM was shown to be relatively insensitive to the magnitude of the prescribed NO{sub x} and O{sub 3} global distributions and very insensitive to the depth of the mixed layer as parameterized in the model. Cloud convective transport was shown to play an important role in venting boundary layer CO to the free troposphere. This result agrees with prior meteorological analyses of the MAPS dataset that have-indirectly inferred the presence of convective activity through satellite-based information. Work is continuing to analyze the results of these simulations further and to perform more detailed comparisons between model results and MAPS data.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cai, DongSheng; Tao, Weinfeng; Yan, Xiaoyang; Lembege, Bertrand; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi
2007-01-01
Using a three-dimensional full electromagnetic particle model (EMPM), we have performed global simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and the terrestrial magnetosphere, and have investigated its asymptotic stability. The distance between the dayside magnetopause subsolar point and the Earth center, R(sub mp) is measured, as the intensity of southward IMF |B(sub z)| is slowly varying. Based on the field topology theory, one analyzes the variation of R(sub mp) as a reference index of the dynamics of this interaction, when IMF |B(sub z)| successively increases and decreases to its original value. Two striking results are observed. First, as the IMF |B(sub z)| increases above a critical value, the variation of R(sub mp) suddenly changes (so called 'bifurcation' process in field topology). Above this critical value, the overall magnetic field topology changes drastically and is identified as being the signature of magnetic reconnection at the subsolar point on the magnetopause. Second, this subsolar point recovers its original location R(sub mp) by following different paths as the IMF |B(sub z)| value increases (from zero to a maximum fixed value) and decreases (from this maximum to zero) passing through some critical values. These different paths are the signature of 'hysteresis' effect, and are characteristic of the so-called 'subcritical-type' bifurcation. This hysteresis signature indicates that dissipation processes take place via an energy transfer from the solar wind to the magnetosphere by some irreversible way, which leads to a drastic change in the magnetospheric field topology. This hysteresis is interpreted herein as a consequence of the magnetic reconnection taking place at the dayside magnetopause. The field topology reveals to be a very powerful tool to analyze the signatures of three-dimensional magnetic reconnection without the obligation for determining the mechanisms responsible for, and the consequences of the reconnection on the
Three-dimensional sonoembryology.
Benoit, Bernard; Hafner, Tomislav; Kurjak, Asim; Kupesić, Sanja; Bekavac, Ivanka; Bozek, Tomislav
2002-01-01
Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plays an important role in obstetrics, predominantly for assessing fetal anatomy. Presenting volume data in a standard anatomic orientation valuably assists both ultrasonographers and pregnant patients to recognize the anatomy more readily. Three-dimensional ultrasound is advantageous in studying normal embryonic and/or fetal development, as well as providing information for families at risk for specific congenital anomalies by confirming normality. This method offers advantages in assessing the embryo in the first trimester due to its ability to obtain multiplanar images through endovaginal volume acquisition. Rotation allows the systematic review of anatomic structures and early detection of fetal anomalies. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging in vivo compliments pathologic and histologic evaluation of the developing embryo, giving rise to a new term: 3D sonoembryology. Rapid technological development will allow real-time 3D ultrasound to provide improved and expanded patient care on the one side, and increased knowledge of developmental anatomy on the other. PMID:11933658
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, John A.; Brasseur, G. P.; Zimmerman, P. R.; Cicerone, R. J.
1991-01-01
Sources and sinks of methane and methyl chloroform are investigated using a global three-dimensional Lagrangian tropospheric tracer transport model with parameterized hydroxyl and temperature fields. Using the hydroxyl radical field calibrated to the methyl chloroform observations, the globally averaged release of methane and its spatial and temporal distribution were investigated. Two source function models of the spatial and temporal distribution of the flux of methane to the atmosphere were developed. The first model was based on the assumption that methane is emitted as a proportion of net primary productivity (NPP). The second model identified source regions for methane from rice paddies, wetlands, enteric fermentation, termites, and biomass burning based on high-resolution land use data. The most significant difference between the two models were predictions of methane fluxes over China and South East Asia, the location of most of the world's rice paddies, indicating that either the assumption that a uniform fraction of NPP is converted to methane is not valid for rice paddies, or that NPP is underestimated for rice paddies, or that present methane emission estimates from rice paddies are too high.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takenaka, H.; Komatsu, M.; Toyokuni, G.; Nakamura, T.; Okamoto, T.
2015-12-01
A simple and efficient finite-difference scheme is developed to compute seismic wave propagation for a partial spherical shell model of a three-dimensionally (3-D) heterogeneous global earth structure. This new scheme solves the elastodynamic equations in the "quasi-Cartesian" coordinate system similar to a local Cartesian one, instead of the spherical coordinate system, with a staggered-grid finite-difference method in time domain (FDTD) which is one of the most popular numerical methods in seismic motion simulations for local to regional scale models. The proposed scheme may be useful for modeling seismic wave propagation in a very large region of sub-global scale beyond regional and less than global ones, where the effects of roundness of earth cannot be ignored. In "quasi-Cartesian" coordinates, x, y, and z are set to be locally in directions of latitude, longitude and depth, respectively. The stencil for each of the x-derivatives then depends on the depth coordinate at the evaluation point, while the stencil for each of the y-derivatives varies with both coordinates of the depth and latitude. In order to reduce lateral variations of the horizontal finite-difference stencils over the computational domain, we move the target area to a location around the equator of the computational spherical coordinate system using a way similar to the conversion from equatorial coordinates to ecliptic coordinates. The developed scheme can be easily implemented in 3-D Cartesian FDTD codes for local to regional scale modeling by changing a very small part of the codes. Our scheme may be able to open a window for multi-scale modeling of seismic wave propagation in scales from sub-global to local one.
Three-dimensional metamaterials
Burckel, David Bruce
2012-06-12
A fabrication method is capable of creating canonical metamaterial structures arrayed in a three-dimensional geometry. The method uses a membrane suspended over a cavity with predefined pattern as a directional evaporation mask. Metallic and/or dielectric material can be evaporated at high vacuum through the patterned membrane to deposit resonator structures on the interior walls of the cavity, thereby providing a unit cell of micron-scale dimension. The method can produce volumetric metamaterial structures comprising layers of such unit cells of resonator structures.
Three Dimensional Dirac Semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaheer, Saad
2014-03-01
Dirac points on the Fermi surface of two dimensional graphene are responsible for its unique electronic behavior. One can ask whether any three dimensional materials support similar pseudorelativistic physics in their bulk electronic spectra. This possibility has been investigated theoretically and is now supported by two successful experimental demonstrations reported during the last year. In this talk, I will summarize the various ways in which Dirac semimetals can be realized in three dimensions with primary focus on a specific theory developed on the basis of representations of crystal spacegroups. A three dimensional Dirac (Weyl) semimetal can appear in the presence (absence) of inversion symmetry by tuning parameters to the phase boundary separating a bulk insulating and a topological insulating phase. More generally, we find that specific rules governing crystal symmetry representations of electrons with spin lead to robust Dirac points at high symmetry points in the Brillouin zone. Combining these rules with microscopic considerations identifies six candidate Dirac semimetals. Another method towards engineering Dirac semimetals involves combining crystal symmetry and band inversion. Several candidate materials have been proposed utilizing this mechanism and one of the candidates has been successfully demonstrated as a Dirac semimetal in two independent experiments. Work carried out in collaboration with: Julia A. Steinberg, Steve M. Young, J.C.Y. Teo, C.L. Kane, E.J. Mele and Andrew M. Rappe.
Three-Dimensional Icosahedral Phase Field Quasicrystal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanian, P.; Archer, A. J.; Knobloch, E.; Rucklidge, A. M.
2016-08-01
We investigate the formation and stability of icosahedral quasicrystalline structures using a dynamic phase field crystal model. Nonlinear interactions between density waves at two length scales stabilize three-dimensional quasicrystals. We determine the phase diagram and parameter values required for the quasicrystal to be the global minimum free energy state. We demonstrate that traits that promote the formation of two-dimensional quasicrystals are extant in three dimensions, and highlight the characteristics required for three-dimensional soft matter quasicrystal formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Hongyu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.
2001-06-01
The atmospheric distributions of the aerosol tracers 210Pb and 7Be are simulated with a global three-dimensional model driven by assimilated meteorological observations for 1991-1996 from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS1). The combination of terrigenic 210Pb and cosmogenic 7Be provides a sensitive test of wet deposition and vertical transport in the model. Our simulation of moist transport and removal includes scavenging in wet convective updrafts (40% scavenging efficiency per kilometer of updraft), midlevel entrainment and detrainment, first-order rainout and washout from both convective anvils and large-scale precipitation, and cirrus precipitation. Observations from surface sites in specific years are compared to model results for the corresponding meteorological years, and observations from aircraft missions over the Pacific are compared to model results for the days of the flights. Initial simulation of 7Be showed that cross-tropopause transport in the GEOS1 meteorological fields is too fast by a factor of 3-4. We adjusted the stratospheric 7Be source to correct the tropospheric simulation. Including this correction, we find that the model gives a good simulation of observed 210Pb and 7Be concentrations and deposition fluxes at surface sites worldwide, with no significant global bias and with significant success in reproducing the observed latitudinal and seasonal distributions. We achieve several improvements over previous models; in particular, we reproduce the observed 7Be minimum in the tropics and show that its simulation is sensitive to rainout from convective anvils. Comparisons with aircraft observations up to 12-km altitude suggest that cirrus precipitation could be important for explaining the low concentrations in the middle and upper troposphere.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Hong-Yu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.
2001-01-01
The atmospheric distributions of the aerosol tracers Pb-210 and Be-7 are simulated with a global three-dimensional model driven by assimilated meteorological observations for 1991-1996 from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOSl). The combination of terrigenic Pb-210 and cosmogenic Be-7 provides a sensitive test of wet deposition and vertical transport in the model. Our simulation of moist transport and removal includes scavenging in wet convective updrafts (40% scavenging efficiency per kilometer of updraft), midlevel entrainment and detrainment, first-order rainout and washout from both convective anvils and large-scale precipitation, and cirrus precipitation. Observations from surface sites in specific years are compared to model results for the corresponding meteorological years, and observations from aircraft missions over the Pacific are compared to model results for the days of the flights. Initial simulation of Be-7 showed that cross-tropopause transport in the GEOSl meteorological fields is too fast by a factor of 3-4. We adjusted the stratospheric Be-7 source to correct the tropospheric simulation. Including this correction, we find that the model gives a good simulation of observed Pb-210 and Be-7 concentrations and deposition fluxes at surface sites worldwide, with no significant global bias and with significant success in reproducing the observed latitudinal and seasonal distributions. We achieve several improvements over previous models; in particular, we reproduce the observed Be-7 minimum in the tropics and show that its simulation is sensitive to rainout from convective anvils. Comparisons with aircraft observations up to 12-km altitude suggest that cirrus precipitation could be important for explaining the low concentrations in the middle and upper troposphere.
Three dimensional interactive display
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vranish, John M. (Inventor)
2005-01-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) interactive display and method of forming the same, includes a transparent capaciflector (TC) camera formed on a transparent shield layer on the screen surface. A first dielectric layer is formed on the shield layer. A first wire layer is formed on the first dielectric layer. A second dielectric layer is formed on the first wire layer. A second wire layer is formed on the second dielectric layer. Wires on the first wire layer and second wire layer are grouped into groups of parallel wires with a turnaround at one end of each group and a sensor pad at the opposite end. An operational amplifier is connected to each of the sensor pads and the shield pad biases the pads and receives a signal from connected sensor pads in response to intrusion of a probe. The signal is proportional to probe location with respect to the monitor screen.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yüce, Kutluay; Adelman, Saul J.
2014-04-01
Detailed analyses of high-dispersion, high signal-to-noise spectra enable astronomers to infer many stellar properties. We study nonmagnetic normal and chemically peculiar B, A, and F stars to understand the details of their optical region abundances via graphical techniques using two kinds of figures for 32 elements. By characterizing the anomalies of the mercury-manganese (HgMn) and the metallic-line (Am) stars, we provide major theoretical tests. We confirmed the known Hg dichotomy between HgMn stars, which are greatly overabundant, and the Am stars with normal abundances. Further P, Ga, Xe, Pt, and Au values were only overabundant for some HgMn stars, and lines of the rare earth elements, such as Sm and Eu, were seen only in some Am and normal stars. These observations might be due in some cases to changes in the major ionization state of atoms in the relevant stellar atmosphere. That some HgMn stars with large Ga overabundances have positions close in the H-R diagram to HgMn stars that lack Ga II lines in the optical region suggests a dichotomy similar to Hg with a boundary close to, but not identical, to that for Hg. The spread of the abundance anomalies for a given element tends to be smaller among the Am stars than among the HgMn stars. Star-to-star differences are superimposed upon abundance trends.
Sun, Minmin; Kang, Yu; Cheng, Leilei; Pan, Cuizhen; Cao, Xuesen; Yao, Haohua; Dong, Lili; Shu, Xianhong
2016-05-01
The aim of this study was to investigate subclinical LV changes in patients with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) using three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3DSTE) and to explore its prognostic value. A total of 88 individuals were consecutively enrolled, including 66 subjects with MHD and 22 age- and sex-matched controls. Conventional and Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography was performed and analyzed. Left ventricular volume, strain and time parameters were calculated and compared. The MHD cohort was then followed to record cardiovascular events (CVE). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of CVE. Compared with the controls, MHD patients had significantly lower global longitudinal and radial strain (GLS and GRS), and LVEF (GLS: -17.0 ± 2.3 vs -18.8 ± 2.3 %; GRS: 37.0 ± 3.5 vs 39.4 ± 3.4 %; LVEF: 57.3 ± 4.2 vs 59.5 ± 3.5 %, p < 0.05 for all), as well as enlarged LV volume (EDV: 51.3 ± 14.2 vs 40.4 ± 7.3 ml/m(2); ESV: 22.0 ± 6.9 vs 16.3 ± 3.2 ml/m(2); SV: 29.2 ± 8.0 vs 24.0 ± 4.7 ml/m(2), p < 0.01 for all) and LV mass index (LVMi) (107.7 ± 28.6 vs 83.7 ± 20.6 g/m(2)). Time to minimum end-systolic volume and to peak longitudinal strain (T-msv and T-ls) were delayed in the MHD group (T-msv: 38.1 ± 5.2 vs 41.4 ± 6.4 %; T-ls: 38.1 ± 4.6 vs 42.1 ± 6.8 %, p < 0.05). Systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI) of the MHD group was significant larger than that of the controls (6.4 ± 1.5 vs 4.9 ± 1.8 %, p < 0.01). CVE occurred in 23 patients within a follow-up of 2 years. GLS and LVMi remained significant predictors of CVE [OR = 3.94, 95 % CI (1.33-11.66) for GLS and OR = 1.04, 95 % CI (1.01-1.07) for LVMi, p = 0.013 and 0.009, respectively]. Subclinical LV deformation and dysfunction exist in MHD patients with preserved LVEF. GLS and LVMi are two important predictors of CVE in MHD patients. Strain assessment in
Three dimensional Dirac semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaheer, Saad
We extend the physics of graphene to three dimensional systems by showing that Dirac points can exist on the Fermi surface of realistic materials in three dimensions. Many of the exotic electronic properties of graphene can be ascribed to the pseudorelativistic behavior of its charge carriers due to two dimensional Dirac points on the Fermi surface. We show that certain nonsymmorphic spacegroups exhibit Dirac points among the irreducible representations of the appropriate little group at high symmetry points on the surface of the Brillouin zone. We provide a list of all Brillouin zone momenta in the 230 spacegroups that can host Dirac points. We describe microscopic considerations necessary to design materials in one of the candidate spacegroups such that the Dirac point appears at the Fermi energy without any additional non-Dirac-like Fermi pockets. We use density functional theory based methods to propose six new Dirac semimetals: BiO 2 and SbO2 in the beta-cristobalite lattice (spacegroup 227), and BiCaSiO4, BiMgSiO4, BiAlInO 4, and BiZnSiO4 in the distorted spinels lattice (spacegroup 74). Additionally we derive effective Dirac Hamiltonians given group representative operators as well as tight binding models incorporating spin-orbit coupling. Finally we study the Fermi surface of zincblende (spacegroup 216) HgTe which is effectively point-like at Gamma in the Brillouin zone and exhibits accidental degeneracies along a threefold rotation axis. Whereas compressive strain gaps the band structure into a topological insulator, tensile strain shifts the accidental degeneracies away from Gamma and enlarges the Fermi surface. States on the Fermi surface exhibit nontrivial spin texture marked by winding of spins around the threefold rotation axis and by spin vortices indicating a change in the winding number. This is confirmed by microscopic calculations performed in tensile strained HgTe and Hg0.5Zn 0.5 Te as well as k.p theory. We conclude with a summary of recent
Topology of three-dimensional separated flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobak, M.; Peake, D. J.
1981-01-01
Based on the hypothesis that patterns of skin-friction lines and external streamlines reflect the properties of continuous vector fields, topology rules define a small number of singular points (nodes, saddle points, and foci) that characterize the patterns on the surface and on particular projections of the flow (e.g., the crossflow plane). The restricted number of singular points and the rules that they obey are considered as an organizing principle whose finite number of elements can be combined in various ways to connect together the properties common to all steady three dimensional viscous flows. Introduction of a distinction between local and global properties of the flow resolves an ambiguity in the proper definition of a three dimensional separated flow. Adoption of the notions of topological structure, structural stability, and bifurcation provides a framework to describe how three dimensional separated flows originate and succeed each other as the relevant parameters of the problem are varied.
Three-dimensional separation and reattachment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.
1982-01-01
The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be constrained as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.
Three-dimensional separation and reattachment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peake, D. J.; Tobak, M.
1982-01-01
The separation of three dimensional turbulent boundary layers from the lee of flight vehicles at high angles of attack is investigated. The separation results in dominant, large scale, coiled vortex motions that pass along the body in the general direction of the free stream. In all cases of three dimensional flow separation and reattachment, the assumption of continuous vector fields of skin friction lines and external flow streamlines, coupled with simple laws of topology, provides a flow grammar whose elemental constituents are the singular points: the nodes, spiral nodes (foci), and saddles. The phenomenon of three dimensional separation may be construed as either a local or a global event, depending on whether the skin friction line that becomes a line of separation originates at a node or a saddle point.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roche, Nathan; Humphrey, Andrew; Lagos, Patricio; Papaderos, Polychronis; Silva, Marckelson; Cardoso, Leandro S. M.; Gomes, Jean Michel
2016-07-01
We observe the radio galaxy PKS 1934-63 (at z = 0.1825) using the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The radio source is a gigahertz peaked spectrum source and is compact (0.13 kpc), implying an early stage of evolution (≤104 yr). Our data show an interacting pair of galaxies, with projected separation 9.1 kpc and velocity difference Δ(v) = 216 km s-1. The larger galaxy is a M* ≃ 1011 M⊙ spheroidal with the emission-line spectrum of a high-excitation young radio active galactic nucleus (AGN; e.g. strong [O I]6300 and [O III]5007). Emission-line ratios indicate a large contribution to the line luminosity from high-velocity shocks (≃ 550 km s-1). The companion is a non-AGN disc galaxy, with extended Hα emission from which its star formation rate is estimated as 0.61 M⊙ yr-1. Both galaxies show rotational velocity gradients in Hα and other lines, with the interaction being prograde-prograde. The SE-NW velocity gradient of the AGN host is misaligned from the E-W radio axis, but aligned with a previously discovered central ultraviolet source, and a factor of 2 greater in amplitude in Hα than in other (forbidden) lines (e.g. [O III]5007). This could be produced by a fast rotating (100-150 km s-1) disc with circumnuclear star formation. We also identify a broad component of [O III]5007 emission, blueshifted with a velocity gradient aligned with the radio jets, and associated with outflow. However, the broad component of [O I]6300 is redshifted. In spectral fits, both galaxies have old stellar populations plus ˜0.1 per cent of very young stars, consistent with the galaxies undergoing first perigalacticon, triggering infall and star formation from ˜40 Myr ago followed by the radio outburst.
Three-Dimensional Messages for Interstellar Communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vakoch, Douglas A.
One of the challenges facing independently evolved civilizations separated by interstellar distances is to communicate information unique to one civilization. One commonly proposed solution is to begin with two-dimensional pictorial representations of mathematical concepts and physical objects, in the hope that this will provide a foundation for overcoming linguistic barriers. However, significant aspects of such representations are highly conventional, and may not be readily intelligible to a civilization with different conventions. The process of teaching conventions of representation may be facilitated by the use of three-dimensional representations redundantly encoded in multiple formats (e.g., as both vectors and as rasters). After having illustrated specific conventions for representing mathematical objects in a three-dimensional space, this method can be used to describe a physical environment shared by transmitter and receiver: a three-dimensional space defined by the transmitter--receiver axis, and containing stars within that space. This method can be extended to show three-dimensional representations varying over time. Having clarified conventions for representing objects potentially familiar to both sender and receiver, novel objects can subsequently be depicted. This is illustrated through sequences showing interactions between human beings, which provide information about human behavior and personality. Extensions of this method may allow the communication of such culture-specific features as aesthetic judgments and religious beliefs. Limitations of this approach will be noted, with specific reference to ETI who are not primarily visual.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrovolskas, V.; Kučinskas, A.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Spite, M.
2015-04-01
Context. Although oxygen is an important tracer of Galactic chemical evolution, measurements of its abundance in the atmospheres of the oldest Galactic stars are still scarce and rather imprecise. This is mainly because only a few spectral lines are available for the abundance diagnostics. At the lowest end of the metallicity scale, oxygen can only be measured in giant stars and in most of cases such measurements rely on a single forbidden [O i] 630 nm line that is very weak and frequently blended with telluric lines. Although molecular OH lines located in the ultraviolet and infrared could also be used for the diagnostics, oxygen abundances obtained from the OH lines and the [O i] 630 nm line are usually discrepant to a level of ~ 0.3-0.4 dex. Aims: We study the influence of convection on the formation of the infrared (IR) OH lines and the forbidden [O i] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of extremely metal-poor (EMP) red giant stars. Our ultimate goal is to clarify whether a realistic treatment of convection with state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres may help to bring the oxygen abundances obtained using the two indicators into closer agreement. Methods: We used high-resolution (R = 50 000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 200-600) spectra of four EMP red giant stars obtained with the VLT CRIRES spectrograph. For each EMP star, 4-14 IR OH vibrational-rotational lines located in the spectral range of 1514-1548 and 1595-1632 nm were used to determine oxygen abundances by employing standard 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis methodology. We then corrected the 1D LTE abundances obtained from each individual OH line for the 3D hydrodynamical effects, which was done by applying 3D-1D LTE abundance corrections that were determined using 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD and 1D hydrostatic LHD model atmospheres. Results: We find that the influence of convection on the formation of [O i] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of EMP giants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kučinskas, A.; Steffen, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Dobrovolskas, V.; Ivanauskas, A.; Klevas, J.; Prakapavičius, D.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.
2013-01-01
Aims: We investigate the role of convection in the formation of atomic and molecular lines in the atmosphere of a red giant star. For this purpose we study the formation properties of spectral lines that belong to a number of astrophysically important tracer elements, including neutral and singly ionized atoms (Li I, N I, O I, Na I, Mg I, Al I, Si I, Si II, S I, K I, Ca I, Ca II, Ti I, Ti II, Cr I, Cr II, Mn I, Fe I, Fe II, Co I, Ni I, Zn I, Sr II, Ba II, and Eu II), and molecules (CH, CO, C2, NH, CN, and OH). Methods: We focus our investigation on a prototypical red giant located close to the red giant branch (RGB) tip (Teff = 3660 K, log g = 1.0, [M/H] = 0.0). We used two types of model atmospheres, 3D hydrodynamical and classical 1D, calculated with the CO5BOLD and LHD stellar atmosphere codes, respectively. Both codes share the same atmospheric parameters, chemical composition, equation of state, and opacities, which allowed us to make a strictly differential comparison between the line formation properties predicted in 3D and 1D. The influence of convection on the spectral line formation was assessed with the aid of 3D-1D abundance corrections, which measure the difference between the abundances of chemical species derived with the 3D hydrodynamical and 1D classical model atmospheres. Results: We find that convection plays a significant role in the spectral line formation in this particular red giant. The derived 3D-1D abundance corrections rarely exceed ± 0.1 dex when lines of neutral atoms and molecules are considered, which is in line with the previous findings for solar-metallicity red giants located on the lower RGB. The situation is different with lines that belong to ionized atoms, or to neutral atoms with high ionization potential. In both cases, the corrections for high-excitation lines (χ > 8 eV) may amount to Δ3D-1D ~ -0.4 dex. The 3D-1D abundance corrections generally show a significant wavelength dependence; in most cases they are smaller in
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Brian R.
2012-01-01
A novel, efficient air data calibration method is proposed for aircraft with limited envelopes. This method uses output-error optimization on three-dimensional inertial velocities to estimate calibration and wind parameters. Calibration parameters are based on assumed calibration models for static pressure, angle of attack, and flank angle. Estimated wind parameters are the north, east, and down components. The only assumptions needed for this method are that the inertial velocities and Euler angles are accurate, the calibration models are correct, and that the steady-state component of wind is constant throughout the maneuver. A two-minute maneuver was designed to excite the aircraft over the range of air data calibration parameters and de-correlate the angle-of-attack bias from the vertical component of wind. Simulation of the X-48B (The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) aircraft was used to validate the method, ultimately using data derived from wind-tunnel testing to simulate the un-calibrated air data measurements. Results from the simulation were accurate and robust to turbulence levels comparable to those observed in flight. Future experiments are planned to evaluate the proposed air data calibration in a flight environment.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golombek, Amram; Prinn, Ronald G.
1989-01-01
The annual percentage increases in concentrations of the chlorofluorocarbons CFC-113 (an industrial solvent) and CFC-22 (a refrigerant) are the highest among major chlorofluorocarbons in the atmosphere today. The present-day atmospheric lifetimes for these species are computed using a global three-dimensional dynamical-chemical model. The present-day lifetimes of both are long (15.5 years for CFC-22 and 136 or 195 years for CFC-113, depending on assumed O2 absorption cross sections), underscoring the need to decrease their emissions in order to minimize their future role in ozone destruction and greenhouse warming.
Three-dimensional marginal separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Duck, Peter W.
1988-01-01
The three dimensional marginal separation of a boundary layer along a line of symmetry is considered. The key equation governing the displacement function is derived, and found to be a nonlinear integral equation in two space variables. This is solved iteratively using a pseudo-spectral approach, based partly in double Fourier space, and partly in physical space. Qualitatively, the results are similar to previously reported two dimensional results (which are also computed to test the accuracy of the numerical scheme); however quantitatively the three dimensional results are much different.
Three-dimensional silicon micromachining
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azimi, S.; Song, J.; Dang, Z. Y.; Liang, H. D.; Breese, M. B. H.
2012-11-01
A process for fabricating arbitrary-shaped, two- and three-dimensional silicon and porous silicon components has been developed, based on high-energy ion irradiation, such as 250 keV to 1 MeV protons and helium. Irradiation alters the hole current flow during subsequent electrochemical anodization, allowing the anodization rate to be slowed or stopped for low/high fluences. For moderate fluences the anodization rate is selectively stopped only at depths corresponding to the high defect density at the end of ion range, allowing true three-dimensional silicon machining. The use of this process in fields including optics, photonics, holography and nanoscale depth machining is reviewed.
Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, D.; Reichart, A.
2000-06-27
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Creating Three-Dimensional Scenes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krumpe, Norm
2005-01-01
Persistence of Vision Raytracer (POV-Ray), a free computer program for creating photo-realistic, three-dimensional scenes and a link for Mathematica users interested in generating POV-Ray files from within Mathematica, is discussed. POV-Ray has great potential in secondary mathematics classrooms and helps in strengthening students' visualization…
Three-dimensional stellarator codes
Garabedian, P. R.
2002-01-01
Three-dimensional computer codes have been used to develop quasisymmetric stellarators with modular coils that are promising candidates for a magnetic fusion reactor. The mathematics of plasma confinement raises serious questions about the numerical calculations. Convergence studies have been performed to assess the best configurations. Comparisons with recent data from large stellarator experiments serve to validate the theory. PMID:12140367
Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah; Reichart, Anke
2000-01-01
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
D'Mura, John M.
1989-01-01
Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)
Three-dimensional fault drawing
Dongan, L. )
1992-01-01
In this paper, the author presents a structure interpretation based on three-dimensional fault drawing. It is required that fault closure must be based on geological theory, spacial plotting principle and restrictions in seismic exploration. Geological structure can be well ascertained by analysing the shapes and interrelation of the faults which have been drawn through reasonable fault point closure and fault point correlation. According to this method, the interrelation of fault points is determined by first closing corresponding fault points in intersecting sections, then reasonably correlating the relevant fault points. Fault point correlation is not achieved in base map, so its correctness can be improved greatly. Three-dimensional fault closure is achieved by iteratively revising. The closure grid should be densified gradually. The distribution of major fault system is determined prior to secondary faults. Fault interpretation by workstation also follows this procedure.
Three-dimensional obstetric ultrasound.
Tache, Veronique; Tarsa, Maryam; Romine, Lorene; Pretorius, Dolores H
2008-04-01
Three-dimensional ultrasound has gained a significant popularity in obstetrical practice in recent years. The advantage of this modality in some cases is in question, however. This article provides a basic review of volume acquisition, mechanical positioning, and display modalities. Multiple uses of this technique in obstetrical care including first trimester applications and its utility in clarification of fetal anatomy such as brain, face, heart, and skeleton is discussed. PMID:18450140
Three-dimensional coronary angiography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suurmond, Rolf; Wink, Onno; Chen, James; Carroll, John
2005-04-01
Three-Dimensional Coronary Angiography (3D-CA) is a novel tool that allows clinicians to view and analyze coronary arteries in three-dimensional format. This will help to find accurate length estimates and to find the optimal viewing angles of a lesion based on the three-dimensional vessel orientation. Various advanced algorithms are incorporated in this 3D processing utility including 3D-RA calibration, ECG phase selection, 2D vessel extraction, and 3D vessel modeling into a utility with optimized workflow and ease-of-use features, which is fully integrated in the environment of the x-ray catheterization lab. After the 3D processing, the 3D vessels can be viewed and manipulated interactively inside the operating room. The TrueView map provides a quick overview of gantry angles with optimal visualization of a single or bifurcation lesion. Vessel length measurements can be performed without risk of underestimating a vessel segment due to foreshortening. Vessel cross sectional diameters can also be measured. Unlike traditional, projection-based quantitative coronary analysis, the additional process of catheter calibration is not needed for diameter measurements. Validation studies show a high reproducibility of the measurements, with little user dependency.
Taylor, J.A. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO ); Brasseur, G.P.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Cicerone, R.J. )
1991-02-20
Using the hydroxyl radical field calibrated to the methyl chloroform observations, the globally averaged release of methane and its spatial and temporal distribution were investigated. Two source function models of the spatial and temporal distribution of the flux of methane to the atmosphere were developed. The first model was based on the assumption that methane is emitted as a proportion of net primary productivity (NPP). With the average hydroxyl radical concentration fixed, the methane source term was computed as {approximately}623 Tg CH{sub 4}, giving an atmospheric lifetime for methane {approximately}8.3 years. The second model identified source regions for methane from rice paddies, wetlands, enteric fermentation, termites, and biomass burning based on high-resolution land use data. This methane source distribution resulted in an estimate of the global total methane source of {approximately}611 Tg CH{sub 4}, giving an atmospheric lifetime for methane {approximately}8.5 years. The most significant difference between the two models were predictions of methane fluxes over China and South East Asia, the location of most of the world's rice paddies. Using a recent measurement of the reaction rate of hydroxyl radical and methane leads to estimates of the global total methane source for SF1 of {approximately}524 Tg CH{sub 4} giving an atmospheric lifetime of {approximately}10.0 years and for SF2{approximately}514 Tg CH{sub 4} yielding a lifetime of {approximately}10.2 years.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simpson, Jamesina Jean
2007-12-01
Wave propagation at the bottom of the electromagnetic spectrum (below 300 kHz) in the Earth-ionosphere system is a problem having a rich history of theoretical investigation extending over many decades. Propagation within this system involves complex interactions of electromagnetic waves with the lithosphere, oceans, and ionosphere, leading to resonances that involve literally the entire planet Earth. Currently, electromagnetic phenomena below 300 kHz form the physics basis of remote-sensing investigations of lightning and sprites, global temperature change, subsurface structures, submarine communications, and potential earthquake precursors. This dissertation addresses the application of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm to model impulsive electromagnetic wave propagation within the global Earth-ionosphere cavity at frequencies below 30 kHz. Two generations of numerical models are presented: a latitude-longitude grid-cell arrangement, and a geodesic grid-cell arrangement. Both types of models extend from 100 km below sea level to an altitude of 100 km, and enable a direct, full-vector, 3-D time-domain Maxwell's equations calculation of electromagnetic wave propagation due to an arbitrary excitation. Furthermore, they can account for arbitrary horizontal as well as vertical geometrical and electrical inhomogeneities and anisotropies of the ionosphere, lithosphere, oceans, and Earth's magnetic field. First, the models are verified by comparing the FDTD-calculated daytime ELF propagation attenuation with data reported in the literature. Next, four example applications are provided: (1) an investigation of hypothesized preseismic electromagnetic phenomena; (2) the development of a novel subsurface radar designed to sense the presence of major oil deposits; (3) the development of a novel radar for locating and characterizing localized ionospheric anomalies within 100 km of the Earth's surface; and (4) the development of a gyrotropic ionosphere plasma
Three-dimensional Camera Phone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iizuka, Keigo
2004-12-01
An inexpensive technique for realizing a three-dimensional (3D) camera phone display is presented. Light from the liquid-crystal screen of a camera phone is linearly polarized, and its direction of polarization is easily manipulated by a cellophane sheet used as a half-waveplate. The novel 3D camera phone display is made possible solely by optical components without resorting to computation, so that the 3D image is displayed in real time. Quality of the original image is not sacrificed in the process of converting it into a 3D image.
Three-dimensional visual stimulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeda, Tsunehiro; Fukui, Yukio; Hashimoto, Keizo; Hiruma, Nobuyuki
1995-02-01
We describe a newly developed three-dimensional visual stimulator (TVS) that can change independently the directions, distances, sizes, luminance, and varieties of two sets of targets for both eyes. It consists of liquid crystal projectors (LCP's) that generate the flexible images of targets, Badal otometers that change target distances without changing the visual angles, and relay-lens systems that change target directions. A special control program is developed for real-time control of six motors and two LCP's in the TVS together with a three-dimensional optometer III that simultaneously measures eye movement, accommodation, pupil diameter, and head movement. distance, 0 to -20 D; direction, 16 horizontally and 15 vertically; size, 0-2 deg visual angle; and luminance, 10-2-10 2 cd/m2. The target images are refreshed at 60 Hz and speeds with which the target makes a smooth change (ramp stimuli) are size, 10 deg/s. A simple application demonstrates the performance.
Geroux, Christopher M.; Deupree, Robert G.
2015-02-10
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of full amplitude RR Lyrae stars have been computed for several models across the instability strip. The three-dimensional nature of the calculations allows convection to be treated without reference to a phenomenological approach such as the local mixing length theory. Specifically, the time-dependent interaction of large-scale eddies and radial pulsation is controlled by conservation laws, while the effects of smaller convective eddies are simulated by an eddy viscosity model. The light amplitudes for these calculations are quite similar to those of our previous two-dimensional calculations in the middle of the instability strip, but somewhat lower near the red edge, the fundamental blue edge, and for the one first overtone model we computed. The time-dependent interaction between the radial pulsation and the convective energy transport is essentially the same in three dimensions as it is in two dimensions. There are some differences between the light curves of the two- and three-dimensional simulations, particularly during decreasing light. Reasons for the differences, both numerical and physical, are explored.
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of L2 Puppis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhuo; Nordhaus, Jason; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.; Balick, Bruce
2016-06-01
Recent observations of the L2 Puppis system suggest that this Mira-like variable may be in the early stages of forming a bipolar planetary nebula (PN). As one of nearest and brightest AGB stars, thought be a binary, L2 Puppis serves as a benchmark object for studying the late-stages of stellar evolution. We perform global, three-dimensional, adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamic simulations of the L2 Puppis system with ASTROBEAR. We use the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D to construct the broad-band spectral-energy-distribution (SED) and synthetic observational images from our simulations. Given the reported binary parameters, we are able to reproduce the current observational data if a short pulse of dense material is released from the AGB star with a velocity sufficient to escape the primary but not the binary. Such a situation could result from a thermal pulse, be induced by a periastron passage of the secondary, or could be launched if the primary ingests a planet.
Three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of L2 Puppis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhuo; Nordhaus, Jason; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.; Balick, Bruce
2016-08-01
Recent observations of the L2 Puppis system suggest that this Mira-like variable may be in the early stages of forming a bipolar planetary nebula. As one of nearest and brightest asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, thought be a binary, L2 Puppis serves as a benchmark object for studying the late-stages of stellar evolution. We perform global, three-dimensional, adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamic simulations of the L2 Puppis system with ASTROBEAR. We use the radiative transfer code RADMC-3D to construct the broad-band spectral energy distribution and synthetic observational images from our simulations. Given the reported binary parameters, we are able to reproduce the current observational data if a short pulse of dense material is released from the AGB star with a velocity sufficient to escape the primary but not the binary. Such a situation could result from a thermal pulse, be induced by a periastron passage of the secondary, or could be launched if the primary ingests a planet.
Three-dimensional coil inductor
Bernhardt, Anthony F.; Malba, Vincent
2002-01-01
A three-dimensional coil inductor is disclosed. The inductor includes a substrate; a set of lower electrically conductive traces positioned on the substrate; a core placed over the lower traces; a set of side electrically conductive traces laid on the core and the lower traces; and a set of upper electrically conductive traces attached to the side traces so as to form the inductor. Fabrication of the inductor includes the steps of forming a set of lower traces on a substrate; positioning a core over the lower traces; forming a set of side traces on the core; connecting the side traces to the lower traces; forming a set of upper traces on the core; and connecting the upper traces to the side traces so as to form a coil structure.
Three-dimensional evolution of early solar nebula
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boss, Alan P.
1991-01-01
The progress is reported toward the goal of a complete theory of solar nebula formation, with an emphasis on three spatial dimension models of solar nebular formation and evolution. The following subject areas are covered: (1) initial conditions for protostellar collapse; (2) single versus binary star formation; (3) angular momentum transport mechanisms; (4) three dimensional solar nebula models; and (5) implications for planetary formation.
Three-dimensional flow in Kupffer's Vesicle.
Montenegro-Johnson, T D; Baker, D I; Smith, D J; Lopes, S S
2016-09-01
Whilst many vertebrates appear externally left-right symmetric, the arrangement of internal organs is asymmetric. In zebrafish, the breaking of left-right symmetry is organised by Kupffer's Vesicle (KV): an approximately spherical, fluid-filled structure that begins to form in the embryo 10 hours post fertilisation. A crucial component of zebrafish symmetry breaking is the establishment of a cilia-driven fluid flow within KV. However, it is still unclear (a) how dorsal, ventral and equatorial cilia contribute to the global vortical flow, and (b) if this flow breaks left-right symmetry through mechanical transduction or morphogen transport. Fully answering these questions requires knowledge of the three-dimensional flow patterns within KV, which have not been quantified in previous work. In this study, we calculate and analyse the three-dimensional flow in KV. We consider flow from both individual and groups of cilia, and (a) find anticlockwise flow can arise purely from excess of cilia on the dorsal roof over the ventral floor, showing how this vortical flow is stabilised by dorsal tilt of equatorial cilia, and (b) show that anterior clustering of dorsal cilia leads to around 40 % faster flow in the anterior over the posterior corner. We argue that these flow features are supportive of symmetry breaking through mechano-sensory cilia, and suggest a novel experiment to test this hypothesis. From our new understanding of the flow, we propose a further experiment to reverse the flow within KV to potentially induce situs inversus. PMID:26825450
Differential rotation in solar-like stars from global simulations
Guerrero, G.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.; Mansour, N. N. E-mail: sasha@sun.stanford.edu E-mail: nagi.n.mansour@nasa.gov
2013-12-20
To explore the physics of large-scale flows in solar-like stars, we perform three-dimensional anelastic simulations of rotating convection for global models with stratification resembling the solar interior. The numerical method is based on an implicit large-eddy simulation approach designed to capture effects from non-resolved small scales. We obtain two regimes of differential rotation, with equatorial zonal flows accelerated either in the direction of rotation (solar-like) or in the opposite direction (anti-solar). While the models with the solar-like differential rotation tend to produce multiple cells of meridional circulation, the models with anti-solar differential rotation result in only one or two meridional cells. Our simulations indicate that the rotation and large-scale flow patterns critically depend on the ratio between buoyancy and Coriolis forces. By including a sub-adiabatic layer at the bottom of the domain, corresponding to the stratification of a radiative zone, we reproduce a layer of strong radial shear similar to the solar tachocline. Similarly, enhanced super-adiabaticity at the top results in a near-surface shear layer located mainly at lower latitudes. The models reveal a latitudinal entropy gradient localized at the base of the convection zone and in the stable region, which, however, does not propagate across the convection zone. In consequence, baroclinicity effects remain small, and the rotation isocontours align in cylinders along the rotation axis. Our results confirm the alignment of large convective cells along the rotation axis in the deep convection zone and suggest that such 'banana-cell' pattern can be hidden beneath the supergranulation layer.
Differential Rotation in Solar-like Stars from Global Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerrero, G.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.; Kosovichev, A. G.; Mansour, N. N.
2013-12-01
To explore the physics of large-scale flows in solar-like stars, we perform three-dimensional anelastic simulations of rotating convection for global models with stratification resembling the solar interior. The numerical method is based on an implicit large-eddy simulation approach designed to capture effects from non-resolved small scales. We obtain two regimes of differential rotation, with equatorial zonal flows accelerated either in the direction of rotation (solar-like) or in the opposite direction (anti-solar). While the models with the solar-like differential rotation tend to produce multiple cells of meridional circulation, the models with anti-solar differential rotation result in only one or two meridional cells. Our simulations indicate that the rotation and large-scale flow patterns critically depend on the ratio between buoyancy and Coriolis forces. By including a sub-adiabatic layer at the bottom of the domain, corresponding to the stratification of a radiative zone, we reproduce a layer of strong radial shear similar to the solar tachocline. Similarly, enhanced super-adiabaticity at the top results in a near-surface shear layer located mainly at lower latitudes. The models reveal a latitudinal entropy gradient localized at the base of the convection zone and in the stable region, which, however, does not propagate across the convection zone. In consequence, baroclinicity effects remain small, and the rotation isocontours align in cylinders along the rotation axis. Our results confirm the alignment of large convective cells along the rotation axis in the deep convection zone and suggest that such "banana-cell" pattern can be hidden beneath the supergranulation layer.
Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander A.; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten
2014-08-01
Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory.
Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shilei; Zhang, Jingyan; Baker, Alexander; Wang, Shouguo; Yu, Guanghua; Hesjedal, Thorsten
2015-03-01
Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the individual data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme which envisages a classical abacus with the beads operated by electron spins. It is inspired by the idea of second quantization, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered `quantized' Hall voltage, representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This concept of `second quantization of memory' realizes the 3D memory architecture with superior reading and operation efficiency, thus is a promising approach for future nonvolatile magnetic random access memory.
Three dimensional magnetic abacus memory.
Zhang, ShiLei; Zhang, JingYan; Baker, Alexander A; Wang, ShouGuo; Yu, GuangHua; Hesjedal, Thorsten
2014-01-01
Stacking nonvolatile memory cells into a three-dimensional matrix represents a powerful solution for the future of magnetic memory. However, it is technologically challenging to access the data in the storage medium if large numbers of bits are stacked on top of each other. Here we introduce a new type of multilevel, nonvolatile magnetic memory concept, the magnetic abacus. Instead of storing information in individual magnetic layers, thereby having to read out each magnetic layer separately, the magnetic abacus adopts a new encoding scheme. It is inspired by the idea of second quantisation, dealing with the memory state of the entire stack simultaneously. Direct read operations are implemented by measuring the artificially engineered 'quantised' Hall voltage, each representing a count of the spin-up and spin-down layers in the stack. This new memory system further allows for both flexible scaling of the system and fast communication among cells. The magnetic abacus provides a promising approach for future nonvolatile 3D magnetic random access memory. PMID:25146338
Dynamic Three-Dimensional Echocardiography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsusaka, Katsuhiko; Doi, Motonori; Oshiro, Osamu; Chihara, Kunihiro
2000-08-01
Conventional three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound imaging equipment for diagnosis requires much time to reconstruct 3D images or fix the view point for observing the 3D image. Thus, it is inconvenient for cardiac diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a new dynamic 3D echocardiography system. The system produces 3D images in real-time and permits changes in view point. This system consists of ultrasound diagnostic equipment, a digitizer and a computer. B-mode images are projected to a virtual 3D space by referring to the position of the probe of the ultrasound diagnosis equipment. The position is obtained by the digitizer to which the ultrasound probe is attached. The 3D cardiac image is constructed from B-mode images obtained simultaneously in the cardiac cycle. To obtain the same moment of heartbeat in the cardiac cycle, this system uses the electrocardiography derived from the diagnosis equipment. The 3D images, which show various scenes of the stage of heartbeat action, are displayed sequentially. The doctor can observe 3D images cut in any plane by pushing a button of the digitizer and zooming with the keyboard. We evaluated our prototype system by observation of a mitral valve in motion.
Three-dimensional display technologies
Geng, Jason
2014-01-01
The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain’s power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies. PMID:25530827
Three-dimensional laser microvision.
Shimotahira, H; Iizuka, K; Chu, S C; Wah, C; Costen, F; Yoshikuni, Y
2001-04-10
A three-dimensional (3-D) optical imaging system offering high resolution in all three dimensions, requiring minimum manipulation and capable of real-time operation, is presented. The system derives its capabilities from use of the superstructure grating laser source in the implementation of a laser step frequency radar for depth information acquisition. A synthetic aperture radar technique was also used to further enhance its lateral resolution as well as extend the depth of focus. High-speed operation was made possible by a dual computer system consisting of a host and a remote microcomputer supported by a dual-channel Small Computer System Interface parallel data transfer system. The system is capable of operating near real time. The 3-D display of a tunneling diode, a microwave integrated circuit, and a see-through image taken by the system operating near real time are included. The depth resolution is 40 mum; lateral resolution with a synthetic aperture approach is a fraction of a micrometer and that without it is approximately 10 mum. PMID:18357177
Three-Dimensional Schlieren Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutherland, Bruce; Cochrane, Andrea
2004-11-01
Schlieren systems visualise disturbances that change the index of refraction of a fluid, for example due to temperature or salinity disturbances. `Synthetic schlieren' refers to a recent advance in which these disturbances are visualised with a digital camera and image-processing technology rather than the classical use of parabolic mirrors and a knife-edge. In a typical setup, light from an image of horizontal lines or dots passes almost horizontally through the test section of a fluid to a CCD camera. Refractive index disturbances distort the image and digital comparison of successive images reveals the plan-form structure and time evolution of the disturbances. If the disturbance is effectively two-dimensional, meaning that it is uniform across the line-of-sight of the camera, then its magnitude as well as its structure can measured through simple inversion of an algebraic equation. If the structure is axisymmetric with rotation-axis perpendicular to the line of sight, the magnitude of the disturbance can be measured through inversion of a non-singular square matrix. Here we report upon the extension of this work toward measuring the magnitude of a fully three-dimensional disturbance. This is done by analysing images from two perspectives through the test section and using inversion tomography techniques to reconstruct the disturbance field. The results are tested against theoretical predictions and experimental measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kornreich, Philipp; Farell, Bart
2013-01-01
An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. This is accomplished by short photo-conducting lightguides at each pixel. In the eye the rods and cones are the fiber-like lightguides. The device uses ambient light that is only coherent in spherical shell-shaped light packets of thickness of one coherence length. Modern semiconductor technology permits the construction of lightguides shorter than a coherence length of ambient light. Each of the frequency components of the broad band light arriving at a pixel has a phase proportional to the distance from an object point to its image pixel. Light frequency components in the packet arriving at a pixel through a convex lens add constructively only if the light comes from the object point in focus at this pixel. The light in packets from all other object points cancels. Thus the pixel receives light from one object point only. The lightguide has contacts along its length. The lightguide charge carriers are generated by the light patterns. These light patterns, and thus the photocurrent, shift in response to the phase of the input signal. Thus, the photocurrent is a function of the distance from the pixel to its object point. Applications include autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. Another application is a crude teleportation system consisting of a camera and a three-dimensional printer at a remote location.
Three-dimensional boundary layers approaching separation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, J. C., III
1976-01-01
The theory of semi-similar solutions of the laminar boundary layer equations is applied to several flows in which the boundary layer approaches a three-dimensional separation line. The solutions obtained are used to deduce the nature of three-dimensional separation. It is shown that in these cases separation is of the "ordinary" type. A solution is also presented for a case in which a vortex is embedded within the three-dimensional boundary layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrovolskas, V.; Kučinskas, A.; Steffen, M.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Prakapavičius, D.; Klevas, J.; Caffau, E.; Bonifacio, P.
2013-11-01
Aims: We utilize state-of-the-art three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamical and classical 1D stellar model atmospheres to study the influence of convection on the formation properties of various atomic and molecular spectral lines in the atmospheres of four red giant stars, located close to the base of the red giant branch, RGB (Teff ≈ 5000 K, log g = 2.5), and characterized by four different metallicities, [M/H] = 0.0, -1.0, -2.0, -3.0. Methods: The role of convection in the spectral line formation is assessed with the aid of abundance corrections, i.e., the differences in abundances predicted for a given equivalent width of a particular spectral line with the 3D and 1D model atmospheres. The 3D hydrodynamical and classical 1D model atmospheres used in this study were calculated with the CO5BOLD and 1D LHD codes, respectively. Identical atmospheric parameters, chemical composition, equation of state, and opacities were used with both codes, therefore allowing a strictly differential analysis of the line formation properties in the 3D and 1D models. Results: We find that for lines of certain neutral atoms, such as Mg i, Ti i, Fe i, and Ni i, the abundance corrections strongly depend both on the metallicity of a given model atmosphere and the line excitation potential, χ. While abundance corrections for all lines of both neutral and ionized elements tend to be small at solar metallicity (≤±0.1 dex), for lines of neutral elements with low ionization potential and low-to-intermediate χ they quickly increase with decreasing metallicity, reaching in their extremes -0.6 to -0.8 dex. In all such cases the large abundance corrections are due to horizontal temperature fluctuations in the 3D hydrodynamical models. Lines of neutral elements with higher ionization potentials (Eion ≳ 10 eV) generally behave very similarly to lines of ionized elements characterized by low ionization potentials (Eion ≲ 6 eV). In the latter case, the abundance corrections are small
Ando, Takamasa; Horisaki, Ryoichi; Tanida, Jun
2015-08-20
We propose a method for visualizing three-dimensional objects in scattering media. Our method is based on active illumination using three-dimensionally coded patterns and a numerical algorithm employing a sparsity constraint. We experimentally demonstrated the proposed imaging method for test charts located three-dimensionally at different depths in the space behind a translucent sheet. PMID:26368767
Three Dimensional Illustrating--Three-Dimensional Vision and Deception of Sensibility
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szállassy, Noémi; Gánóczy, Anita; Kriska, György
2009-01-01
The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena…
Three-dimensional modeling equatorial spread F
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huba, J. D.; Krall, J.; Joyce, G.
2008-12-01
Equatorial spread F (ESF) is a low-latitude ionospheric phenomenon that leads to the development of large scale electron density depletions that adversely affect communications and navigation systems. The development of models to understand and predict the onset and evolution of ESF is therefore critically important to a number of space-based systems. To this end, NRL has developed a three-dimensional model of ESF. The global NRL ionosphere model SAMI3 has been modified to simulate a narrow wedge of the post-sunset ionosphere to capture the onset and evolution of ESF. Preliminary results indicate that (1) bubbles can rise to ~ 1600 km, (2) extremely steep ion density gradients can develop in both longitude and latitude, (3) upward plasma velocities approach 1 km/s, and (4) the growth time of the instability is ~eq 15 min. We will also report the effects of meridional and zonal winds on bubble development, as well as ion composition (both atomic and molecular). The simulations will focus on current, low solar activity conditions, and results will be compared to C/NOFS data where available. Research supported by ONR
Three-Dimensional Tomography of Interplanetary Disturbances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, Bernard V.; Hick, P. Paul
2004-09-01
We have developed a Computer Assisted Tomography (CAT) program that modifies a three-dimensional kinematic heliospheric model to fit interplanetary scintillation (IPS) or Thomson scattering observations. The tomography program iteratively changes this global model to least-squares fit the data. Both a corotating and time-dependent model can be reconstructed. The short time intervals of the time-dependent modeling (to shorter than 1 day) force the heliospheric reconstructions to depend on outward solar wind motion to give perspective views of each point in space accessible to the observations, allowing reconstruction of interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) as well as corotating structures. We show these models as velocity or density Carrington maps and remote views. We have studied several events, including the 2000 July 14 Bastille-Day halo CME and several intervals using archival Cambridge IPS data, and we have also used archival Helios photometer data to reproduce the heliosphere. We check our results by comparison with additional remote-sensing observations, and in-situ observations from near-Earth spacecraft. A comparison of these observations and the Earth forecasts possible using them is available in real time on the World Wide Web using IPS data from the Solar Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Japan.
Three dimensional optic tissue culture and process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Cardwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Oconnor, Kim (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioreactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms normal, functional tissue organization and extracellular matrix.
Three Dimensional Optic Tissue Culture and Process
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Aten, Laurie A. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Caldwell, Delmar R. (Inventor); Prewett, Tacey L. (Inventor); Fitzgerald, Wendy S. (Inventor)
1999-01-01
A process for artificially producing three-dimensional optic tissue has been developed. The optic cells are cultured in a bioireactor at low shear conditions. The tissue forms as normal, functional tissue grows with tissue organization and extracellular matrix formation.
Three-dimensional stellarator equilibria by iteration
Boozer, A.H.
1983-02-01
The iterative method of evaluating plasma equilibria is especially simple in a magnetic coordinate representation. This method is particularly useful for clarifying the subtle constraints of three-dimensional equilibria and studying magnetic surface breakup at high plasma beta.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODEL FOR HYPERTHERMIA CALCULATIONS
Realistic three-dimensional models that predict temperature distributions with a high degree of spatial resolution in bodies exposed to electromagnetic (EM) fields are required in the application of hyperthermia for cancer treatment. To ascertain the thermophysiologic response of...
Device fabrication: Three-dimensional printed electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Jennifer A.; Ahn, Bok Y.
2015-02-01
Can three-dimensional printing enable the mass customization of electronic devices? A study that exploits this method to create light-emitting diodes based on 'quantum dots' provides a step towards this goal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanova, M. M.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Koldoba, A. V.; Lovelace, R. V. E.
2012-03-01
We discuss results of global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of accretion on to a rotating magnetized star with a tilted dipole magnetic field, where the accretion is driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI). The simulations show that MRI-driven turbulence develops in the disc, and angular momentum is transported outwards primarily due to the magnetic stress. The turbulent flow is strongly inhomogeneous and the densest matter is in azimuthally stretched turbulent cells. We investigate two regimes of accretion: a magnetospheric regime and a boundary layer (BL) regime. In the magnetospheric regime, the magnetic field of the star is dynamically important: the accretion disc is truncated by the star's magnetic field within a few stellar radii from the star's surface, and matter flows to the star in funnel streams. The funnel streams flow towards the south and north magnetic poles but are not equal due to the inhomogeneity of the flow. The hotspots on the stellar surface are not symmetric as well. In the BL regime, the magnetic field of the star is dynamically unimportant, and matter accretes on to the surface of the star through the BL. The magnetic field in the inner disc is strongly amplified by the shear of the accretion flow, and the matter and magnetic stresses become comparable. Accreting matter forms a belt-shaped hot region on the surface of the star. The belt has inhomogeneous density distribution which varies in time due to variable accretion rate. The peaks in the variability curve are associated with accretion of individual turbulent cells. They show 20-50 per cent density amplifications at periods of ˜5-10 dynamical time-scales at the surface of the star. Spiral waves in the disc are excited in both magnetospheric and BL regimes of accretion. Results of simulations can be applied to classical T Tauri stars, accreting brown dwarfs, millisecond pulsars, dwarf novae cataclysmic variables and other stars with magnetospheres smaller
Three-dimensional kinematics of hummingbird flight.
Tobalske, Bret W; Warrick, Douglas R; Clark, Christopher J; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Hyder, Gabriel A; Biewener, Andrew A
2007-07-01
Hummingbirds are specialized for hovering flight, and substantial research has explored this behavior. Forward flight is also important to hummingbirds, but the manner in which they perform forward flight is not well documented. Previous research suggests that hummingbirds increase flight velocity by simultaneously tilting their body angle and stroke-plane angle of the wings, without varying wingbeat frequency and upstroke: downstroke span ratio. We hypothesized that other wing kinematics besides stroke-plane angle would vary in hummingbirds. To test this, we used synchronized high-speed (500 Hz) video cameras and measured the three-dimensional wing and body kinematics of rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus, 3 g, N=5) as they flew at velocities of 0-12 m s(-1) in a wind tunnel. Consistent with earlier research, the angles of the body and the stroke plane changed with velocity, and the effect of velocity on wingbeat frequency was not significant. However, hummingbirds significantly altered other wing kinematics including chord angle, angle of attack, anatomical stroke-plane angle relative to their body, percent of wingbeat in downstroke, wingbeat amplitude, angular velocity of the wing, wingspan at mid-downstroke, and span ratio of the wingtips and wrists. This variation in bird-centered kinematics led to significant effects of flight velocity on the angle of attack of the wing and the area and angles of the global stroke planes during downstroke and upstroke. We provide new evidence that the paths of the wingtips and wrists change gradually but consistently with velocity, as in other bird species that possess pointed wings. Although hummingbirds flex their wings slightly at the wrist during upstroke, their average wingtip-span ratio of 93% revealed that they have kinematically ;rigid' wings compared with other avian species. PMID:17575042
Three-dimensional stability analysis of the periodic flow around a circular cylinder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noack, Bernd R.; König, Michael; Eckelmann, Helmut
1993-06-01
The onset of three-dimensionality in the von Kármán vortex street behind a circular cylinder is investigated by carrying out the first global, nonparallel, three-dimensional stability analysis of the periodic flow. This flow is found to become unstable at a Reynolds number of 170 by a critical, three-dimensional Floquet mode with a spanwise wavelength of 1.8 diam. The spatial structure of this mode indicates that the onset of three-dimensionality is due to a near-wake instability and not caused by a stagnation-line or a boundary-layer instability.
Vision in our three-dimensional world.
Parker, Andrew J
2016-06-19
Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in our three-dimensional world'. PMID:27269595
Three-dimensional microbubble streaming flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rallabandi, Bhargav; Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kaehler, Christian; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha
2014-11-01
Streaming due to acoustically excited bubbles has been used successfully for applications such as size-sorting, trapping and focusing of particles, as well as fluid mixing. Many of these applications involve the precise control of particle trajectories, typically achieved using cylindrical bubbles, which establish planar flows. Using astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry (APTV), we show that, while this two-dimensional picture is a useful description of the flow over short times, a systematic three-dimensional flow structure is evident over long time scales. We demonstrate that this long-time three-dimensional fluid motion can be understood through asymptotic theory, superimposing secondary axial flows (induced by boundary conditions at the device walls) onto the two-dimensional description. This leads to a general framework that describes three-dimensional flows in confined microstreaming systems, guiding the design of applications that profit from minimizing or maximizing these effects.
Three dimensional responsive structure of tough hydrogels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Xuxu; Ma, Chunxin; Li, Chi; Xie, Yuhan; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Yongbin; Zhu, Ziqi; Liu, Junjie; Li, Tiefeng
2015-04-01
Three dimensional responsive structures have high value for the application of responsive hydrogels in various fields such as micro fluid control, tissue engineering and micro robot. Whereas various hydrogels with stimuli-responsive behaviors have been developed, designing and fabricating of the three dimensional responsive structures remain challenging. We develop a temperature responsive double network hydrogel with novel fabrication methods to assemble the complex three dimensional responsive structures. The shape changing behavior of the structures can be significantly increased by building blocks with various responsiveness. Mechanical instability is built into the structure with the proper design and enhance the performance of the structure. Finite element simulation are conducted to guide the design and investigate the responsive behavior of the hydrogel structures
Vision in our three-dimensional world
2016-01-01
Many aspects of our perceptual experience are dominated by the fact that our two eyes point forward. Whilst the location of our eyes leaves the environment behind our head inaccessible to vision, co-ordinated use of our two eyes gives us direct access to the three-dimensional structure of the scene in front of us, through the mechanism of stereoscopic vision. Scientific understanding of the different brain regions involved in stereoscopic vision and three-dimensional spatial cognition is changing rapidly, with consequent influences on fields as diverse as clinical practice in ophthalmology and the technology of virtual reality devices. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Vision in our three-dimensional world’. PMID:27269595
Three-Dimensional Robotic Vision System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Thinh V.
1989-01-01
Stereoscopy and motion provide clues to outlines of objects. Digital image-processing system acts as "intelligent" automatic machine-vision system by processing views from stereoscopic television cameras into three-dimensional coordinates of moving object in view. Epipolar-line technique used to find corresponding points in stereoscopic views. Robotic vision system analyzes views from two television cameras to detect rigid three-dimensional objects and reconstruct numerically in terms of coordinates of corner points. Stereoscopy and effects of motion on two images complement each other in providing image-analyzing subsystem with clues to natures and locations of principal features.
Three-dimensional magnetic bubble memory system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stadler, Henry L. (Inventor); Katti, Romney R. (Inventor); Wu, Jiin-Chuan (Inventor)
1994-01-01
A compact memory uses magnetic bubble technology for providing data storage. A three-dimensional arrangement, in the form of stacks of magnetic bubble layers, is used to achieve high volumetric storage density. Output tracks are used within each layer to allow data to be accessed uniquely and unambiguously. Storage can be achieved using either current access or field access magnetic bubble technology. Optical sensing via the Faraday effect is used to detect data. Optical sensing facilitates the accessing of data from within the three-dimensional package and lends itself to parallel operation for supporting high data rates and vector and parallel processing.
Three-Dimensional Extended Bargmann Supergravity.
Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan
2016-06-24
We show that three-dimensional general relativity, augmented with two vector fields, allows for a nonrelativistic limit, different from the standard limit leading to Newtonian gravity, that results in a well-defined action which is of the Chern-Simons type. We show that this three-dimensional "extended Bargmann gravity," after coupling to matter, leads to equations of motion allowing a wider class of background geometries than the ones that one encounters in Newtonian gravity. We give the supersymmetric generalization of these results and point out an important application in the context of calculating partition functions of nonrelativistic field theories using localization techniques. PMID:27391712
Three-Dimensional Extended Bargmann Supergravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergshoeff, Eric; Rosseel, Jan
2016-06-01
We show that three-dimensional general relativity, augmented with two vector fields, allows for a nonrelativistic limit, different from the standard limit leading to Newtonian gravity, that results in a well-defined action which is of the Chern-Simons type. We show that this three-dimensional "extended Bargmann gravity," after coupling to matter, leads to equations of motion allowing a wider class of background geometries than the ones that one encounters in Newtonian gravity. We give the supersymmetric generalization of these results and point out an important application in the context of calculating partition functions of nonrelativistic field theories using localization techniques.
Dynamical behavior for the three-dimensional generalized Hasegawa-Mima equations
Zhang Ruifeng; Guo Boling
2007-01-15
The long time behavior of solution of the three-dimensional generalized Hasegawa-Mima [Phys. Fluids 21, 87 (1978)] equations with dissipation term is considered. The global attractor problem of the three-dimensional generalized Hasegawa-Mima equations with periodic boundary condition was studied. Applying the method of uniform a priori estimates, the existence of global attractor of this problem was proven, and also the dimensions of the global attractor are estimated.
A Three-dimensional Map of Milky Way Dust
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Gregory M.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martin, Nicolas; Burgett, William; Draper, Peter W.; Flewelling, Heather; Hodapp, Klaus; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf Peter; Magnier, Eugene; Metcalfe, Nigel; Price, Paul; Tonry, John; Wainscoat, Richard
2015-09-01
We present a three-dimensional map of interstellar dust reddening, covering three-quarters of the sky out to a distance of several kiloparsecs, based on Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) and 2MASS photometry. The map reveals a wealth of detailed structure, from filaments to large cloud complexes. The map has a hybrid angular resolution, with most of the map at an angular resolution of 3\\buildrel{ \\prime}\\over{.} 4-13\\buildrel{ \\prime}\\over{.} 7, and a maximum distance resolution of ˜ 25%. The three-dimensional distribution of dust is determined in a fully probabilistic framework, yielding the uncertainty in the reddening distribution along each line of sight, as well as stellar distances, reddenings, and classifications for 800 million stars detected by PS1. We demonstrate the consistency of our reddening estimates with those of two-dimensional emission-based maps of dust reddening. In particular, we find agreement with the Planck {τ }353{GHz}-based reddening map to within 0.05 {mag} in E(B-V) to a depth of 0.5 {mag}, and explore systematics at reddenings less than E(B-V)≈ 0.08 {mag}. We validate our per-star reddening estimates by comparison with reddening estimates for stars with both Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry and Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration spectral classifications, finding per-star agreement to within 0.1 {mag} out to a stellar E(B-V) of 1 mag. We compare our map to two existing three-dimensional dust maps, by Marshall et al. and Lallement et al., demonstrating our finer angular resolution, and better distance resolution compared to the former within ˜ 3 {kpc}. The map can be queried or downloaded at http://argonaut.skymaps.info. We expect the three-dimensional reddening map presented here to find a wide range of uses, among them correcting for reddening and extinction for objects embedded in the plane of the Galaxy, studies of Galactic structure, calibration of future emission-based dust maps, and determining distances to
Growing Three-Dimensional Cocultures Of Cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, David A.; Goodwin, Thomas J.
1995-01-01
Laboratory process provides environmental conditions favoring simultaneous growth of cocultures of mammalian cells of more than one type. Cultures become three-dimensional tissuelike assemblies serving as organoid models of differentiation of cells. Process used, for example, to study growth of human colon cancers, starting from mixtures of normal colonic fibroblasts and partially differentiated colon adenocarcinoma cells.
Three-dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies
Charych, Deborah; Reichert, Anke
2001-01-01
A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flue virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.
Three-Dimensional Visualization of Particle Tracks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Julian, Glenn M.
1993-01-01
Suggests ways to bring home to the introductory physics student some of the excitement of recent discoveries in particle physics. Describes particle detectors and encourages the use of the Standard Model along with real images of particle tracks to determine three-dimensional views of tracks. (MVL)
Three-dimensional rf structure calculations
Cooper, R.K.; Browman, M.J.; Weiland, T.
1988-01-01
The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described. 13 refs., 14 figs.
Three-dimensional RF structure calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cooper, R. K.; Browman, M. J.; Weiland, T.
1989-04-01
The calculation of three-dimensional rf structures is rapidly approaching adolescence, after having been in its infancy for the last four years. This paper will show the kinds of calculations that are currently being performed in the frequency domain and is a companion paper to one in which time-domain calculations are described.
Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications
Griffin, Michelle F.; Butler, Peter E.
2015-01-01
Introduction: Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. Objective: To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Methods: Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Discussion: Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Conclusion: Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice. PMID:26301002
Three-Dimensional Pointers for Stereoscopic Projection.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayman, H. J. G.
1984-01-01
Because class size often limits student opportunity to handle individual models, teachers use stereoscopic projections to demonstrate structural features. Describes three-dimensional pointers for use with different projection systems so teachers can indicate a particular atom or bond to entire classes, avoiding the perspective problems inherent in…
Cohomology of real three-dimensional triquadrics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnov, Vyacheslav A.
2012-02-01
We consider non-singular intersections of three real five-dimensional quadrics. They are referred to for brevity as real three-dimensional triquadrics. We calculate the dimensions of the cohomology spaces of triquadrics with coefficients in the field of two elements.
Fast magnetic reconnection in three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulations
Pang Bijia; Pen, U.-L.; Vishniac, Ethan T.
2010-10-15
A constructive numerical example of fast magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional periodic box is presented. Reconnection is initiated by a strong, localized perturbation to the field lines. The solution is intrinsically three-dimensional and its gross properties do not depend on the details of the simulations. {approx}30% of the magnetic energy is released in an event which lasts about one Alfven time, but only after a delay during which the field lines evolve into a critical configuration. The physical picture of the process is presented. The reconnection regions are dynamical and mutually interacting. In the comoving frame of these regions, reconnection occurs through a x-like point, analogous to Petschek reconnection. The dynamics appear to be driven by global flows, not local processes.
An initial-boundary value problem for three-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faminskii, Andrei V.
2016-02-01
An initial-boundary value problem with homogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions for three-dimensional Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation is considered. Results on global existence, uniqueness and large-time decay of weak solutions in certain weighted spaces are established.
Transformation equation in three-dimensional photoelasticity.
Ainola, Leo; Aben, Hillar
2006-03-01
Optical phenomena that occur when polarized light passes through an inhomogeneous birefringent medium are complicated, especially when the principal directions of the dielectric tensor rotate on the light ray. This case is typical in three-dimensional photoelasticity, in particular in integrated photoelasticity by stress analysis on the basis of measured polarization transformations. Analysis of polarization transformations in integrated photoelasticity has been based primarily on a system of two first-order differential equations. Using a transformed coordinate in the direction of light propagation, we have derived a single fourth-order differential equation of three-dimensional photoelasticity. For the case of uniform rotation of the principal directions we have obtained an analytical solution. PMID:16539073
Analysis of three-dimensional transonic compressors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bourgeade, A.
1984-01-01
A method for computing the three-dimensional transonic flow around the blades of a compressor or of a propeller is given. The method is based on the use of the velocity potential, on the hypothesis that the flow is inviscid, irrotational and isentropic. The equation of the potential is solved in a transformed space such that the surface of the blade is mapped into a plane where the periodicity is implicit. This equation is in a nonconservative form and is solved with the help of a finite difference method using artificial time. A computer code is provided and some sample results are given in order to demonstrate the influence of three-dimensional effects and the blade's rotation.
Three-dimensional visualization of a qutrit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kurzyński, Paweł; Kołodziejski, Adrian; Laskowski, Wiesław; Markiewicz, Marcin
2016-06-01
We present a surprisingly simple three-dimensional Bloch sphere representation of a qutrit, i.e., a single three-level quantum system. We start with a symmetric state of a two-qubit system and relate it to the spin-1 representation. Using this representation we associate each qutrit state with a three-dimensional vector a and a metric tensor Γ ̂ which satisfy a .Γ ̂.a ≤1 . This resembles the well known condition for qubit Bloch vectors in which case Γ ̂=1 . In our case the vector a corresponds to spin-1 polarization, whereas the tensor Γ ̂ is a function of polarization uncertainties. Alternatively, a is a local Bloch vector of a symmetric two-qubit state and Γ ̂ is a function of the corresponding correlation tensor.
Three dimensional fabrication at small size scales
Leong, Timothy G.; Zarafshar, Aasiyeh M.; Gracias, David H.
2010-01-01
Despite the fact that we live in a three-dimensional (3D) world and macroscale engineering is 3D, conventional sub-mm scale engineering is inherently two-dimensional (2D). New fabrication and patterning strategies are needed to enable truly three-dimensionally-engineered structures at small size scales. Here, we review strategies that have been developed over the last two decades that seek to enable such millimeter to nanoscale 3D fabrication and patterning. A focus of this review is the strategy of self-assembly, specifically in a biologically inspired, more deterministic form known as self-folding. Self-folding methods can leverage the strengths of lithography to enable the construction of precisely patterned 3D structures and “smart” components. This self-assembling approach is compared with other 3D fabrication paradigms, and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. PMID:20349446
Simulation of complex three-dimensional flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diewert, G. S.; Rothmund, H. J.; Nakahashi, K.
1985-01-01
The concept of splitting is used extensively to simulate complex three dimensional flows on modern computer architectures. Used in all aspects, from initial grid generation to the determination of the final converged solution, splitting is used to enhance code vectorization, to permit solution driven grid adaption and grid enrichment, to permit the use of concurrent processing, and to enhance data flow through hierarchal memory systems. Three examples are used to illustrate these concepts to complex three dimensional flow fields: (1) interactive flow over a bump; (2) supersonic flow past a blunt based conical afterbody at incidence to a free stream and containing a centered propulsive jet; and (3) supersonic flow past a sharp leading edge delta wing at incidence to the free stream.
Three-Dimensional Images For Robot Vision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McFarland, William D.
1983-12-01
Robots are attracting increased attention in the industrial productivity crisis. As one significant approach for this nation to maintain technological leadership, the need for robot vision has become critical. The "blind" robot, while occupying an economical niche at present is severely limited and job specific, being only one step up from the numerical controlled machines. To successfully satisfy robot vision requirements a three dimensional representation of a real scene must be provided. Several image acquistion techniques are discussed with more emphasis on the laser radar type instruments. The autonomous vehicle is also discussed as a robot form, and the requirements for these applications are considered. The total computer vision system requirement is reviewed with some discussion of the major techniques in the literature for three dimensional scene analysis.
Three-dimensional bio-printing.
Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi
2015-05-01
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing. PMID:25921944
Real time three dimensional sensing system
Gordon, Steven J.
1996-01-01
The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane.
Real time three dimensional sensing system
Gordon, S.J.
1996-12-31
The invention is a three dimensional sensing system which utilizes two flexibly located cameras for receiving and recording visual information with respect to a sensed object illuminated by a series of light planes. Each pixel of each image is converted to a digital word and the words are grouped into stripes, each stripe comprising contiguous pixels. One pixel of each stripe in one image is selected and an epi-polar line of that point is drawn in the other image. The three dimensional coordinate of each selected point is determined by determining the point on said epi-polar line which also lies on a stripe in the second image and which is closest to a known light plane. 7 figs.
Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics
Mao, Teresa
2014-01-01
Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337
Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.
1990-01-01
The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.
Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.
1985-01-01
The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.
Three-dimensional Lorentz-violating action
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nascimento, J. R.; Petrov, A. Yu.; Wotzasek, C.; Zarro, C. A. D.
2014-03-01
We demonstrate the generation of the three-dimensional Chern-Simons-like Lorentz-breaking "mixed" quadratic action via an appropriate Lorentz-breaking coupling of vector and scalar fields to the spinor field and study some features of the scalar QED with such a term. We show that the same term emerges through a nonperturbative method, namely the Julia-Toulouse approach of condensation of charges and defects.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.; York, Jeremy
2009-06-30
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.
2006-09-26
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may e transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-dimensional display of document set
Lantrip, David B [Oxnard, CA; Pennock, Kelly A [Richland, WA; Pottier, Marc C [Richland, WA; Schur, Anne [Richland, WA; Thomas, James J [Richland, WA; Wise, James A [Richland, WA
2001-10-02
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Three-Dimensional Dispaly Of Document Set
Lantrip, David B.; Pennock, Kelly A.; Pottier, Marc C.; Schur, Anne; Thomas, James J.; Wise, James A.
2003-06-24
A method for spatializing text content for enhanced visual browsing and analysis. The invention is applied to large text document corpora such as digital libraries, regulations and procedures, archived reports, and the like. The text content from these sources may be transformed to a spatial representation that preserves informational characteristics from the documents. The three-dimensional representation may then be visually browsed and analyzed in ways that avoid language processing and that reduce the analysts' effort.
Stress tensor correlators in three dimensional gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagchi, Arjun; Grumiller, Daniel; Merbis, Wout
2016-03-01
We calculate holographically arbitrary n -point correlators of the boundary stress tensor in three-dimensional Einstein gravity with negative or vanishing cosmological constant. We provide explicit expressions up to 5-point (connected) correlators and show consistency with the Galilean conformal field theory Ward identities and recursion relations of correlators, which we derive. This provides a novel check of flat space holography in three dimensions.
Three-dimensional ballistocardiography in weightlessness
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scano, A.
1981-01-01
An experiment is described the aim of which is to record a three dimensional ballistocardiogram under the condition of weightlessness and to compare it with tracings recorded on the same subject on the ground as a means of clarifying the meaning of ballistocardiogram waves in different physiological and perphaps pathological conditions. Another purpose is to investigate cardiovascular and possibly fluid adaptations to weightlessness from data collected almost simultaneously on the same subjects during the other cardiovascular during the other cardiovascular and metabolic experiments.
Three-dimensional motor schema based navigation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arkin, Ronald C.
1989-01-01
Reactive schema-based navigation is possible in space domains by extending the methods developed for ground-based navigation found within the Autonomous Robot Architecture (AuRA). Reformulation of two dimensional motor schemas for three dimensional applications is a straightforward process. The manifold advantages of schema-based control persist, including modular development, amenability to distributed processing, and responsiveness to environmental sensing. Simulation results show the feasibility of this methodology for space docking operations in a cluttered work area.
Generating Three-Dimensional Grids About Anything
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sorenson, Reese L.
1991-01-01
Three-Dimensional Grids About Anything by Poisson's Equation (3DGRAPE) computer program designed to make computational grids in or about almost any shape. Generated by solution of Poisson's differential equations in three dimensions. Program automatically finds its own values for inhomogeneous terms giving near-orthogonality and controlled grid-cell height at boundaries. Grids generated applied to both viscous and inviscid aerodynamic problems, and to problems in other areas of fluid dynamics. Written in 100 percent FORTRAN 77.
Mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.
Mineralized Three-Dimensional Bone Constructs
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clarke, Mark S. F. (Inventor); Sundaresan, Alamelu (Inventor); Pellis, Neal R. (Inventor)
2013-01-01
The present disclosure provides ex vivo-derived mineralized three-dimensional bone constructs. The bone constructs are obtained by culturing osteoblasts and osteoclast precursors under randomized gravity vector conditions. Preferably, the randomized gravity vector conditions are obtained using a low shear stress rotating bioreactor, such as a High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) culture system. The bone constructs of the disclosure have utility in physiological studies of bone formation and bone function, in drug discovery, and in orthopedics.
The first three-dimensional vanadium hypophosphite.
Maouel, Hind A; Alonzo, Véronique; Roisnel, Thierry; Rebbah, Houria; Le Fur, Eric
2009-07-01
The title synthesized hypophosphite has the formula V(H(2)PO(2))(3). Its structure is based on VO(6) octahedra and (H(2)PO(2))(-) pseudo-tetrahedra. The asymmetric unit contains two crystallographically distinct V atoms and six independent (H(2)PO(2))(-) groups. The connection of the polyhedra generates [VPO(6)H(2)](6-) chains extended along a, b and c, leading to the first three-dimensional network of an anhydrous transition metal hypophosphite. PMID:19578249
A generalized flux function for three-dimensional magnetic reconnection
Yeates, A. R.; Hornig, G.
2011-10-15
The definition and measurement of magnetic reconnection in three-dimensional magnetic fields with multiple reconnection sites is a challenging problem, particularly in fields lacking null points. We propose a generalization of the familiar two-dimensional concept of a magnetic flux function to the case of a three-dimensional field connecting two planar boundaries. In this initial analysis, we require the normal magnetic field to have the same distribution on both boundaries. Using hyperbolic fixed points of the field line mapping, and their global stable and unstable manifolds, we define a unique flux partition of the magnetic field. This partition is more complicated than the corresponding (well-known) construction in a two-dimensional field, owing to the possibility of heteroclinic points and chaotic magnetic regions. Nevertheless, we show how the partition reconnection rate is readily measured with the generalized flux function. We relate our partition reconnection rate to the common definition of three-dimensional reconnection in terms of integrated parallel electric field. An analytical example demonstrates the theory and shows how the flux partition responds to an isolated reconnection event.
Multiparallel Three-Dimensional Optical Microscopy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Lam K.; Price, Jeffrey H.; Kellner, Albert L.; Bravo-Zanoquera, Miguel
2010-01-01
Multiparallel three-dimensional optical microscopy is a method of forming an approximate three-dimensional image of a microscope sample as a collection of images from different depths through the sample. The imaging apparatus includes a single microscope plus an assembly of beam splitters and mirrors that divide the output of the microscope into multiple channels. An imaging array of photodetectors in each channel is located at a different distance along the optical path from the microscope, corresponding to a focal plane at a different depth within the sample. The optical path leading to each photodetector array also includes lenses to compensate for the variation of magnification with distance so that the images ultimately formed on all the photodetector arrays are of the same magnification. The use of optical components common to multiple channels in a simple geometry makes it possible to obtain high light-transmission efficiency with an optically and mechanically simple assembly. In addition, because images can be read out simultaneously from all the photodetector arrays, the apparatus can support three-dimensional imaging at a high scanning rate.
Teaching and Assessing Three-Dimensional M
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bateman, Robert C., Jr.; Booth, Deborah; Sirochman, Rudy; Richardson, Jane; Richardson, David
2002-05-01
Structural concepts such as the exact arrangement of a protein in three dimensions are crucial to almost every aspect of biology and chemistry, yet most of us have not been educated in three-dimensional literacy and all of us need a great deal of help in order to perceive and to communicate structural information successfully. It is in the undergraduate biochemistry course where students learn most concepts of molecular structure pertinent to living systems. We are addressing the issue of three-dimensional structural literacy by having undergraduate students construct kinemages, which are plain text scripts derived from Protein Data Bank coordinate files that can be viewed with the program MAGE. These annotated, interactive, three-dimensional illustrations are designed to develop a molecular story and allow exploration in the world of that story. In the process, students become familiar with the structure-based scientific literature and the Protein Data Bank. Our assessment to date has shown that students perceive kinemage authorship to be more helpful in understanding protein structure than simply viewing prepared kinemages. In addition, students perceived kinemage authorship as being beneficial to their career and a significant motivation to learn biochemistry.
Three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets
Melenka, Garrett W; Nobes, David S; Major, Paul W
2013-01-01
Braces are used by orthodontists to correct the misalignment of teeth in the mouth. Archwire rotation is a particular procedure used to correct tooth inclination. Wire rotation can result in deformation to the orthodontic brackets, and an orthodontic torque simulator has been designed to examine this wire–bracket interaction. An optical technique has been employed to measure the deformation due to size and geometric constraints of the orthodontic brackets. Images of orthodontic brackets are collected using a stereo microscope and two charge-coupled device cameras, and deformation of orthodontic brackets is measured using a three-dimensional digital image correlation technique. The three-dimensional deformation of orthodontic brackets will be evaluated. The repeatability of the three-dimensional digital image correlation measurement method was evaluated by performing 30 archwire rotation tests using the same bracket and archwire. Finally, five Damon 3MX and five In-Ovation R self-ligating brackets will be compared using this technique to demonstrate the effect of archwire rotation on bracket design. PMID:23762201
Three-dimensional printing of the retina
Lorber, Barbara; Hsiao, Wen-Kai; Martin, Keith R.
2016-01-01
Purpose of review Biological three-dimensional printing has received a lot of media attention over recent years with advances made in printing cellular structures, including skin and heart tissue for transplantation. Although limitations exist in creating functioning organs with this method, the hope has been raised that creating a functional retina to cure blindness is within reach. The present review provides an update on the advances made toward this goal. Recent findings It has recently been shown that two types of retinal cells, retinal ganglion cells and glial cells, can be successfully printed using a piezoelectric inkjet printer. Importantly, the cells remained viable and did not change certain phenotypic features as a result of the printing process. In addition, recent advances in the creation of complex and viable three-dimensional cellular structures have been made. Summary Some first promising steps toward the creation of a functional retina have been taken. It now needs to be investigated whether recent findings can be extended to other cells of the retina, including those derived from human tissue, and if a complex and viable retinal structure can be created through three-dimensional printing. PMID:27045545
Three-Dimensional Imaging. Chapter 10
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelso, R. M.; Delo, C.
1999-01-01
This chapter is concerned with three-dimensional imaging of fluid flows. Although relatively young, this field of research has already yielded an enormous range of techniques. These vary widely in cost and complexity, with the cheapest light sheet systems being within the budgets of most laboratories, and the most expensive Magnetic Resonance Imaging systems available to a select few. Taking the view that the most likely systems to be developed are those using light sheets, the authors will relate their knowledge and experience of such systems. Other systems will be described briefly and references provided. Flows are inherently three-dimensional in structure; even those generated around nominally 2-D surface geometry. It is becoming increasingly apparent to scientists and engineers that the three-dimensionalities, both large and small scale, are important in terms of overall flow structure and species, momentum, and energy transport. Furthermore, we are accustomed to seeing the world in three dimensions, so it is natural that we should wish to view, measure and interpret flows in three-dimensions. Unfortunately, 3-D images do not lend themselves to convenient presentation on the printed page, and this task is one of the challenges facing us.
Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rizzi, Stephen A.
2005-01-01
The Three-Dimensional Audio Client Library (3DAudio library) is a group of software routines written to facilitate development of both stand-alone (audio only) and immersive virtual-reality application programs that utilize three-dimensional audio displays. The library is intended to enable the development of three-dimensional audio client application programs by use of a code base common to multiple audio server computers. The 3DAudio library calls vendor-specific audio client libraries and currently supports the AuSIM Gold-Server and Lake Huron audio servers. 3DAudio library routines contain common functions for (1) initiation and termination of a client/audio server session, (2) configuration-file input, (3) positioning functions, (4) coordinate transformations, (5) audio transport functions, (6) rendering functions, (7) debugging functions, and (8) event-list-sequencing functions. The 3DAudio software is written in the C++ programming language and currently operates under the Linux, IRIX, and Windows operating systems.
Optical Alignment of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Star Trackers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hetherington, Samuel; Osgood, Dean; McMann, Joe; Roberts, Viki; Gill, James; Mclean, Kyle
2013-01-01
The optical alignment of the star trackers on the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core spacecraft at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) was challenging due to the layout and structural design of the GPM Lower Bus Structure (LBS) in which the star trackers are mounted as well as the presence of the star tracker shades that blocked line-of-sight to the primary star tracker optical references. The initial solution was to negotiate minor changes in the original LBS design to allow for the installation of a removable item of ground support equipment (GSE) that could be installed whenever measurements of the star tracker optical references were needed. However, this GSE could only be used to measure secondary optical reference cube faces not used by the star tracker vendor to obtain the relationship information and matrix transformations necessary to determine star tracker alignment. Unfortunately, due to unexpectedly large orthogonality errors between the measured secondary adjacent cube faces and the lack of cube calibration data, we required a method that could be used to measure the same reference cube faces as originally measured by the vendor. We describe an alternative technique to theodolite auto-collimation for measurement of an optical reference mirror pointing direction when normal incidence measurements are not possible. This technique was used to successfully align the GPM star trackers and has been used on a number of other NASA flight projects. We also discuss alignment theory as well as a GSFC-developed theodolite data analysis package used to analyze angular metrology data.
Global Diversity of Brittle Stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea)
Stöhr, Sabine; O'Hara, Timothy D.; Thuy, Ben
2012-01-01
This review presents a comprehensive overview of the current status regarding the global diversity of the echinoderm class Ophiuroidea, focussing on taxonomy and distribution patterns, with brief introduction to their anatomy, biology, phylogeny, and palaeontological history. A glossary of terms is provided. Species names and taxonomic decisions have been extracted from the literature and compiled in The World Ophiuroidea Database, part of the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS). Ophiuroidea, with 2064 known species, are the largest class of Echinodermata. A table presents 16 families with numbers of genera and species. The largest are Amphiuridae (467), Ophiuridae (344 species) and Ophiacanthidae (319 species). A biogeographic analysis for all world oceans and all accepted species was performed, based on published distribution records. Approximately similar numbers of species were recorded from the shelf (n = 1313) and bathyal depth strata (1297). The Indo-Pacific region had the highest species richness overall (825 species) and at all depths. Adjacent regions were also relatively species rich, including the North Pacific (398), South Pacific (355) and Indian (316) due to the presence of many Indo-Pacific species that partially extended into these regions. A secondary region of enhanced species richness was found in the West Atlantic (335). Regions of relatively low species richness include the Arctic (73 species), East Atlantic (118), South America (124) and Antarctic (126). PMID:22396744
Three-Dimensional Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation of Slapper Initiation Systems
Christensen, J S; Hrousis, C A
2010-03-09
Although useful information can be gleaned from 2D and even 1D simulations of slapper type initiation systems, these systems are inherently three-dimensional and therefore require full 3D representation to model all relevant details. Further, such representation provides additional insight into optimizing the design of such devices from a first-principles perspective and can thereby reduce experimental costs. We discuss in this paper several ongoing efforts in modeling these systems, our pursuit of validation, and extension of these methods to other systems. Our results show the substantial dependence upon highly accurate global equations of state and resistivity models in these analyses.
Three-dimensional stereo by photometric ratios
Wolff, L.B.; Angelopoulou, E.
1994-11-01
We present a methodology for corresponding a dense set of points on an object surface from photometric values for three-dimensional stereo computation of depth. The methodology utilizes multiple stereo pairs of images, with each stereo pair being taken of the identical scene but under different illumination. With just two stereo pairs of images taken under two different illumination conditions, a stereo pair of ratio images can be produced, one for the ratio of left-hand images and one for the ratio of right-hand images. We demonstrate how the photometric ratios composing these images can be used for accurate correspondence of object points. Object points having the same photometric ratio with respect to two different illumination conditions constitute a well-defined equivalence class of physical constraints defined by local surface orientation relative to illumination conditions. We formally show that for diffuse reflection the photometric ratio is invariant to varying camera characteristics, surface albedo, and viewpoint and that therefore the same photometric ratio in both images of a stereo pair implies the same equivalence class of physical constraints. The correspondence of photometric ratios along epipolar lines in a stereo pair of images under different illumination conditions is a correspondence of equivalent physical constraints, and the determination of depth from stereo can be performed. Whereas illumination planning is required, our photometric-based stereo methodology does not require knowledge of illumination conditions in the actual computation of three-dimensional depth and is applicable to perspective views. This technique extends the stereo determination of three-dimensional depth to smooth featureless surfaces without the use of precisely calibrated lighting. We demonstrate experimental depth maps from a dense set of points on smooth objects of known ground-truth shape, determined to within 1% depth accuracy.
Three-Dimensional Printing in Orthopedic Surgery.
Eltorai, Adam E M; Nguyen, Eric; Daniels, Alan H
2015-11-01
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically promising technology for rapid prototyping of surgically implantable products. With this commercially available technology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance images can be used to create graspable objects from 3D reconstructed images. Models can enhance patients' understanding of their pathology and surgeon preoperative planning. Customized implants and casts can be made to match an individual's anatomy. This review outlines 3D printing, its current applications in orthopedics, and promising future directions. PMID:26558661
Three-dimensional quantitative flow diagnostics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miles, Richard B.; Nosenchuck, Daniel M.
1989-01-01
The principles, capabilities, and practical implementation of advanced measurement techniques for the quantitative characterization of three-dimensional flows are reviewed. Consideration is given to particle, Rayleigh, and Raman scattering; fluorescence; flow marking by H2 bubbles, photochromism, photodissociation, and vibrationally excited molecules; light-sheet volume imaging; and stereo imaging. Also discussed are stereo schlieren methods, holographic particle imaging, optical tomography, acoustic and magnetic-resonance imaging, and the display of space-filling data. Extensive diagrams, graphs, photographs, sample images, and tables of numerical data are provided.
Three-dimensional x-ray microtomography
Flannery, B.P.; Deckman, H.W.; Roberge, W.G.; D'Amico, K.L.
1987-09-18
The new technique of x-ray microtomography nondestructively generates three-dimensional maps of the x-ray attenuation coefficient inside small samples with approximately 1 percent accuracy and with resolution approaching 1 micrometer. Spatially resolved elemental maps can be produced with synchrotron x-ray sources by scanning samples at energies just above and below characteristic atomic absorption edges. The system consists of a high-resolution imaging x-ray detector and high-speed algorithms for tomographic image reconstruction. The design and operation of the microtomography device are described, and tomographic images that illustrate it performance with both synchrotron and laboratory x-ray sources are presented.
Three dimensional digital holographic aperture synthesis.
Crouch, Stephen; Kaylor, Brant M; Barber, Zeb W; Reibel, Randy R
2015-09-01
Aperture synthesis techniques are applied to temporally and spatially diverse digital holograms recorded with a fast focal-plane array. Because the technique fully resolves the downrange dimension using wide-bandwidth FMCW linear-chirp waveforms, extremely high resolution three dimensional (3D) images can be obtained even at very long standoff ranges. This allows excellent 3D image formation even when targets have significant structure or discontinuities, which are typically poorly rendered with multi-baseline synthetic aperture ladar or multi-wavelength holographic aperture ladar approaches. The background for the system is described and system performance is demonstrated through both simulation and experiments. PMID:26368474
High resolution three-dimensional doping profiler
Thundat, Thomas G.; Warmack, Robert J.
1999-01-01
A semiconductor doping profiler provides a Schottky contact at one surface and an ohmic contact at the other. While the two contacts are coupled to a power source, thereby establishing an electrical bias in the semiconductor, a localized light source illuminates the semiconductor to induce a photocurrent. The photocurrent changes in accordance with the doping characteristics of the semiconductor in the illuminated region. By changing the voltage of the power source the depth of the depletion layer can be varied to provide a three dimensional view of the local properties of the semiconductor.
Three-dimensional instability of elliptical flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bayly, B. J.
1986-10-01
A clarification of the physical and mathematical nature of Pierrhumbert's (1986) three-dimensional short-wave inviscid instability of simple two-dimensional elliptical flow is presented. The instabilities found are independent of length scale, extending Pierrhumbert's conclusion that the structures of the instabilities are independent of length scale in the limit of large wave number. The fundamental modes are exact solutions of the nonlinear equations, and they are plane waves whose wave vector rotates elliptically around the z axis with a period of 2(pi)/Omega. The growth rates are shown to be the exponents of a matrix Floquet problem, and good agreement is found with previous results.
Three-dimensional ultrasonic colloidal crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caleap, Mihai; Drinkwater, Bruce W.
2016-05-01
Colloidal assembly represents a powerful method for the fabrication of functional materials. In this article, we describe how acoustic radiation forces can guide the assembly of colloidal particles into structures that serve as microscopic elements in novel acoustic metadevices or act as phononic crystals. Using a simple three-dimensional orthogonal system, we show that a diversity of colloidal structures with orthorhombic symmetry can be assembled with megahertz-frequency (MHz) standing pressure waves. These structures allow rapid tuning of acoustic properties and provide a new platform for dynamic metamaterial applications. xml:lang="fr"
Electrode With Porous Three-Dimensional Support
Bernard, Patrick; Dauchier, Jean-Michel; Simonneau, Olivier
1999-07-27
Electrode including a paste containing particles of electrochemically active material and a conductive support consisting of a three-dimensional porous material comprising strands delimiting contiguous pores communicating via passages, characterized in that the average width L in .mu.m of said passages is related to the average diameter .O slashed. in .mu.m of said particles by the following equation, in which W and Y are dimensionless coefficients: wherein W=0.16 Y=1.69 X=202.4 .mu.m and Z=80 .mu.m
Three-dimensional simulations of burning thermals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aspden, Andy; Bell, John; Woosley, Stan
2010-11-01
Flame ignition in type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) leads to isolated bubbles of burning buoyant fluid. As a bubble rises due to gravity, it becomes deformed by shear instabilities and transitions to a turbulent buoyant vortex ring. Morton, Taylor and Turner (1956) introduced the entrainment assumption, which can be applied to inert thermals. In this study, we use the entrainment assumption, suitably modified to account for burning, to predict the late-time asymptotic behaviour of these turbulent buoyant vortex rings in SNe Ia. The theory is validated against three- dimensional simulations with adaptive mesh refinement at effective resolutions up to 4096^3.
Three-dimensional lock and key colloids.
Wang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Yi, Gi-Ra; Sacanna, Stefano; Pine, David J; Weck, Marcus
2014-05-14
Colloids with well-defined multicavities are synthesized through the hydrolytic removal of silica cluster templates from organo-silica hybrid patchy particles. The geometry of the cavities stems from the originally assembled cluster templates, displaying well-defined three-dimensional symmetries, ranging from spherical, linear, triangular, tetrahedral, trigonal dipyramidal, octahedral, to pentagonal dipyramidal. The concave surface of the cavities is smooth, and the cavity shallowness and size can be varied. These particles with multicavities can act as "lock" particles with multiple "key holes". Up to n "key" particles can self-assemble into the lock particles via depletion interaction, resulting in multivalent, site-specific, reversible, and flexible bonding. PMID:24785203
Three-dimensional television: a broadcaster's perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jolly, S. J. E.; Armstrong, M.; Salmon, R. A.
2009-02-01
The recent resurgence of interest in the stereoscopic cinema and the increasing availability to the consumer of stereoscopic televisions and computer displays are leading broadcasters to consider, once again, the feasibility of stereoscopic broadcasting. High Definition Television is now widely deployed, and the R&D departments of broadcasters and consumer electronics manufacturers are starting to plan future enhancements to the experience of television. Improving the perception of depth via stereoscopy is a strong candidate technology. In this paper we will consider the challenges associated with the production, transmission and display of different forms of "three-dimensional" television. We will explore options available to a broadcaster wishing to start a 3D service using the technologies available at the present time, and consider how they could be improved to enable many more television programmes to be recorded and transmitted in a 3D-compatible form, paying particular attention to scenarios such as live broadcasting, where the workflows developed for the stereoscopic cinema are inapplicable. We will also consider the opportunities available for broadcasters to reach audiences with "three-dimensional" content via other media in the near future: for example, distributing content via the existing stereoscopic cinema network, or over the Internet to owners of stereoscopic computer displays.
Three-dimensional image signals: processing methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru
2010-11-01
Over the years extensive studies have been carried out to apply coherent optics methods in real-time processing, communications and transmission image. This is especially true when a large amount of information needs to be processed, e.g., in high-resolution imaging. The recent progress in data-processing networks and communication systems has considerably increased the capacity of information exchange. We describe the results of literature investigation research of processing methods for the signals of the three-dimensional images. All commercially available 3D technologies today are based on stereoscopic viewing. 3D technology was once the exclusive domain of skilled computer-graphics developers with high-end machines and software. The images capture from the advanced 3D digital camera can be displayed onto screen of the 3D digital viewer with/ without special glasses. For this is needed considerable processing power and memory to create and render the complex mix of colors, textures, and virtual lighting and perspective necessary to make figures appear three-dimensional. Also, using a standard digital camera and a technique called phase-shift interferometry we can capture "digital holograms." These are holograms that can be stored on computer and transmitted over conventional networks. We present some research methods to process "digital holograms" for the Internet transmission and results.
On three-dimensional dilational elastic metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Thiel, Michael; Kadic, Muamer; Milton, Graeme W.; Wegener, Martin
2014-03-01
Dilational materials are stable, three-dimensional isotropic auxetics with an ultimate Poisson's ratio of -1. Inspired by previous theoretical work, we design a feasible blueprint for an artificial material, a metamaterial, which approaches the ideal of a dilational material. The main novelty of our work is that we also fabricate and characterize corresponding metamaterial samples. To reveal all modes in the design, we calculate the phonon band structures. On this basis, using cubic symmetry we can unambiguously retrieve all different non-zero elements of the rank-four effective metamaterial elasticity tensor from which all effective elastic metamaterial properties follow. While the elastic properties and the phase velocity remain anisotropic, the effective Poisson's ratio indeed becomes isotropic and approaches -1 in the limit of small internal connections. This finding is also supported by independent, static continuum-mechanics calculations. In static experiments on macroscopic polymer structures fabricated by three-dimensional printing, we measure Poisson's ratios as low as -0.8 in good agreement with the theory. Microscopic samples are also presented.
Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography
Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J.
2005-04-01
Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores.
Two component-three dimensional catalysis
Schwartz, Michael; White, James H.; Sammells, Anthony F.
2002-01-01
This invention relates to catalytic reactor membranes having a gas-impermeable membrane for transport of oxygen anions. The membrane has an oxidation surface and a reduction surface. The membrane is coated on its oxidation surface with an adherent catalyst layer and is optionally coated on its reduction surface with a catalyst that promotes reduction of an oxygen-containing species (e.g., O.sub.2, NO.sub.2, SO.sub.2, etc.) to generate oxygen anions on the membrane. The reactor has an oxidation zone and a reduction zone separated by the membrane. A component of an oxygen containing gas in the reduction zone is reduced at the membrane and a reduced species in a reactant gas in the oxidation zone of the reactor is oxidized. The reactor optionally contains a three-dimensional catalyst in the oxidation zone. The adherent catalyst layer and the three-dimensional catalyst are selected to promote a desired oxidation reaction, particularly a partial oxidation of a hydrocarbon.
Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P.; Brigham, Mark D.; Naik, Shreesh R.; Karajanagi, Sandeep S.; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K.; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S.
2011-11-01
Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches.
In-lab three-dimensional printing
Partridge, Roland; Conlisk, Noel; Davies, Jamie A.
2012-01-01
The development of the microscope in 1590 by Zacharias Janssenby and Hans Lippershey gave the world a new way of visualizing details of morphogenesis and development. More recent improvements in this technology including confocal microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical projection tomography (OPT) have enhanced the quality of the resultant image. These technologies also allow a representation to be made of a developing tissue’s three-dimensional (3-D) form. With all these techniques however, the image is delivered on a flat two-dimensional (2-D) screen. 3-D printing represents an exciting potential to reproduce the image not simply on a flat screen, but in a physical, palpable three-dimensional structure. Here we explore the scope that this holds for exploring and interacting with the structure of a developing organ in an entirely novel way. As well as being useful for visualization, 3-D printers are capable of rapidly and cost-effectively producing custom-made structures for use within the laboratory. We here describe the advantages of producing hardware for a tissue culture system using an inexpensive in-lab printer. PMID:22652907
Nanowired three-dimensional cardiac patches.
Dvir, Tal; Timko, Brian P; Brigham, Mark D; Naik, Shreesh R; Karajanagi, Sandeep S; Levy, Oren; Jin, Hongwei; Parker, Kevin K; Langer, Robert; Kohane, Daniel S
2011-11-01
Engineered cardiac patches for treating damaged heart tissues after a heart attack are normally produced by seeding heart cells within three-dimensional porous biomaterial scaffolds. These biomaterials, which are usually made of either biological polymers such as alginate or synthetic polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), help cells organize into functioning tissues, but poor conductivity of these materials limits the ability of the patch to contract strongly as a unit. Here, we show that incorporating gold nanowires within alginate scaffolds can bridge the electrically resistant pore walls of alginate and improve electrical communication between adjacent cardiac cells. Tissues grown on these composite matrices were thicker and better aligned than those grown on pristine alginate and when electrically stimulated, the cells in these tissues contracted synchronously. Furthermore, higher levels of the proteins involved in muscle contraction and electrical coupling are detected in the composite matrices. It is expected that the integration of conducting nanowires within three-dimensional scaffolds may improve the therapeutic value of current cardiac patches. PMID:21946708
Three-dimensional model of lignin structure
Jurasek, L.
1995-12-01
An attempt to build a three-dimensional model of lignin structure using a computer program is described. The program simulates the biosynthesis of spruce lignin by allowing coniferyl alcohol subunits to be added randomly by six different types of linkages, assumed to be most common. The simulated biosynthesis starts from a number of seed points within restricted space, corresponding to 50 mM initial concentration of coniferyl alcohol. Rules of three-dimensional packing of the subunits within the lignin macro-molecule are observed during the simulated biosynthetic process. Branched oligomeric structures thus generated form crosslinks at those positions where the chains grow close enough to form a link. Inter-chain crosslinking usually joins the oligomers into one macromolecule. Intra-chain crosslinks are also formed and result in closed loops. Typically, a macromolecule with molecular weight of approx. 2 x 105 is formed, with internal density of 1.35g/cm3. Various characteristics of the internal structure, such as branching, crosslinking, bond frequencies, and chain length distribution are described. Breakdown of the polymer was also simulated and the effect of closed loops on the weight average molecular weight is shown. The effect of the shape of the biosynthetic space on the degree of crosslinking is discussed and predictions of the overall molecular shape of lignin particles are made.
Three-dimensional turbopump flowfield analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sharma, O. P.; Belford, K. A.; Ni, R. H.
1992-01-01
A program was conducted to develop a flow prediction method applicable to rocket turbopumps. The complex nature of a flowfield in turbopumps is described and examples of flowfields are discussed to illustrate that physics based models and analytical calculation procedures based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are needed to develop reliable design procedures for turbopumps. A CFD code developed at NASA ARC was used as the base code. The turbulence model and boundary conditions in the base code were modified, respectively, to: (1) compute transitional flows and account for extra rates of strain, e.g., rotation; and (2) compute surface heat transfer coefficients and allow computation through multistage turbomachines. Benchmark quality data from two and three-dimensional cascades were used to verify the code. The predictive capabilities of the present CFD code were demonstrated by computing the flow through a radial impeller and a multistage axial flow turbine. Results of the program indicate that the present code operated in a two-dimensional mode is a cost effective alternative to full three-dimensional calculations, and that it permits realistic predictions of unsteady loadings and losses for multistage machines.
Three-dimensional singular points in aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Unal, Aynur
1988-01-01
When three-dimensional separation occurs on a body immersed in a flow governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, the geometrical surfaces formed by the three vector fields (velocity, vorticity and the skin-friction) and a scalar field (pressure) become interrelated through topological maps containing their respective singular points and extremal points. A mathematically consistent description of these singular points becomes inevitable when we want to study the geometry of the separation. A separated stream surface requires, for example, the existence of a saddle-type singular point on the skin-friction surface. This singular point is actually, in the proper language of mathematics, a saddle of index two. The index is a measure of the dimension of the outset (set leaving the singular point). Hence, when a saddle of index two is specified, a two dimensional surface that becomes separated from the osculating plane of the saddle is implied. The three-dimensional singular point is interpreted mathematically and the most common aerodynamical singular points are discussed through this perspective.
Intersection of three-dimensional geometric surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crisp, V. K.; Rehder, J. J.; Schwing, J. L.
1985-01-01
Calculating the line of intersection between two three-dimensional objects and using the information to generate a third object is a key element in a geometry development system. Techniques are presented for the generation of three-dimensional objects, the calculation of a line of intersection between two objects, and the construction of a resultant third object. The objects are closed surfaces consisting of adjacent bicubic parametric patches using Bezier basis functions. The intersection determination involves subdividing the patches that make up the objects until they are approximately planar and then calculating the intersection between planes. The resulting straight-line segments are connected to form the curve of intersection. The polygons in the neighborhood of the intersection are reconstructed and put back into the Bezier representation. A third object can be generated using various combinations of the original two. Several examples are presented. Special cases and problems were encountered, and the method for handling them is discussed. The special cases and problems included intersection of patch edges, gaps between adjacent patches because of unequal subdivision, holes, or islands within patches, and computer round-off error.
Three-dimensional head anthropometric analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Enciso, Reyes; Shaw, Alex M.; Neumann, Ulrich; Mah, James
2003-05-01
Currently, two-dimensional photographs are most commonly used to facilitate visualization, assessment and treatment of facial abnormalities in craniofacial care but are subject to errors because of perspective, projection, lack metric and 3-dimensional information. One can find in the literature a variety of methods to generate 3-dimensional facial images such as laser scans, stereo-photogrammetry, infrared imaging and even CT however each of these methods contain inherent limitations and as such no systems are in common clinical use. In this paper we will focus on development of indirect 3-dimensional landmark location and measurement of facial soft-tissue with light-based techniques. In this paper we will statistically evaluate and validate a current three-dimensional image-based face modeling technique using a plaster head model. We will also develop computer graphics tools for indirect anthropometric measurements in a three-dimensional head model (or polygonal mesh) including linear distances currently used in anthropometry. The measurements will be tested against a validated 3-dimensional digitizer (MicroScribe 3DX).
Cyclic and multicyclic polymers by three-dimensional polycondensation.
Kricheldorf, Hans R
2009-08-18
The recent confirmation that polycondensations (and other step-growth polymerizations) of difunctional monomers involve cyclization reactions at any concentration and at any stage of the polymerization also has consequences for three-dimensional polycondensations on multifunctional monomers. It is demonstrated that tree-shaped (hyperbranched) oligomers are gradually transformed into star-shaped polymers with a cyclic core, when the conversion increases. Polycondensations of "a(2) + b(3)" or "a(2) + b(4)" monomer combinations yield multicyclic polymers, when gelation can be avoided. This new architecture may be subdivided into three groups: perfect multicycles free of functional groups, multicycles having b functions, and multicycles having "a" groups. The concrete examples discussed in this Account mainly concern polyethers and polyesters. PMID:19391620
The three-dimensional structure of the infrared cirrus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaustad, John E.
1994-01-01
This project was carried out over a period of four years, beginning 6/15/89 and continuing through 9/15/93. Intermediate results have been reported as poster papers at several meetings of the American Astronomical Society. A brief summary was presented in April 1993 at a symposium on the infrared cirrus. The final results were published in late 1993. The measurements have been deposited in NASA's Astronomical Data Center. Briefly, the results are as follows: Using the IRAS data base, we surveyed the 1808 06-B9.5 stars in the Bright Star Catalog for extended excess emission at 60 micrometers, indicating the presence of heated dust (cirrus hotspots) at the location of the star. Measurements of the angular size and infrared flux at 12, 25, 60 and 100 micrometers were obtained for 302 objects. From these basic data we calculated the radius, absorption, optical depth, color temperature, and dust density for each object. Arguing that the stars are randomly distributed point probes of the ISM, we showed that the filling factor of the dust-bearing component of the ISM is 14.6 + 2.4 percent within 400 pc of the sun for clouds with an equivalent hydrogen density greater than 0.5 cm(exp -3). Above a density of 1.0 cm(exp -3) the density distribution function appears to follow a power law of index -1.25. Further, we showed that the dust is distributed more sparsely in a region near the sun about 60 pc wide and extending several hundred parsecs in the direction of longitudes 80-260 deg. The distances to the dust clouds were determined from the spectroscopic parallaxes of the embedded stars; when the HIPPARCOS parallaxes become available, we will be able to produce a more accurate three-dimensional view of the local ISM.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATION TRANSFER IN YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS
Whitney, B. A.; Honor, J.; Robitaille, T. P.; Bjorkman, J. E.; Dong, R.; Wolff, M. J.; Wood, K.
2013-08-15
We have updated our publicly available dust radiative transfer code (HOCHUNK3D) to include new emission processes and various three-dimensional (3D) geometries appropriate for forming stars. The 3D geometries include warps and spirals in disks, accretion hotspots on the central star, fractal clumping density enhancements, and misaligned inner disks. Additional axisymmetric (2D) features include gaps in disks and envelopes, ''puffed-up inner rims'' in disks, multiple bipolar cavity walls, and iteration of disk vertical structure assuming hydrostatic equilibrium (HSEQ). We include the option for simple power-law envelope geometry, which, combined with fractal clumping and bipolar cavities, can be used to model evolved stars as well as protostars. We include non-thermal emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and very small grains, and external illumination from the interstellar radiation field. The grid structure was modified to allow multiple dust species in each cell; based on this, a simple prescription is implemented to model dust stratification. We describe these features in detail, and show example calculations of each. Some of the more interesting results include the following: (1) outflow cavities may be more clumpy than infalling envelopes. (2) PAH emission in high-mass stars may be a better indicator of evolutionary stage than the broadband spectral energy distribution slope; and related to this, (3) externally illuminated clumps and high-mass stars in optically thin clouds can masquerade as young stellar objects. (4) Our HSEQ models suggest that dust settling is likely ubiquitous in T Tauri disks, in agreement with previous observations.
Global radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of red supergiant stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freytag, B.; Chiavassa, A.
2013-05-01
The small-scale surface granulation on cool main-sequence stars and white dwarfs influences the overall appearance of these objects only weakly. And it is only indirectly observable by analyzing e.g. line-shapes or temporal fluctuations - except for the Sun. The large-scale and high-contrast convective surface cells and accompanying sound waves on supergiants and low-gravity AGB stars on the other hand have a strong impact on the outer atmospheric layers and are directly detectable by interferometric observations. Necessary to interpret modern observations with their high resolution in frequency, time, and/or space are detailed numerical multi-dimensional time-dependent radiation-hydrodynamical simulations. Local simulations of small patches of convective surface layers and the atmosphere of main-sequence stars have matured over three decades and have reached an impressive level of agreement with observations and also between different computational codes. However, global simulations of the entire convective surface and atmosphere of a red supergiants are considerably more demanding - and limited - and have become available only for about one decade. Still, they show how the surface is shaped by the interaction of small surface granules, that sit on top of large envelope convection cells, and waves, that can travel as shocks into the outer atmosphere. The route to more complete future models will be discussed, that comprise the outer atmosphere of the stars and that could explain some of the little-understood phenomena like chromosphere, molsphere, or wind-formation.
Three dimensional echocardiography in congenital heart defects
Shirali, Girish S.
2008-01-01
Three dimensional echocardiography (3DE) is a new, rapidly evolving modality for cardiac imaging. Important technological advances have heralded an era where practical 3DE scanning is becoming a mainstream modality. We review the modes of 3DE that can be used. The literature has been reviewed for articles that examine the applicability of 3DE to congenital heart defects to visualize anatomy in a spectrum of defects ranging from atrioventricular septal defects to mitral valve abnormalities and Ebstein's anomaly. The use of 3DE color flow to obtain echocardiographic angiograms is illustrated. The state of the science in quantitating right and left ventricular volumetrics is reviewed. Examples of novel applications including 3DE transesophageal echocardiography and image-guided interventions are provided. We also list the limitations of the technique, and discuss potential future developments in the field. PMID:20300232
Volumetric techniques: three-dimensional midface modeling
Pierzchała, Ewa; Placek, Waldemar
2014-01-01
Aging is a complex process caused by many factors. The most important factors include exposure to UV radiation, smoking, facial muscle movement, gravity, loss and displacement of fat and bone resorption. As a symptom of aging, face loses elasticity, volume and cheerful look. While changing face proportions, the dominant part of a face is its bottom instead of the mid part. The use of three-dimensional face modelling techniques, particularly the mid-face – tear through and cheeks, restores the skin firmness, volume and healthy look. For this purpose the hyaluronic acid is used, calcium hydroxyapatite, and L-polylactic acid fillers. Volumetric techniques require precision and proper selection of the filling agent to give a sense of satisfaction to both the patient and the doctor. PMID:25610354
Three-dimensional modular electronic interconnection system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bolotin, Gary S. (Inventor); Cardone, John (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A three-dimensional connection system uses a plurality of printed wiring boards with connectors completely around the printed wiring boards, and connected by an elastomeric interface connector. The device includes internal space to allow room for circuitry. The device is formed by stacking an electronics module, an elastomeric interface board on the electronics module such that the interface board's exterior makes electrical connection with the connectors around the perimeter of the interface board, but the internal portion is open to allow room for the electrical devices on the printed wiring board. A plurality of these devices are stacked between a top stiffener and a bottom device, and held into place by alignment elements.
Modelling of Three-Dimensional Nanographene.
Mathioudakis, Christos; Kelires, Pantelis C
2016-12-01
Monte Carlo simulations and tight-binding calculations shed light on the properties of three-dimensional nanographene, a material composed of interlinked, covalently-bonded nanoplatelet graphene units. By constructing realistic model networks of nanographene, we study its structure, mechanical stability, and optoelectronic properties. We find that the material is nanoporous with high specific surface area, in agreement with experimental reports. Its structure is characterized by randomly oriented and curved nanoplatelet units which retain a high degree of graphene order. The material exhibits good mechanical stability with a formation energy of only ∼0.3 eV/atom compared to two-dimensional graphene. It has high electrical conductivity and optical absorption, with values approaching those of graphene. PMID:26983431
THE THREE DIMENSIONAL THERMAL HYDRAULIC CODE BAGIRA.
KALINICHENKO,S.D.; KOHUT,P.; KROSHILIN,A.E.; KROSHILIN,V.E.; SMIRNOV,A.V.
2003-05-04
BAGIRA - a thermal-hydraulic program complex was primarily developed for using it in nuclear power plant simulator models, but is also used as a best-estimate analytical tool for modeling two-phase mixture flows. The code models allow consideration of phase transients and the treatment of the hydrodynamic behavior of boiling and pressurized water reactor circuits. It provides the capability to explicitly model three-dimensional flow regimes in various regions of the primary and secondary circuits such as, the mixing regions, circular downcomer, pressurizer, reactor core, main primary loops, the steam generators, the separator-reheaters. In addition, it is coupled to a severe-accident module allowing the analysis of core degradation and fuel damage behavior. Section II will present the theoretical basis for development and selected results are presented in Section III. The primary use for the code complex is to realistically model reactor core behavior in power plant simulators providing enhanced training tools for plant operators.
Three-Dimensional Reflectance Traction Microscopy
Jones, Christopher A. R.; Groves, Nicholas Scott; Sun, Bo
2016-01-01
Cells in three-dimensional (3D) environments exhibit very different biochemical and biophysical phenotypes compared to the behavior of cells in two-dimensional (2D) environments. As an important biomechanical measurement, 2D traction force microscopy can not be directly extended into 3D cases. In order to quantitatively characterize the contraction field, we have developed 3D reflectance traction microscopy which combines confocal reflection imaging and partial volume correlation postprocessing. We have measured the deformation field of collagen gel under controlled mechanical stress. We have also characterized the deformation field generated by invasive breast cancer cells of different morphologies in 3D collagen matrix. In contrast to employ dispersed tracing particles or fluorescently-tagged matrix proteins, our methods provide a label-free, computationally effective strategy to study the cell mechanics in native 3D extracellular matrix. PMID:27304456