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Sample records for stars white dwarfs

  1. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.

    2014-10-01

    White dwarfs are the evolutionary endpoint for nearly 95% of all stars born in our Galaxy, the final stages of evolution of all low- and intermediate mass stars, i.e., main sequence stars with masses below (8.5± 1.5) M_{odot}, depending on metallicity of the progenitor, mass loss and core overshoot. Massive white dwarfs are intrinsically rare objects, tand produce a gap in the determination of the initial vs. final mass relation at the high mass end (e.g. Weidemann 2000 A&A, 363, 647; Kalirai et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, 594; Williams, Bolte & Koester 2009, ApJ, 693, 355). Main sequences stars with higher masses will explode as SNII (Smartt S. 2009 ARA&A, 47, 63), but the limit does depend on the metallicity of the progenitor. Massive white dwarfs are probably SNIa progenitors through accretion or merger. They are rare, being the final product of massive stars (less common) and have smaller radius (less luminous). Kepler et al. 2007 (MNRAS, 375, 1315), Kleinman et al. 2013 (ApJS, 204, 5) estimate only 1-2% white dwarfs have masses above 1 M_{odot}. The final stages of evolution after helium burning are a race between core growth and loss of the H-rich envelope in a stellar wind. When the burning shell is exposed, the star rapidly cools and burning ceases, leaving a white dwarf. As they cool down, the magnetic field freezes in, ranging from a few kilogauss to a gigagauss. Peculiar type Ia SN 2006gz, SN 2007if, SN 2009dc, SN 2003fg suggest progenitors in the range 2.4-2.8 M_{odot}, and Das U. & Mukhopadhyay B. (2012, Phys. Rev. D, 86, 042001) estimate that the Chandrasekhar limit increases to 2.3-2.6 M_{odot} for extremely high magnetic field stars, but differential rotation induced by accretion could also increase it, according to Hachisu I. et al. 2012 (ApJ, 744, 69). García-Berro et al. 2012, ApJ, 749, 25, for example, proposes double degenerate mergers are the progenitors of high-field magnetic white dwarfs. We propose magnetic fields enhance the line broadening in

  2. Asteroseismology of White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Carl J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary purpose of this investigation has been to study various aspects of multimode pulsations in variable white dwarfs. In particular, nonlinear interactions among pulsation modes in white dwarfs (and, to some extent, in other variable stars), analysis of recent observations where such interactions are important, and preliminary work on the effects of crystallization in cool white dwarfs are reported.

  3. White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy, giving astronomers a fresh reading on the age of the universe.

    Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, burned-out stars -- called white dwarfs -- are about 12 to 13 billion years old. By adding the one billion years it took the cluster to form after the Big Bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates that the universe is 13 to 14 billion years old.

    The images, including some taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are available online at

    http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/10/ or

    http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc .

    The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's .9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope.

    The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles indicate the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars.

    Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the

  4. The Pulsating White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.

    2008-10-01

    We present a summary of what is currently known about the three distinct families of isolated pulsating white dwarfs. These are the GW Vir stars (He/C/O-atmosphere stars with Teff sime 120,000 K), the V777 Her stars (He-atmosphere, Teff sime 25,000 K), and the ZZ Ceti stars (H-atmosphere, Teff sime 12,000 K), all showing multiperiodic luminosity variations caused by low-order and low-degree g-mode instabilities. We also provide, in an Appendix, a very brief overview of the newly found evidence in favor of the existence of a fourth category of oscillating white dwarfs bearing strong similarities with these families of pulsators. We begin our survey with a short historical introduction, followed by a general discussion of pulsating white dwarfs as compact pulsators. We then discuss the class properties of these objects, including an updated census. We next focus on the instability domains for each family of pulsators in the log g - Teff diagram, and present their time-averaged properties in more detail. This is followed by a section on excitation physics, i.e., the causes of the pulsational instabilities, with emphasis on the common properties of the different types of pulsator. We then discuss the time-dependent properties of the pulsating white dwarfs featuring, among other things, a brief "picture tour" across the ZZ Ceti instability strip. We next review the methods used to infer or constrain the angular geometry of a pulsation mode in a white dwarf. These include multicolor photometry and time-resolved spectroscopy, the exploitation of the nonlinear features in the observed light curves, and rotational splitting. We also consider basic adiabatic asteroseismology starting with a discussion of the reaction of the period spectrum to variations of model parameters. We next review the various asteroseismological inferences that have so far been claimed for white dwarfs. We also discuss the potential of exploiting the rates of period change. We finally provide some

  5. White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szekeres, P.

    1977-01-01

    The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)

  6. Gravitational Interactions of White Dwarf Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeough, James; Robinson, Chloe; Ortiz, Bridget; Hira, Ajit

    2016-03-01

    In the light of the possible role of White Dwarf stars as progenitors of Type Ia supernovas, we present computational simulations of some astrophysical phenomena associated with a study of gravitationally-bound binary stars, composed of at least one white dwarf star. Of particular interest to astrophysicists are the conditions inside a white dwarf star in the time frame leading up to its explosive end as a Type Ia supernova, for an understanding of the massive stellar explosions. In addition, the studies of the evolution of white dwarfs could serve as promising probes of theories of gravitation. We developed FORTRAN computer programs to implement our models for white dwarfs and other stars. These codes allow for different sizes and masses of stars. Simulations were done in the mass interval from 0.1 to 2.5 solar masses. Our goal was to obtain both atmospheric and orbital parameters. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant observational data. The data are further analyzed to identify trends in terms of sizes and masses of stars. We will extend our computational studies to blue giant and red giant stars in the future. Funding from National Science Foundation.

  7. White dwarf stars with carbon atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Dufour, P; Liebert, J; Fontaine, G; Behara, N

    2007-11-22

    White dwarfs represent the endpoint of stellar evolution for stars with initial masses between approximately 0.07 and 8-10, where is the mass of the Sun (more massive stars end their life as either black holes or neutron stars). The theory of stellar evolution predicts that the majority of white dwarfs have a core made of carbon and oxygen, which itself is surrounded by a helium layer and, for approximately 80 per cent of known white dwarfs, by an additional hydrogen layer. All white dwarfs therefore have been traditionally found to belong to one of two categories: those with a hydrogen-rich atmosphere (the DA spectral type) and those with a helium-rich atmosphere (the non-DAs). Here we report the discovery of several white dwarfs with atmospheres primarily composed of carbon, with little or no trace of hydrogen or helium. Our analysis shows that the atmospheric parameters found for these stars do not fit satisfactorily in any of the currently known theories of post-asymptotic giant branch evolution, although these objects might be the cooler counterpart of the unique and extensively studied PG 1159 star H1504+65 (refs 4-7). These stars, together with H1504+65, might accordingly form a new evolutionary sequence that follows the asymptotic giant branch. PMID:18033290

  8. Theoretical Study of White Dwarf Double Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hira, Ajit; Koetter, Ted; Rivera, Ruben; Diaz, Juan

    2015-04-01

    We continue our interest in the computational simulation of the astrophysical phenomena with a study of gravitationally-bound binary stars, composed of at least one white dwarf star. Of particular interest to astrophysicists are the conditions inside a white dwarf star in the time frame leading up to its explosive end as a Type Ia supernova, for an understanding of the massive stellar explosions. In addition, the studies of the evolution of white dwarfs could serve as promising probes of theories of gravitation. We developed FORTRAN computer programs to implement our models for white dwarfs and other stars. These codes allow for different sizes and masses of stars. Simulations were done in the mass interval from 0.1 to 2.0 solar masses. Our goal was to obtain both atmospheric and orbital parameters. The computational results thus obtained are compared with relevant observational data. The data are further analyzed to identify trends in terms of sizes and masses of stars. We hope to extend our computational studies to blue giant stars in the future. Research Supported by National Science Foundation.

  9. White dwarfs in Be star binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apparao, K. M. V.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is made of possible reasons for the persistent inability to identify white dwarf stars in the Be binary systems. It is noted that many Be stars exhibiting large optical enhancements may be Be + WD and Be + He systems, and that observations of pulsations in the H-alpha emission, as well as observation of time delays between enhancements of optical line and continuum, can identify such systems.

  10. Be stars with white dwarf companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orio, Marina; Luna, Gerardo; Zemko, Polina; Kotulla, Ralf; Gallagher, Jay; Harbeck, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    A handful of supersoft X-ray sources in the Magellanic Clouds that could not be identified with transient nova outbursts turned out to be mainly massive close binaries. Recently, we have clearly identified a Be binary in M31, and are currently collecting data for another candidate in that galaxy. Work is in progress to assess whether the compact object companion really is a hydrogen burning white dwarf (the alternative being a massive stellar-mass black hole). If we can prove that Be+white dwarf interacting close binaries are common, and that hydrogen is often ignited on the white dwarf in these systems, we have discovered a new promising channel towards the explosion of supernovae of type Ia in star forming regions, without invoking double degenerate systems

  11. Pulsating White Dwarf Star GD99

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chynoweth, K. M.; Thompson, S.; Mullally, F.; Yeates, C.

    2004-12-01

    We present 15 hours of time-series photometry of the variable white dwarf star GD99. These data were obtained at the McDonald Observatory 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope in January 2003, using the Argos CCD photometer. We achieved a noise level as low as 0.07 %, as measured from the power spectrum of our first night. Our observations confirm that GD99 is a unique pulsating white dwarf whose modes show characteristics of both the hot and cold type of DA variable stars. Additionally, GD99 has a large number of modes, making it a good candidate for asteroseismological study. Our preliminary results indicate that this star merits further study to decipher its abundant set of unusual modes. With such a rich period structure, longer continuous data sets will be required to fully resolve the pulsation spectrum.

  12. UBV photometry of hot white dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheselka, Mathew; Holberg, J. B.; Watkins, Ron; Collins, James; Tweedy, R. W.

    1993-12-01

    Johnson UBV photometry has been obtained for a set of hot degenerate stars, primarily DA and DO white dwarfs from among those detected in the Palomar-Green survey of UV excess objects. Most of our program stars have estimated effective temperatures (Teff) in the range 22,000 to 80,000 K and have no previous photometry. Some objects selected are also x-ray and extreme ultraviolet sources from the ROSAT all sky survey. The importance of precise photometric measurements in the analysis of x-ray data is discussed. A discrepancy between the observed colors and predicted colors is noted, and possibly accounted for by difficulties in defining the atmospheric cutoff of the U band and a general lack of hot stars used to define the photometric transformation between theoretical and observed colors.

  13. White dwarf stars in D dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, P.-H.

    2007-07-01

    We derive the mass-radius relation of relativistic white dwarf stars (modeled as a self-gravitating degenerate Fermi gas at T=0) in a D-dimensional universe and study the influence of the dimension of space on the laws of physics when we combine quantum mechanics, special relativity, and gravity. We exhibit characteristic dimensions D=1, D=2, D=3, D=(3+17)/2, D=4, D=2(1+2) and show that quantum mechanics cannot balance gravitational collapse for D≥4. This is similar to a result found by Ehrenfest (1917) at the atomic level for Coulomb forces (in Bohr’s model) and for the Kepler problem. This makes the dimension of our universe D=3 very particular with possible implications regarding the anthropic principle. We discuss some historic aspects concerning the discovery of the Chandrasekhar (1931) limiting mass in relation to previous investigations by Anderson (1929) and Stoner (1930). We also propose different derivations of the stability limits of polytropic distributions and consider their application to classical and relativistic white dwarf stars.

  14. Diffusion of neon in white dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2010-12-01

    Sedimentation of the neutron rich isotope 22Ne may be an important source of gravitational energy during the cooling of white dwarf stars. This depends on the diffusion constant for 22Ne in strongly coupled plasma mixtures. We calculate self-diffusion constants D(i) from molecular dynamics simulations of carbon, oxygen, and neon mixtures. We find that D(i) in a mixture does not differ greatly from earlier one component plasma results. For strong coupling (coulomb parameter Γ> few), D(i) has a modest dependence on the charge Z(i) of the ion species, D(i)∝Z(i)(-2/3). However, D(i) depends more strongly on Z(i) for weak coupling (smaller Γ). We conclude that the self-diffusion constant D(Ne) for 22Ne in carbon, oxygen, and neon plasma mixtures is accurately known so that uncertainties in D(Ne) should be unimportant for simulations of white dwarf cooling. PMID:21230741

  15. The White Dwarf Binary Pathways Survey I: A sample of FGK stars with white dwarf companions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, S. G.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Schreiber, M. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Zorotovic, M.; Ren, J. J.

    2016-08-01

    The number of spatially unresolved white dwarf plus main-sequence star binaries has increased rapidly in the last decade, jumping from only ˜30 in 2003 to over 3000. However, in the majority of known systems the companion to the white dwarf is a low mass M dwarf, since these are relatively easy to identify from optical colours and spectra. White dwarfs with more massive FGK type companions have remained elusive due to the large difference in optical brightness between the two stars. In this paper we identify 934 main-sequence FGK stars from the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey in the southern hemisphere and the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey in the northern hemisphere, that show excess flux at ultraviolet wavelengths which we interpret as the likely presence of a white dwarf companion. We obtained Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra for nine systems which confirmed that the excess is indeed caused, in all cases, by a hot compact companion, eight being white dwarfs and one a hot subdwarf or pre-helium white dwarf, demonstrating that this sample is very clean. We also address the potential of this sample to test binary evolution models and type Ia supernovae formation channels.

  16. Do all barium stars have a white dwarf companion?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominy, J. F.; Lambert, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    International Ultraviolet Explorer short-wavelength, low-dispersion spectra were analyzed for four barium, two mild barium, and one R-type carbon star in order to test the hypothesis that the barium and related giants are produced by mass transfer from a companion now present as a white dwarf. An earlier tentative identification of a white dwarf companion to the mild barium star Zeta Cyg is confirmed. For the other stars, no ultraviolet excess attributable to a white dwarf is seen. Limits are set on the bolometric magnitude and age of a possible white dwarf companion. Since the barium stars do not have obvious progenitors among main-sequence and subgiant stars, mass transfer must be presumed to occur when the mass-gaining star is already on the giant branch. This restriction, and the white dwarf's minimum age, which is greater than 8 x 10 to the 8th yr, determined for several stars, effectively eliminates the hypothesis that mass transfer from an asymptotic giant branch star creates a barium star. Speculations are presented on alternative methods of producing a barium star in a binary system.

  17. Infrared spectrum of an extremely cool white-dwarf star

    PubMed

    Hodgkin; Oppenheimer; Hambly; Jameson; Smartt; Steele

    2000-01-01

    White dwarfs are the remnant cores of stars that initially had masses of less than 8 solar masses. They cool gradually over billions of years, and have been suggested to make up much of the 'dark matter' in the halo of the Milky Way. But extremely cool white dwarfs have proved difficult to detect, owing to both their faintness and their anticipated similarity in colour to other classes of dwarf stars. Recent improved models indicate that white dwarfs are much more blue than previously supposed, suggesting that the earlier searches may have been looking for the wrong kinds of objects. Here we report an infrared spectrum of an extremely cool white dwarf that is consistent with the new models. We determine the star's temperature to be 3,500 +/- 200 K, making it the coolest known white dwarf. The kinematics of this star indicate that it is in the halo of the Milky Way, and the density of such objects implied by the serendipitous discovery of this star is consistent with white dwarfs dominating the dark matter in the halo. PMID:10638748

  18. A low-temperature companion to a white dwarf star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becklin, E. E.; Zuckerman, B.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared object located about 120 AU from the white dwarf GD165 has been discovered. With the exception of the possible brown dwarf companion to Giclas 29-38 reported last year, the companion to GD165 is the coolest (2100 K) dwarf star ever reported and, according to some theoretical models, it should be a substellar brown dwarf with a mass between 0.06 and 0.08 solar mass. These results, together with newly discovered low-mass stellar companions to white dwarfs, change the investigation of very low-mass stars from the study of a few chance objects to that of a statistical distribution. In particular, it appears that very low-mass stars and perhaps even brown dwarfs could be quite common in the Galaxy.

  19. White dwarf stars with chemically stratified atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muchmore, D.

    1982-01-01

    Recent observations and theory suggest that some white dwarfs may have chemically stratified atmospheres - thin layers of hydrogen lying above helium-rich envelopes. Models of such atmospheres show that a discontinuous temperature inversion can occur at the boundary between the layers. Model spectra for layered atmospheres at 30,000 K and 50,000 K tend to have smaller decrements at 912 A, 504 A, and 228 A than uniform atmospheres would have. On the basis of their continuous extreme ultraviolet spectra, it is possible to distinguish observationally between uniform and layered atmospheres for hot white dwarfs.

  20. Do Some X-ray Stars Have White Dwarf Companions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollum, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Some Be stars which are intermittent C-ray sources may have white dwarf companions rather than neutron stars. It is not possible to prove or rule out the existence of Be+WD systems using X-ray or optical data. However, the presence of a white dwarf could be established by the detection of its EUV continuum shortward of the Be star's continuum turnover at 1OOOA. Either the detection or the nondetection of Be+WD systems would have implications for models of Be star variability, models of Be binary system formation and evolution, and models of wind-fed accretion.

  1. Do some x-ray stars have white dwarf companions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccollum, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Some Be stars which are intermittent X-ray sources may have white dwarf companions rather than neutron stars. It is not possible to prove or rule out the existence of Be + WD systems using X-ray or optical data. However, the presence of a white dwarf could be established by the detection of its EUV continuum shortward of the Be star's continuum turnover at 100 A. Either the detection or the nondetection of Be + WD systems would have implications for models of Be star variability, models of Be binary system formation and evolution, and models of wind-fed accretion.

  2. An unsuccessful search for brown dwarf companions to white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a survey to detect excess infrared emission from white dwarf stars which would be attributable to a low mass companion are reviewed. Neither a simple comparison of spectroscopically identified white dwarf stars with the IRAS Point Source Catalog nor the coadding of IRAS survey data resulted in a detection of a brown dwarf. The seven nearest stars where the most stringent limits to the presence of a brown dwarf were obtained are listed, and an effort to detect brown dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is discussed.

  3. The Origin and Evolution of the White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, J. C.

    1994-05-01

    The secret of how white dwarf stars form and evolve is hidden in their interiors. There, gravity separates the constituent elements into layers; the lighter elements float to the top and the heavier ones sink. Consequently, a white dwarf's structure depends on the quantity of the elements present. Measuring that structure can tell us about the processes which formed white dwarfs and allow us to calculate how fast they cool. The latter is indispensable for measuring the age of our galaxy using the oldest white dwarfs as chronometers. Because some white dwarfs pulsate, we can exploit the resulting luminosity variations to measure their internal structure using asteroseismology. Exploring white dwarf structure via asteroseismology poses a difficult observational task: acquiring essentially uninterrupted time series measurements of the brightness changes of pulsating white dwarf stars. We have accomplished this task using an instrument we call the Whole Earth Telescope (WET). By combining data from the WET with published measurements, we have detected a common pattern in the pulsation spectra of all the variable, hydrogen spectra white dwarfs (DAVs), implying that they have similar surface hydrogen layer masses. Because we have identified the degree (l) and the radial overtone (k) of the modes in the pattern detected, we have been able to compare their periods to published pulsation models to find the mass of the hydrogen layer; it is about 10(-4) times the total stellar mass. This result will require adjustments to published estimates of the age of the galaxy which use theoretical cooling times of the oldest white dwarfs as a time standard; the theoretical models typically assume much thinner hydrogen layers. We have also investigated the two classes of pulsating helium spectra white dwarfs (DOVs and DBVs). From their pulsation properties, and the mass of the hydrogen layer measured for the DAVs, we have concluded that the helium surface white dwarfs do not form via

  4. The Origin and Evolution of the White-Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, J. C.

    1994-12-01

    The secret of how white dwarf stars form and evolve is hidden in their interiors. There, gravity separates the constituent elements into layers; the lighter elements float to the top and the heavier ones sink. Consequently, a white dwarf's structure depends on the quantity of the elements present. Measuring that structure can tell us about the processes which formed white dwarfs and allow us to calculate how fast they cool. The latter is indispensable for measuring the age of our galaxy using the oldest white dwarfs as chronometers. Because some white dwarfs pulsate, we can exploit the resulting luminosity variations to measure their internal structure using "asteroseismology," a procedure analogous to terrestrial seismology. Exploring white dwarf structure via asteroseismology poses a difficult observational task: acquiring essentially uninterrupted time series measurements of the brightness changes of pulsating white dwarf stars. We have accomplished this task using an instrument we developed for this purpose, the Whole Earth Telescope. By combining data from the Whole Earth Telescope with published measurements, we have detected a common pattern in the pulsation spectra of all the variable, hydrogen spectra white dwarfs (DAVs), implying that they have similar surface hydrogen layer masses. Because we have identified the degree (l) and the radial overtone (k) of the modes in the pattern detected, we have been able to compare their periods to published pulsation models to find the mass of the hydrogen layer; it is about 10^-4 times the total stellar mass. This result will require adjustments to published estimates of the age of the galaxy which use theoretical cooling times of the oldest white dwarfs as a time standard; the theoretical models typically assume much thinner hydrogen layers. We have also investigated the two classes of pulsating helium spectra white dwarfs (DOVs and DBVs). From their pulsation properties, and the mass of the hydrogen layer measured

  5. The origin and evolution of the white dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemens, James Christopher

    1994-01-01

    The secret of how white dwarf stars form and evolve is hidden in their interiors. There, gravity separates the constituent elements into layers; the lighter elements float to the top and the heavier ones sink. Consequently, a white dwarf's structure depends on the quantity of the elements present. Measuring that structure can tell Us about the processes which formed white dwarfs and allow us to calculate how fast they cool. The latter is indispensable for measuring the age of our galaxy using the oldest white dwarfs as chronometers. Because some white dwarfs pulsate, we can exploit the resulting luminosity variations to measure their internal structure using 'asteroseismology', a procedure analogous to terrestrial seismology. Exploring white dwarf structure via asteroseismology poses a difficult observational task: acquiring essentially uninterrupted time series measurements of the brightness changes of pulsating white dwarf stars. We have accomplished this task using an instrument we developed for this purpose, the Whole Earth Telescope. By combining data from the Whole Earth Telescope with published measurements, we have detected a common pattern in the pulsation spectra of all the variable, hydrogen spectra white dwarfs (DAVs), implying that they have similar surface hydrogen layer masses. Because we have identified the degree (l) and the radial overtone (k) of the modes in the pattern detected, we have been able to compare their periods to published pulsation models to find the mass of the hydrogen layer, it is about 10-4 times the total stellar mass. This result will require adjustments to published estimates of the age of the galaxy which use theoretical cooling times of the oldest white dwarfs as a time standard; the theoretical models typically assume much thinner hydrogen layers. We have also investigated the two classes of pulsating helium spectra white dwarfs (DOVs and DBVs). From their pulsation properties and the mass of the hydrogen layer measured for

  6. Circumstellar debris and pollution at white dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farihi, J.

    2016-04-01

    Circumstellar disks of planetary debris are now known or suspected to closely orbit hundreds of white dwarf stars. To date, both data and theory support disks that are entirely contained within the preceding giant stellar radii, and hence must have been produced during the white dwarf phase. This picture is strengthened by the signature of material falling onto the pristine stellar surfaces; disks are always detected together with atmospheric heavy elements. The physical link between this debris and the white dwarf host abundances enables unique insight into the bulk chemistry of extrasolar planetary systems via their remnants. This review summarizes the body of evidence supporting dynamically active planetary systems at a large fraction of all white dwarfs, the remnants of first generation, main-sequence planetary systems, and hence provide insight into initial conditions as well as long-term dynamics and evolution.

  7. New white dwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, I.; Koester, D.; Ourique, G.; Kleinman, S. J.; Romero, A. D.; Nitta, A.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Costa, J. E. S.; Külebi, B.; Jordan, S.; Dufour, P.; Giommi, Paolo; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    We report the discovery of 9088 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs and subdwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), and estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon-dominated spectra DQs. We found 1 central star of a planetary nebula, 2 new oxygen spectra on helium atmosphere white dwarfs, 71 DQs, 42 hot DO/PG1159s, 171 white dwarf+main-sequence star binaries, 206 magnetic DAHs, 327 continuum-dominated DCs, 397 metal-polluted white dwarfs, 450 helium-dominated white dwarfs, 647 subdwarfs and 6887 new hydrogen-dominated white dwarf stars.

  8. A Pulsational Study of Crystallized White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.

    1998-03-01

    The DAV BPM 37093 should have a substantially crystallized core based on its mass and temperature. Using this as a motivation, we examine the way in which a crystalline interior affects the nonradial g-mode frequencies of a white dwarf star. We confine ourselves to a relatively massive model within the DA instability strip (M_⋆ = 1.1Msun), since crystallization in this temperature range should be important only for high-mass white dwarfs. We find that crystallization has a significant effect on the mean period spacing of adjacent radial overtones, of order 10--30 %. Thus, a correct pulsational treatment of crystallization is vital if we are to make reliable asteroseismological measurements of a given stars' properties.

  9. New white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, I.; Koester, D.; Ourique, G.; Romero, A. D.; Reindl, N.; Kleinman, S. J.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Valois, A. D. M.; Amaral, L. A.

    2016-02-01

    We report the discovery of 6576 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf and subdwarf stars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 12. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for carbon-dominated spectra (DQs). We found one central star of a planetary nebula, one ultracompact helium binary (AM CVn), one oxygen line-dominated white dwarf, 15 hot DO/PG1159s, 12 new cataclysmic variables, 36 magnetic white dwarf stars, 54 DQs, 115 helium-dominated white dwarfs, 148 white dwarf + main-sequence star binaries, 236 metal-polluted white dwarfs, 300 continuum spectra DCs, 230 hot subdwarfs, 2936 new hydrogen-dominated white dwarf stars, and 2675 cool hydrogen-dominated subdwarf stars. We calculate the mass distribution of all 5883 DAs with S/N ≥ 15 in DR12, including the ones in DR7 and DR10, with an average S/N = 26, corrected to the 3D convection scale, and also the distribution after correcting for the observed volume, using 1/Vmax.

  10. HOT WHITE DWARF SHINES IN YOUNG STAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A dazzling 'jewel-box' collection of over 20,000 stars can be seen in crystal clarity in this NASA Hubble Space Telescope image, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. The young (40 million year old) cluster, called NGC 1818, is 164,000 light-years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. The LMC, a site of vigorous current star formation, is an ideal nearby laboratory for studying stellar evolution. In the cluster, astronomers have found a young white dwarf star, which has only very recently formed following the burnout of a red giant. Based on this observation astronomers conclude that the red giant progenitor star was 7.6 times the mass of our Sun. Previously, astronomers have estimated that stars anywhere from 6 to 10 solar masses would not just quietly fade away as white dwarfs but abruptly self-destruct in torrential explosions. Hubble can easily resolve the star in the crowded cluster, and detect its intense blue-white glow from a sizzling surface temperature of 50,000 degrees Fahrenheit. IMAGE DATA Date taken: December 1995 Wavelength: natural color reconstruction from three filters (I,B,U) Field of view: 100 light-years, 2.2 arc minutes TARGET DATA Name: NGC 1818 Distance: 164,000 light-years Constellation: Dorado Age: 40 million years Class: Rich star cluster Apparent magnitude: 9.7 Apparent diameter: 7 arc minutes Credit: Rebecca Elson and Richard Sword, Cambridge UK, and NASA (Original WFPC2 image courtesy J. Westphal, Caltech) Image files are available electronically via the World Wide Web at: http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/1998/16 and via links in http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/latest.html or http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pictures.html. GIF and JPEG images are available via anonymous ftp to oposite.stsci.edu in /pubinfo/GIF/9816.GIF and /pubinfo/JPEG/9816.jpg.

  11. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  12. Neutron stars and white dwarfs in galactic halos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Olive, Keith A.; Silk, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The possibility that galactic halos are composed of stellar remnants such as neutron stars and white dwarfs is discussed. On the basis of a simple model for the evolution of galactic halos, researchers follow the history of halo matter, luminosity, and metal and helium abundances. They assume conventional yields for helium and the heavier elements. By comparing with the observational constraints, which may be considered as fairly conservative, it is found that, for an exponentially decreasing star formation rate (SFR) with e-folding time tau, only values between 6 x 10(8) less than similar to tau less than similar to 2 x 10(9) years are allowed together with a very limited range of masses for the initial mass function (IMF). Star formation is allowed for 2 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 8 solar mass if tau = 2 x 10(9) years, and for 4 solar mass less than similar to m less than similar to 6 solar mass if tau = 10(9) years. For tau = 6 x 10(8) years, the lower and upper mass limits merge to similar to 5 solar mass. Researchers conclude that, even though the possibility of neutron stars as halo matter may be ruled out, that of white dwarfs may still be a viable hypothesis, though with very stringent constraints on allowed parameters, that merits further consideration.

  13. Search for white dwarf companions of cool stars with peculiar element abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1984-01-01

    A search for a white dwarf companions of cool stars with peculiar element abundances was undertaken. One additional star the xi Cet, was found with a white dwarf companion. It was found that HR 1016, 56Uma, 16 Ser, have high excitation emission lines which indicate a high temperature object in the system. It is suggested that since these indications for high temperature companions were seen for all nearby Ba stars, it is highly probable that all Ba stars have white dwarf companions, and that the peculiar element abundances seen in the Ba stars are due to mass transfer. Observations, arguments and conclusions are presented. White dwarf companions were not found. Together with the Li and Be abundances and the chromospheric emission line spectra in these stars were studied. No white dwarf companions were seen for subgiant CH stars.

  14. Merging binary stars and the magnetic white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Gordon P.; Ferrario, Lilia; Tout, Christopher A.; Wickramasinghe, Dayal T.; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2015-02-01

    A magnetic dynamo driven by differential rotation generated when stars merge can explain strong fields in certain classes of magnetic stars, including the high field magnetic white dwarfs (HFMWDs). In their case the site of the differential rotation has been variously proposed to be within a common envelope, the massive hot outer regions of a merged degenerate core or an accretion disc formed by a tidally disrupted companion that is subsequently incorporated into a degenerate core. We synthesize a population of binary systems to investigate the stellar merging hypothesis for observed single HFMWDs. Our calculations provide mass distribution and the fractions of white dwarfs that merge during a common envelope phase or as double degenerate systems in a post-common-envelope phase. We vary the common envelope efficiency parameter α and compare with observations. We find that this hypothesis can explain both the observed incidence of magnetism and the mass distribution of HFMWDs for a wide range of α. In this model, the majority of the HFMWDs are of the carbon-oxygen type and merge within a common envelope. Less than about a quarter of a per cent of HFMWDs originate from double degenerate stars that merge after common envelope evolution and these populate the high-mass tail of the HFMWD mass distribution.

  15. Thomson scattering in magnetic fields. [of white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitney, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    The equation of transfer in Thomson scattering atmospheres with magnetic fields is solved using Monte Carlo methods. Two cases, a plane parallel atmosphere with a magnetic field perpendicular to the atmosphere, and a dipole star, are investigated. The wavelength dependence of polarization from plane-parallel atmosphere is qualitatively similar to that observed in the magnetic white dwarf Grw+70 deg 8247, and the field strength determined by the calculation, 320 MG, is quantitatively similar to that determined from the line spectrum. The dipole model does not resemble the data as well as the single plane-parallel atmosphere.

  16. White dwarf kicks and implications for barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izzard, R. G.; Church, R. P.; Dermine, T.

    The barium stars have caused much grief in the field of binary stellar evolution. They are often eccentric when they should be circular and are not found to have periods longer than 104 days even though wind accretion should still be efficient at such separations. We address both these problems by introducing a kick to white dwarfs when they are born, thus solving the eccentricity problem, and imposing strong orbital angular momentum loss to shrink barium-star binaries down to the observed periods. Whilst our angular momentum prescription is hard to justify for the barium stars it shows that strong angular momentum loss is necessary to reproduce the observed period-eccentricity distribution. We are investigating whether this can be obtained from a circumbinary disc.

  17. Crystallization of carbon-oxygen mixtures in white dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, C J; Schneider, A S; Berry, D K

    2010-06-11

    We determine the phase diagram for dense carbon-oxygen mixtures in white dwarf (WD) star interiors using molecular dynamics simulations involving liquid and solid phases. Our phase diagram agrees well with predictions from Ogata et al. and from Medin and Cumming and gives lower melting temperatures than Segretain et al. Observations of WD crystallization in the globular cluster NGC 6397 by Winget et al. suggest that the melting temperature of WD cores is close to that for pure carbon. If this is true, our phase diagram implies that the central oxygen abundance in these stars is less than about 60%. This constraint, along with assumptions about convection in stellar evolution models, limits the effective S factor for the 12C(α,γ)16O reaction to S(300)≤170  keV b. PMID:20867223

  18. Crystallization of Carbon-Oxygen Mixtures in White Dwarf Stars

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C. J.; Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.

    2010-06-11

    We determine the phase diagram for dense carbon-oxygen mixtures in white dwarf (WD) star interiors using molecular dynamics simulations involving liquid and solid phases. Our phase diagram agrees well with predictions from Ogata et al. and from Medin and Cumming and gives lower melting temperatures than Segretain et al. Observations of WD crystallization in the globular cluster NGC 6397 by Winget et al. suggest that the melting temperature of WD cores is close to that for pure carbon. If this is true, our phase diagram implies that the central oxygen abundance in these stars is less than about 60%. This constraint, along with assumptions about convection in stellar evolution models, limits the effective S factor for the {sup 12}C({alpha},{gamma}){sup 16}O reaction to S{sub 300{<=}}170 keV b.

  19. Crystallization of Carbon-Oxygen Mixtures in White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, C. J.; Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.

    2010-06-01

    We determine the phase diagram for dense carbon-oxygen mixtures in white dwarf (WD) star interiors using molecular dynamics simulations involving liquid and solid phases. Our phase diagram agrees well with predictions from Ogata et al. and from Medin and Cumming and gives lower melting temperatures than Segretain et al. Observations of WD crystallization in the globular cluster NGC 6397 by Winget et al. suggest that the melting temperature of WD cores is close to that for pure carbon. If this is true, our phase diagram implies that the central oxygen abundance in these stars is less than about 60%. This constraint, along with assumptions about convection in stellar evolution models, limits the effective S factor for the C12(α,γ)O16 reaction to S300≤170keVb.

  20. R Coronae Borealis Stars formed from Double White Dwarf Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, Jan E.; Herwig, F.; Menon, A.; Even, W.; Tohline, J.; Clayton, G.; Motl, P.; Fryer, C.; Geballe, T.

    2011-01-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars are hydrogen-deficient variable stars that suddenly fade by several magnitudes at irregular intervals whereafter they gradually return to their original brightness over a period of some months. The origin of RCBs remain a mystery. It is often thought that they are the result of the merger of a He and a CO white dwarf, while the fading is thought to be due to the formation of dust blocking light from the star. We are working on revealing the secrets behind the origin of RCBs. Here we present the results of 3 dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of a double white dwarf system where total mass is 0.9 M⊙ and initial mass ratio is q=0.7. We use a zero-temperature plus ideal gas equation of state that allows for heating through shocks. These simulations allow us to follow the evolution of the system for 10-20 initial orbital periods (1000-2000 seconds), from the onset of mass-transfer to a point after merger when the combined object has settled into a nearly axisymmetric, rotationally flattened configuration. The final merged object from the hydrodynamics simulation is then used as input for a stellar evolution code where the object's evolution can be followed over a much longer (thermal and/or nuclear) timescale. A preliminary post-merger stellar evolution simulation shows how an initial configuration of a 0.7 CO WD surrounded by 0.3 M⊙ of dynamically accreted He evolves on a time scale of 105 years to the location of the RCB stars in the H-R diagram at an effective temperature Teff<7000 K and log L 4. We acknowledge support from NASA Astrophysics Theory Program grant number NNX10AC72G.

  1. Search for carbon stars and DZ white dwarfs in SDSS spectra survey through machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, JianMin; Luo, ALi; Li, YinBi; Zhang, JianNan; Wei, Peng; Wu, YiHong; Wu, FuChao; Zhao, YongHeng

    2014-01-01

    Carbon stars and DZ white dwarfs are two types of rare objects in the Galaxy. In this paper, we have applied the label propagation algorithm to search for these two types of stars from Data Release Eight (DR8) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which is verified to be efficient by calculating precision and recall. From nearly two million spectra including stars, galaxies and QSOs, we have found 260 new carbon stars in which 96 stars have been identified as dwarfs and 7 identified as giants, and 11 composition spectrum systems (each of them consists of a white dwarf and a carbon star). Similarly, using the label propagation method, we have obtained 29 new DZ white dwarfs from SDSS DR8. Compared with PCA reconstructed spectra, the 29 findings are typical DZ white dwarfs. We have also investigated their proper motions by comparing them with proper motion distribution of 9,374 white dwarfs, and found that they satisfy the current observed white dwarfs by SDSS generally have large proper motions. In addition, we have estimated their effective temperatures by fitting the polynomial relationship between effective temperature and g-r color of known DZ white dwarfs, and found 12 of the 29 new DZ white dwarfs are cool, in which nine are between 6,000 K and 6,600 K, and three are below 6,000 K.

  2. White dwarf stars and the age of the Galactic disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    The history of the Galaxy is written in its oldest stars, the white dwarf (WD) stars. Significant limits can be placed on both the Galactic age and star formation history. A wide range of input WD model sequences is used to derive the current limits to the age estimates suggested by fitting to the observed falloff in the WD luminosity function. The results suggest that the star formation rate over the history of the Galaxy has been relatively constant, and that the disk age lies in the range 6-12 billion years, depending upon the assumed structure of WD stars, and in particular on the core composition and surface helium layer mass. Using plausible mixed C/O core input models, the estimates for the disk age range from 8-10.5 Gyr, i.e.,sustantially younger than most age estimates for the halo globular clusters. After speculating on the significance of the results, expected observational and theoretical refinements which will further enhance the reliability of the method are discussed.

  3. Origin of the DA and non-DA white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.

    1989-01-01

    Various proposals for the bifurcation of the white dwarf cooling sequence are reviewed. 'Primordial' theories, in which the basic bifurcation of the white dwarf sequence is rooted in events predating the white dwarf stage of stellar evolution, are discussed, along with the competing 'mixing' theories in which processes occurring during the white dwarf stage are responsible for the existence of DA or non-DA stars. A new proposal is suggested, representing a two-channel scenario. In the DA channel, some process reduces the hydrogen layer mass to the value of less than 10 to the -7th. The non-DA channel is similar to that in the primordial scenario. These considerations suggest that some mechanism operates in both channels to reduce the thickness of the outermost layer of the white dwarf. It is also noted that accretion from the interstellar medium has little to do with whether a particular white dwarf becomes a DA or a non-DA star.

  4. Very low mass stars and white dwarfs in NGC 6397

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paresce, Francesco; De Marchi, Guido; Romaniello, Martino

    1995-01-01

    Deep Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) images in wide bands centered at 606 and 802 nm were taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) 4.6 min from the center of the galactic globular cluster NGC 6397. The images were used to accurately position approximately 2120 stars detected in the field on a color magnitude diagram down to a limiting magnitude m(sub 814) approximately = m(sub I) approximately = 26 determined reliably and solely by counting statistics. A white dwarf sequence and a rich, narrow cluster main sequence are detected for the first time, the latter stretching from m(sub 814) = 18.5 to m(sub 814) = 24.0 where it becomes indistinguishable from the field population. Two changes of slope of the main sequence at m(sub 814) approximately = 20 and m(sub 814) approximately = 22.5 are evident. The corresponding luminosity function increases slowly from M(sub 814) approximately = 6.5 to 8.5 are expected from ground-based observations but then drops sharply from there dwon to the measurement limit. The corresponding mass function obtained bu using the only presently available mass-luminosity function for the cluster's metallicity rises to a plateau between approximately 0.25 and approximately 0.15 solar mass, but drops toward the expected mass limit of the normal hydrogen burning main sequence at approximately 0.1 solar mass. This result is in clear contrast to that obtained from the ground and implies either a substantial modification of the cluster's initial mass function due to dynamical evolution in its lifetime, or that very low mass stars are not produced in any dynamically significant amount by clusters of this type. The white dwarf sequence is in reasonable agreement with a cooling sequence of models of mass 0.5 solar mass at the canonical distance of NGC 6397 with a scatter that is most likely due to photometric errors, but may also reflect real differences in mass or chemical composition. Contamination from unresolved galaxies, which cannot be

  5. Stars of type MS with evidence of white dwarf companions. [IUE, Main Sequence (MS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peery, Benjamin F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A search for white dwarf companions of MS-type stars was conducted, using IUE. The overendowments of these stars in typical S-process nuclides suggest that they, like the Ba II stars, may owe their peculiar compositions to earlier mass transfer. Short-wavelength IUE spectra show striking emission line variability in HD35155, HD61913, and 4 Ori; HD35155 and 4 Ori show evidence of white dwarf companions.

  6. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF WHITE DWARFS: THE MISSING PLANETARY DEBRIS AROUND DZ STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; Jura, M. E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-01-20

    We report a Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera search for infrared excesses around white dwarfs, including 14 newly observed targets and 16 unpublished archived stars. We find a substantial infrared excess around two warm white dwarfs-J220934.84+122336.5 and WD 0843+516, the latter apparently being the hottest white dwarf known to display a close-in dust disk. Extending previous studies, we find that the fraction of white dwarfs with dust disks increases as the star's temperature increases; for stars cooler than 10,000 K, even the most heavily polluted ones do not have {approx}1000 K dust. There is tentative evidence that the dust disk occurrence is correlated with the volatility of the accreted material. In the Appendix, we modify a previous analysis to clarify how Poynting-Robertson drag might play an important role in transferring materials from a dust disk into a white dwarf's atmosphere.

  7. The collapse of white dwarfs to neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, S. E.; Baron, E.

    1992-01-01

    The observable consequences of an accreting white dwarf collapsing directly to a neutron star are considered. The outcome depends critically upon the nature of the wind that is driven by neutrino absorption in the surface layers as the dwarf collapses. Unlike previous calculations which either ignored mass loss or employed inadequate zoning to resolve it, a characteristic mass-loss rate of about 0.005 solar mass/s and an energy input of 5 x 10 exp 50 ergs/s is found. Such a large mass-loss rate almost completely obscures any prompt electromagnetic display and certainly rules out the production by this model of gamma-ray bursts situated at cosmological distances. The occurrence of such collapses with the Milky Way Galaxy might, however, be detected and limited by their nucleosynthesis and gamma-ray line emission. To avoid the overproduction of rare neutron-rich isotopes heavier than iron, such events must be very infrequent, probably happening no more than once every thousand years.

  8. Suppression of cooling by strong magnetic fields in white dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Valyavin, G; Shulyak, D; Wade, G A; Antonyuk, K; Zharikov, S V; Galazutdinov, G A; Plachinda, S; Bagnulo, S; Machado, L Fox; Alvarez, M; Clark, D M; Lopez, J M; Hiriart, D; Han, Inwoo; Jeon, Young-Beom; Zurita, C; Mujica, R; Burlakova, T; Szeifert, T; Burenkov, A

    2014-11-01

    Isolated cool white dwarf stars more often have strong magnetic fields than young, hotter white dwarfs, which has been a puzzle because magnetic fields are expected to decay with time but a cool surface suggests that the star is old. In addition, some white dwarfs with strong fields vary in brightness as they rotate, which has been variously attributed to surface brightness inhomogeneities similar to sunspots, chemical inhomogeneities and other magneto-optical effects. Here we describe optical observations of the brightness and magnetic field of the cool white dwarf WD 1953-011 taken over about eight years, and the results of an analysis of its surface temperature and magnetic field distribution. We find that the magnetic field suppresses atmospheric convection, leading to dark spots in the most magnetized areas. We also find that strong fields are sufficient to suppress convection over the entire surface in cool magnetic white dwarfs, which inhibits their cooling evolution relative to weakly magnetic and non-magnetic white dwarfs, making them appear younger than they truly are. This explains the long-standing mystery of why magnetic fields are more common amongst cool white dwarfs, and implies that the currently accepted ages of strongly magnetic white dwarfs are systematically too young. PMID:25327247

  9. Limits from the Ongoing Search for Planets Around White Dwarf Stars Using Pulsation Timings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winget, D. E.; Hermes, J. J.; Mullally, Fergal; Bell, K. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Williams, S. G.; Harrold, S. T.; Kepler, S. O.; Castanheira, B.; Chandler, D. W.; Winget, K. I.; Mukadam, A. S.; Nather, R. E.

    2015-06-01

    Evidence from searches of stars in our galaxy for exoplanet companions suggests that most lower main sequence stars likely have one or more planets; the vast majority of these planet-hosting stars will evolve into white dwarf stars. Some planets may survive this process and new ones may form in a sort of second generation from the cast-off material. If we combine this argument with evidence of a substantial population of metal polluted white dwarf stars, we may plausibly expect that planets may be common around white dwarf stars. Empirically, however, little is known about the presence of planets, new or old around white dwarf stars. Our search is small (˜15 white dwarf stars), but sensitive. Using pulsation arrival times we reach a large search volume around each star: we are sensitive to 1 MJupiter planets at distances ranging from 1- 100AU. In this context, our tightening constraints from pulsation timings become increasingly important to the broader study of planet formation, dynamical evolution, and ultimate survival.

  10. Astero-archaeology: Reading the galactic history recorded in the white dwarf stars

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Galactic history is written in its oldest stars, the white dwarfs. Although still some years away from reading the details of that history, significant limits can already be placed on both the Galactic age and star formation history. The following is a complete analysis of the problem, starting with a fresh exploration of the physics of white dwarf stars. An extensive grid of numerical model sequences is presented and these are used to describe in detail the behavior of the white dwarf stars as a function of mass, core composition, surface layer masses and compositions, and uncertainties in the constitutive physics. These model sequences are used to decode the information contained in the white dwarf luminosity function. A theoretical context is established for current and future observations by presenting luminosity functions computed with differing choices for the input white dwarf evolutionary sequences, the assumed age of the local disk, the star formation rate as a function of time, and the possibility of scale height inflation of the disk with time. Finally, white dwarf cosmochronology is discussed within the context of other, conflicting, methods of cosmochronology. How this work can help resolve these conflicts and shed light on fundamental problems in galaxy formation and cosmology.

  11. The age-metallicity dependence for white dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, A. D.; Campos, F.; Kepler, S. O.

    2015-07-01

    We present a theoretical study on the metallicity dependence of the initial-to-final mass relation and its influence on white dwarf age determinations. We compute a grid of evolutionary sequences from the main sequence to ˜3000 K on the white dwarf cooling curve, passing through all intermediate stages. During the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch no third dredge-up episodes are considered and thus the photospheric C/O ratio is below unity for sequences with metallicities larger than Z = 0.0001. We consider initial metallicities from Z = 0.0001 to 0.04, accounting for stellar populations in the galactic disc and halo, with initial masses below ˜3 M⊙. We found a clear dependence of the shape of the initial-to-final mass relation with the progenitor metallicity, where metal-rich progenitors result in less massive white dwarf remnants, due to an enhancement of the mass-loss rates associated with high metallicity values. By comparing our theoretical computations with semi-empirical data from globular and old open clusters, we found that the observed intrinsic mass spread can be accounted for by a set of initial-to-final mass relations characterized by different metallicity values. Also, we confirm that the lifetime spent before the white dwarf stage increases with metallicity. Finally, we estimate the mean mass at the top of the white dwarf cooling curve for three globular clusters NGC 6397, M4 and 47 Tuc, around 0.53 M⊙, characteristic of old stellar populations. However, we found different values for the progenitor mass, lower for the metal-poor cluster, NGC 6397, and larger for the younger and metal-rich cluster 47 Tuc, as expected from the metallicity dependence of the initial-to-final mass relation.

  12. Panel 1: A pulsating red giant star and a compact, hot white dwarf star orbit each other.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Panel 1: A pulsating red giant star and a compact, hot white dwarf star orbit each other. Panel 2: The red giant sheds much of its outer layers in a stellar wind. The white dwarf helps concentrate the wind along a thin equatorial plane. The white dwarf accretes some of this escaping gas forming a disk around the itself. Panel 3: When enough gas accumulates on the white dwarf's surface it explodes as a nova outburst. Most of the hot gas forms a pair of expanding bubbles above and below the equatorial disk. Panel 4: A few thousand years after the bubbles expand into space, the white dwarf goes through another nova outburst and makes another pair of bubbles, which form a distinctive hourglass shape.

  13. LIMITS ON UNRESOLVED PLANETARY COMPANIONS TO WHITE DWARF REMNANTS OF 14 INTERMEDIATE-MASS STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kilic, Mukremin; Gould, Andrew; Koester, Detlev

    2009-11-10

    We present Spitzer IRAC photometry of white dwarf remnants of 14 stars with M = 3-5 M{sub sun}. We do not detect mid-infrared excess around any of our targets. By demanding a 3sigma photometric excess at 4.5 mum for unresolved companions, we rule out planetary mass companions down to 5, 7, or 10 M {sub J} for 13 of our targets based on the Burrows et al. substellar cooling models. Combined with previous IRAC observations of white dwarf remnants of intermediate-mass stars, we rule out >=10M {sub J} companions around 40 white dwarfs and >=5M {sub J} companions around 10 white dwarfs.

  14. Detection of a white dwarf companion to the Hyades stars HD 27483

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1993-01-01

    We observed with IUE a white dwarf (WD) companion to the Hyades F6 V binary stars HD 27483. This system is known to be a close binary of two nearly equal stars with an orbital period of 3.05 days. Our IUE observations revealed the presence of a third star, a white dwarf with an effective temperature of 23,000 +/- 1000 K and a mass of approximately 0.6 solar mass. Its presence in the Hyades cluster with a known age permits me to derive the mass of its progenitor, which must have been about 2.3 solar masses. The presence of the white dwarf in a binary system opens the possibility that some of the envelope material, which was expelled by the WD progenitor, may have been collected by the F6 stars. We may thus be able to study abundance anomalies of the WD progenitor with known mass on the surface of the F6 companions.

  15. ANCIENT PLANETARY SYSTEMS ARE ORBITING A LARGE FRACTION OF WHITE DWARF STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.; Melis, C.; Klein, B.; Jura, M.; Koester, D. E-mail: cmelis@ucsd.ed E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.ed

    2010-10-10

    Infrared studies have revealed debris likely related to planet formation in orbit around {approx}30% of youthful, intermediate mass, main-sequence stars. We present evidence, based on atmospheric pollution by various elements heavier than helium, that a comparable fraction of the white dwarf descendants of such main-sequence stars are orbited by planetary systems. These systems have survived, at least in part, through all stages of stellar evolution that precede the white dwarf. During the time interval ({approx}200 million years) that a typical polluted white dwarf in our sample has been cooling it has accreted from its planetary system the mass of one of the largest asteroids in our solar system (e.g., Vesta or Ceres). Usually, this accreted mass will be only a fraction of the total mass of rocky material that orbits these white dwarfs; for plausible planetary system configurations we estimate that this total mass is likely to be at least equal to that of the Sun's asteroid belt, and perhaps much larger. We report abundances of a suite of eight elements detected in the little studied star G241-6 that we find to be among the most heavily polluted of all moderately bright white dwarfs.

  16. A Search for Kilogauss Magnetic Fields in White Dwarfs and Hot Subdwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyavin, G.; Bagnulo, S.; Fabrika, S.; Reisenegger, A.; Wade, G. A.; Han, Inwoo; Monin, D.

    2006-09-01

    We present new results of a survey for weak magnetic fields among DA white dwarfs, including some brighter hot subdwarf stars. We have detected variable circular polarization in the Hα line of the hot subdwarf star Feige 34 (spectroscopic type: sdO). From these data, we estimate that the longitudinal magnetic field of this star varies from -1.1+/-3.2 to +9.6+/-2.6 kG, with a mean of about +5 kG and a period longer than 2 hr. In this study, we also confirm the magnetic nature of white dwarf WD 1105-048, found earlier in a study by Aznar Cuadrado and coworkers, and present upper limits of kilogauss longitudinal magnetic fields of the five brightest DA white dwarfs. Our data support the finding of Aznar Cuadrado and coworkers that ~25% of white dwarfs have kilogauss magnetic fields. This frequency also confirms results of early estimates obtained using the magnetic field function of white dwarfs (Fabrika & Valyavin).

  17. Instability of g-mode oscillations in white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeley, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A white dwarf model with M = 6 solar masses, Te = 12,000 K, and L = 1.2 x 10 to the 31st erg/sec provided by Cox has been tested for linear stability of radial oscillations. The radial mode instability first reported for this model by Cox, et al. (1979) has been confirmed. The growth rates obtained are comparable to the rates found by Cox. A sequence of l = 2 g-modes has also been found to be unstable. The e-folding times range from around 10 to the 11th periods for a 137 second mode (1 radial node) to less than 100 periods for a 629 second mode (17 nodes). It is likely that the latter rate is too high because the eigenfunction has been forced to vanish at the non-zero inner radius of the model, at which the Brunt-Vaisala frequency is barely less than the mode frequency.

  18. The white dwarf companion of the B a 2 star zeta Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, E.

    1981-01-01

    The Ba II star zeta Cap has a white dwarf companion. Its T (sub eff) is determined to be 22000 K, its mass is approximately one solar mass. The importance of this finding for the explanation of abundance peculiarities is discussed.

  19. Eigenfrequencies of rotationally and tidally distorted white dwarf models of stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Tarun; Pathania, Ankush

    2013-05-01

    In the present paper we have studied the eigenfrequencies of small adiabatic barotropic pseudo-radial and nonradial modes of oscillations of the white dwarf models of rotating stars in binary systems. In this work the methodology of Mohan and Saxena (in Astrophys. Space Sci. 113:155, 1985) has been used that utilizes the averaging technique of Kippenhahn and Thomas (in Proc. IAU Colloq., vol. 4, p. 20, 1970) and certain results on Roche equipotential as that given by Kopal (in Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academic Press, 1972). The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of rotation and/or tidal distortion on the periods of oscillations of rotationally and/or tidally distorted white dwarf models of stars assuming it to be the primary component of the binary system and rotating uniformly. The results of present study show that the eigenfrequencies (both radial and nonradial modes) of the rotationally distorted and rotationally and tidally distorted white dwarf model of stars in binary systems tend to decrease under the influence of rotational distortions and rotational and tidal distortions, respectively. However, results are contrary for tidally distorted white dwarf model of stars.

  20. Supernova SN 2011fe from an exploding carbon-oxygen white dwarf star.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Peter E; Sullivan, Mark; Cenko, S Bradley; Thomas, Rollin C; Kasen, Daniel; Howell, D Andrew; Bersier, David; Bloom, Joshua S; Kulkarni, S R; Kandrashoff, Michael T; Filippenko, Alexei V; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Howard, Andrew W; Isaacson, Howard T; Maguire, Kate; Suzuki, Nao; Tarlton, James E; Pan, Yen-Chen; Bildsten, Lars; Fulton, Benjamin J; Parrent, Jerod T; Sand, David; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Bianco, Federica B; Dilday, Benjamin; Graham, Melissa L; Lyman, Joe; James, Phil; Kasliwal, Mansi M; Law, Nicholas M; Quimby, Robert M; Hook, Isobel M; Walker, Emma S; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Ofek, Eran O; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi

    2011-12-15

    Type Ia supernovae have been used empirically as 'standard candles' to demonstrate the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe even though fundamental details, such as the nature of their progenitor systems and how the stars explode, remain a mystery. There is consensus that a white dwarf star explodes after accreting matter in a binary system, but the secondary body could be anything from a main-sequence star to a red giant, or even another white dwarf. This uncertainty stems from the fact that no recent type Ia supernova has been discovered close enough to Earth to detect the stars before explosion. Here we report early observations of supernova SN 2011fe in the galaxy M101 at a distance from Earth of 6.4 megaparsecs. We find that the exploding star was probably a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, and from the lack of an early shock we conclude that the companion was probably a main-sequence star. Early spectroscopy shows high-velocity oxygen that slows rapidly, on a timescale of hours, and extensive mixing of newly synthesized intermediate-mass elements in the outermost layers of the supernova. A companion paper uses pre-explosion images to rule out luminous red giants and most helium stars as companions to the progenitor. PMID:22170680

  1. Supernova SN 2011fe from an exploding carbon-oxygen white dwarf star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, Peter E.; Sullivan, Mark; Cenko, S. Bradley; Thomas, Rollin C.; Kasen, Daniel; Howell, D. Andrew; Bersier, David; Bloom, Joshua S.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Kandrashoff, Michael T.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Howard, Andrew W.; Isaacson, Howard T.; Maguire, Kate; Suzuki, Nao; Tarlton, James E.; Pan, Yen-Chen; Bildsten, Lars; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Sand, David; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Bianco, Federica B.; Dilday, Benjamin; Graham, Melissa L.; Lyman, Joe; James, Phil; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Law, Nicholas M.; Quimby, Robert M.; Hook, Isobel M.; Walker, Emma S.; Mazzali, Paolo; Pian, Elena; Ofek, Eran O.; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Poznanski, Dovi

    2011-12-01

    Type Ia supernovae have been used empirically as `standard candles' to demonstrate the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe even though fundamental details, such as the nature of their progenitor systems and how the stars explode, remain a mystery. There is consensus that a white dwarf star explodes after accreting matter in a binary system, but the secondary body could be anything from a main-sequence star to a red giant, or even another white dwarf. This uncertainty stems from the fact that no recent type Ia supernova has been discovered close enough to Earth to detect the stars before explosion. Here we report early observations of supernova SN 2011fe in the galaxy M101 at a distance from Earth of 6.4 megaparsecs. We find that the exploding star was probably a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, and from the lack of an early shock we conclude that the companion was probably a main-sequence star. Early spectroscopy shows high-velocity oxygen that slows rapidly, on a timescale of hours, and extensive mixing of newly synthesized intermediate-mass elements in the outermost layers of the supernova. A companion paper uses pre-explosion images to rule out luminous red giants and most helium stars as companions to the progenitor.

  2. EX-111 Thermal Emission from Hot White Dwarfs: The Suggested He Abundance-Temperature Correlation. EX-112: The Unique Emission Line White Dwarf Star GD 356

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the EXOSAT data analysis program is reported. EXOSAT observations for four white dwarfs (WD1031-115, WD0004+330, WD1615-154, and WD0109-264) were obtained. Counting rates were unexpectedly low, indicating that these objects have a substantial amount of x-ray absorbing matter in their photosheres. In addition, soft x-ray pulsations characterized by a 9.25 minute cycle were discovered in the DA white dwarf V471 Tauri. A residual x-ray flux from the K dwarf companion can be seen during the white dwarf eclipse at orbital phase 0.0. Pronounced dips in the soft x-ray light curve occur at orbital phases 0.15, 0.18, and 0.85. The dips may be correlated with the triangular Lagrangian points of the binary orbit. Smaller dips at phases near the eclipse may be associated with cool loops in the K star corona. Data for the white dwarf H1504+65 was also analyzed. This object is particularly unusual in that its photoshere is devoid of hydrogen and helium. Finally, existing data on the white dwarf Sirius B were analyzed to see what constraints from other data can be placed on the properties of this star. Interrelationships between radius, rotational velocity, and effective temperature were derived.

  3. Do R Coronae Borealis Stars Form from Double White Dwarf Mergers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick; Staff, Jan; Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris; Geballe, Tom; Pignatari, Marco; Clayton, Geoffrey; Tohline, Joel

    2013-04-01

    A leading formation scenario for the irregular variable R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of a degenerate Helium white dwarf with a Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf in a binary. The observed ratio of ^16O / ^18O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3 - 20, much smaller than the solar value of 500. We report on our investigations into whether such a low oxygen isotope ratio can be obtained in simulations of double white dwarf mergers. We identify a ``shell of fire'' feature in the simulations surrounding the merged object where temperatures and densities are favorable for forming ^18O for binaries with initial mass ratios near 0.7. However, the accretion stream's impact dredges up ^16O from the Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf which forms a competing process that raises the oxygen isotope ratio. We present the most favorable scenarios we have identified for creating RCB stars in light of these competing processes and outline steps for future progress.

  4. An extrasolar extreme-ultraviolet object. II - The nature of HZ 43. [hot white dwarf star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Liebert, J.; Lampton, M.; Spinrad, H.; Bowyer, S.; Gatewood, G.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of data are presented concerning the spectrum, distance, temperature, and evolutionary state of the hot white dwarf HZ 43, the first extrasolar object to be detected in the EUV band. The data include spectrophotometry of the star and its red dwarf companion (HZ 43B), a trigonometric parallax for the star, its tangential velocity, and results of soft X-ray and EUV observations. The main conclusions are that: (1) the spectrum of HZ 43A is that of a hot DAwk star, (2) HZ 43B is a dM3.5e star, (3) the distance of the system is about 65 pc, (4) the tangential velocity is not atypical of white dwarfs, and (5) the stellar energy distribution of HZ 43A is well fitted by a black body with an effective temperature of approximately 110,000 K. Evolutionary implications of the existence of an object as hot as HZ 43A are briefly considered, and it is suggested that the progenitors of hot DA stars must include objects hotter than spectral type sdB, with logical possibilities being nuclei of planetary nebulae and sdO stars.

  5. First axion bounds from a pulsating helium-rich white dwarf star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battich, T.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The Peccei-Quinn mechanism proposed to solve the CP problem of Quantum Chromodynamics has as consequence the existence of axions, hypothetical weakly interacting particles whose mass is constrained to be on the sub-eV range. If these particles exist and interact with electrons, they would be emitted from the dense interior of white dwarfs, becoming an important energy sink for the star. Due to their well known physics, white dwarfs are good laboratories to study the properties of fundamental particles such as the axions. We study the general effect of axion emission on the evolution of helium-rich white dwarfs and on their pulsational properties. To this aim, we calculate evolutionary helium-rich white dwarf models with axion emission, and assess the pulsational properties of this models. Our results indicate that the rates of change of pulsation periods are significantly affected by the existence of axions. We are able for the first time to independently constrain the mass of the axion from the study of pulsating helium-rich white dwarfs. To do this, we use an estimation of the rate of change of period of the pulsating white dwarf PG 1351+489 corresponding to the dominant pulsation period. From an asteroseismological model of PG 1351+489 we obtain gae < 3.3 × 10‑13 for the axion-electron coupling constant, or macos2β lesssim 11.5 meV for the axion mass. This constraint is relaxed to gae < 5.5 × 10‑13 (macos2β lesssim 19.5 meV), when no detailed asteroseismological model is adopted for the comparison with observations.

  6. On the absence of young white dwarf companions to five technetium stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Verne V.; Lambert, David L.

    1987-01-01

    A search for hot companions to five stars of type MS and S has been carried out using the IUE satellite. No hot companions were detected for the MS stars HR 85, 4647, 6702, and 8062, and the S star HR 8714. Limits on the luminosities of possible white dwarf companions provide lower limits of 2-5x10 to the 8th yr to the ages of any degenerate companions. All five stars exhibit strong Tc I lines, and the presence of technetium, with a half-life of 2.1x10 to the 5th yr, signifies recent nucleosynthesis. The limits on the ages of possible white dwarf companions that are equal to or greater than 1000 half-lives of Tc exclude the possibility that the s-process elemental enhancement seen in these MS and S stars resulted from mass transfer from a more highly evolved companion (as is probably the mechanism by which barium stars are created). These MS and S stars represent a sample of true thermally pulsing asymptotic giant-branch stars.

  7. Binary-binary collisions involving main-sequence stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, P.J.T.; Davies, M.B.

    1993-12-31

    We consider collisions between dynamically-evolved primordial binaries consisting of main-sequence stars, white dwarfs and neutron stars in globular clusters. In our four-body binary-binary scattering experiments, we allow stars to ``stick`` if they pass close enough to each other, which leads to the formation of a wide variety of exotic objects. Most of these objects have binary companions. Also, relatively clean exchange interactions can produce binaries containing neutron stars that eventually receive material from their companions. Such systems will be observable as X-ray binaries.

  8. Two new pulsating low-mass pre-white dwarfs or SX Phoenicis stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, M. A.; Kanaan, A.; Córsico, A. H.; Kepler, S. O.; Althaus, L. G.; Koester, D.; Sánchez Arias, J. P.

    2016-03-01

    Context. The discovery of pulsations in low-mass stars opens an opportunity to probe their interiors and determine their evolution by employing the tools of asteroseismology. Aims: We aim to analyse high-speed photometry of SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25 and discover brightness variabilities. In order to locate these stars in the Teff - log g diagram, we fit optical spectra (SDSS) with synthetic non-magnetic spectra derived from model atmospheres. Methods: To carry out this study, we used the photometric data we obtained for these stars with the 2.15 m telescope at CASLEO, Argentina. We analysed their light curves and applied the discrete Fourier transform (FT) to determine the pulsation frequencies. Finally, we compare both stars in the Teff - log g diagram, with two known pre-white dwarfs and seven pulsating pre-ELM white dwarf stars, δ Scuti, and SX Phe stars Results: We report the discovery of pulsations in SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. We determine their effective temperature and surface gravity to be Teff = 7972 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5 and Teff = 7925 ± 200 K, log g = 4.25 ± 0.5, respectively. With these parameters, these new pulsating low-mass stars can be identified with either ELM white dwarfs (with ~0.17 M⊙) or more massive SX Phe stars. We identified pulsation periods of 3278.7 and 1633.9 s for SDSS J145847.02+070754.46 and a pulsation period of 3367.1 s for SDSS J173001.94+070600.25. These two new objects, together with those of Maxted et al. (2013, 2014), indicate the possible existence of a new instability domain towards the late stages of evolution of low-mass white dwarf stars, although their identification with SX Phe stars cannot be discarded. Visiting Astronomer, Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  9. Kinematics of faint white dwarfs.

    PubMed

    Luyten, W J

    1978-10-01

    An analysis has been made for solar motion for 128 very faint white dwarfs of color class b or a. While about 40% of these stars may be high-velocity objects, it seems definitely indicated that the luminosity of all of them is considerably lower than that for the "normal" white dwarf of the same color. PMID:16592566

  10. Lattice Structure in Astrophysics: A reconsideration of White Dwarfs, Variables, and Wolf-Rayet Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robitaille, Pierre-Marie

    2016-03-01

    Stars of the main sequence display a mass-luminosity relation which indicates that they share a common building block (hydrogen) and lattice structure (hexagonal planar) with the solar photosphere. White dwarfs however display very low luminosity in spite of their elevated color temperature. Rather than postulate that these stars represent degenerate matter, as Eddington and Chandrasekhar were forced to assume given their gaseous models, within the context of a Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Solar Model white dwarfs might simply be thought as possessing a different lattice structure (e.g. body centered cubic) and hence a lowered emissivity. They do not need to possess exceeding densities, reduced radii, and degeneracy in order to account for their lowered emissivity. Similarly, variable stars might well be oscillating between lattices types wherein the energy differences involved in the transformations are small. Other stars, such as Wolf-Rayet stars, which lack photospheric emission, might be too hot to enable a discrete lattice to form. Though condensed, the photosphere in that case would have a lattice which is so poorly organized that its emissivity is trivial. Nonetheless, the broad emission lines of Wolf-Rayet stars indicates that these objects are not breaking apart but rather, are important sites of condensation.

  11. The incidence of magnetism among white dwarfs: The first stars below 100 kilogauss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Gary D.; Smith, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    A survey for magnetic fields among a magnitude-limited sample of DA white dwarfs has identified two stars with weak circular polarization features across the profiles of H(alpha) and H(beta) WD 1350-090 (LP 907-037) was found to have a disk-averaged longitudinal field component B(sub e) = +85 +/- 9 kG at one epoch, while WD 0009+501 (G 217-037) has been measured on several occasions at values between B(sub e) approximately 0 and nearly -100 kG. The latter results imply an oblique rotator with a period between 2 and 20 hr. Magnetism on white dwarfs has now been detected over more than four orders of magnitude in strength. Assuming flux conservation, the new discoveries imply organized field patterns near the end of the main-sequence phase of only approximately 10 G. However, the overall incidence of magnetism among white dwarfs remains low, with more than 90% of stars having fields below approximately 10 kG. There is tentative evidence from line profile analysis that WD 1350-090 is a high-mass object (M greater than 1 solar mass), but an accurate parallax and more thorough spectroscopic study are required.

  12. Detection of the white dwarf and the secondary star in the new SU UMa dwarf nova HS 2219+1824

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hagen, H.-J.; Marsh, T. R.; Harlaftis, E. T.; Kitsionas, S.; Engels, D.

    2005-02-01

    We report the discovery of a new, non-eclipsing SU UMa-type dwarf nova, HS 2219+1824. Photometry obtained in quiescence (V≈17.5) reveals a double-humped light curve from which we derive an orbital period of ≃86.2 min. Additional photometry obtained during a superoutburst reaching V≃12.0 clearly shows superhumps with a period of ≃89.05 min. The optical spectrum contains double-peaked Balmer and He I emission lines from the accretion disc as well as broad absorption troughs of Hβ, Hγ, and Hδ from the white dwarf primary star. Modelling of the optical spectrum implies a white dwarf temperature of 13 000 K⪉Teff⪉17 000 K, a distance of 180 pc⪉ d⪉230 pc, and suggests that the spectral type of the donor star is later than M 5. Phase-resolved spectroscopy obtained during quiescence reveals a narrow Hα emission line component which has a radial velocity amplitude and phase consistent with an origin on the secondary star, possibly on the irradiated hemisphere facing the white dwarf. This constitutes the first detection of line emission from the secondary star in a quiescent SU UMa star. Based in part on observations obtained at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg, jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy; on observations made with the IAC80 and OGS telescopes, operated on the island of Tenerife by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), respectively, in the Spanish Observatorio del Teide of the IAC; on observations made at the 1.2 m telescope, located at Kryoneri Korinthias, and owned by the National Observatory of Athens, Greece; and on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope, which is operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC.

  13. Hubble Space Telescope observations of cool white dwarf stars: Detection of new species of heavy elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry; Barnhill, Maurice; Provencal, Judi; Roby, Scott; Bues, Irmela; Cordova, France; Hammond, Gordon; Hintzen, Paul; Koester, Detlev; Liebert, James

    1995-01-01

    Observations of cool white dwarf stars with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has uncovered a number of spectral features from previouslly unobserved species. In this paper we present the data on four cool white dwarfs. We present identifications, equivalent width measurements, and brief summaries of the significance of our findings. The four stars observed are GD 40 (DBZ3, G 74-7 (DAZ), L 745-46A (DZ), and LDS 749B (DBA). Many additional species of heavey elements were detected in GD 40 and G 74-7. In L 745-46A, while the detections are limited to Fe 1, Fe II, and Mg II, the quality of the Mg II h and K line profiles should permit a test of the line broadening theories, which are so crucial to abundance determinations. The clear detection of Mg II h and k in LDS 749 B should, once an abundance determination is made, provide a clear test of the hypothesis that the DBA stars are the result of accretion from the interstellar medium. This star contains no other clear features other than a tantalizing hint of C II 1335 with a P Cygni profile, and some expected He 1 lines.

  14. An independent limit on the axion mass from the variable white dwarf star R548

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Romero, A. D.; Mukadam, A. S.; García-Berro, E.; Isern, J.; Kepler, S. O.; Corti, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Pulsating white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich atmospheres, also known as DAV stars, can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of fundamental particles like axions. Comparing the measured cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for sources of additional cooling due to the emission of weakly interacting particles. In this paper, we present an independent inference of the mass of the axion using the recent determination of the evolutionary cooling rate of R548, the DAV class prototype. We employ a state-of-the-art code which allows us to perform a detailed asteroseismological fit based on fully evolutionary sequences. Stellar cooling is the solely responsible of the rates of change of period with time (\\dot\\Pi}) for the DAV class. Thus, the inclusion of axion emission in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DAV stars. This allows us to compare the theoretical \\dot\\Pi} values to the corresponding empirical rate of change of period with time of R548 to discern the presence of axion cooling. We found that if the dominant period at 213.13 s in R548 is associated with a pulsation mode trapped in the hydrogen envelope, our models indicate the existence of additional cooling in this pulsating white dwarf, consistent with axions of mass macos 2β ~ 17.1 meV at a 2σ confidence level. This determination is in agreement with the value inferred from another well-studied DAV, G117-B15A. We now have two independent and consistent estimates of the mass of the axion obtained from DAVs, although additional studies of other pulsating white dwarfs are needed to confirm this value of the axion mass.

  15. An independent limit on the axion mass from the variable white dwarf star R548

    SciTech Connect

    Córsico, A.H.; Althaus, L.G.; Mukadam, A.S.; García-Berro, E.; Corti, M.A. E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar E-mail: anjum@astro.washington.edu E-mail: isern@ice.cat E-mail: mariela@fcaglp.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar

    2012-12-01

    Pulsating white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich atmospheres, also known as DAV stars, can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of fundamental particles like axions. Comparing the measured cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for sources of additional cooling due to the emission of weakly interacting particles. In this paper, we present an independent inference of the mass of the axion using the recent determination of the evolutionary cooling rate of R548, the DAV class prototype. We employ a state-of-the-art code which allows us to perform a detailed asteroseismological fit based on fully evolutionary sequences. Stellar cooling is the solely responsible of the rates of change of period with time (.Π)) for the DAV class. Thus, the inclusion of axion emission in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DAV stars. This allows us to compare the theoretical .Π) values to the corresponding empirical rate of change of period with time of R548 to discern the presence of axion cooling. We found that if the dominant period at 213.13 s in R548 is associated with a pulsation mode trapped in the hydrogen envelope, our models indicate the existence of additional cooling in this pulsating white dwarf, consistent with axions of mass m{sub a}cos {sup 2}β ∼ 17.1 meV at a 2σ confidence level. This determination is in agreement with the value inferred from another well-studied DAV, G117-B15A. We now have two independent and consistent estimates of the mass of the axion obtained from DAVs, although additional studies of other pulsating white dwarfs are needed to confirm this value of the axion mass.

  16. Phase diagram of carbon-oxygen plasma mixtures in white dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A. S.; Horowitz, C. J.; Hughto, J.; Berry, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    The liquid-solid phase-diagram of dense carbon-oxygen plasma mixtures found in white dwarf stars interiors is determined from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our MD simulations consist of boxes with 55296 ions with different carbon to oxygen ratios. Finite size effects are estimated comparing the new MD simulations results to previous smaller simulations. We use bond angle metric to identify whether an ion is in the solid, liquid or interface and study non-equilibrium effects by obtaining the diffusion coefficients in the different phases. Our phase diagram agrees with predictions from Medin and Cumming obtained by an independent method.

  17. Topics in solid-state astrophysics: Magnetized neutron star crusts and multicomponent crusts/white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, Tyler A.

    Two research endeavors are described in this dissertation; both undertake problems in solid-state astrophysics, which is a branch of solid-state physics concerning the extreme conditions found within white dwarfs and the solid crusts of neutron stars. As much of our knowledge about these compact objects comes from observation of astrophysical phenomena, Chapter 1 is devoted to the phenomena, and how they can be exploited as material property probes. Several of the most interesting phenomena involve the enormous magnetic fields (B ≥ 1012 gauss) harbored by many neutron stars, and the interaction between these fields and the charged particles within the solid crust. Accordingly, Chapter 2 reviews some theory of strongly-magnetized electrons, which both sets the stage for Chapter 3, and (hopefully) serves as a useful reference for future research. Let it now be made clear that this dissertation focuses exclusively on the "outer crusts," of neutron stars, where no free neutrons are present (rho < 4x1011 g/cc), and the similarly-composed interiors of white dwarfs, which have central densities ˜ 107 g/cc. For the most part we specialize to even lower densities. In Chapter 3, static and dynamic properties of low density (rho ≥ 106 g/cc) outer envelopes of neutron stars are calculated within the nonlinear magnetic Thomas-Fermi model, assuming degenerate electrons. A novel domain decomposition enables proper description of lattice symmetry and may be seen as a prototype for the general class of problems involving nonlinear charge screening of periodic, quasi-low-dimensionality structures, e.g. liquid crystals. We describe a scalable implementation of the method using Hypre. Over the density range considered, the effective shear modulus appears to be a factor of ≈ 20 larger than in the linearlyscreened Coulomb crystal model, which could have implications for observables related to astroseismology as well as low temperature phonon-mediated thermal conductivity. Other

  18. Be stars with white dwarf companions: a new single degenerate binary channel to type Ia supernovae explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orio, Marina; Luna, Gerardo; Zemko, Polina; Kotulla, Ralf; Gallagher, Jay; Harbeck, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    A handful of supersoft X-ray sources in the Magellanic Clouds that could not be identified with transient nova outbursts turned out to be mainly massive close binaries. 6 years ago we suggested that several such sources may exist in M31, because we found that a certain fraction of supersoft sources was located in star forming regions. Following that discovery, we clearly identified a Be binary in M31, and are currently collecting data for another candidate in that galaxy. Work is in progress to assess whether the compact object companion really is a hydrogen burning white dwarf (the alternative being a massive stellar-mass black hole). If we can demonstrate that Be+white dwarf interacting close binaries are common, and that hydrogen is often ignited on the white dwarf in these systems, we have discovered a new promising channel towards the explosion of supernovae of type Ia in star forming regions, without invoking double degenerate systems.

  19. Evidence for Neutron Star Formation from Accretion Induced Collapse of a White Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paradijis, J. Van; VanDenHeuvel, E. P. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.; Finger, M. H.; Lewin, W. H. G.

    1997-01-01

    The orbital parameters of the recently discovered transient burster/pulsar GRO J1744-28 indicate that this system is a low-mass X-ray binary in an advanced stage of its mass transfer, with several tenths of a solar mass already transferred from the donor to the compact star. All neutron stars known to have accreted such an amount have very weak magnetic fields, and this has led to the idea that the magnetic fields of neutron stars decay as a result of accretion. The observation of a strongly magnetized neutron star in GRO J1744-28 then suggests that this neutron star was formed recently as a result of the collapse of a white dwarf during an earlier stage of the current phase of mass transfer. It is shown that this model can consistently explain the observed characteristics of GRO J1744-28. Attractive progenitors for such an evolution are the luminous supersoft X-ray sources detected with ROSAT.

  20. NO NEUTRON STAR COMPANION TO THE LOWEST MASS SDSS WHITE DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Agueeros, Marcel A.; Camilo, Fernando; Heinke, Craig; Kilic, Mukremin; Anderson, Scott F.; Silvestri, Nicole M.; Freire, Paulo; Kleinman, Scot J.; Liebert, James W.

    2009-08-01

    SDSS J091709.55+463821.8 (hereafter J0917+4638) is the lowest surface gravity white dwarf (WD) currently known, with log g = 5.55 {+-} 0.05 (M {approx} 0.17 M{sub sun}). Such low-mass white dwarfs (LMWDs) are believed to originate in binaries that evolve into WD/WD or WD/neutron star (NS) systems. An optical search for J0917+4638's companion showed that it must be a compact object with a mass {>=}0.28 M{sub sun}. Here we report on Green Bank Telescope 820 MHz and XMM-Newton X-ray observations of J0917+4638 intended to uncover a potential NS companion to the LMWD. No convincing pulsar signal is detected in our radio data. Our X-ray observation also failed to detect X-ray emission from J0917+4638's companion, while we would have detected any of the millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc. We conclude that the companion is almost certainly another WD.

  1. Importance of tides for periastron precession in eccentric neutron star-white dwarf binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Sravan, N.; Valsecchi, F.; Kalogera, V.; Althaus, L. G.

    2014-09-10

    Although not nearly as numerous as binaries with two white dwarfs, eccentric neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) binaries are important gravitational-wave (GW) sources for the next generation of space-based detectors sensitive to low frequency waves. Here we investigate periastron precession in these sources as a result of general relativistic, tidal, and rotational effects; such precession is expected to be detectable for at least some of the detected binaries of this type. Currently, two eccentric NS-WD binaries are known in the galactic field, PSR J1141–6545 and PSR B2303+46, both of which have orbits too wide to be relevant in their current state to GW observations. However, population synthesis studies predict the existence of a significant Galactic population of such systems. Though small in most of these systems, we find that tidally induced periastron precession becomes important when tides contribute to more than 3% of the total precession rate. For these systems, accounting for tides when analyzing periastron precession rate measurements can improve estimates of the inferred WD component mass and, in some cases, will prevent us from misclassifying the object. However, such systems are rare, due to rapid orbital decay. To aid the inclusion of tidal effects when using periastron precession as a mass measurement tool, we derive a function that relates the WD radius and periastron precession constant to the WD mass.

  2. New White Dwarfs in the SDSS DR10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, I.; Koester, D.; Ourique, G.; Kleinman, S. J.; Romero, A. D.; Nitta, A.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Costa, J. E. S.; Külebi, B.; Jordan, S.; Dufour, P.; Giommi, P.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.

    2015-06-01

    We report the discovery of 8 991 new spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs and subdwarfs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. We obtain Teff, log g and mass for hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf stars (DAs) and helium atmosphere white dwarf stars (DBs), and estimate the calcium/helium abundances for the white dwarf stars with metallic lines (DZs) and carbon/helium for cool carbon dominated spectra DQs. We found 2 new oxygen dominated spectra white dwarfs, 69 DQs, 42 hot DO/PG1159s, 175 white dwarf+main sequence star binaries, 206 magnetic DAHs, 325 continuum dominated DCs, 397 metal polluted white dwarfs, 450 helium dominated white dwarfs, 636 subdwarfs and 6796 new hydrogen dominated white dwarf stars.

  3. Black hole, neutron star and white dwarf candidates from microlensing with OGLE-III★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Skowron, J.; Rybicki, K. A.; Mróz, P.; Kozłowski, S.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Poleski, R.; Pawlak, M.; Iłkiewicz, K.; Rattenbury, N. J.

    2016-05-01

    Most stellar remnants so far have been found in binary systems, where they interact with matter from their companions. Isolated neutron stars and black holes are difficult to find as they are dark, yet they are predicted to exist in our Galaxy in vast numbers. We explored the OGLE-III data base of 150 million objects observed in years 2001-2009 and found 59 microlensing events exhibiting a parallax effect due to the Earth's motion around the Sun. Combining parallax and brightness measurements from microlensing light curves with expected proper motions in the Milky Way, we identified 13 microlensing events which are consistent with having a white dwarf, neutron star or a black hole lens and we estimated their masses and distances. The most massive of our black hole candidates has 9.3 M⊙ and is at a distance of 2.4 kpc. The distribution of masses of our candidates indicates a continuum in mass distribution with no mass gap between neutron stars and black holes. We also present predictions on how such events will be observed by the astrometric Gaia mission.

  4. R Coronae Borealis Stars As The Result Of White Dwarf Mergers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, Jan E.; Menon, A.; Herwig, F.; Even, W.; Clayton, G.; Tohline, J.; Fryer, C. L.; Motl, P.; Geballe, T.

    2012-01-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars have masses around a solar mass, are hydrogen-deficient variable stars that suddenly fade by several magnitudes at irregular intervals after which they gradually return to their original brightness over a period of some months. The fading is thought to be due to the formation of dust blocking light from the star. RCBs are often thought to be the result of the merger of a He and a CO white dwarfs. Here we present the results of 3 dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of double white dwarf systems where total mass is 0.9 solar mass and initial mass ratios ranging between q=0.5 and q=1. We use a zero-temperature plus ideal gas equation of state that allows for heating through shocks. These simulations allow us to follow the evolution of the system for 10-20 initial orbital periods (1000-2000 seconds) to a point after merger when the combined object has settled into a nearly steady-state like configuration. A hot shell forms around the merged core in low q simulations, but not in the high q simulations. The conditions found in the steady state like configuration is used as input to a nucleosynthesis code. We are particularly interested in seeing how much 18O is formed, as observations of RCB stars often show a very high ratio of 18O to 16O of order unity. In the very best case scenario, we find a ratio of 1/12 in the hot shell. This work has been supported, in part, by grant OIA-0963375 from the U.S. National Science Foundation and, in part, by NASA/ATP grants NNX10AC72G. This research also has been made possible by grants of high-performance computing time on the TeraGrid (TG-AST090104), at LSU, and across LONI (Louisiana Optical Network Initiative), especially awards loni_astro08 and loni_astro09).

  5. Do R Coronae Borealis Stars Form from Double White Dwarf Mergers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, Jan. E.; Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Geballe, Tom; Pignatari, Marco; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tohline, Joel E.

    2012-09-01

    A leading formation scenario for R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of degenerate He and CO white dwarfs (WDs) in a binary. The observed ratio of 16O/18O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3-20 much smaller than the solar value of ~500. In this paper, we investigate whether such a low ratio can be obtained in simulations of the merger of a CO and a He WD. We present the results of five three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of a double WD system where the total mass is 0.9 M ⊙ and the initial mass ratio (q) varies between 0.5 and 0.99. We identify in simulations with q <~ 0.7 a feature around the merged stars where the temperatures and densities are suitable for forming 18O. However, more 16O is being dredged up from the C- and O-rich accretor during the merger than the amount of 18O that is produced. Therefore, on the dynamical timescale over which our hydrodynamics simulation runs, an 16O/18O ratio of ~2000 in the "best" case is found. If the conditions found in the hydrodynamic simulations persist for 106 s the oxygen ratio drops to 16 in one case studied, while in a hundred years it drops to ~4 in another case studied, consistent with the observed values in RCB stars. Therefore, the merger of two WDs remains a strong candidate for the formation of these enigmatic stars.

  6. DO R CORONAE BOREALIS STARS FORM FROM DOUBLE WHITE DWARF MERGERS?

    SciTech Connect

    Staff, Jan. E.; Clayton, Geoffrey C.; Tohline, Joel E.; Menon, Athira; Herwig, Falk; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Geballe, Tom; Pignatari, Marco

    2012-09-20

    A leading formation scenario for R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars invokes the merger of degenerate He and CO white dwarfs (WDs) in a binary. The observed ratio of {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O for RCB stars is in the range of 0.3-20 much smaller than the solar value of {approx}500. In this paper, we investigate whether such a low ratio can be obtained in simulations of the merger of a CO and a He WD. We present the results of five three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of a double WD system where the total mass is 0.9 M{sub Sun} and the initial mass ratio (q) varies between 0.5 and 0.99. We identify in simulations with q {approx}< 0.7 a feature around the merged stars where the temperatures and densities are suitable for forming {sup 18}O. However, more {sup 16}O is being dredged up from the C- and O-rich accretor during the merger than the amount of {sup 18}O that is produced. Therefore, on the dynamical timescale over which our hydrodynamics simulation runs, an {sup 16}O/{sup 18}O ratio of {approx}2000 in the 'best' case is found. If the conditions found in the hydrodynamic simulations persist for 10{sup 6} s the oxygen ratio drops to 16 in one case studied, while in a hundred years it drops to {approx}4 in another case studied, consistent with the observed values in RCB stars. Therefore, the merger of two WDs remains a strong candidate for the formation of these enigmatic stars.

  7. Branes constrictions with White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Aspeitia, Miguel A.

    2015-11-01

    We consider here a robust study of stellar dynamics for white dwarf stars with polytropic matter in the weak-field approximation using the Lane-Emden equation from the brane-world scenario. We also derive an analytical solution to the nonlocal energy density and show the behavior and sensitivity of these stars to the presence of extra dimensions. Similarly, we analyze stability and compactness, in order to show whether it is possible to agree with the conventional wisdom of white dwarfs dynamics. Our results predict an average value of the brane tension of < λ rangle ≳ 84.818MeV^4, with a standard deviation σ ˜eq 82.021MeV^4, which comes from a sample of dwarf stars, being weaker than other astrophysical observations but remaining higher than cosmological results provided by nucleosynthesis among others.

  8. Is beryllium ultra-depletion in solar-type stars linked to the presence of a white dwarf companion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desidera, S.; D'Orazi, V.; Lugaro, M.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Abundance studies of solar-type stars revealed a small fraction of objects with extreme depletion of beryllium. Aims: We investigate the possible link between the beryllium depletion and the presence of companions. Methods: The classical methods (radial velocity, astrometry, imaging) used to search for binary companions were exploited. We also performed a chemical analysis to identify binaries by the alteration in abundances that is produced by the accretion of material lost by a former evolved companion. Results: We found that all the four previously investigated stars that were found to be ultra-depleted in Be are binaries. In two cases the companion is a white dwarf, and in the other two cases the companion might be a white dwarf or a main-sequence star. One new barium star was identified. Conclusions: We speculate that the interaction with the white dwarf progenitor caused an alteration in the abundance pattern of the star, which resulted in severe beryllium depletion. Possible mechanisms such as thermohaline mixing, episodic accretion, and rotational mixing are discussed. We also briefly discuss predictions for validating this scenario.

  9. A white dwarf with an oxygen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Kepler, S O; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    Stars born with masses below around 10 solar masses end their lives as white dwarf stars. Their atmospheres are dominated by the lightest elements because gravitational diffusion brings the lightest element to the surface. We report the discovery of a white dwarf with an atmosphere completely dominated by oxygen, SDSS J124043.01+671034.68. After oxygen, the next most abundant elements in its atmosphere are neon and magnesium, but these are lower by a factor of ≥25 by number. The fact that no hydrogen or helium are observed is surprising. Oxygen, neon, and magnesium are the products of carbon burning, which occurs in stars at the high-mass end of pre-white dwarf formation. This star, a possible oxygen-neon white dwarf, will provide a rare observational test of the evolutionary paths toward white dwarfs. PMID:27034367

  10. A white dwarf with an oxygen atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepler, S. O.; Koester, Detlev; Ourique, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    Stars born with masses below around 10 solar masses end their lives as white dwarf stars. Their atmospheres are dominated by the lightest elements because gravitational diffusion brings the lightest element to the surface. We report the discovery of a white dwarf with an atmosphere completely dominated by oxygen, SDSS J124043.01+671034.68. After oxygen, the next most abundant elements in its atmosphere are neon and magnesium, but these are lower by a factor of ≥25 by number. The fact that no hydrogen or helium are observed is surprising. Oxygen, neon, and magnesium are the products of carbon burning, which occurs in stars at the high-mass end of pre-white dwarf formation. This star, a possible oxygen-neon white dwarf, will provide a rare observational test of the evolutionary paths toward white dwarfs.

  11. The Physics of White Dwarfs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Horn, Hugh M.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the current understanding of the structure and evolution of the white dwarf stars that was gained as a result of the increasingly sensitive and detailed astronomical observations coupled with calculations of the properties of matter under extreme conditions. (Author/GA)

  12. Follow-up spectroscopic observations of HD 107148 B: A new white dwarf companion of an exoplanet host star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mugrauer, M.; Dinçel, B.

    2016-07-01

    We report on our follow-up spectroscopy of HD 1071478 B, a recently detected faint co-moving companion of the exoplanet host star HD 107148 A. The companion is separated from its primary star by about 35 arcsec (or 1790 AU of projected separation) and its optical and near infrared photometry is consistent with a white dwarf, located at the distance of HD 107148 A. In order to confirm the white dwarf nature of the co-moving companion, we obtained follow-up spectroscopic observations of HD 107148 B with CAFOS at the CAHA 2.2 m telescope. According to our CAFOS spectroscopy HD 107148 B is a DA white dwarf with an effective temperature in the range between 5900 and 6400 K. The properties of HD 107148 B can further be constrained with the derived effective temperature and the known visual and infrared photometry of the companion, using evolutionary models of DA white dwarfs. We obtain for HD 107148 B a mass of 0.56±0.05 M_ȯ, a luminosity of (2.0±0.2)×10-4 L_ȯ, log g [cm s-2])=7.95±0.09, and a cooling age of 2100±270 Myr. With its white dwarf companion the exoplanet host star HD 107148 A forms an evolved stellar system, which hosts at least one exoplanet. So far, only few of these evolved systems are known, which represent only about 5 % of all known exoplanet host multiple stellar systems. HD 107148 B is the second confirmed white dwarf companion of an exoplanet host star with a projected separation to its primary star of more than 1000 AU. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).

  13. Carbon Shell or Core Ignitions in White Dwarfs Accreting from Helium Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jared; Bildsten, Lars; Schwab, Josiah; Paxton, Bill

    2016-04-01

    White dwarfs accreting from helium stars can stably burn at the accreted rate and avoid the challenge of mass loss associated with unstable helium burning that is a concern for many SNe Ia scenarios. We study binaries with helium stars of mass 1.25{M}ȯ ≤slant {M}{{He}}≤slant 1.8{M}ȯ , which have lost their hydrogen rich envelopes in an earlier common envelope event and now orbit with periods ({P}{{orb}}) of several hours with non-rotating 0.84 and 1.0{M}ȯ C/O WDs. The helium stars fill their Roche lobes after exhaustion of central helium and donate helium on their thermal timescales (∼ {10}5 years). As shown by others, these mass transfer rates coincide with the steady helium burning range for WDs, and grow the WD core up to near the Chandrasekhar mass ({M}{{Ch}}) and a core carbon ignition. We show here, however, that many of these scenarios lead to an ignition of hot carbon ashes near the outer edge of the WD and an inward going carbon flame that does not cause an explosive outcome. For {P}{{orb}}=3 hr, 1.0{M}ȯ C/O WDs with donor masses {M}{{He}}≳ 1.8{M}ȯ experience a shell carbon ignition, while {M}{{He}}≲ 1.3{M}ȯ will fall below the steady helium burning range and undergo helium flashes before reaching core C ignition. Those with 1.3{M}ȯ ≲ {M}{{He}}≲ 1.7{M}ȯ will experience a core C ignition. We also calculate the retention fraction of accreted helium when the accretion rate leads to recurrent weak helium flashes.

  14. When White Dwarfs Collide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, Wendy Phyllis

    2012-01-01

    3D models of white dwarf collisions are used to assess the likelihood of double-degenerate mergers as progenitors for Type Ia supernovae (henceforth SNIa) and to identify observational signatures of double-degenerate collisions. Observations of individual SNIa, SNIa rates in different galaxy types, and double white dwarf binary systems suggest that mergers or collisions between two white dwarfs play a role in the overall SNIa population. Given the possibility of two progenitor systems (single-degenerate and double-degenerate), the sample of SNIa used in cosmological calcula- tions needs to be carefully examined. To improve calculations of cosmological parameters, the development of calibrated diagnostics for double-degenerate progenitor SNIa is essential. Head-on white dwarf collision simulations are used to provide an upper limit on the 56Ni production in white dwarf collisions. In chapter II, I explore zero impact parameter collisions of white dwarfs using the Eulerian grid code FLASH. The initial 1D white dwarf profiles are created assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and a uniform composition of 50% 12C and 50% 16O. The masses range from 0.64 to 0.81 solar masses and have an isothermal temperature of 107 K. I map these 1D models onto a 3D grid, where the dimensions of the grid are each eight times the white dwarf radius, and the dwarfs are initially placed four white dwarf radii apart (center to center). To provide insight into a larger range of physical possibilities, I also model non-zero impact parameter white dwarf collisions (Chapter III). Although head-on white dwarf collisions provide an upper limit on 56Ni production, non-zero impact parameter collisions provide insight into a wider range of physical scenarios. The initial conditions (box size, initial separation, composition, and initial temperature) are identical to those used for the head-on collisions (Chapter II) for the same range of masses. For each mass pair- ing, collision simulations are carried

  15. Pulsating Helium Atmosphere White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, Judith; Montgomery, Michael H.; Bischoff-Kim, Agnes; Shipman, Harry; Nitta, Atsuko; Whole Earth Telescope Collaboration

    2015-08-01

    The overwhelming majority of all stars currently on the main sequence as well as those from earlier generations will or have ended their stellar lives as white dwarf stars. White dwarfs are rich forensic laboratories linking the history and future evolution of our Galaxy. Their structure and atmospheric composition provide evidence of how the progenitors lived, how they evolved, and how they died. This information reveals details of processes governing the behavior of contemporary main sequence stars. Combined with their distribution in luminosity/temperature, white dwarfs strongly constrain models of galactic and cosmological evolution.GD358 is among the brightest (mv =13.7) and best studied of the pulsating white dwarfs. This helium atmoshere pulsator (DBV) has an extensive photometric database spanning 30 years, including nine multisite Whole Earth Telescope campaigns. GD358 exhibits a range of behaviors, from drastic changes in excited pulsation modes to variable multiplet splittings. We use GD358 as a template for an examination of the DBV class, combining photometric results with recent COS spectroscopy. The results present new questions concerning DB formation and evolution.

  16. Simulations of Double White Dwarf Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patick; Staff, Jan; Marcello, Dominic; Clayton, Geoffrey; Frank, Juhan

    2016-03-01

    We present numerical simulations of double white dwarf mergers initiated by mass transfer instability. In particular, we are interested in the possible connection between such double degenerate mergers and the peculiar irregular variable R Corona Borealis stars. For the merger of a Carbon-Oxygen white dwarf with a Helium white dwarf, the degree to which Carbon from the accreting star is dredged up plays a crucial role in the appearance of the rejuvenated, merged object. We explore the amount of dredge up in the accreting star and its influence in stellar evolution models initialized from the merged object resulting from dynamical evolutions.

  17. AN ALUMINUM/CALCIUM-RICH, IRON-POOR, WHITE DWARF STAR: EVIDENCE FOR AN EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY LITHOSPHERE?

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.; Klein, B.; Jura, M.; Koester, D.; Dufour, P.; Melis, Carl

    2011-10-01

    The presence of elements heavier than helium in white dwarf atmospheres is often a signpost for the existence of rocky objects that currently or previously orbited these stars. We have measured the abundances of various elements in the hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs G149-28 and NLTT 43806. In comparison with other white dwarfs with atmospheres polluted by heavy elements, NLTT 43806 is substantially enriched in aluminum but relatively poor in iron. We compare the relative abundances of Al and eight other heavy elements seen in NLTT 43806 with the elemental composition of bulk Earth, with simulated extrasolar rocky planets, with solar system meteorites, with the atmospheric compositions of other polluted white dwarfs, and with the outer layers of the Moon and Earth. The best agreement is found with a model that involves accretion of a mixture of terrestrial crust and upper mantle material onto NLTT 43806. The implication is that NLTT 43806 is orbited by a differentiated rocky planet, perhaps quite similar to Earth, that has suffered a collision that stripped away some of its outer layers.

  18. SDSS DR7 WHITE DWARF CATALOG

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Pecanha, Viviane; Costa, J. E. S.; Koester, D.; Krzesinski, J.; Dufour, P.; Lachapelle, F.-R.; Bergeron, P.; Yip, Ching-Wa; Harris, Hugh C.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Althaus, L.; Corsico, A.

    2013-01-15

    We present a new catalog of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarf stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7 spectroscopic catalog. We find 20,407 white dwarf spectra, representing 19,712 stars, and provide atmospheric model fits to 14,120 DA and 1011 DB white dwarf spectra from 12,843 and 923 stars, respectively. These numbers represent more than a factor of two increase in the total number of white dwarf stars from the previous SDSS white dwarf catalogs based on DR4 data. Our distribution of subtypes varies from previous catalogs due to our more conservative, manual classifications of each star in our catalog, supplementing our automatic fits. In particular, we find a large number of magnetic white dwarf stars whose small Zeeman splittings mimic increased Stark broadening that would otherwise result in an overestimated log g if fit as a non-magnetic white dwarf. We calculate mean DA and DB masses for our clean, non-magnetic sample and find the DB mean mass is statistically larger than that for the DAs.

  19. NuSTAR AND SWIFT Observations of the Fast Rotating Magnetized White Dwarf AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitaguchi, Takao; An, Hongjun; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hayashi, Takayuki; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Rana, Vikram R.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Will W.

    2014-01-01

    AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P(sub spin) = 33.08 s). Compared to many intermediate polars, AE Aquarii shows a soft X-ray spectrum with a very low luminosity (LX (is) approximately 10(exp 31) erg per second). We have analyzed overlapping observations of this system with the NuSTAR and the Swift X-ray observatories in 2012 September. We find the 0.5-30 keV spectra to be well fitted by either an optically thin thermal plasma model with three temperatures of 0.75(+0.18 / -0.45), 2.29(+0.96 / -0.82), and 9.33 (+6.07 / -2.18) keV, or an optically thin thermal plasma model with two temperatures of 1.00 (+0.34 / -0.23) and 4.64 (+1.58 / -0.84) keV plus a power-law component with photon index of 2.50 (+0.17 / -0.23). The pulse profile in the 3-20 keV band is broad and approximately sinusoidal, with a pulsed fraction of 16.6% +/- 2.3%. We do not find any evidence for a previously reported sharp feature in the pulse profile.

  20. NuStar and Swift Observations of the Fast Rotating Magnetized White Dwarf AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitaguchi, Takao; An, Hongjun; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hayashi, Takayuki; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Rana, Vikram R.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Will W.

    2014-01-01

    AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P(sub spin) = 33.08 s). Compared to many intermediate polars, AE Aquarii shows a soft X-ray spectrum with a very low luminosity (LX (is) approximately 10(exp 31) erg per second). We have analyzed overlapping observations of this system with the NuSTAR and the Swift X-ray observatories in 2012 September. We find the 0.5-30 keV spectra to be well fitted by either an optically thin thermal plasma model with three temperatures of 0.75(+0.18 / -0.45), 2.29(+0.96 / -0.82), and 9.33 (+6.07 / -2.18) keV, or an optically thin thermal plasma model with two temperatures of 1.00 (+0.34 / -0.23) and 4.64 (+1.58 / -0.84) keV plus a power-law component with photon index of 2.50 (+0.17 / -0.23). The pulse profile in the 3-20 keV band is broad and approximately sinusoidal, with a pulsed fraction of 16.6% +/- 2.3%. We do not find any evidence for a previously reported sharp feature in the pulse profile.

  1. Equilibrium Structures of Differentially Rotating and Tidally Distorted White Dwarf Models of Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Arvind Kumar; Mohan, C.; Singh, V. P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for computing the equilibrium structures and various physical parameters of a primary component of the binary system assuming that the primary is more massive than the secondary and is rotating differentially according to the law of the w2 = b0 + b1 × s2 + b2 × s4, w being the angular velocity of rotation of a fluid element distant s from the axis of rotation and b0, b1, b2 suitably chosen numerical constants. This method utilizes the averaging approach of Kippenhahn and Thomas (1997) and the concept of Roche equipotentials in a manner earlier used by Mohan et al. (1997) to incorporate the effects of rotation and tidal distortions on the equilibrium structures of certain rotationally and tidally distorted stellar models. The use of the method has been illustrated by applying it to obtain the structures and some observable parameters of certain differentially rotating and tidally distorted binary systems whose primary component is assumed to be a white dwarf star.

  2. White Dwarf Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    This proposal was designed to study pulse and orbital modulations in candidate DQ Herculis stars. Data on 5 stars were obtained. The best results were obtained on YY Draconis, which exhibited a strongly pulsed hard X-ray flux, and even suggested a transition between one-pole and two-pole emission during the course of the observation. This result is being readied for inclusion in a comprehensive study of YY Draconis. A strong pulsation appeared to be present also in H0857-242, but with a period of about 50 minutes, confusion with the first harmonic of the satellite's orbital frequency is possible. So that result is uncertain. A negative result was obtained on 4UO608-49 (V347 Pup), suggesting either that the X-ray identification is incorrect, or that the source is very transient. Finally, data was obtained on V1432 Aql and WZ Sge, respectively the slowest and fastest of these stars. Combined with the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data, the high-energy data demonstrates the latter to contain a white dwarf rotating with P = 27.87 s. Optical photometry contemporaneous with the X-ray data was obtained of V1432 Aql, in order to study the variations in the eclipse waveform. As anticipated, the width and centroid of the eclipse appeared to vary with the 50-day "supercycle". A paper reporting this study is now in preparation.

  3. A white dwarf companion to the main-sequence star 4 Omicron(1) Orionis and the binary hypothesis for the origin of peculiar red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ake, Thomas B.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1988-04-01

    In the course of an investigation with the IUE satellite of the ultraviolet spectra of peculiar red giants, the authors have discovered a white dwarf companion to the MS star 4 ο1Ori. They discuss the reductions performed for the ο1Ori IUE observations, and compare these with field white dwarfs to derive parameters of the white dwarf and the luminosity of the primary. Upper detection limits are derived for hot degenerate companions to four other bright MS stars, HR 363, RS Cnc, ST Her, and OP Her. Combined with the ο1Ori observations, it is argued that the nondetections for these stars are consistent with the statistics of field giant binaries and that either mass-transfer effects are not responsible for the incipient S-star nature of the MS stars, if their abundance peculiarities are recent, or that the MS stars must be older than 106yr.

  4. A search for p-mode pulsations in white dwarf stars using the Berkeley Visible Imaging Tube detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, D.; Welsh, B. Y.; Koen, C.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Kotze, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-speed photometry (resolution 0.1 s) obtained during the commissioning of the Berkely Visible Imaging Tube system on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The observations were an attempt to search for very rapid p-mode oscillations in white dwarf stars and included three DA stars known to be g-mode pulsators (ZZ Cet, HK Cet and AF Pic), one other DA star (WD 1056-384) not known to be variable and one AM Cvn star (HP Lib). No evidence was found for any variations greater than about 1 mmag in amplitude (˜0.1 per cent) at frequencies in excess of 60 mHz (periods <17 s) in any of the target stars, though several previously known g-mode frequencies were recovered.

  5. Double White Dwarfs as Probes of Single and Binary Star Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Jeffrey John

    2016-01-01

    As the endpoints of stars less massive than roughly eight solar masses, the population of Galactic white dwarfs (WD) contain information about complex stellar evolution processes. Associated pairs of WDs add an extra degree of leverage; both WDs must have formed and evolved together. The work presented in this dissertation uses various populations of double WDs (DWD) to constrain evolution of both single and binary stars. One example is the set of low-mass WDs with unseen WD companions, which are formed through a dynamically-unstable mass loss process called the common envelope. To work toward a quantitative understanding of the common envelope, we develop and apply a Bayesian statistical technique to identify the masses of the unseen WD companions. We provide results which can be compared to evolutionary models and hence a deeper understanding of how binary stars evolve through a common envelope. The statistical technique we develop can be applied to any population of single-line spectroscopic binaries. Binaries widely separated enough that they avoid any significant interaction independently evolve into separate WDs that can be identified in photometric and astrometric surveys. We discuss techniques for finding these objects, known as wide DWDs. We present a catalog of 142 candidate wide DWDs, combining both previously detected systems and systems we identify in our searches in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Having been born at the same time, the masses and cooling ages of the WDs in wide DWDs, obtained with our spectroscopic follow-up campaign can be used to constrain the initial-final mass relation, which relates a main sequence star to the mass of the WD into which it will evolve. We develop a novel Bayesian technique to interpret our data and present our resulting constraints on this relation which are particularly strong for initial masses between two and four solar masses. During this process, we identified one wide DWD, HS 2220+2146, that was peculiar since

  6. X-ray survey of hot white dwarf stars - evidence for a m(He)/n(H) versus Teff correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Petre, R.; Shipman, H.L.; Canizares, C.R.

    1986-05-01

    Observations of 13 white dwarf and subdwarf stars using the Einstein Observatory High Resolution Image are reported. Included are stars of classes DA, DB, DAV, sDO, and sDB, with optically determined effective temperatures in the range 10,000-60,000 K. X-ray emission was detected from two of the 13: the very hot (55,000 K) DA1 star WD 2309 + 105 (= EG 233), with a count rate one-fifth that of HZ 43, and the relatively cool (26,000 K) DA3 star WD 1052 - 273 (=GD 125). The effective temperatures determined from ultraviolet and optical observations were used to place limits on the He content of the white dwarf photospheres, presuming that trace photospheric He is the missing opacity source which quenches the thermal X-rays in these stars. When presently obtained results were combined with those available from the literature evidence was found for a correlation between Teff and n(He)/n(H), in which HZ 43 is a conspicuous exception to the general trend. Both this correlation and the exceptional behavior of HZ 43 are qualitatively accounted for by a radiative acceleration model, in which the rate of upward movement of the He is a function of temperature and surface gravity 59 references.

  7. White Dwarf Critical Tests for Modified Gravity.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2016-04-15

    Scalar-tensor theories of gravity can lead to modifications of the gravitational force inside astrophysical objects. We exhibit that compact stars such as white dwarfs provide a unique setup to test beyond Horndeski theories of G^{3} type. We obtain stringent and independent constraints on the parameter ϒ characterizing the deviations from Newtonian gravity using the mass-radius relation, the Chandrasekhar mass limit, and the maximal rotational frequency of white dwarfs. We find that white dwarfs impose stronger constraints on ϒ than red and brown dwarfs. PMID:27127952

  8. White Dwarf Critical Tests for Modified Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Kouvaris, Chris; Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund

    2016-04-01

    Scalar-tensor theories of gravity can lead to modifications of the gravitational force inside astrophysical objects. We exhibit that compact stars such as white dwarfs provide a unique setup to test beyond Horndeski theories of G3 type. We obtain stringent and independent constraints on the parameter ϒ characterizing the deviations from Newtonian gravity using the mass-radius relation, the Chandrasekhar mass limit, and the maximal rotational frequency of white dwarfs. We find that white dwarfs impose stronger constraints on ϒ than red and brown dwarfs.

  9. A numerical study of the stability of radiative shocks. [in accretion flows onto white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, J. N.; Wolff, M. T.; Durisen, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Attention is given to the oscillatory instability of optically thin radiative shocks in time-dependent numerical calculations of accretion flows onto degenerate dwarfs. The present nonlinear calculations yield good quantitative agreement with the linear results obtained for oscillation frequencies, damping rates, and critical alpha-values. The fundamental mode and the first overtone in the shock radius and luminosity variations can be clearly identified, and evidence is sometimes seen for the second overtone. Time-dependent calculations are also performed which include additional physics relevant to degenerate dwarf accretion, such as electron thermal conduction, unequal electron and ion temperatures, Compton cooling, and relativistic corrections to the bremsstrahlung cooling law. All oscillatory modes are found to be damped, and hence stable, in the case of a 1-solar mass white dwarf accreting in spherical symmetry.

  10. Gaia --- A White Dwarf Discovery Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, S.

    2007-09-01

    Gaia is a satellite mission of the ESA, aiming at absolute astrometric measurements of about one billion stars (V<20) with unprecedented accuracy. Additionally, magnitudes and colors will be obtained for all these stars, while radial-velocities will be determined only for bright objects (V<17.5). However, the wavelength range for the radial-velocity instrument is rather unsuitable for most white dwarfs. Gaia will probably discover about 400,000 white dwarfs; up to 100 pc the detection probability for white dwarfs is almost 100 %. This survey of white dwarfs will have very clear, easy to understand selection criteria, and will therefore be very suitable for statistical investigations. The Gaia data will help to improve the construction of a luminosity function for the disk and the halo and will provide a more accurate determination of the age of our solar neighborhood. Moreover, reliable stellar dynamical investigations of the disk and halo components will be possible. For the first time it will be possible to test the mass-radius relation of white dwarfs in great detail. Moreover, more accurate masses of magnetic and cool white dwarfs can be expected. Gaia is also expected to discover many new pulsating white dwarfs. The Gaia measurements can also complement the measurements of gravitational waves from close white dwarf binaries with Lisa.

  11. Quasisoft X-Ray Sources: White Dwarfs? Neutron Stars? Black Holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne

    Two of the most exciting areas of current research in astrophysics are black holes and Type Ia supernovae. We propose archival work that has the potential to shed light on both areas. The focus of our research is a newly-established class of x-ray sources called Quasisoft X-ray Sources (QSSs). Although they comprise a significant fraction of the x- ray sources in galaxies of all types, including M31, it has proved difficult to identify members of this class in the Milky Way or Magellanic Clouds. We have developed methods to find these sources, and have begun to meet with success in the application of our methods. The three-year project we propose will allow us to identify QSSs. We will then use the full range of archived data to determine which QSS candidates are highly luminous, and which are members of less luminous classes, such as quiescent low-mass x-ray binaries (qLMXBs), or even isolated neutron stars. Many will be nearby x-ray active stars, or else distant AGN, whose discovery will also be of interest to a range of researchers. In the end, we will have a subset of intriguing physical systems, some of which may be accreting black holes and some of which may be unusual states of neutron stars or even of nuclear-burning white dwarfs. The systems identified through this ADAP program will be targets of future observing programs, from space and from the ground. The information we derive from NASA archived data will provide insight into important astrophysical questions. Do intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) exist? It has only been during the past 15 years or so that accreting compact objects that were considered as black hole candidates have been promoted to black holes. This achievement required years of observations of candidates in the Milky Way and Magellanic Clouds. The discovery of ultraluminous X- ray source in external galaxies suggests that there are black holes with masses larger than the 10-30 solar masses typical of the known black holes. To

  12. Electron exchange and polarization effects on electron captures and neutron emissions by nuclei in white dwarfs and neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamel, N.; Fantina, A. F.

    2016-03-01

    In dense stellar environments, nuclei may become unstable against electron captures and/or neutron emissions. These processes are of particular importance for determining the internal constitution of white-dwarf cores and neutron-star crusts. In this paper, the role of electron exchange and polarization effects is studied. In particular, the instability condition for the onset of electron captures and neutron emissions is extended so as to account for electron exchange and polarization. Moreover, general analytical expressions for the corresponding density and pressure are derived. The corrections to the electron-capture threshold in white-dwarf cores are found to be very small. Likewise, the neutron-drip density and pressure in the crusts of accreting and nonaccreting neutron stars are only slightly shifted. Depending on the nuclear mass model employed, electron polarization may change the composition of the crust of nonaccreting neutron stars. On the other hand, the current uncertainties in the masses of neutron-rich Kr and Sr isotopes are found to be more important than electron exchange and polarization effects.

  13. A subsynchronously rotating pulsating subdwarf B star in a short-period binary with a white dwarf companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baran, A. S.; Telting, J. H.; Németh, P.; Østensen, R. H.; Reed, M. D.; Kiaeerad, F.

    2016-01-01

    We present our analysis of KIC 7664467, an sdB pulsator that we have found to be residing in a 1.56-day binary system with a white-dwarf companion. This system was observed photometrically with the Kepler spacecraft and spectroscopically with ground-based telescopes. We analyzed the amplitude spectra detecting 61 periods, rotationally split multiplets, and an equally spaced sequence in period. These two features helped with the mode identification. We derived both the binary and rotation periods showing that this is another binary system with a subsynchronous sdB star. From our spectroscopy of the sdB star, we determined Teff = 27440 ± 120 K, log g = 5.38 ± 0.02 dex. The abundance pattern follows the general trend observed in sdB stars, where light metals are subsolar, while the Fe abundance is very close to the solar value. We found the N enrichment and low abundances of C and O that resemble the equilibrium abundances of the CNO cycle. We could also measure the Mg and Si abundances. Using the radial velocity amplitude K1 = 57(3) km s-1 and the Doppler boosting-dominated photometric signal at the orbital period, we constrained the companion to be a compact object, almost certainly a white dwarf.

  14. The Driving Mechanism of Pulsating Pre-White Dwarfs: Variability of the "Hybrid" PG 1159 Star HS 2324+3944

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, G.; Silvotti, R.

    We acquired 8 nights of time-series photometric observations of the variable RhybridS PG 1159 star HS 2324+3944. These data allow us to demonstrate the presence of four frequencies in the stellar light variations with evidence for more. The dominating time scale of the variability (around 35 minutes) is much longer than that of GW Vir pulsators. Binarity is not likely to cause the object's light variations. A pulsational origin of the variability seems more attractive. Recent theoretical investigations suggest that pre-white dwarf pulsations can be excited despite the presence of hydrogen in the model's driving region.

  15. White dwarf evolution - Cradle-to-grave constraints via pulsation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1990-01-01

    White dwarf evolution, particularly in the early phases, is not very strongly constrained by observation. Fortunately, white dwarfs undergo nonradial pulsation in three distinct regions of the H-R diagram. These pulsations provide accurate masses, surface compositional structure and rotation velocities, and help constrain other important physical properties. We demonstrate the application of the tools of stellar seismology to white dwarf evolution using the hot white dwarf star PG 1159-035 and the cool DAV (or ZZ Ceti) stars as examples. From pulsation studies, significant challenges to the theory of white dwarf evolution emerge.

  16. Calibrating brown dwarf ages using white dwarfs in wide binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, S.

    Even though age is a critical parameter for all objects, it can also be one of the most difficult to measure, in particular for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. Brown dwarf models suffer from degeneracy and are not useful to infer ages without well constrained atmospheric parameters \\citep{pin06}. However, there is a way to overcome this problem by studying brown dwarfs for which some external constraints are available, for example brown dwarfs in wide binary systems. Wide binary members share proper motion and are supposed to have been born simultaneously and with the same chemical composition. Since they are well separated (⪆ 1000 AU) we can assume that no interaction has occurred between them in the past and they have evolved as isolated objects. If the companion of the brown dwarfs is a white dwarf, we can use it to calibrate the age of the system. White dwarf evolution can be described as a cooling process which is relatively well understood \\citep[e.g.][]{sal00}. Thus, they yield robust age constraints from the use of cooling sequences \\citep{gar11}. White dwarf cooling ages will uniformally give age lower limits (despite some uncertainty on progenitor life-time), and in some cases yield ages to better than 10% accuracy. Hence, wide binary systems containing a white dwarf can have system age constraints inferred from the white dwarf component. There are not many white dwarf-brown dwarf systems known so far, but with the combination of optical and IR surveys, SDSS+UKIDSS and Gaia + UKIDSS/VHS, new systems will be detected.

  17. The physics of white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarida; Mochkovitch, Robert

    1998-12-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low- and intermediate-mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for 0953-8984/10/49/015/img6 and allows one to obtain information about the age of the Galaxy as well as about the past stellar formation rate in the solar neighbourhood. Therefore, it is important to identify all of the relevant sources of energy as well as the mechanisms that control its flow to the space. We show in this paper that the inclusion of a detailed treatment of phase transitions in Coulomb plasmas made up of a mixture of different chemical species is crucial, since their redistribution can keep the white dwarf warm for 0.5 to 9 Ga depending on the chemical composition and physical assumptions adopted.

  18. Viscous effects in rapidly rotating stars with application to white-dwarf models. I, II.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durisen, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    A general approximate numerical technique is proposed for constructing evolutionary sequences of rapidly rotating axisymmetric barytropic equilibrium configurations, with allowance for angular momentum transfer by a nonconstant isotropic viscosity. The principal physical assumption involved is the constancy of the angular momentum per unit mass on cylinders about the axis of rotation. Rapidly rotating nonmagnetic white-dwarf models with a zero-temperature degenerate-electron equation of state are considered as a particular application. The viscosity used in the analysis is that of the degenerate electrons.

  19. The type Ia supernova SNLS-03D3bb from a super-Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarf star.

    PubMed

    Howell, D Andrew; Sullivan, Mark; Nugent, Peter E; Ellis, Richard S; Conley, Alexander J; Le Borgne, Damien; Carlberg, Raymond G; Guy, Julien; Balam, David; Basa, Stephane; Fouchez, Dominique; Hook, Isobel M; Hsiao, Eric Y; Neill, James D; Pain, Reynald; Perrett, Kathryn M; Pritchet, Christopher J

    2006-09-21

    The accelerating expansion of the Universe, and the need for dark energy, were inferred from observations of type Ia supernovae. There is a consensus that type Ia supernovae are thermonuclear explosions that destroy carbon-oxygen white dwarf stars that have accreted matter from a companion star, although the nature of this companion remains uncertain. These supernovae are thought to be reliable distance indicators because they have a standard amount of fuel and a uniform trigger: they are predicted to explode when the mass of the white dwarf nears the Chandrasekhar mass of 1.4 solar masses (M(o)). Here we show that the high-redshift supernova SNLS-03D3bb has an exceptionally high luminosity and low kinetic energy that both imply a super-Chandrasekhar-mass progenitor. Super-Chandrasekhar-mass supernovae should occur preferentially in a young stellar population, so this may provide an explanation for the observed trend that overluminous type Ia supernovae occur only in 'young' environments. As this supernova does not obey the relations that allow type Ia supernovae to be calibrated as standard candles, and as no counterparts have been found at low redshift, future cosmology studies will have to consider possible contamination from such events. PMID:16988705

  20. Limits on a gravitational field dependence of the proton-electron mass ratio from H2 in white dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Bagdonaite, J; Salumbides, E J; Preval, S P; Barstow, M A; Barrow, J D; Murphy, M T; Ubachs, W

    2014-09-19

    Spectra of molecular hydrogen (H2) are employed to search for a possible proton-to-electron mass ratio (μ) dependence on gravity. The Lyman transitions of H2, observed with the Hubble Space Telescope towards white dwarf stars that underwent a gravitational collapse, are compared to accurate laboratory spectra taking into account the high temperature conditions (T∼13 000  K) of their photospheres. We derive sensitivity coefficients Ki which define how the individual H2 transitions shift due to μ dependence. The spectrum of white dwarf star GD133 yields a Δμ/μ constraint of (-2.7±4.7stat±0.2syst)×10(-5) for a local environment of a gravitational potential ϕ∼10(4) ϕEarth, while that of G29-38 yields Δμ/μ=(-5.8±3.8stat±0.3syst)×10(-5) for a potential of 2×10(4) ϕEarth. PMID:25279624

  1. Crystal Chemistry of Three-component White Dwarfs and Neutron Star Crusts: Phase Stability, Phase Stratification, and Physical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrom, T. A.; Yoder, N. C.; Crespi, V. H.

    2016-02-01

    A systematic search for multicomponent crystal structures is carried out for five different ternary systems of nuclei in a polarizable background of electrons, representative of accreted neutron star crusts and some white dwarfs. Candidate structures are “bred” by a genetic algorithm and optimized at constant pressure under the assumption of linear response (Thomas-Fermi) charge screening. Subsequent phase equilibria calculations reveal eight distinct crystal structures in the T = 0 bulk phase diagrams, five of which are complicated multinary structures not previously predicted in the context of compact object astrophysics. Frequent instances of geometrically similar but compositionally distinct phases give insight into structural preferences of systems with pairwise Yukawa interactions, including and extending to the regime of low-density colloidal suspensions made in a laboratory. As an application of these main results, we self-consistently couple the phase stability problem to the equations for a self-gravitating, hydrostatically stable white dwarf, with fixed overall composition. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to incorporate complex multinary phases into the equilibrium phase-layering diagram and mass-radius-composition dependence, both of which are reported for He-C-O and C-O-Ne white dwarfs. Finite thickness interfacial phases (“interphases”) show up at the boundaries between single-component body-centered cubic (bcc) crystalline regions, some of which have lower lattice symmetry than cubic. A second application—quasi-static settling of heavy nuclei in white dwarfs—builds on our equilibrium phase-layering method. Tests of this nonequilibrium method reveal extra phases that play the role of transient host phases for the settling species.

  2. A white dwarf companion to the main-sequence star 4 Omicron(1) Orionis and the binary hypothesis for the origin of peculiar red giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ake, Thomas B.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1988-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra of the peculiar red giants (PRGs) called MS stars are investigated, and the discovery of a white dwarf (WD) companion to the MS star 4 Omicron(1) Orionis is reported. The observations and data analysis are discussed and compared with those for field WDs in order to derive parameters for the WD and the luminosity of the primary. Detection limits for the other MS stars investigated are derived, and the binary hypothesis for PRGs is reviewed.

  3. THE MASSES OF POPULATION II WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalirai, Jason S.; Davis, D. Saul; Richer, Harvey B.; Bergeron, P.; Catelan, Marcio; Hansen, Brad M. S.; Michael Rich, R. E-mail: sdavis@astro.ubc.c E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.c E-mail: hansen@astro.ucla.ed

    2009-11-01

    Globular star clusters are among the first stellar populations to have formed in the Milky Way, and thus only a small sliver of their initial spectrum of stellar types are still burning hydrogen on the main sequence today. Almost all of the stars born with more mass than 0.8 M{sub sun} have evolved to form the white dwarf cooling sequence of these systems, and the distribution and properties of these remnants uniquely holds clues related to the nature of the now evolved progenitor stars. With ultra-deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging observations, rich white dwarf populations of four nearby Milky Way globular clusters have recently been uncovered, and are found to extend impressive 5-8 mag in the faint-blue region of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. In this paper, we characterize the properties of these population II remnants by presenting the first direct mass measurements of individual white dwarfs near the tip of the cooling sequence in the nearest of the Milky Way globulars, M4. Based on Gemini/GMOS and Keck/LRIS multiobject spectroscopic observations, our results indicate that 0.8 M{sub sun} population II main-sequence stars evolving today form 0.53 +- 0.01 M{sub sun} white dwarfs. We discuss the implications of this result as it relates to our understanding of stellar structure and evolution of population II stars and for the age of the Galactic halo, as measured with white dwarf cooling theory.

  4. Wave energy in white dwarf atmospheres. I - Magnetohydrodynamic energy spectra for homogeneous DB and layered DA stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Zdzislaw E.

    1987-01-01

    The radiative damping of acoustic and MHD waves that propagate through white dwarf photospheric layers is studied, and other damping processes that may be important for the propagation of the MHD waves are calculated. The amount of energy remaining after the damping processes have occurred in different types of waves is estimated. The results show that lower acoustic fluxes should be expected in layered DA and homogeneous DB white dwarfs than had previously been estimated. Acoustic emission manifests itself in an enhancement of the quadrupole term, but this term may become comparable to or even lower than the dipole term for cool white dwarfs. Energy carried by the acoustic waves is significantly dissipated in deep photospheric layers, mainly because of radiative damping. Acoustically heated corona cannot exist around DA and DB white dwarfs in a range T(eff) = 10,000-30,000 K and for log g = 7 and 8. However, relatively hot and massive white dwarfs could be exceptions.

  5. Characterizing Accreting White Dwarf Pulsators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum

    2014-02-01

    Understanding the population, mass distribution, and evolution of accreting white dwarfs impacts the entire realm of binary interaction, including the creation of Type Ia supernovae. We are concentrating on accreting white dwarf pulsators, as the pulsation properties allow us a view of how the accretion affects the interior of the star. Our ground- based photometry on 11 accreting pulsators with corresponding temperatures from HST UV spectra suggest a broad instability strip in the range of 10500 to 16000K. Additionally, tracking a post-outburst heated white dwarf as it cools and crosses the blue edge and resumes pulsation provides an independent method to locate the empirical instability strip. Determining a post-outburst cooling curve yields an estimate of the amount of heating and the accreted mass during the outburst. We request additional photometry of 2 objects that present unique properties: GW Lib which has not yet returned to its pre-outburst pulsation spectrum after 6 yrs, and EQ Lyn which returned to its pre- outburst pulsation after 3 yrs but is now turning on and off without ongoing outbursts. Following the pulsation spectrum changes over stretches of several nights in a row will provide specific knowledge of the stability of the observed modes.

  6. Theories of white dwarf oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanhorn, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    The current status of theoretical understanding of the oscillations observed in the ZZ Ceti stars and cataclysmic variables is briefly reviewed. Nonradial g-mode oscillations appear to provide a satisfactory explanation for the low amplitude variables such as R548, with periods in the range of approximately 200 to 300 seconds, but for the longer period (800 to 1000 seconds) oscillators, the situation is still unclear. Rotation may play an important role in this problem, and the effects of both slow and fast rotation upon the mode structure are discussed. In the cataclysmic variables, both accretion and thermonuclear burning may act to excite oscillations of the white dwarf.

  7. Si:P as a laboratory analogue for hydrogen on high magnetic field white dwarf stars.

    PubMed

    Murdin, B N; Li, Juerong; Pang, M L Y; Bowyer, E T; Litvinenko, K L; Clowes, S K; Engelkamp, H; Pidgeon, C R; Galbraith, I; Abrosimov, N V; Riemann, H; Pavlov, S G; Hübers, H-W; Murdin, P G

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic flux density of 10(5) T (1 gigagauss), the maximum observed on high-field magnetic white dwarfs, is impossible because practically available fields are about a thousand times less. In this regime, the cyclotron and binding energies become equal. Here we demonstrate Lyman series spectra for phosphorus impurities in silicon up to the equivalent field, which is scaled to 32.8 T by the effective mass and dielectric constant. The spectra reproduce the high-field theory for free hydrogen, with quadratic Zeeman splitting and strong mixing of spherical harmonics. They show the way for experiments on He and H(2) analogues, and for investigation of He(2), a bound molecule predicted under extreme field conditions. PMID:23403570

  8. THE WHITE DWARF COMPANION OF A 2 M{sub sun} NEUTRON STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalerao, Varun B.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2011-08-10

    We report the optical discovery of the companion to the 2 M{sub sun} millisecond pulsar PSR J1614-2230. The optical colors show that the 0.5 M{sub sun} companion is a 2.2 Gyr old He-CO white dwarf. We infer that M-dot during the accretion phase is <10{sup -2} M-dot{sub edd}. We show that the pulsar was born with a spin close to its current value, well below the rebirth line. The spin-down parameters, the mass of the pulsar, and the age of the system challenge the simple recycling model for the formation of millisecond pulsars.

  9. The Potential of White Dwarf Cosmochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P.; Bergeron, P.

    2001-04-01

    In the light of recent significant progress on both the observational and theoretical fronts, we review the status of white dwarf stars as cosmochronometers. These objects represent the end products of stellar evolution for the vast majority of stars and, as such, can be used to constrain the ages of various populations of evolved stars in the Galaxy. For example, the oldest white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood (the remnants of the very first generation of intermediate-mass stars in the Galactic disk) are still visible and can be used, in conjunction with cooling theory, to estimate the age of the disk. More recent observations suggest the tantalizing possibility that a population of very old white dwarfs inhabits the Galactic halo. Such a population may contribute significantly to baryonic ``dark'' matter in the Milky Way and may be used to obtain an independent estimate of the age of the halo. In addition, white dwarf cosmochronology is likely to play a very significant role in the coming era of giant 8-10 m telescopes when faint white dwarf populations should be routinely discovered and studied in open and globular clusters. Based, in part, on the C. S. Beals Lecture presented by G. Fontaine at the Annual General Meeting of the Canadian Astronomical Society held in Vancouver (2000 May).

  10. PREFACE: 16th European White Dwarfs Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Berro, Enrique; Hernanz, Margarita; Isern, Jordi; Torres, Santiago

    2009-07-01

    The 16th European Workshop on White Dwarfs was held in Barcelona, Spain, from 30 June to 4 July 2008 at the premises of the UPC. Almost 120 participants from Europe (France, Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, and several others), America (USA, Canada, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile), and other continents (Australia, South Africa, . . . ) attended the workshop. Among these participants were the most relevant specialists in the field. The topics covered by the conference were: White dwarf structure and evolution Progenitors and Planetary Nebulae White dwarfs in binaries: cataclysmic variables, double degenerates and other binaries White dwarfs, dust disks and planetary systems Atmospheres, chemical composition, magnetic fields Variable white dwarfs White dwarfs in stellar clusters and the halo White Dwarfs as SNIa progenitors The programme included 54 talks, and 45 posters. The oral presentations were distributed into the following sessions: Luminosity function, mass function and populations White dwarf structure and evolution White dwarf ages White dwarf catalogs and surveys Central stars of planetary nebulae Supernovae progenitors White dwarfs in novae and CVs Physical processes in white dwarfs and magnetic white dwarfs Disks, dust and planets around white dwarfs Pulsating white dwarfs Additionally we had a special open session about Spitzer and white dwarfs. The Proceedings of the 16th European Workshop on White Dwarfs are representative of the current state-of-the-art of the research field and include new and exciting results. We acknowledge the very positive attitude of the attendants to the workshop, which stimulated very fruitful discussions that took place in all the sessions and after the official schedule. Also, the meeting allowed new collaborations tp start that will undoubtedly result in significant advances in the research field. We also acknowledge the willingness of the participants to deliver their contributions before the final deadline. We sincerely

  11. The Origins of the Ultramassive White Dwarf GD 50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, P. D.; Napiwotzki, R.; Lodieu, N.; Burleigh, M. R.; Barstow, M. A.; Jameson, R. F.

    2007-09-01

    On the basis of astrometric and spectroscopic data we argue that the ultramassive white dwarf GD 50 is associated with the star formation event that created the Pleiades and is potentially a former cluster member. Its cooling time (˜60Myrs) is consistent with it having evolved essentially as a single star from a M>6M⊙ progenitor so there appears to be no need to invoke a white dwarf--white dwarf binary merger scenario to account for its existence. Our result may represent the first direct observational evidence that single star evolution can produce white dwarfs with M>1.1M⊙, as predicted by some stellar evolutionary theories. Additionally, our findings may help towards alleviating the difficulties in reconciling the observed number of hot nearby ultramassive white dwarfs with the smaller number predicted by binary evolution models under the assumption that they are the products of white dwarf mergers.

  12. A wide binary trigger for white dwarf pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonsor, Amy; Veras, Dimitri

    2015-11-01

    Metal pollution in white dwarf atmospheres is commonly assumed to be a signature of remnant planetary systems. Most explanations for this pollution predict a sharp decrease in the number of polluted systems with white dwarf cooling age. Observations do not confirm this trend, and metal pollution in old (1-5 Gyr) white dwarfs is difficult to explain. We propose an alternative, time-independent mechanism to produce the white dwarf pollution. The orbit of a wide binary companion can be perturbed by Galactic tides, approaching close to the primary star for the first time after billions of years of evolution on the white dwarf branch. We show that such a close approach perturbs a planetary system orbiting the white dwarf, scattering planetesimals on to star-grazing orbits, in a manner that could pollute the white dwarf's atmosphere. Our estimates find that this mechanism is likely to contribute to metal pollution, alongside other mechanisms, in up to a few per cent of an observed sample of white dwarfs with wide binary companions, independent of white dwarf age. This age independence is the key difference between this wide binary mechanism and others mechanisms suggested in the literature to explain white dwarf pollution. Current observational samples are not large enough to assess whether this mechanism makes a significant contribution to the population of polluted white dwarfs, for which better constraints on the wide binary population are required, such as those that will be obtained in the near future with Gaia.

  13. Solidification of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatzman, E.

    1982-01-01

    The internal structure of white dwarfs is discussed. Highly correlated plasmas are reviewed. Implications for phase separation in the core of cooling white dwarfs are considered. The consequences for evolution of white dwarfs are addressed.

  14. THE LINK BETWEEN PLANETARY SYSTEMS, DUSTY WHITE DWARFS, AND METAL-POLLUTED WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Debes, John H.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Stark, Christopher

    2012-03-10

    It has long been suspected that metal-polluted white dwarfs (types DAZ, DBZ, and DZ) and white dwarfs with dusty disks possess planetary systems, but a specific physical mechanism by which planetesimals are perturbed close to a white dwarf has not yet been fully posited. In this paper, we demonstrate that mass loss from a central star during post-main-sequence evolution can sweep planetesimals into interior mean motion resonances with a single giant planet. These planetesimals are slowly removed through chaotic excursions of eccentricity that in time create radial orbits capable of tidally disrupting the planetesimal. Numerical N-body simulations of the solar system show that a sufficient number of planetesimals are perturbed to explain white dwarfs with both dust and metal pollution, provided other white dwarfs have more massive relic asteroid belts. Our scenario requires only one Jupiter-sized planet and a sufficient number of asteroids near its 2:1 interior mean motion resonance. Finally, we show that once a planetesimal is perturbed into a tidal crossing orbit, it will become disrupted after the first pass of the white dwarf, where a highly eccentric stream of debris forms the main reservoir for dust-producing collisions. These simulations, in concert with observations of white dwarfs, place interesting limits on the frequency of planetary systems around main-sequence stars, the frequency of planetesimal belts, and the probability that dust may obscure future terrestrial planet finding missions.

  15. FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE THAT BARIUM DWARFS HAVE WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, R. O.; McGahee, C. E.; Griffin, R. E. M.; Corbally, C. J. E-mail: cmcgahe@g.clemson.edu E-mail: corbally@as.arizona.edu

    2011-05-15

    Barium II (Ba) stars are chemically peculiar F-, G-, and K-type objects that show enhanced abundances of s-process elements. Since s-process nucleosynthesis is unlikely to take place in stars prior to the advanced asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stage, the prevailing hypothesis is that each present Ba star was contaminated by an AGB companion which is now a white dwarf (WD). Unless the initial mass ratio of such a binary was fairly close to unity, the receiving star is thus at least as likely to be a dwarf as a giant. So although most known Ba stars appear to be giants, the hypothesis requires that Ba dwarfs be comparably plentiful and moreover that they should all have WD companions. However, despite dedicated searches with the IUE satellite, no WD companions have been directly detected to date among the classical Ba dwarfs, even though some 90% of those stars are spectroscopic binaries, so the contamination hypothesis is therefore presently in some jeopardy. In this paper, we analyze recent deep, near-UV and far-UV Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) exposures of four of the brightest of the class (HD 2454, 15360, 26367, and 221531), together with archived GALEX data for two newly recognized Ba dwarfs: HD 34654 and HD 114520 (which also prove to be spectroscopic binaries). The GALEX observations of the Ba dwarfs as a group show a significant far-UV excess compared to a control sample of normal F-type dwarfs. We suggest that this ensemble far-UV excess constitutes the first direct evidence that Ba dwarfs have WD companions.

  16. A Gravitational Redshift Determination of the Mean Mass of White Dwarfs. DA Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcon, Ross E.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Williams, Kurtis A.

    2010-03-01

    We measure apparent velocities (v app) of the Hα and Hβ Balmer line cores for 449 non-binary thin disk normal DA white dwarfs (WDs) using optical spectra taken for the European Southern Observatory SN Ia progenitor survey (SPY). Assuming these WDs are nearby and comoving, we correct our velocities to the local standard of rest so that the remaining stellar motions are random. By averaging over the sample, we are left with the mean gravitational redshift, [vg]: we find [vg] = [vapp] = 32.57 ± 1.17 km s-1. Using the mass-radius relation from evolutionary models, this translates to a mean mass of 0.647+0.013 -0.014 Msun. We interpret this as the mean mass for all DAs. Our results are in agreement with previous gravitational redshift studies but are significantly higher than all previous spectroscopic determinations except the recent findings of Tremblay & Bergeron. Since the gravitational redshift method is independent of surface gravity from atmosphere models, we investigate the mean mass of DAs with spectroscopic T eff both above and below 12,000 K fits to line profiles give a rapid increase in the mean mass with decreasing Teff. Our results are consistent with no significant change in mean mass: [M]hot = 0.640 ± 0.014 M⊙ and [M]cool = 0.686+0.035 -0.039 M⊙.

  17. White dwarfs as tracers of galactic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isern, J.; Hernanz, M.; García-Berro, E.; Salaris, M.

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low and intermediate mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for ~ 10 Gyr and allows to obtain information about the age of the Galaxy as well as about the past stellar formation rate in the solar neighborhood. We show in this paper the state of the art of the white dwarf cooling theory and the uncertainties still remaining. We also provide some applications of the theory of cooling white dwarfs to escrutiny the past history of the Milky Way. These applications range from an independent derivation of the past history of the local star formation rate to a determination of the properties of the halo.

  18. A GRAVITATIONAL REDSHIFT DETERMINATION OF THE MEAN MASS OF WHITE DWARFS. DA STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, Ross E.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Williams, Kurtis A. E-mail: dew@astro.as.utexas.ed E-mail: kurtis@astro.as.utexas.ed

    2010-03-20

    We measure apparent velocities (v{sub app}) of the Halpha and Hbeta Balmer line cores for 449 non-binary thin disk normal DA white dwarfs (WDs) using optical spectra taken for the European Southern Observatory SN Ia progenitor survey (SPY). Assuming these WDs are nearby and comoving, we correct our velocities to the local standard of rest so that the remaining stellar motions are random. By averaging over the sample, we are left with the mean gravitational redshift, (v{sub g}): we find (v{sub g}) = (v{sub app}) = 32.57 +- 1.17 km s{sup -1}. Using the mass-radius relation from evolutionary models, this translates to a mean mass of 0.647{sup +0.013}{sub -0.014} M{sub sun}. We interpret this as the mean mass for all DAs. Our results are in agreement with previous gravitational redshift studies but are significantly higher than all previous spectroscopic determinations except the recent findings of Tremblay and Bergeron. Since the gravitational redshift method is independent of surface gravity from atmosphere models, we investigate the mean mass of DAs with spectroscopic T{sub eff} both above and below 12,000 K; fits to line profiles give a rapid increase in the mean mass with decreasing T{sub eff}. Our results are consistent with no significant change in mean mass: (M){sup hot} = 0.640 +- 0.014 M{sub sun} and (M){sup cool} = 0.686{sup +0.035}{sub -0.039} M{sub sun}.

  19. The empirical white dwarf cooling sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, H.; Goldsbury, R.; Heyl, J.; Bergeron, P.; Dotter, A.; Kalirai, J. S.; MacDonald, J.; Rich, R. M.; Stetson, P. B.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Woodley, K. A.

    White dwarf stars cool as they age, hence they can be used as chronometers for various stellar systems. Their value as clocks depends critically on how well we understand the physics of cooling. In this contribution we outline how to derive an empirical cooling sequence and then compare it with a standard white dwarf cooling model. Some differences are noted suggesting that there is still missing physics in the models. A more detailed version of this communication can be found in Goldsbury et al. (2012).

  20. Magnetars and white dwarf pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Ronaldo V.; Malheiro, Manuel; Coelho, Jaziel G.

    2016-07-01

    The anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely B ≳ 1014G, and for that reason are known as magnetars. However, in the last years, some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields B ˜ (1012-1013)G have been detected, challenging the magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Following this fact, an alternative model based on WDs pulsars has been proposed to explain this special class of pulsars. In this model, AXPs and SGRs as dense and magnetized WDs can have surface magnetic field B ˜ 107-1010 G and rotate very fast with frequencies Ω ˜ 1rad/s, consistent with the observed rotation periods P ˜ (2-12)s.

  1. FORMATION OF THE GALACTIC MILLISECOND PULSAR TRIPLE SYSTEM PSR J0337+1715—A NEUTRON STAR WITH TWO ORBITING WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Tauris, T. M.; Van den Heuvel, E. P. J.

    2014-01-20

    The millisecond pulsar in a triple system (PSR J0337+1715, recently discovered by Ransom et al.) is an unusual neutron star with two orbiting white dwarfs. The existence of such a system in the Galactic field poses new challenges to stellar astrophysics for understanding evolution, interactions, and mass transfer in close multiple stellar systems. In addition, this system provides the first precise confirmation for a very wide-orbit system of the white dwarf mass-orbital period relation. Here, we present a self-consistent, semi-analytical solution to the formation of PSR J0337+1715. Our model constrains the peculiar velocity of the system to be less than 160 km s{sup –1} and brings novel insight to, for example, common envelope evolution in a triple system, for which we find evidence for in-spiral of both outer stars. Finally, we briefly discuss our scenario in relation to alternative models.

  2. Highly magnetized white dwarf as a possible alternate to neutron star to resolve shortcoming of magnetar model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Rao, A. R.; Das, Upasana; Subramanian, Sathyawageeswar; Bhattacharya, Mukul

    2016-07-01

    Since 2012, in a series of paper (so far 15, published in Phys. Rev. Lett., 110, 071102, 2013; ApJLett., 767, 14, 2013; MNRAS, 454, 752, 2015, etc.), we have been exploring the possible existence of highly magnetized super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs. Not only their mass is highly super-Chandrasekhar, they could be much smaller in size compared to the conventional white dwarfs. Here, first I plan to give an overview of the scientific evolution of the model and its current status. Subsequently, on establishing its reliability, I will show that it could be a potential candidate to explain the features lying with soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars, some of which the conventional neutron state based model, based on huge observationally unconfirmed yet surface magnetic fields, cannot explain. I will also highlight that our highly magnetized white dwarfs should exhibit very low luminosity, hence are difficult to observe directly.

  3. Recombination energy in double white dwarf formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandez, J. L. A.; Ivanova, N.; Lombardi, J. C.

    2015-06-01

    In this Letter, we investigate the role of recombination energy during a common envelope event. We confirm that taking this energy into account helps to avoid the formation of the circumbinary envelope commonly found in previous studies. For the first time, we can model a complete common envelope event, with a clean compact double white dwarf binary system formed at the end. The resulting binary orbit is almost perfectly circular. In addition to considering recombination energy, we also show that between 1/4 and 1/2 of the released orbital energy is taken away by the ejected material. We apply this new method to the case of the double white dwarf system WD 1101+364, and we find that the progenitor system at the start of the common envelope event consisted of an ˜1.5 M⊙ red giant star in an ˜30 d orbit with a white dwarf companion.

  4. White dwarfs, the Galaxy and Dirac's cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.

    1976-01-01

    The additive and multiplicative versions of Dirac's cosmological hypothesis relating the gravitational constant variation with elapsed time and number of particles populating the universe is invoked to account for the deficiency or absence of white dwarfs fainter than about 0.0001 solar luminosity. An estimate is made of white dwarf luminosity in accordance with the two evolutionary models, and it is conjectured that some old white dwarfs with high space velocities may be on the verge of gravitational collapse. Lack of a special mechanism to produce the vast numbers of black holes or other dead stars accounting for 'missing matter' in the vicinity of the sun and in the galactic halo is noted in Dirac's multiplicative model. Results indicate that either Dirac's theory is untenable, or that radiation and heating are of some unknown nature, or that the process of creation of new matter requires a corresponding input of energy.

  5. Observations of the Ultraviolet Spectra of Carbon White Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Strong ultraviolet carbon lines were detected in additional white DC (continuous visual spectra) dwarfs using the IUE. These lines are not seen in the ultraviolet spectrum of the cool DC star Stein 2051 B. The bright DA white dwarf LB 3303 has a strong unidentified absorption near lambda 1400.

  6. Radio emissions from terrestrial planets around white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willes, A. J.; Wu, K.

    2005-03-01

    Terrestrial planets in close orbits around magnetic white dwarf stars are potential electron-cyclotron maser sources, by analogy to planetary radio emissions generated from the electrodynamic interaction between Jupiter and the Galilean moons. We present predictions of radio flux densities and the number of detectable white-dwarf/terrestrial-planet systems, and discuss a scenario for their formation.

  7. Quantitative spectral analysis of the sdB star HD 188112: A helium-core white dwarf progenitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latour, M.; Heber, U.; Irrgang, A.; Schaffenroth, V.; Geier, S.; Hillebrandt, W.; Röpke, F. K.; Taubenberger, S.; Kromer, M.; Fink, M.

    2016-01-01

    Context. HD 188112 is a bright (V = 10.2 mag) hot subdwarf B (sdB) star with a mass too low to ignite core helium burning and is therefore considered a pre-extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarf (WD). ELM WDs (M ≲ 0.3 M⊙) are He-core objects produced by the evolution of compact binary systems. Aims: We present in this paper a detailed abundance analysis of HD 188112 based on high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope (HST) near- and far-ultraviolet spectroscopy. We also constrain the mass of the star's companion. Methods: We use hybrid non-LTE model atmospheres to fit the observed spectral lines, and to derive the abundances of more than a dozen elements and the rotational broadening of metallic lines. Results: We confirm the previous binary system parameters by combining radial velocities measured in our UV spectra with the previously published values. The system has a period of 0.60658584 days and a WD companion with M ≥ 0.70 M⊙. By assuming a tidally locked rotation combined with the projected rotational velocity (v sin i = 7.9 ± 0.3 km s-1), we constrain the companion mass to be between 0.9 and 1.3 M⊙. We further discuss the future evolution of the system as a potential progenitor of an underluminous type Ia supernova. We measure abundances for Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn, and for the trans-iron elements Ga, Sn, and Pb. In addition, we derive upper limits for the C, N, O elements and find HD 188112 to be strongly depleted in carbon. We find evidence of non-LTE effects on the line strength of some ionic species such as Si ii and Ni ii. The metallic abundances indicate that the star is metal-poor, with an abundance pattern most likely produced by diffusion effects.

  8. DETECTION OF A WHITE DWARF COMPANION TO THE WHITE DWARF SDSSJ125733.63+542850.5

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, T. R.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D.; Southworth, J.; Koester, D.; Harris, V.; Merry, L.

    2011-08-01

    SDSSJ125733.63+542850.5 (hereafter SDSSJ1257+5428) is a compact white dwarf binary from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that exhibits high-amplitude radial velocity variations on a period of 4.56 hr. While an initial analysis suggested the presence of a neutron star or black hole binary companion, a follow-up study concluded that the spectrum was better understood as a combination of two white dwarfs. Here we present optical spectroscopy and ultraviolet fluxes which directly reveal the presence of the second white dwarf in the system. SDSSJ1257+5428's spectrum is a composite, dominated by the narrow-lined spectrum from a cool, low-gravity white dwarf (T{sub eff} {approx_equal} 6300 K, log g = 5-6.6) with broad wings from a hotter, high-mass white dwarf companion (11, 000-14, 000 K; {approx}1 M{sub sun}). The high-mass white dwarf has unusual line profiles which lack the narrow central core to H{alpha} that is usually seen in white dwarfs. This is consistent with rapid rotation with vsin i = 500-1750 km s{sup -1}, although other broadening mechanisms such as magnetic fields, pulsations, or a helium-rich atmosphere could also be contributory factors. The cool component is a puzzle since no evolutionary model matches its combination of low gravity and temperature. Within the constraints set by our data, SDSSJ1257+5428 could have a total mass greater than the Chandrasekhar limit and thus be a potential Type Ia supernova progenitor. However, SDSSJ1257+5428's unusually low-mass ratio q {approx} 0.2 suggests that it is more likely that it will evolve into an accreting double white dwarf (AM CVn star).

  9. White Dwarfs in the GALEX Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane

    2007-01-01

    We have cross-correlated the 2dF QSO Redshift Survey (2QZ) white dwarf catalog with the GALEX 2nd Data Release and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release 5 to obtain ultraviolet photometry (FUV, NUV) for approximately 700 objects and optical photometry (ugriz) for approximately 800 objects. We have compared the optical-ultraviolet colors to synthetic white dwarf colors to obtain temperature estimates for approximately 250 of these objects. These white dwarfs have effective temperatures ranging from 10 000 K (cooling age of about 1Gyr) up to about 40000 K (cooling age of about 3 Myrs), with a few that have even higher temperatures. We found that to distinguish white dwarfs from other stellar luminosity classes both optical and ultraviolet colors are necessary, in particular for the hotter objects where there is contamination from B and 0 main-sequence stars. Using this sample we build a luminosity function for the DA white dwarfs with Mv < 12 mag.

  10. A GRAVITATIONAL REDSHIFT DETERMINATION OF THE MEAN MASS OF WHITE DWARFS: DBA AND DB STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, Ross E.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Williams, Kurtis A. E-mail: dew@astro.as.utexas.edu E-mail: kurtis.williams@tamuc.edu

    2012-10-01

    We measure apparent velocities (v{sub app}) of absorption lines for 36 white dwarfs (WDs) with helium-dominated atmospheres-16 DBAs and 20 DBs-using optical spectra taken for the European Southern Observatory SN Ia progenitor survey. We find a difference of 6.9 {+-} 6.9 km s{sup -1} in the average apparent velocity of the H{alpha} lines versus that of the He I 5876 A lines for our DBAs. This is a measure of the blueshift of this He line due to pressure effects. By using this as a correction, we extend the gravitational redshift method employed by Falcon et al. to use the apparent velocity of the He I 5876 A line and conduct the first gravitational redshift investigation of a group of WDs without visible hydrogen lines. We use biweight estimators to find an average apparent velocity, (v{sub app}){sub BI}, (and hence average gravitational redshift, (v{sub g}){sub BI}) for our WDs; from that we derive an average mass, (M){sub BI}. For the DBAs, we find (v{sub app}){sub BI} = 40.8 {+-} 4.7 km s{sup -1} and derive (M){sub BI} = 0.71{sup +0.04}{sub -0.05} M{sub Sun }. Though different from (v{sub app}) of DAs (32.57 km s{sup -1}) at the 91% confidence level and suggestive of a larger DBA mean mass than that for normal DAs derived using the same method (0.647{sup +0.013}{sub -0.014} M{sub Sun }; Falcon et al.), we do not claim this as a stringent detection. Rather, we emphasize that the difference between (v{sub app}){sub BI} of the DBAs and (v{sub app}) of normal DAs is no larger than 9.2 km s{sup -1}, at the 95% confidence level; this corresponds to roughly 0.10 M{sub Sun }. For the DBs, we find (v {sup He}{sub app}){sub BI} = 42.9 {+-} 8.49 km s{sup -1} after applying the blueshift correction and determine (M){sub BI} = 0.74{sup +0.08}{sub -0.09} M{sub Sun }. The difference between (v{sup He}{sub app}){sub BI} of the DBs and (v{sub app}) of DAs is {<=}11.5 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.12 M{sub Sun }), at the 95% confidence level. The gravitational redshift method indicates

  11. Chandra Observations of Magnetic White Dwarfs and Their Theoretical Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Noble, M.; Porter, J. G.; Winget, D. E.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Observations of cool DA and DB white dwarfs have not yet been successful in detecting coronal X-ray emission but observations of late-type dwarfs and giants show that coronae are common for these stars. To produce coronal X-rays, a star must have dynamo-generated surface magnetic fields and a well-developed convection zone. There is strong observational evidence that the DA star LHS 1038 and the DB star GD 358 have weak and variable surface magnetic fields. Since these fields are likely to be generated by dynamo action and since both stars have well-developed convection zones, theory predicts detectable levels of coronal X-rays from these white dwarfs. However, we present analysis of Chandra observations of both stars showing no detectable X-ray emission. The derived upper limits for the X-ray fluxes provide strong constraints on theories of formation of coronae around magnetic white dwarfs.

  12. HUBBLE PINPOINTS WHITE DWARFS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Peering deep inside a cluster of several hundred thousand stars, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope uncovered the oldest burned-out stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. Located in the globular cluster M4, these small, dying stars - called white dwarfs - are giving astronomers a fresh reading on one of the biggest questions in astronomy: How old is the universe? The ancient white dwarfs in M4 are about 12 to 13 billion years old. After accounting for the time it took the cluster to form after the big bang, astronomers found that the age of the white dwarfs agrees with previous estimates for the universe's age. In the top panel, a ground-based observatory snapped a panoramic view of the entire cluster, which contains several hundred thousand stars within a volume of 10 to 30 light-years across. The Kitt Peak National Observatory's 0.9-meter telescope took this picture in March 1995. The box at left indicates the region observed by the Hubble telescope. The Hubble telescope studied a small region of the cluster. A section of that region is seen in the picture at bottom left. A sampling of an even smaller region is shown at bottom right. This region is only about one light-year across. In this smaller region, Hubble pinpointed a number of faint white dwarfs. The blue circles pinpoint the dwarfs. It took nearly eight days of exposure time over a 67-day period to find these extremely faint stars. Globular clusters are among the oldest clusters of stars in the universe. The faintest and coolest white dwarfs within globular clusters can yield a globular cluster's age. Earlier Hubble observations showed that the first stars formed less than 1 billion years after the universe's birth in the big bang. So, finding the oldest stars puts astronomers within arm's reach of the universe's age. M4 is 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Scorpius. Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 made the observations from January through April 2001. These optical observations were combined to

  13. Pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables: The marriage of ZZ Cet and dwarf nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian; Woudt, Patrick A.

    2004-05-01

    There are now four dwarf novae known with white dwarf primaries that show large amplitude non-radial oscillations of the kind seen in ZZ Cet stars. We compare the properties of these stars and point out that by the end of Sloan Digital Sky Survey more than 30 should be known.

  14. Models for the evolution of close binaries with He-star and white dwarf components towards Type Ia supernova explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neunteufel, P.; Yoon, S.-C.; Langer, N.

    2016-05-01

    Context. Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have been an important tool for astronomy for quite some time; however, the nature of their progenitors remains somewhat mysterious. Recent theoretical studies indicated the possibility of producing thermonuclear detonations of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs) at masses less than the Chandrasekhar mass through accretion of helium-rich matter, which would, depending on mass accretion rate, mass, and initial temperature of the WD, spectrally resemble either a normal SN Ia or a peculiar one. Aims: This study aims to further resolve the state of binary systems comprised of a sub-Chandrasekhar-mass CO WD and a helium star at the point where an accretion-induced detonation occurs and constrains the part of the initial parameter space where this kind of phenomenon is possible. Methods: Preexisting data obtained through simulations of single, constantly accreting CO WDs is used as an indicator for the behavior of new binary models in which the WD is treated as a point mass and which include the non-degenerate partner as a fully resolved stellar model. We parameterize the ignition of the accumulated helium layer, changes in the WD temperature, and changes in the CO core mass depending on the mass transfer rate. Results: The initial conditions allowing for detonation do not form a single contiguous area in the parameter space, whose shape is profoundly influenced by the behavior of the donor star. Mass loss due to Nova outbursts acts in favor of detonation. According to our criteria, about 10% of the detonations in this study can be expected to show spectra consistent with ordinary SNe Ia; the rest exhibit peculiar features.

  15. The asteroseismological potential of the pulsating DB white dwarf stars CBS 114 and PG 1456+103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, G.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Wood, M. A.

    2002-09-01

    We have acquired 65 h of single-site time-resolved CCD photometry of the pulsating DB white dwarf star (DBV) CBS 114 and 62 h of two-site high-speed CCD photometry of another DBV, PG 1456+103. The pulsation spectrum of PG 1456+103 is complicated and variable on time-scales of approximately 1 week and could only partly be deciphered with our measurements. The modes of CBS 114 are more stable in time and we were able to arrive at a frequency solution somewhat affected by aliasing, but still satisfactory, involving seven independent modes and two combination frequencies. These frequencies also explain the discovery data of the star, taken 13 yr earlier. We find a mean period spacing of 37.1 +/- 0.7 s significant at the 98 per cent level between the independent modes of CBS 114 and argue that they are caused by non-radial g-mode pulsations of spherical degree l= 1. We performed a global search for asteroseismological models of CBS 114 using a genetic algorithm, and we examined the susceptibility of the results to the uncertainties of the observational frequency determinations and mode identifications (we could not provide m values). The families of possible solutions are identified correctly even without knowledge of m. Our best-fitting model suggests Teff= 21 000 K, M*= 0.730 Msolar and log(MHe/M*) =-6.66, XO= 0.61. The latter value of the central oxygen mass fraction implies a rate for the 12C(α,γ)16O nuclear reaction near S300= 180 keV b, consistent with laboratory measurements.

  16. RE 0044+09: A new K dwarf rapid rotator with a white dwarf companion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellett, Barry J.; Bromage, Gordon E.; Brown, Alexander; Jeffries, Robin D.; James, David J.; Kilkenny, David; Robb, Russell M.; Wonnacott, David; Lloyd, Christopher; Clayton, C.

    1995-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new K dwarf rapid rotator with a potential white dwarf companion. The white dwarf accounts for over 90% of the observed extreme ultraviolet flux detected from this system. Analysis of ROSAT Wide Field Camera (WFC) and IUE data both suggest a white dwarf temperature of approximately 28,700 K. Optical photometry and the IUE long wavelength prime (LWP) spectrum (with the white dwarf contribution removed) imply that the late-type star has a spectral type of K1-3 V, and a distance of 55 +/- 5 pc. Using this distance, the observed IUE SWP flux, and the best-fit temperature results in a white dwarf radius of 0.0088 solar radius. The estimated white dwarf mass is then approximately 0.91 solar mass; somewhat over-massive compared to field white dwarfs. Optical photometry of the K star reveals a 'spot' modulation period of approximately 10 hr (now observed over 3 yr). However, radial velocity observations have revealed no significant variations. Spectroscopic observations place a low limit on the lithium abundance, but do show rapid rotation with a v sin i of 90 +/- 10 km/s. The K star was detected as a radio source at 3.6 cm (on two occasions) and 6 cm by the Very Large Array (VLA). The most likely evolutionary scenario is that the K star and hot white dwarf from either a wide binary or common proper motion pair with an age of 0.1-0.1 Gyr-consistent with the evolutionary timescale of the white dwarf and the rapid rotation of the K star. However, from the proper motion of the K star, this system does not seem to be associated with any of the known young stellar groups.

  17. The effective temperature of the white-dwarf star and ZZ Ceti candidate Wolf 485A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digel, S. W.; Shipman, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Previous multichannel observations of W485A (WD 1327-08) have placed it in the instability strip, the effective temperature range 11,000-13,000 K. In the instability strip, most of the stars (the ZZ Ceti stars) are variable, but W485A has not been detected to be variable. In this paper, high-resolution spectra of W485A and improved hydrogen-line broadening routines are used in the ATLAS model-atmospheres program to find the temperature of W485A; the estimate of effective temperature most consistent with the other data on the star is 14,600 K, outside the instability strip.

  18. The Long-Term Outcomes of Double White Dwarf Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, Josiah

    2016-01-01

    Binary star systems composed of two white dwarfs are a natural outcome of stellar evolution. Angular momentum losses from gravitational wave radiation cause the binary system's orbit to shrink until the two white dwarfs merge. The final outcome of the merger depends on the masses of the white dwarfs. Some potential outcomes, such as supernova explosions, may occur during or soon after the merger. Other outcomes, which I will refer to as "long-term" outcomes, occur as the merger remnant cools and its structure adjusts to the new state created during the energetic merger.In my dissertation, I quantitatively explore the long-term outcomes of the mergers of two white dwarfs. I focus primarily on the formation of neutron stars via accretion-induced collapse and the formation of two types of unusual stars, the single sub-dwarf B stars (hot, core helium fusing stars) and the R Coronae Borealis stars (cool, carbon-rich giant stars). Beginning with the results from my previous simulations of the short-lived viscous disk initially present in these remnants, I use the state-of-the-art MESA stellar evolution code to follow their thermal evolution.This work improves the quantitative understanding of which white dwarf binaries lead to a particular outcome and better characterizes the observational signatures of these outcomes. For systems that will undergo accretion-induced collapse, these simulations yield improved progenitor models that can then be used to explore the collapse and formation of a neutron star.

  19. An X-ray survey of hot white dwarf stars - Evidence for a m(He)/n(H) versus Teff correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, R.; Shipman, H. L.; Canizares, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    Observations of 13 white dwarf and subdwarf stars using the Einstein Observatory High Resolution Image are reported. Included are stars of classes DA, DB, DAV, sDO, and sDB, with optically determined effective temperatures in the range 10,000-60,000 K. X-ray emission was detected from two of the 13: the very hot (55,000 K) DA1 star WD 2309 + 105 (= EG 233), with a count rate one-fifth that of HZ 43, and the relatively cool (26,000 K) DA3 star WD 1052 - 273 (=GD 125). The effective temperatures determined from ultraviolet and optical observations were used to place limits on the He content of the white dwarf photospheres, presuming that trace photospheric He is the missing opacity source which quenches the thermal X-rays in these stars. When presently obtained results were combined with those available from the literature evidence was found for a correlation between Teff and n(He)/n(H), in which HZ 43 is a conspicuous exception to the general trend. Both this correlation and the exceptional behavior of HZ 43 are qualitatively accounted for by a radiative acceleration model, in which the rate of upward movement of the He is a function of temperature and surface gravity

  20. On the origin of the ultramassive white dwarf GD50

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbie, P. D.; Napiwotzki, R.; Lodieu, N.; Burleigh, M. R.; Barstow, M. A.; Jameson, R. F.

    2006-11-01

    We argue on the basis of astrometric and spectroscopic data that the ultramassive white dwarf GD50 is associated with the star formation event that created the Pleiades and is possibly a former member of this cluster. Its cooling age (~60 Myr) is consistent with it having evolved essentially as a single star from a progenitor with a mass M > 6Msolar, so we find no need to invoke a white dwarf-white dwarf binary merger scenario to account for its existence. This result may represent the first direct observational evidence that single-star evolution can produce white dwarfs with M > 1.1Msolar, as predicted by some stellar evolutionary theories. On the basis of its tangential velocity, we also provisionally identify the ultramassive (M ~ 1.2Msolar) white dwarf PG0136 + 251 as being related to the Pleiades. These findings may help to alleviate the difficulties in reconciling the observed number of hot nearby ultramassive white dwarfs with the smaller number predicted by binary evolution models under the assumption that they are the products of white dwarf mergers. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile. ESO No. 072.D-0362. E-mail: pdd@star.le.ac.uk

  1. WHITE DWARF/M DWARF BINARIES AS SINGLE DEGENERATE PROGENITORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    2012-10-20

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single-degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have gotten increasingly tight, yet igniting a nearly Chandrasekhar mass C/O white dwarf from a condition of near hydrostatic equilibrium provides compelling agreement with observed spectral evolution. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the tight limits, M{sub V} {approx}> 8.4 on the SN Ia in SNR 0509-67.5 and M{sub V} {approx}> 9.5 in the remnant of SN 1572, are M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are observed in cataclysmic variables, they have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNe Ia: they have small but finite magnetic fields and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SN Ia progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide, in principle, an adequate rate of explosions even with slow orbital evolution due to magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a 'magnetic bottle' connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate of accretion compared to spherical accretion. Luminosity from accretion and hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf may induce self-excited mass transfer. The combined effects of self-excited mass loss, polar accretion, and magnetic inhibition of mixing of accretion layers give possible means to beat the 'nova limit' and grow the white dwarf to the Chandrasekhar mass even at rather moderate mass accretion rates.

  2. White Dwarf/M Dwarf Binaries as Single Degenerate Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    2012-10-01

    Limits on the companions of white dwarfs in the single-degenerate scenario for the origin of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) have gotten increasingly tight, yet igniting a nearly Chandrasekhar mass C/O white dwarf from a condition of near hydrostatic equilibrium provides compelling agreement with observed spectral evolution. The only type of non-degenerate stars that survive the tight limits, MV >~ 8.4 on the SN Ia in SNR 0509-67.5 and MV >~ 9.5 in the remnant of SN 1572, are M dwarfs. While M dwarfs are observed in cataclysmic variables, they have special properties that have not been considered in most work on the progenitors of SNe Ia: they have small but finite magnetic fields and they flare frequently. These properties are explored in the context of SN Ia progenitors. White dwarf/M dwarf pairs may be sufficiently plentiful to provide, in principle, an adequate rate of explosions even with slow orbital evolution due to magnetic braking or gravitational radiation. Even modest magnetic fields on the white dwarf and M dwarf will yield adequate torques to lock the two stars together, resulting in a slowly rotating white dwarf, with the magnetic poles pointing at one another in the orbital plane. The mass loss will be channeled by a "magnetic bottle" connecting the two stars, landing on a concentrated polar area on the white dwarf. This enhances the effective rate of accretion compared to spherical accretion. Luminosity from accretion and hydrogen burning on the surface of the white dwarf may induce self-excited mass transfer. The combined effects of self-excited mass loss, polar accretion, and magnetic inhibition of mixing of accretion layers give possible means to beat the "nova limit" and grow the white dwarf to the Chandrasekhar mass even at rather moderate mass accretion rates.

  3. NUCLEAR CONDENSATE AND HELIUM WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Berkowitz, Evan; Cherman, Aleksey E-mail: evanb@umd.edu

    2012-04-10

    We consider a high-density region of the helium phase diagram, where the nuclei form a Bose-Einstein condensate rather than a classical plasma or a crystal. Helium in this phase may be present in helium-core white dwarfs. We show that in this regime there is a new gapless quasiparticle not previously noticed, arising when the constraints imposed by gauge symmetry are taken into account. The contribution of this quasiparticle to the specific heat of a white dwarf core turns out to be comparable in a range of temperatures to the contribution from the particle-hole excitations of the degenerate electrons. The specific heat in the condensed phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than in the uncondensed plasma phase, which is the ground state at higher temperatures, and four orders of magnitude smaller than the specific heat that an ion lattice would provide, if formed. Since the specific heat of the core is an important input for setting the rate of cooling of a white dwarf star, it may turn out that such a change in the thermal properties of the cores of helium white dwarfs has observable implications.

  4. White dwarfs identified in LAMOST DR 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jincheng; Zhao, Jingkun; Tziamtzis, Anestis; Liu, Jifeng; Li, Lifang; Zhang, Yong; Hou, Yonghui; Wang, Yuefei

    2015-12-01

    Here we present a catalogue of 1056 spectroscopically identified hydrogen-dominated white dwarfs (DAWDs), 34 helium-dominated white dwarfs (DBWDs) and 276 white dwarf main sequence (WDMS) binaries from the Large sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) survey data release 2 (DR2). 383 DAWDs, 4 DBWDs and 138 WDMSs are new identifications after cross-match with literature. There are ˜4100 k spectra in total from DR 2. The low ratio of white dwarfs found in LAMOST is attributed to biased selection of LAMOST input catalogue and much brighter targets relative to stars observed in Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In this paper, a new DAWD selection method is adopted as a new attempt and supplement to the traditional methods. The effective temperature, surface gravity, mass, cooling age and distance of high signal-to-noise DAWDs are estimated. The peak of the mass distribution is found to be ˜0.6 M⊙, which is consistent with previous work. The parameters of WDMS binaries are also provided in this paper. As the foundation of our future work, which is to identify more WDs with debris disc, WDs found in LAMOST showed a lot of potential. Interesting infrared-excess WDs will be reported in our forthcoming paper.

  5. Mystery of a Dimming White Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In the wake of the recent media attention over an enigmatic, dimming star, another intriguing object has been discovered: J1529+2928, a white dwarf that periodically dims. This mystery, however, may have a simple solution with interesting consequences for future surveys of white dwarfs.Unexpected VariabilityJ1529+2928 is an isolated white dwarf that appears to have a mass of slightly more than the Sun. But rather than radiating steadily, J1529+2928 dims once every 38 minutes almost as though it were being eclipsed.The team that discovered these variations, led by Mukremin Kilic (University of Oklahoma), used telescopes at the Apache Point Observatory and the McDonald Observatory to obtain follow-up photometric data of J1529+2928 spread across 66 days. The team also took spectra of the white dwarf with the Gemini North telescope.Kilic and collaborators then began, one by one, to rule out possible causes of this objects variability.Eliminating OptionsThe period of the variability is too long for J1529+2928 to be a pulsating white dwarf with luminosity variation caused by gravity-wave pulsations.The variability cant be due to an eclipse by a stellar or brown-dwarf companion, because there isnt any variation in J1529+2928s radial velocity.Its not due to the orbit of a solid-body planetary object; such a transit would be too short to explain observations.It cant be due to the orbit of a disintegrated planet; this wouldnt explain the light curves observed in different filters plus the light curve doesnt change over the 66-day span.Spotty SurfaceTop and middle two panels: light curves from three different nights observing J1529+2928s periodic dimming. Bottom panel: The Fourier transform shows a peak at 37.7 cycles/day (and another, smaller peak at its first harmonic). [Kilic et al. 2015]So what explanation is left? The authors suggest that J1529+2928s variability is likely caused by a starspot on the white dwarfs surface that rotates into and out of our view. Estimates

  6. A COMPREHENSIVE SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF DB WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.; Wesemael, F.; Dufour, Pierre; Beauchamp, A.; Hunter, C.; Gianninas, A.; Limoges, M.-M.; Dufour, Patrick; Fontaine, G.; Saffer, Rex A.; Ruiz, M. T.; Liebert, James E-mail: wesemael@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: limoges@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: fontaine@astro.umontreal.ca E-mail: chris.hunter@yale.edu E-mail: mtruiz@das.uchile.cl

    2011-08-10

    We present a detailed analysis of 108 helium-line (DB) white dwarfs based on model atmosphere fits to high signal-to-noise optical spectroscopy. We derive a mean mass of 0.67 M{sub sun} for our sample, with a dispersion of only 0.09 M{sub sun}. White dwarfs also showing hydrogen lines, the DBA stars, comprise 44% of our sample, and their mass distribution appears similar to that of DB stars. As in our previous investigation, we find no evidence for the existence of low-mass (M < 0.5 M{sub sun}) DB white dwarfs. We derive a luminosity function based on a subset of DB white dwarfs identified in the Palomar-Green Survey. We show that 20% of all white dwarfs in the temperature range of interest are DB stars, although the fraction drops to half this value above T{sub eff} {approx} 20,000 K. We also show that the persistence of DB stars with no hydrogen features at low temperatures is difficult to reconcile with a scenario involving accretion from the interstellar medium, often invoked to account for the observed hydrogen abundances in DBA stars. We present evidence for the existence of two different evolutionary channels that produce DB white dwarfs: the standard model where DA stars are transformed into DB stars through the convective dilution of a thin hydrogen layer and a second channel where DB stars retain a helium atmosphere throughout their evolution. We finally demonstrate that the instability strip of pulsating V777 Her white dwarfs contains no non-variables, if the hydrogen content of these stars is properly accounted for.

  7. Optical spectroscopy of candidate Alpha Persei white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casewell, S. L.; Dobbie, P. D.; Geier, S.; Lodieu, N.; Hambly, N. C.

    2015-08-01

    As part of an investigation into the high-mass end of the initial mass-final mass relation we performed a search for new white dwarf members of the nearby (172.4 pc), young (80-90 Myr) α Persei open star cluster. The photometric and astrometric search using the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey and SuperCOSMOS sky surveys discovered 14 new white dwarf candidates. We have obtained medium resolution optical spectra of the brightest 11 candidates using the William Herschel Telescope and confirmed that while 7 are DA white dwarfs, 3 are DB white dwarfs and 1 is an sdOB star, only three have cooling ages within the cluster age, and from their position on the initial mass-final mass relation, it is likely none are cluster members. This result is disappointing, as recent work on the cluster mass function suggests that there should be at least one white dwarf member, even at this young age. It may be that any white dwarf members of α Per are hidden within binary systems, as is the case in the Hyades cluster, however the lack of high-mass stars within the cluster also makes this seem unlikely. One alternative is that a significant level of detection incompleteness in the legacy optical image survey data at this Galactic latitude has caused some white dwarf members to be overlooked. If this is the case, Gaia will find them.

  8. The White Dwarf Mass in Interacting Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Koji

    We are undertaking a comprehensive study of accreting white dwarfs in two broad types of interacting binaries, cataclysmic variables (CVs) and symbiotic stars, using X-ray and multi-wavelength data. Our goal is to understand the detailed accretion and X-ray emission processes in these binaries, and therefore determine what information can be extracted from X-ray observations of these systems. In paritular, we must measure the current masses of white dwarfs in CVs and symbiotic stars and understand if they gain or lose mass over time. We believe that these are all worthy objectives by themselves, with added interest in the context of Type Ia supernova progenitor models and the apparently diffuse Galactic ridge and bulge X-ray emission. For both these issues, we need surveys with well-understood selection effects to measure the space density of CVs and symbiotic stars, and X-ray surveys will likely play a key role. With these long-term goals in mind, we are undertaking several interlinked projects with overlapping sets of objectives and collaborators. In this proposal, we seek support for a subset of our overall research program, thematically linked to one of the most important parameters in any CVs and symbiotic stars: the white dwarf mass (Mwd). The depth of the gravitational potential of the white dwarf sets the maximum temperature that the accreting plasma can reach; therefore, by measuring the maximum temperature in the X-ray spectra of CVs and symbiotic stars, one can infer Mwd. This method has long been applied to magnetic CVs; we believe that it is also applicable to non-magnetic cases. We propose an empirical confirmation of this method for quiescent dwarf novae, and investigate any systematic uncertainties that may be inherent in this method. We already know that CVs and symbiotic stars with strong hard (>10 keV) X-ray emission harbor massive white dwarfs, and have used this fact to study the population such systems detected in INTEGRAL and Swift BAT

  9. ROSAT Pointed Observations of Cool Magnetic White Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Porter, J. G.; Davis, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Observational evidence for the existence of a chromosphere on the cool magnetic white dwarf GD 356 has been reported. In addition, there has been theoretical speculations that cool magnetic white dwarfs may be sources of coronal X-ray emission. This emission, if it exists, would be distinct from the two types of X-ray emission (deep photospheric and shocked wind) that have already been observed from hot white dwarfs. We have used the PSPC instrument on ROSAT to observe three of the most prominent DA white dwarf candidates for coronal X-ray emission: GD 356, KUV 2316+123, and GD 90. The data show no significant emission for these stars. The derived upper limits for the X-ray luminosities provide constraints for a revision of current theories of the generation of nonradiative energy in white dwarfs.

  10. Constraining White Dwarf Structure and Neutrino Physics in 47 Tucanae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsbury, R.; Heyl, J.; Richer, H. B.; Kalirai, J. S.; Tremblay, P. E.

    2016-04-01

    We present a robust statistical analysis of the white dwarf cooling sequence in 47 Tucanae. We combine Hubble Space Telescope UV and optical data in the core of the cluster, Modules for Experiments in Stellar Evolution (MESA) white dwarf cooling models, white dwarf atmosphere models, artificial star tests, and a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling method to fit white dwarf cooling models to our data directly. We use a technique known as the unbinned maximum likelihood to fit these models to our data without binning. We use these data to constrain neutrino production and the thickness of the hydrogen layer in these white dwarfs. The data prefer thicker hydrogen layers ({q}{{H}}=3.2× {10}-5) and we can strongly rule out thin layers ({q}{{H}}={10}-6). The neutrino rates currently in the models are consistent with the data. This analysis does not provide a constraint on the number of neutrino species.

  11. White dwarf main-sequence binaries from SDSS DR 8: unveiling the cool white dwarf population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Agurto-Gangas, C.; Schreiber, M. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Koester, D.

    2013-08-01

    The spectroscopic catalogue of white dwarf main-sequence (WDMS) binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is the largest and most homogeneous sample of compact binary stars currently known. However, because of selection effects, the current sample is strongly biased against systems containing cool white dwarfs and/or early-type companions, which are predicted to dominate the intrinsic population. In this study, we present colour selection criteria that combines optical (ugriz DR 8 SDSS) plus infrared (yjhk DR 9 UKIRT Infrared Sky Survey, JHK Two Micron All Sky Survey and/or w1w2 Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer) magnitudes to select 3419 photometric candidates of harbouring cool white dwarfs and/or dominant (M dwarf) companions. We demonstrate that 84 per cent of our selected candidates are very likely genuine WDMS binaries, and that the white dwarf effective temperatures and secondary star spectral types of 71 per cent of our selected sources are expected to be below ≲ 10 000-15 000 K, and concentrated at ˜M2-3, respectively. We also present an updated version of the spectroscopic SDSS WDMS binary catalogue, which incorporates 47 new systems from SDSS DR 8. The bulk of the DR 8 spectroscopy is made up of main-sequence stars and red giants that were targeted as part of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) Survey, therefore the number of new spectroscopic WDMS binaries in DR 8 is very small compared to previous SDSS data releases. Despite their low number, DR 8 WDMS binaries are found to be dominated by systems containing cool white dwarfs and therefore represent an important addition to the spectroscopic sample. The updated SDSS DR 8 spectroscopic catalogue of WDMS binaries consists of 2316 systems. We compare our updated catalogue with recently published lists of WDMS binaries and conclude that it currently represents the largest, most homogeneous and cleanest sample of spectroscopic WDMS binaries from SDSS.

  12. Testing gravity using dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-12-01

    Generic scalar-tensor theories of gravity predict deviations from Newtonian physics inside astrophysical bodies. In this paper, we point out that low mass stellar objects, red and brown dwarf stars, are excellent probes of these theories. We calculate two important and potentially observable quantities: the radius of brown dwarfs and the minimum mass for hydrogen burning in red dwarfs. The brown dwarf radius can differ significantly from the general relativity prediction, and upcoming surveys that probe the mass-radius relation for stars with masses dwarf stars. This places a new and extremely stringent constraint on the parameters that appear in the effective field theory of dark energy and rules out several well-studied dark energy models.

  13. The SW Sextantis-type star 2MASS J01074282+4845188: an unusual bright accretion disk with non-steady emission and a hot white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khruzina, T.; Dimitrov, D.; Kjurkchieva, D.

    2013-03-01

    Context. Cataclysmic variables (CVs) present a short evolutional stage of binary systems. The nova-like stars are rare objects, especially those with eclipses (only several tens). But precisely these allow to determine the global parameters of their configurations and to learn more about the late stage of stellar evolution. Aims: The light curve solution allows one to determine the global parameters of the newly discovered nova-like eclipsing star 2MASS J01074282+4845188 and to estimate the contribution of the different light sources. Methods: We present new photometric and spectral observations of 2MASS J01074282+4845188. To obtain a light curve solution we used a model of a nova-like star whose emission sources are a white dwarf surrounded by an accretion disk, a secondary star filling its Roche lobe, a hot spot and a hot line. The obtained global parameters are compared with those of the eclipsing nova-like UX UMa. Results: 2MASS J01074282+4845188 shows the deepest permanent eclipse among the known nova-like stars. It is reproduced by covering the very bright accretion disk by the secondary component. The luminosity of the disk is much bigger than that of the rest light sources. The determined high temperature of the disk is typical for that observed during the outbursts of CVs. The primary of 2MASS J01074282+4845188 is one of the hottest white dwarfs in CVs. The temperature of 5090 K of its secondary is also quite high and more appropriate for a long-period SW Sex star. It might be explained by the intense heating from the hot white dwarf and the hot accretion disk of the target. Conclusions: The high mass accretion rate Ṁ = 8 × 10-9 M⊙ yr-1, the broad and single-peaked Hα emission profile, and the presence of an S-wave are sure signs for the SW Sex classification of 2MASS J01074282+4845188. The obtained flat temperature distribution along the disk radius as well as the deviation of the energy distribution from the black-body law are evidence of the non

  14. Nucleosynthesis in white-dwarf atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyle, F.; Clayton, D. D.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of events by which both s- and r-process nucleosynthesis may occur on the surfaces of white-dwarf stars. The main requirement is that the accreted hydrogen be mixed with comparable numbers of C-12 (or other alpha nuclei) before a runaway capture of protons takes place. Subsequent events offer many possibilities for nucleosynthesis and stars of peculiar composition. A new mechanism for a surface s-process due to few-MeV protons is also described. Concluding comments concern cosmic gamma-ray bursts and the origin of anomalous low-energy galactic cosmic rays.

  15. Photospheric, circumstellar, and interstellar features of HE, C, N. O, and Si in the HST spectra of four hot white dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Harry L.; Provencal, Judi; Roby, Scott W.; Barstow, Martin; Bond, Howard; Bruhweiler, Fred; Finley, David; Fontaine, Gilles; Holberg, Jay; Nousek, John

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on the observations of four hot white dwarf stars with the spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The higher resolving power and higher signal/noise, in comparison with IUE, reveals a very rich phenomomenology, including photospheric features from heavy elements, circumstellar features, and the first direct detection of accretion onto the white dwarf component of a binary system. Specific results include the following: Our observations of the ultrahot degenerate H1504+65 confirm that it has a photosphere which is depleted in both H and He, and reveals features of C IV and O VI. The spectrum fits previously published models extremely well. The intermediate-temperature DO star PG 1034+001 has an ultraviolet spectrum showing complex profiles of the well-known resonance doublets of C IV, N v, and Si IV. The O V 1371 line shows a clear separation into a photospheric and a circumstellar component, and it is likely that the same two components can explain the other lines as well. The cooler DA star GD 394 has an extensive system of heavy-element features, but their radial velocity is such that it is highly unlikely that they are formed in the stellar photosphere. Time-resolved spectra of the accreting white dwarf in the V 471 Tau binary system are briefly presented here; they do show the presence of C IV, Si IV, and He II. However, the C IV and He II lines are in emission, rather than in aborption as had been expected.

  16. White Dwarfs in Intermediate Polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belle, Kunegunda E.; Sion, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    Intermediate polars (IPs), magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs) in which the white dwarf (WD) has an intermediate strength magnetic field (B< 5 MG), present an interesting laboratory for the study of the evolution of CVs as they contain elements of both non-magnetic and magnetic systems. Do magnetic CVs and IPs evolve in the same manner as non-magnetic systems? One answer in this puzzle may come from understanding the nature of the white dwarf in a magnetic CV. Standard CV evolution theory predicts a white dwarf temperature for a given CV orbital period and accretion rate. By investigating the temperature of white dwarfs in IPs and comparing the temperatures to those predicted from theory, we can learn where IPs fit into the model of CV evolution. Here we present the results of our continued study of the nature of WDs in IPs. We compare temperatures derived from model fits to UV spectra with temperatures calculated based on the accretion rate and binary orbital period. Our preliminary results indicate that IPs follow the general trend of magnetic CVs containing cooler WDs than non-magnetic CVs.

  17. Identifications and limited spectroscopy for Luyten common proper motion stars with probable white dwarf components. I - Pair brighter than 17th magnitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswalt, Terry D.; Hintzen, Paul M.; Luyten, Willem J.

    1988-01-01

    Identifications are provided for 103 bright Luyten common proper motion (CPM) stellar systems with m(pg) less than 17.0 mag containing likely white dwarf (WD) components. New spectral types are presented for 55 components, and spectral types for 51 more are available in the literature. With the CPM systems previously published by Giclas et al. (1978), the Luyten stars provide a uniform sample of nearly 200 pairs or multiples brighter than 17h magnitude. Selection effects biasing the combined samples are discussed; in particular, evidence is presented that fewer than 1 percent of wide WD binaries have been detected.

  18. A disintegrating minor planet transiting a white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Johnson, John Asher; Rappaport, Saul; Bieryla, Allyson; Irwin, Jonathan; Lewis, John Arban; Kipping, David; Brown, Warren R.; Dufour, Patrick; Ciardi, David R.; Angus, Ruth; Schaefer, Laura; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; Beichman, Charles; Eastman, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Wright, Jason T.

    2015-10-01

    Most stars become white dwarfs after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel (the Sun will be one such). Between one-quarter and one-half of white dwarfs have elements heavier than helium in their atmospheres, even though these elements ought to sink rapidly into the stellar interiors (unless they are occasionally replenished). The abundance ratios of heavy elements in the atmospheres of white dwarfs are similar to the ratios in rocky bodies in the Solar System. This fact, together with the existence of warm, dusty debris disks surrounding about four per cent of white dwarfs, suggests that rocky debris from the planetary systems of white-dwarf progenitors occasionally pollutes the atmospheres of the stars. The total accreted mass of this debris is sometimes comparable to the mass of large asteroids in the Solar System. However, rocky, disintegrating bodies around a white dwarf have not yet been observed. Here we report observations of a white dwarf--WD 1145+017--being transited by at least one, and probably several, disintegrating planetesimals, with periods ranging from 4.5 hours to 4.9 hours. The strongest transit signals occur every 4.5 hours and exhibit varying depths (blocking up to 40 per cent of the star's brightness) and asymmetric profiles, indicative of a small object with a cometary tail of dusty effluent material. The star has a dusty debris disk, and the star's spectrum shows prominent lines from heavy elements such as magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, iron, and nickel. This system provides further evidence that the pollution of white dwarfs by heavy elements might originate from disrupted rocky bodies such as asteroids and minor planets.

  19. A disintegrating minor planet transiting a white dwarf.

    PubMed

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Johnson, John Asher; Rappaport, Saul; Bieryla, Allyson; Irwin, Jonathan; Lewis, John Arban; Kipping, David; Brown, Warren R; Dufour, Patrick; Ciardi, David R; Angus, Ruth; Schaefer, Laura; Latham, David W; Charbonneau, David; Beichman, Charles; Eastman, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A; Wright, Jason T

    2015-10-22

    Most stars become white dwarfs after they have exhausted their nuclear fuel (the Sun will be one such). Between one-quarter and one-half of white dwarfs have elements heavier than helium in their atmospheres, even though these elements ought to sink rapidly into the stellar interiors (unless they are occasionally replenished). The abundance ratios of heavy elements in the atmospheres of white dwarfs are similar to the ratios in rocky bodies in the Solar System. This fact, together with the existence of warm, dusty debris disks surrounding about four per cent of white dwarfs, suggests that rocky debris from the planetary systems of white-dwarf progenitors occasionally pollutes the atmospheres of the stars. The total accreted mass of this debris is sometimes comparable to the mass of large asteroids in the Solar System. However, rocky, disintegrating bodies around a white dwarf have not yet been observed. Here we report observations of a white dwarf--WD 1145+017--being transited by at least one, and probably several, disintegrating planetesimals, with periods ranging from 4.5 hours to 4.9 hours. The strongest transit signals occur every 4.5 hours and exhibit varying depths (blocking up to 40 per cent of the star's brightness) and asymmetric profiles, indicative of a small object with a cometary tail of dusty effluent material. The star has a dusty debris disk, and the star's spectrum shows prominent lines from heavy elements such as magnesium, aluminium, silicon, calcium, iron, and nickel. This system provides further evidence that the pollution of white dwarfs by heavy elements might originate from disrupted rocky bodies such as asteroids and minor planets. PMID:26490620

  20. Metal Lines in DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D.; Reid, I. N.; Hünsch, M.

    2003-10-01

    We report Keck telescope HIRES echelle observations of DA white dwarfs in a continuation of an extensive search for metals. These spectra are supplemented with new JHK magnitudes that are used to determine improved atmospheric parameters. Of the DA white dwarfs not in binary or common proper motion systems, about 25% show Ca II lines. For these, Ca abundances are determined from comparison with theoretical equivalent widths from model atmosphere calculations; in a few cases we also obtain Mg, Fe, Si, and Al abundances. If Ca is not observed, we generally determine very stringent upper limits. We compare the data to predictions of previously published models involving the accretion/diffusion of interstellar matter and of comets. The derived abundances are not obviously compatible with the predictions of either model, which up to now could only be tested with traces of metals in helium-rich white dwarfs. By modifying certain assumptions in the published interstellar accretion model we are able to match the distribution of the elements in the white dwarf atmospheres, but, even so, tests of other expectations from this scenario are less successful. Because comet accretion appears unlikely to be the primary cause of the DAZ phenomenon, the data suggest that no more than about 20% of F-type main-sequence stars are accompanied by Oort-like comet clouds. This represents the first observational estimate of this fraction. A plausible alternative to the accretion of cometary or interstellar matter is disruption and accretion of asteroidal material, a model first suggested in 1990 to explain excess near-infrared emission from the DAZ G29-38. An asteroidal debris model to account for the general DAZ phenomenon does not presently disagree with the HIRES data, but neither is there any compelling evidence in support of such a model. The HIRES data indicate that in close red dwarf/white dwarf binaries not known to be cataclysmic variables there is, nonetheless, significant mass

  1. A SEARCH FOR ASTEROIDS, MOONS, AND RINGS ORBITING WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Howell, Steve B.; Kawaler, Steven D.

    2010-03-20

    Do white dwarfs host asteroid systems? Although several lines of argument suggest that white dwarfs may be orbited by large populations of asteroids, transits would provide the most direct evidence. We demonstrate that the Kepler mission has the capability to detect transits of white dwarfs by asteroids. Because white-dwarf asteroid systems, if they exist, are likely to contain many asteroids orbiting in a spatially extended distribution, discoveries of asteroid transits can be made by monitoring only a small number of white dwarfs, compatible with Kepler's primary mission, which is to monitor stars with potentially habitable planets. Possible future missions that survey 10 times as many stars with similar sensitivity and minute-cadence monitoring can establish the characteristics of asteroid systems around white dwarfs, such as the distribution of asteroid sizes and semimajor axes. Transits by planets would be more dramatic, but the probability that they will occur is lower. Ensembles of planetary moons and/or the presence of rings around planets can also produce transits detectable by Kepler. The presence of moons and rings can significantly increase the probability that Kepler will discover planets orbiting white dwarfs, even while monitoring only a small number of them.

  2. Improved wavelengths for Fe V and Ni V for analysis of spectra of white dwarf stellar stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Jacob; Nave, Gillian

    2015-08-01

    A recent paper by J.C. Berengut et al. tests for a potential variation in the fine-structure constant, α, in the presence of a high gravitational field through spectral analysis of white-dwarf stars. The spectrum of G191-B2B has prominent Fe V and Ni V lines in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) region that were used to determine any variation in α via observed shifts in their wavelengths. Although no strong evidence for a variation was found, the authors did find a difference between values obtained for Fe V and Ni V that were indicative of a problem with the laboratory wavelengths. The laboratory wavelengths dominate the uncertainty of the measured variation, so improved values would tighten the constraints on the variation of α.We have re-measured the spectra of Fe V and Ni V spectra in the VUV in order to reduce the wavelength uncertainties and put the two spectra on a consistent wavelength scale. The spectra were produced by a sliding spark light source with electrodes made of invar, an iron nickel alloy. Spectra of Fe V and Ni V were obtained using peak currents of 750-2000 A. The spectra were recorded using the NIST Normal Incidence Vacuum Spectrograph with phosphor image plates and photographic plates as detectors. Wavelengths from 1100 Å to 1800 Å were covered in a single exposure. A spectrum of a Pt/Ne hollow cathode lamp was also recorded for wavelength calibration.The spectra recorded on photographic plates are better resolved than the phosphor image plate spectra and are being measured in two ways. The first measures the positions of the spectral lines on a comparator, traditionally used to measure many archival spectra at NIST. The second uses a commercial image scanner to obtain a digital image of the plate that can be analyzed using line fitting software. Preliminary analysis of these spectra indicates that the literature values of the Fe V and Ni V wavelengths are not on the same scale and differ from our new measurements by up to 0.02 Å in some

  3. Active states and structure transformations in accreting white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boneva, Daniela; Kaygorodov, Pavel

    2016-07-01

    Active states in white dwarfs are usually associated with light curve's effects that concern to the bursts, flickering or flare-up occurrences. It is common that a gas-dynamics source exists for each of these processes there. We consider the white dwarf binary stars with accretion disc around the primary. We suggest a flow transformation modeling of the mechanisms that are responsible for ability to cause some flow instability and bring the white dwarfs system to the outburst's development. The processes that cause the accretion rate to sufficiently increase are discussed. Then the transition from a quiescent to an active state is realized. We analyze a quasi-periodic variability in the luminosity of white dwarf binary stars systems. The results are supported with an observational data.

  4. Nearby Dwarf Stars: Duplicity, Binarity, and Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John; Riedel, Adric; Winters, Jennifer

    2010-02-01

    Double stars have proven to be both a blessing and a curse for astronomers since their discovery over two centuries ago. They remain the only reliable source of masses, the most fundamental parameter defining stars. On the other hand, their sobriquet ``vermin of the sky'' is well-earned, due to the complications they present to both observers and theoreticians. These range from non-linear proper motions to stray light in detectors, to confusion in pointing of instruments due to non-symmetric point spread functions, to angular momentum conservation in multiple stars which results in binaries closer than allowed by evolution of two single stars. This proposal is primarily focused on targets where precise astrophysical information is sorely lacking: white dwarfs, red dwarfs, and subdwarfs. The proposed work will refine current statistics regarding duplicity (chance alignments of nearby point sources) and binarity (actual physical relationships), and improve the precisions and accuracies of stellar masses. Several targets support Riedel's and Winters' theses.

  5. Nearby Dwarf Stars: Duplicity, Binarity, and Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Subasavage, John; Riedel, Adric; Winters, Jennifer

    2009-08-01

    Double stars have proven to be both a blessing and a curse for astronomers since their discovery over two centuries ago. They remain the only reliable source of masses, the most fundamental parameter defining stars. On the other hand, their sobriquet ``vermin of the sky'' is well-earned, due to the complications they present to both observers and theoreticians. These range from non-linear proper motions to stray light in detectors, to confusion in pointing of instruments due to non-symmetric point spread functions, to angular momentum conservation in multiple stars which results in binaries closer than allowed by evolution of two single stars. This proposal is primarily focused on targets where precise astrophysical information is sorely lacking: white dwarfs, red dwarfs, and subdwarfs. The proposed work will refine current statistics regarding duplicity (chance alignments of nearby point sources) and binarity (actual physical relationships), and improve the precisions and accuracies of stellar masses. Several targets support Riedel's and Winters' theses.

  6. Charged condensate and helium dwarf stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A E-mail: rar339@nyu.edu

    2008-10-15

    White dwarf stars composed of carbon, oxygen and heavier elements are expected to crystallize as they cool down below certain temperatures. Yet, simple arguments suggest that the helium white dwarf cores may not solidify, mostly because of zero-point oscillations of the helium ions that would dissolve the crystalline structure. We argue that the interior of the helium dwarfs may instead form a macroscopic quantum state in which the charged helium-4 nuclei are in a Bose-Einstein condensate, while the relativistic electrons form a neutralizing degenerate Fermi liquid. We discuss the electric charge screening, and the spectrum of this substance, showing that the bosonic long-wavelength fluctuations exhibit a mass gap. Hence, there is a suppression at low temperatures of the boson contribution to the specific heat-the latter being dominated by the specific heat of the electrons near the Fermi surface. This state of matter may have observational signatures.

  7. Evidence for White Dwarfs with Strange-Matter Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Grant J.; Suh, Insaeng; Lan, Nguyen Q.; Otsuki, Kaori; Weber, Fridolin

    2008-09-01

    We summarize masses and radii for a number of white dwarfs as deduced from a combination of proper motion studies, Hipparcos parallax distances, effective temperatures, and binary or spectroscopic masses. A puzzling feature of these data, however, is that some stars appear to have radii which are significantly smaller than that expected for a standard electron-degenerate white-dwarf equations of state. We construct a projection of white-dwarf radii for fixed effective mass and conclude that there is at least marginal evidence for bimodality in the radius distribution for white dwarfs. We argue that if such compact white dwarfs exist it is unlikely that they contain an iron core. We propose an alternative of strange-quark matter within the white-dwarf core. We also discuss the impact of the so-called color-flavor locked (CFL) state in strange-matter core associated with color superconductivity. We show that the data exhibit several features consistent with the expected mass-radius relation of strange dwarfs. We identify eight nearby white dwarfs which are possible candidates for strange matter cores and suggest observational tests of this hypothesis.

  8. Evidence for White Dwarfs with Strange-Matter Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, Grant; Suh, Insaeng; Lan, Nguyen; Zech, William; Otsuki, Kaori; Weber, Friedolin

    2006-10-01

    We summarize masses and radii for a number of white dwarfs as deduced from a combination of proper motion studies, Hipparcos parallax distances, effective temperatures, and binary or spectroscopic masses. A puzzling feature of these data, however, is that some stars appear to have radii which are significantly smaller than that expected for a standard electron-degenerate white-dwarf equations of state. We construct a projection of white-dwarf radii for fixed effective mass and conclude that there is at least marginal evidence for bimodality in the radius distribution for white dwarfs. We argue that if such compact white dwarfs exist it is unlikely that they contain an iron core. We propose an alternative of strange-quark matter within the white-dwarf core. We also discuss the impact of the so-called color-flavor locked (CFL) state in strange-matter core associated with color superconductivity. We show that the data exhibit several features consistent with the expected mass-radius relation of strange dwarfs. We identify eight nearby white dwarfs which are possible candidates for strange matter cores and suggest observational tests of this hypothesis.

  9. Analysis of white dwarfs with strange-matter cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathews, G. J.; Suh, I.-S.; O'Gorman, B.; Lan, N. Q.; Zech, W.; Otsuki, K.; Weber, F.

    2006-06-01

    We summarize masses and radii for a number of white dwarfs as deduced from a combination of proper motion studies, Hipparcos parallax distances, effective temperatures and binary or spectroscopic masses. A puzzling feature of these data, however, is that some stars appear to have radii which are significantly smaller than that expected for a standard electron-degenerate white-dwarf equations of state. We construct a projection of white-dwarf radii for fixed effective mass and conclude that there is at least marginal evidence for bimodality in the radius distribution for white dwarfs. We argue that if such compact white dwarfs exist it is unlikely that they contain an iron core. We propose an alternative of strange-quark matter within the white-dwarf core. We also discuss the impact of the so-called color-flavour-locked (CFL) state in strange-matter core associated with color superconductivity. We show that the data exhibit several features consistent with the expected mass-radius relation of strange dwarfs. We identify eight nearby white dwarfs which are possible candidates for strange-matter cores and suggest observational tests of this hypothesis.

  10. Spectral analysis of hot helium-rich white dwarfs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreizler, S.; Werner, K.

    1996-10-01

    We present a model atmosphere analysis of most known hot helium-rich white dwarfs of spectral type DO. The stars represent the non-DA white dwarf cooling sequence from the hot end (T_eff_=~120000K) down to the DB gap (T_eff_=~45000K). From medium resolution optical spectra, effective temperatures, surface gravities, and element abundances are determined by means of non-LTE model atmospheres. Compared to previous LTE analyses available for some of the program stars, higher effective temperatures are derived. The existence of the DB gap is confirmed. For the first time reliable surface gravities for a large sample of DO white dwarfs are determined. With the help of theoretical evolutionary tracks the DO masses are determined. We find a mean value of 0.59+/-0.08Msun_ which virtually coincides with the mean masses of the DA and DB white dwarfs. Hydrogen cannot be identified in any optical DO spectrum, which includes the former DOA prototype HZ21. Hence HD149499B remains the only DO white dwarf with a positive (FUV) detection of trace hydrogen in the photosphere. The number ratio of DA/non-DA white dwarfs significantly increases along the cooling sequence and thus corroborates the hydrogen float-up hypothesis as an explanation for the DB gap. From optical, IUE, and HST spectra metal abundances or upper limits could be derived for most DOs, allowing a comprehensive comparison with predictions from diffusion/radiative levitation calculations. A large scatter in metallicities is found, even among objects with similar parameters and no clear trend along the cooling sequence is detectable. This is severely at odds with theoretical predictions. The evolutionary link between DO white dwarfs, the PG1159 stars and DB white dwarfs is discussed, in particular considering the overlapping positions of DO and PG1159 stars in the HR diagram.

  11. Temperatures and surface gravities of DB white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oke, J. B.; Weidemann, V.; Koester, D.

    1984-01-01

    Multichannel observations or reobservations of all DB white dwarfs accessible from Palomar Observatory, reduced and calibrated with the AB79 program of Oke and Gunn (1983), have been compared by least squares fitting procedures with energy distributions calculated from new model atmospheres with He:H = 100,000 and reduced metal content He:C = 1,000,000. The surface gravities and temperatures derived reveal for the first time a definitive cooling sequence for the DB stars, with a narrow mass distribution comparable to that of the DA white dwarfs. The mass range, 0.55 + or - 0.10 solar mass, almost coincides with the range derived for DA, DC, and C2 stars and therefore suggests that the progenitors for all these stars are the same. Spectroscopic distance determinations and comparison with cooling ages demonstrate that DB stars account for about one-tenth of the total white dwarf birthrate.

  12. White Dwarfs in HETDEX: Preparation for the Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanheira, B. G.; Winget, D. E.

    2015-06-01

    In the past decade, large scale surveys have discovered a large number of white dwarf stars. Many new aspects have been revealed, including the discovery of the DQVs, close-in non-contact binary systems, and debris disks around many stars. Unfortunately, the population statistics of the newly discovered white dwarf stars are poorly constrained, because of the various methods used to assign objects to fibers for spectroscopic observations in the SDSS survey. A white dwarf sample that is magnitude limited, with well-constrained selection criteria, is needed. The HET Dark Energy Experiment (HETDEX) will use the 9.2 m HET at McDonald Observatory and a set of more than 100 spectrographs to map the three-dimensional positions of one million galaxies, to probe dark energy. In this unique magnitude limited survey, all objects that fall into the fibers will be observed. We expect to observe spectroscopically about 10,00 white dwarf stars. In this paper, we will present the specifications and current status of HETDEX, which will start taking data in Fall 2014. We will also show our first results from observations of white dwarf stars using an identical spectrograph with the 2.7m HJS Telescope and discuss some of the approaches we have been working on in preparation for this exciting survey.

  13. An asteroseismic constraint on the mass of the axion from the period drift of the pulsating DA white dwarf star L19-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, Alejandro H.; Romero, Alejandra D.; Althaus, Leandro G.; García-Berro, Enrique; Isern, Jordi; Kepler, S. O.; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Sullivan, Denis J.; Chote, Paul

    2016-07-01

    We employ an asteroseismic model of L19-2, a relatively massive (Mstar ~ 0.75 Msolar) and hot (Teff ~ 12 100 K) pulsating DA (H-rich atmosphere) white dwarf star (DAV or ZZ Ceti variable), and use the observed values of the temporal rates of period change of its dominant pulsation modes (Π ~ 113 s and Π ~ 192 s), to derive a new constraint on the mass of the axion, the hypothetical non-barionic particle considered as a possible component of the dark matter of the Universe. If the asteroseismic model employed is an accurate representation of L19-2, then our results indicate hints of extra cooling in this star, compatible with emission of axions of mass ma cos2β lesssim 25 meV or an axion-electron coupling constant of gae lesssim 7 × 10‑13.

  14. White dwarf cosmochronology in the solar neighborhood

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Kalirai, J. S.; Soderblom, D. R.; Cignoni, M.; Cummings, J.

    2014-08-20

    The study of the stellar formation history in the solar neighborhood is a powerful technique to recover information about the early stages and evolution of the Milky Way. We present a new method that consists of directly probing the formation history from the nearby stellar remnants. We rely on the volume complete sample of white dwarfs within 20 pc, where accurate cooling ages and masses have been determined. The well characterized initial-final mass relation is employed in order to recover the initial masses (1 ≲ M {sub initial}/M {sub ☉} ≲ 8) and total ages for the local degenerate sample. We correct for moderate biases that are necessary to transform our results to a global stellar formation rate, which can be compared to similar studies based on the properties of main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood. Our method provides precise formation rates for all ages except in very recent times, and the results suggest an enhanced formation rate for the solar neighborhood in the last 5 Gyr compared to the range 5 < Age (Gyr) < 10. Furthermore, the observed total age of ∼10 Gyr for the oldest white dwarfs in the local sample is consistent with the early seminal studies that have determined the age of the Galactic disk from stellar remnants. The main shortcoming of our study is the small size of the local white dwarf sample. However, the presented technique can be applied to larger samples in the future.

  15. Open Science Project in White Dwarf Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vornanen, T.

    2013-01-01

    I will propose a new way of advancing white dwarf research. Open science is a method of doing research that lets everyone who has something to say about the subject take part in the problem solving process. Already now, the amount of information we gather from observations, theory and modeling is too vast for any one individual to comprehend and turn into knowledge. And the amount of information just keeps growing in the future. A platform that promotes sharing of thoughts and ideas allows us to pool our collective knowledge of white dwarfs and get a clear picture of our research field. It will also make it possible for researchers in fields closely related to ours (AGB stars, planetary nebulae etc.) to join the scientific discourse. In the first stage this project would allow us to summarize what we know and what we don't, and what we should search for next. Later, it could grow into a large collaboration that would have the impact to, for example, suggest instrument requirements for future telescopes to satisfy the needs of the white dwarf community, or propose large surveys. A simple implementation would be a wiki page for collecting knowledge combined with a forum for more extensive discussions. These would be simple and cheap to maintain. A large community effort on the whole would be needed for the project to succeed, but individual workload should stay at a low level.

  16. White Dwarf Convection Preceding Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, A. S.; Bell, J. B.; Malone, C. M.; Nonaka, A.; Woosley, S. E.

    2010-01-01

    In the single degenerate scenario for Type Ia supernovae, a Chandrasekhar mass white dwarf `simmers' for centuries preceding the ultimate explosion. During this period, reactions near the center drive convection throughout most of the interior of the white dwarf. The details of this convective flow determine how the first flames in the white dwarf ignite. Simulating this phase is difficult because the flows are highly subsonic. Using the low Mach number hydrodynamics code, MAESTRO, we present 3-d, full star models of the final hours of this convective phase, up to the point of ignition of a Type Ia supernova. We discuss the details of the convective velocity field and the locations of the initial hot spots. Finally, we show some preliminary results with rotation. Support for this work came from the DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics, grant No. DE-FG02-06ER41448 (Stony Brook), the SciDAC Program of the DOE Office of Mathematics, Information, and Computational Sciences under the DOE under contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL), and the DOE SciDAC program, under grant No. DE-FC02-06ER41438 (UCSC). We made use of the jaguar machine via a DOE INCITE allocation at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computational Facility.

  17. GASEOUS MATERIAL ORBITING THE POLLUTED, DUSTY WHITE DWARF HE 1349-2305

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, Carl; Burgasser, Adam J.; Dufour, P.; Farihi, J.; Bochanski, J.; Parsons, S. G.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Koester, D.; Swift, Brandon J.

    2012-05-20

    We present new spectroscopic observations of the polluted, dusty, helium-dominated atmosphere white dwarf star HE 1349-2305. Optical spectroscopy reveals weak Ca II infrared triplet emission indicating that metallic gas debris orbits and is accreted by the white dwarf. Atmospheric abundances are measured for magnesium and silicon while upper limits for iron and oxygen are derived from the available optical spectroscopy. HE 1349-2305 is the first gas disk-hosting white dwarf star identified among previously known polluted white dwarfs. Further characterization of the parent body polluting this star will require ultraviolet spectroscopy.

  18. Remnant planetary systems around bright white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, Sara D.; Belardi, Claudia; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.

    2016-06-01

    We cross-correlate several sources of archival photometry for 1265 bright (V ˜ 16 mag) white dwarfs (WDs) with available high signal-to-noise spectroscopy. We find 381 WDs with archival Spitzer+IRAC data and investigate this subsample for infrared excesses due to circumstellar dust. This large data set reveals 15 dusty WDs, including three new debris discs and the hottest WD known to host dust (WD 0010+280). We study the frequency of debris discs at WDs as function of mass. The frequency peaks at 12.5 per cent for 0.7-0.75 M⊙ WDs (with 3 M⊙ main-sequence star progenitors) and falls off for stars more massive than this, which mirrors predicted planet occurrence rates for stars of different masses.

  19. REMNANTS OF BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Timmes, F. X.; Fryer, Chris; Rockefeller, Gabriel

    2012-02-10

    We carry out a comprehensive smooth particle hydrodynamics simulation survey of double-degenerate white dwarf binary mergers of varying mass combinations in order to establish correspondence between initial conditions and remnant configurations. We find that all but one of our simulation remnants share general properties such as a cold, degenerate core surrounded by a hot disk, while our least massive pair of stars forms only a hot disk. We characterize our remnant configurations by the core mass, the rotational velocity of the core, and the half-mass radius of the disk. We also find that some of our simulations with very massive constituent stars exhibit helium detonations on the surface of the primary star before complete disruption of the secondary. However, these helium detonations are insufficiently energetic to ignite carbon, and so do not lead to prompt carbon detonations.

  20. A DEEPLY ECLIPSING DETACHED DOUBLE HELIUM WHITE DWARF BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Koester, D.

    2011-07-10

    Using Liverpool Telescope+RISE photometry we identify the 2.78 hr period binary star CSS 41177 as a detached eclipsing double white dwarf binary with a 21,100 K primary star and a 10,500 K secondary star. This makes CSS 41177 only the second known eclipsing double white dwarf binary after NLTT 11748. The 2 minute long primary eclipse is 40% deep and the secondary eclipse 10% deep. From Gemini+GMOS spectroscopy, we measure the radial velocities of both components of the binary from the H{alpha} absorption line cores. These measurements, combined with the light curve information, yield white dwarf masses of M{sub 1} = 0.283 {+-} 0.064 M{sub sun} and M{sub 2} = 0.274 {+-} 0.034 M{sub sun}, making them both helium core white dwarfs. As an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary, CSS 41177 is ideally suited to measuring precise, model-independent masses and radii. The two white dwarfs will merge in roughly 1.1 Gyr to form a single sdB star.

  1. The white dwarf population within 40 pc of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Santiago; García-Berro, Enrique

    2016-04-01

    Context. The white dwarf luminosity function is an important tool to understand the properties of the solar neighborhood, like its star formation history, and its age. Aims: Here we present a population synthesis study of the white dwarf population within 40 pc from the Sun, and compare the results of this study with the properties of the observed sample. Methods: We use a state-of-the-art population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, which incorporates the most recent and reliable white dwarf cooling sequences, an accurate description of the Galactic neighborhood, and a realistic treatment of all the known observational biases and selection procedures. Results: We find a good agreement between our theoretical models and the observed data. In particular, our simulations reproduce a previously unexplained feature of the bright branch of the white dwarf luminosity function, which we argue is due to a recent episode of star formation. We also derive the age of the solar neighborhood employing the position of the observed cut-off of the white dwarf luminosity function, to obtain ~8.9 ± 0.2 Gyr. Conclusions: We conclude that a detailed description of the ensemble properties of the population of white dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun allows us to obtain interesting constraints on the history of the Solar neighborhood.

  2. Viscous effects in rapidly rotating stars with application to white-dwarf models. III - Further numerical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durisen, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    Improved viscous evolutionary sequences of differentially rotating, axisymmetric, nonmagnetic, zero-temperature white-dwarf models are constructed using the relativistically corrected degenerate electron viscosity. The results support the earlier conclusion that angular momentum transport due to viscosity does not lead to overall uniform rotation in many interesting cases. Qualitatively different behaviors are obtained, depending on how the total mass M and angular momentum J compare with the M and J values for which uniformly rotating models exist. Evolutions roughly determine the region in M and J for which models with a particular initial angular momentum distribution can reach carbon-ignition densities in 10 b.y. Such models may represent Type I supernova precursors.

  3. A variational approach to understanding white dwarf evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. A.; Winget, D. E.

    1989-01-01

    A variational approach is used to map out the effects that uncertainties in the theoretical model parameters have upon the derived ages near the observed cutoff in the white dwarf luminosity function. Two representative sequences are assessed, simulating a white dwarf with a 50/50 C/O mixture in the core and an outer helium layer and a white dwarf with a C/O convective overshooting profile. The differential effects that the variation of selected model input quantities has on the ages are reported, and it is concluded that internal theoretical uncertainties are small and getting smaller with time, and the results underscore the power of using the observed white dwarf luminosity function for studying the history of star formation in the Galaxy.

  4. Three eclipsing white dwarf plus main sequence binaries from SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyrzas, S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Marsh, T. R.; Aungwerojwit, A.; Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Southworth, J.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Schreiber, M. R.; Koester, D.

    2009-06-01

    We identify SDSS 0110+1326, SDSS 0303+0054 and SDSS 1435+3733 as three eclipsing white dwarf plus main sequence binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and report on their follow-up observations. Orbital periods for the three systems are established through multi-season photometry. Time-resolved spectroscopic observations lead to the determination of the radial velocities of the secondary stars. A decomposition technique of the SDSS spectra is used to estimate the surface gravities and effective temperatures of the white dwarfs, as well as the spectral types of the secondaries. By combining the constraints from the spectral decomposition, the radial velocity data and the modeling of the systems' light curves, we determine the physical parameters of the stellar components. Two of the white dwarfs are of low mass (Mwd ~ 0.4 Modot), while the third white dwarf is unusually massive (MWD ~ 0.8-0.9 Modot) for a post-common envelope system.

  5. THREE NEW ECLIPSING WHITE-DWARF-M-DWARF BINARIES DISCOVERED IN A SEARCH FOR TRANSITING PLANETS AROUND M-DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Nicholas M.; Kraus, Adam L.; Street, Rachel; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Shporer, Avi; Lister, Tim; Hillenbrand, Lynne A.; Baranec, Christoph; Bui, Khanh; Davis, Jack T. C.; Dekany, Richard G.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Ofek, Eran O.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Das, H. K.; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nugent, Peter; and others

    2012-10-01

    We present three new eclipsing white-dwarf/M-dwarf binary systems discovered during a search for transiting planets around M-dwarfs. Unlike most known eclipsing systems of this type, the optical and infrared emission is dominated by the M-dwarf components, and the systems have optical colors and discovery light curves consistent with being Jupiter-radius transiting planets around early M-dwarfs. We detail the PTF/M-dwarf transiting planet survey, part of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We present a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based box-least-squares search for transits that runs approximately 8 Multiplication-Sign faster than similar algorithms implemented on general purpose systems. For the discovered systems, we decompose low-resolution spectra of the systems into white-dwarf and M-dwarf components, and use radial velocity measurements and cooling models to estimate masses and radii for the white dwarfs. The systems are compact, with periods between 0.35 and 0.45 days and semimajor axes of approximately 2 R{sub Sun} (0.01 AU). The M-dwarfs have masses of approximately 0.35 M{sub Sun }, and the white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich atmospheres with temperatures of around 8000 K and have masses of approximately 0.5 M{sub Sun }. We use the Robo-AO laser guide star adaptive optics system to tentatively identify one of the objects as a triple system. We also use high-cadence photometry to put an upper limit on the white-dwarf radius of 0.025 R{sub Sun} (95% confidence) in one of the systems. Accounting for our detection efficiency and geometric factors, we estimate that 0.08%{sub -0.05%}{sup +0.10%} (90% confidence) of M-dwarfs are in these short-period, post-common-envelope white-dwarf/M-dwarf binaries where the optical light is dominated by the M-dwarf. The lack of detections at shorter periods, despite near-100% detection efficiency for such systems, suggests that binaries including these relatively low-temperature white dwarfs are preferentially found at

  6. Double White Dwarf Merger Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, Silvia; Nelemans, Gijs; Portegies Zwart, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are very successfully used as standard candles on cosmological distance scales, but so far the nature of the progenitor(s) is unclear. A possible scenario for SNe Ia are merging carbon/oxygen white dwarfs with a combined mass exceeding the Chandrasekhar mass. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of these mergers for two different common envelope prescriptions and metallicities. The shape of the delay time distributions is rather insensitive to the assumptions. The normalization is a factor ~3-13 too low compared to observations.

  7. Radial pulsations in DB white dwarfs?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1993-01-01

    Theoretical models of DB white dwarfs are unstable against radial pulsation at effective temperatures near 20,000-30,000 K. Many high-overtone modes are unstable, with periods ranging from 12 s down to the acoustic cutoff period of approximately 0.1 s. The blue edge for radial instability lies at slightly higher effective temperatures than for nonradial pulsations, with the temperature of the blue edge dependent on the assumed efficiency of convection. Models with increased convective efficiency have radial blue edges that are increasingly closer to the nonradial blue edge; in all models the instability persists into the nonradial instability strip. Radial pulsations therefore may exist in the hottest DB stars that lie below the DB gap; the greatest chance for detection would be observations in the ultraviolet. These models also explain why searches for radial pulsations in DA white dwarfs have failed: the efficient convection needed to explain the blue edge for nonradial DA pulsation means that the radial instability strip is 1000 K cooler than found in previous investigations. The multiperiodic nature of the expected pulsations can be used to advantage to identify very low amplitude modes using the uniform spacing of the modes in frequency. This frequency spacing is a direct indicator of the mass of the star.

  8. Two new extremely hot pulsating white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, H. E.; Grauer, A. D.; Green, R. F.; Liebert, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    High speed photometry of the extremely hot, nearly degenerate stars PG 1707 + 427 and PG 2131 + 066 reveals that they are low-amplitude pulsating variables. Power spectral analysis shows both to be multiperiodic, with dominant periods of 7.5 and 6.4-6.9 minutes, respectively. Together with the known pulsators PG 1159 - 035 and the central star of the planetary nebula Kohoutek 1-16, these objects define a new pulsational instability strip at the hot edge of the H-R diagram. The variations of these objects closely resemble those of the much cooler pulsating ZZ Ceti DA white dwarfs; both groups are probably nonradial g-mode pulsators. Evolutionary contraction of the PG 1159 - 035 variables may lead to period changes that would be detectable in as little as 1 year. The optical and IUE spectra of the PG 1159 - 035 variables are characterized by absorption lines of C IV and other CNO ions, indicating radiative levitation of species heavier than helium. He II is also present in the spectra, but the hydrogen Balmer lines are absent. Effective temperatures near 100,000 K are required, and the He II 4686 A profiles indicate log g greater than 6. These helium-rich pulsators form the hottest known subgroup of the DO white dwarfs.

  9. THE (DOUBLE) WHITE DWARF BINARY SDSS 1257+5428

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, S. R.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.

    2010-08-20

    SDSS 1257+5428 is a white dwarf in a close orbit with a companion that has been suggested to be a neutron star. If so, it hosts the closest known neutron star, and its existence implies a great abundance of similar systems and a rate of white dwarf neutron-star mergers similar to that of the type Ia supernova rate. Here, we present high signal-to-noise spectra of SDSS 1257+5428, which confirm an independent finding that the system is in fact composed of two white dwarfs, one relatively cool and with low mass and the other hotter and more massive. With this, the demographics and merger rate are no longer puzzling (various factors combine to lower the latter by more than 2 orders of magnitude). We show that the spectra are fit well with a combination of two hydrogen model atmospheres, as long as the lines of the higher-gravity component are broadened significantly relative to what is expected from just pressure broadening. Interpreting this additional broadening as due to rotation, the inferred spin period is short, about 1 minute. Similarly rapid rotation is only seen in accreting white dwarfs that are magnetic; empirically, it appears that in non-magnetized white dwarfs, accreted angular momentum is lost by nova explosions before it can be transferred to the white dwarf. This suggests that the massive white dwarf in SDSS 1257+5428 is magnetic as well, with B {approx_equal} 10{sup 5} G. Alternatively, the broadening seen in the spectral lines could be due to a stronger magnetic field, of {approx}10{sup 6} G. The two models can be distinguished by further observations.

  10. Amplitude and frequency variations of oscillation modes in the pulsating DB white dwarf star KIC 08626021. The likely signature of nonlinear resonant mode coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, W.; Charpinet, S.; Vauclair, G.; Giammichele, N.; Van Grootel, V.

    2016-01-01

    modulations are the clearest hints of nonlinear resonant couplings occurring in white dwarf stars identified so far. These should resonate as a warning to projects that aim at measuring the evolutionary cooling rate of KIC 08626021, and of white dwarf stars in general. Nonlinear modulations of the frequencies can potentially jeopardize any attempt to measure such rates reliably, unless they can be corrected beforehand. These results should motivate further theoretical work to develop the nonlinear stellar pulsation theory.

  11. Post-merger evolution of carbon-oxygen + helium white dwarf binaries and the origin of R Coronae Borealis and extreme helium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianfei; Jeffery, C. Simon; Chen, Xuefei; Han, Zhanwen

    2014-11-01

    Orbital decay by gravitational-wave radiation will cause some close-binary white dwarfs (WDs) to merge within a Hubble time. The results from previous hydrodynamical WD-merger simulations have been used to guide calculations of the post-merger evolution of carbon-oxygen + helium (CO+He) WD binaries. Our models include the formation of a hot corona in addition to a Keplerian disc. We introduce a `destroyed-disc' model to simulate the effect of direct disc ingestion into the expanding envelope. These calculations indicate significant lifetimes in the domain of the rare R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, before a fast evolution through the domain of the hotter extreme helium (EHe) stars. Surface chemistries of the resulting giants are in partial agreement with the observed abundances of RCB and EHe stars. The production of 3He, 18O and 19F are discussed. Evolutionary time-scales combined with binary WD merger rates from binary-star population synthesis are consistent with present-day numbers of RCBs and EHes, provided that the majority come from relatively recent (<2 Gyr) star formation. However, most RCBs should be produced by CO-WD + low-mass He-WD mergers, with the He WD having a mass in the range 0.20-0.35 M⊙. Whilst, previously, a high He-WD mass (≥0.40 M⊙) was required to match the carbon-rich abundances of RCB stars, the `destroyed-disc' model yields a high-carbon product with He-WD mass ≥0.30 M⊙, in better agreement with population synthesis results.

  12. The atmospheric parameters of nearby white dwarfs revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammichele, N.; Bergeron, P.; Dufour, P.

    2010-11-01

    We present improved atmospheric parameters of nearby white dwarfs lying within 20 pc of the Sun. The aim of the current study is to obtain the best statistical model of the least-biased sample of the white dwarf population. A homogeneous analysis of the local population is performed combining detailed spectroscopic and photometric analyses based on improved model atmosphere calculations for various spectral types including DA, DQ, and DZ stars. The spectroscopic technique is applied to all stars in our sample for which optical spectra are available. Photometric energy distributions, when available, are also combined to trigonometric parallax measurements to derive effective temperatures, stellar radii, as well as atmospheric compositions. A revised catalog of white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is completed. Effective temperature, mass distributions, and luminosity function are also discussed.

  13. Evaporation and accretion of extrasolar comets following white dwarf kicks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Nicholas; Metzger, Brian D.; Loeb, Abraham

    2015-03-01

    Several lines of observational evidence suggest that white dwarfs receive small birth kicks due to anisotropic mass-loss. If other stars possess extrasolar analogues to the Solar Oort cloud, the orbits of comets in such clouds will be scrambled by white dwarf natal kicks. Although most comets will be unbound, some will be placed on low angular momentum orbits vulnerable to sublimation or tidal disruption. The dusty debris from these comets will manifest itself as an IR excess temporarily visible around newborn white dwarfs; examples of such discs may already have been seen in the Helix Nebula, and around several other young white dwarfs. Future observations with the James Webb Space Telescope may distinguish this hypothesis from alternatives such as a dynamically excited Kuiper Belt analogue. Although competing hypotheses exist, the observation that ≳15 per cent of young white dwarfs possess such discs, if interpreted as indeed being cometary in origin, provides indirect evidence that low-mass gas giants (thought necessary to produce an Oort cloud) are common in the outer regions of extrasolar planetary systems. Hydrogen abundances in the atmospheres of older white dwarfs can, if sufficiently low, also be used to place constraints on the joint parameter space of natal kicks and exo-Oort cloud models.

  14. Chandra Observations of Magnetic White Dwarfs and their Theoretical Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Noble, M.; Porter, J. G.; Winget, D. E.

    2003-01-01

    Observations of cool DA and DB white dwarfs have not yet been successful in detecting coronal X-ray emission, but observations of late-type dwarfs and giants show that coronae are common for these stars. To produce coronal X-rays, a star must have dynamo-generated surface magnetic fields and a well-developed convection zone. There is some observational evidence that the DA star LHS 1038 and the DB star GD 358 have weak and variable surface magnetic fields. It has been suggested that such fields can be generated by dynamo action, and since both stars have well-developed convection zones, theory predicts detectable levels of coronal X-rays from these white dwarfs. However, we present analysis of Chandra observations of both stars showing no detectable X-ray emission. The derived upper limits for the X-ray fluxes provide strong constraints on theories of formation of coronae around magnetic white dwarfs. Another important implication of our negative Chandra observations is the possibility that the magnetic fields of LHS 1038 and GD 358 are fossil fields.

  15. A Search for Fine Wines: Discovering Close Red Dwarf-White Dwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Mark; Finch, C. T.; Hambly, N. C.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.; Riedel, A. R.; Subasavage, J. P.; Winters, J. G.; RECONS

    2012-01-01

    Like fine wines, stars come in both red and white varieties. Here we present initial results of the Fine Wines Project that targets red dwarf-white dwarf pairs. The two scientific goals of Fine Wines are (1) to develop methods to estimate ages for red dwarfs based on the cooling ages of the white dwarfs, and (2) to identify suitable pairs for dynamical mass determinations of white dwarfs to probe their interior structures. Here we focus on the search for Fine Wines, including sample selection, elimination of false positives, and initial reconnaissance. The sample was extracted via color-color plots from a pool of more than 30,000 proper motion systems examined during the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) and UCAC3 Proper Motion (UPM) surveys. The initial sample of 75 best candidates is being observed for BVRI photometry and 3500-9500 A spectroscopy to confirm whether or not the systems are red dwarf-white dwarf pairs. Early results indicate that roughly 50% of the candidates selected are indeed Fine Wine systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grant AST 09-08402 and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  16. QUIESCENT NUCLEAR BURNING IN LOW-METALLICITY WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Althaus, Leandro G.

    2013-09-20

    We discuss the impact of residual nuclear burning in the cooling sequences of hydrogen-rich (DA) white dwarfs with very low metallicity progenitors (Z = 0.0001). These cooling sequences are appropriate for the study of very old stellar populations. The results presented here are the product of self-consistent, fully evolutionary calculations. Specifically, we follow the evolution of white dwarf progenitors from the zero-age main sequence through all the evolutionary phases, namely the core hydrogen-burning phase, the helium-burning phase, and the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase to the white dwarf stage. This is done for the most relevant range of main-sequence masses, covering the most usual interval of white dwarf masses—from 0.53 M {sub ☉} to 0.83 M {sub ☉}. Due to the low metallicity of the progenitor stars, white dwarfs are born with thicker hydrogen envelopes, leading to more intense hydrogen burning shells as compared with their solar metallicity counterparts. We study the phase in which nuclear reactions are still important and find that nuclear energy sources play a key role during long periods of time, considerably increasing the cooling times from those predicted by standard white dwarf models. In particular, we find that for this metallicity and for white dwarf masses smaller than about 0.6 M {sub ☉}, nuclear reactions are the main contributor to the stellar luminosity for luminosities as low as log (L/L {sub ☉}) ≅ –3.2. This, in turn, should have a noticeable impact in the white dwarf luminosity function of low-metallicity stellar populations.

  17. Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Kepler, S. O.; García-Berro, E.

    2014-08-01

    Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (μν) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pi dot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pi dot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of μν lesssim 10-11 μB. This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound.

  18. Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations

    SciTech Connect

    Córsico, A.H.; Althaus, L.G.; García-Berro, E. E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar E-mail: kepler@if.ufrgs.br

    2014-08-01

    Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (μ{sub ν}) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pidot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pidot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of μ{sub ν} ∼< 10{sup -11} μ{sub B}. This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound.

  19. Interpretations for Low- and High-Frequency QPO Correlations of X-Ray Sources among White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. M.; Yin, H. X.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2007-04-01

    An empirical linear relation is found to exist between the high and low frequencies (νhigh, νlow) of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) for black hole candidates (BHCs), neutron stars (NSs), and white dwarfs (WDs) in binary systems, spanning 5 orders of magnitude in frequency. For the NS Z (atoll) sources, νhigh and νlow are identified as the lower kHz QPO frequency and horizontal-branch oscillation (HBO) frequency νHBO (broad noise components); for the BHCs and low-luminosity NSs, they are the QPOs and broad noise components at frequencies between 1 and 10 Hz; for WDs, they are the ``dwarf nova oscillations'' (DNOs) and QPOs of cataclysmic variables (CVs). To interpret this relation, our model ascribes νhigh to the Alfvén wave oscillation frequency at a preferred radius, and νlow to the same mechanism at another radius. We can then obtain νlow=0.08νhigh and the relation between the upper kHz QPO frequency ν2 and the HBO frequency, νHBO~=(56 Hz)(ν2/kHz)2, which are in accordance with the observed empirical relations. Furthermore, some implications of the model are discussed, including why QPO frequencies of WDs and NSs span 5 orders of magnitude.

  20. Observational Constraints on the White Dwarf Mass-Radius Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Saurav; Oswalt, Terry D.; Holberg, J. B.; Zhao, Jingkun

    2014-08-01

    We propose to measure gravitational redshifts for white dwarf stars that have distant, non-interacting main-sequence companions. With independent radius constraints obtained from parallaxes and surface gravity determinations obtained by fitting the Balmer series from our spectra, we will make improved estimates of white dwarf masses and radii that can be critically compared with theoretical mass-radius relations specific to each star. These observations will allow us to examine serious discrepancies between the theoretical and empirical measurements of the white dwarf mass-radius relation and extend the range of masses over which it has been tested, spanning 0.5-1.2 Msun. Currently, the measured radius for only a single WD matches its predicted value within 5%. With the expected precision of ≲5% for over half the sample, we will also distinguish whether the white dwarfs have ``thick'' or ``thin'' H envelopes. Using the same spectra, we will also estimate the metallicity of the main-sequence companion and examine how the initial-final-mass ratio for WDs depends on metallicity. Thus, this project will put robust constraints on two fundamental relations that govern our understanding of white dwarfs: the mass-ratio and the initial-final-mass relations.

  1. THE SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF CONVECTIVE MIXING WHITE DWARFS, THE NON-DA GAP, AND WHITE DWARF COSMOCHRONOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Eugene Y.; Hansen, Brad M. S. E-mail: hansen@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-07-01

    The spectral distribution of field white dwarfs shows a feature called the 'non-DA gap'. As defined by Bergeron et al., this is a temperature range (5100-6100 K) where relatively few non-DA stars are found, even though such stars are abundant on either side of the gap. It is usually viewed as an indication that a significant fraction of white dwarfs switch their atmospheric compositions back and forth between hydrogen-rich and helium-rich as they cool. In this Letter, we present a Monte Carlo model of the Galactic disk white dwarf population, based on the spectral evolution model of Chen and Hansen. We find that the non-DA gap emerges naturally, even though our model only allows white dwarf atmospheres to evolve monotonically from hydrogen-rich to helium-rich through convective mixing. We conclude by discussing the effects of convective mixing on the white dwarf luminosity function and the use thereof for Cosmochronology.

  2. Ultraviolet and visual spectroscopy of DB white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, G.; Nelan, E. P.

    1987-01-01

    Visual wavelength and ultraviolet spectroscopy and model atmospheres of DB white dwarfs are reported. The results yield no evidence for lines of C or any other element besides H or He in the spectra. Upper limits for carbon are in the range C:He less than 10 to the -5th to the -7th for the ultraviolet data and C:He less than 0.01-0.001 for the visual. The upper limits are consistent with the convective dredging theory for the origin of the atmospheric carbon observed in the cooler DQ members of the helium-rich white dwarf sequence. Additional new DBA stars are reported.

  3. TIDAL NOVAE IN COMPACT BINARY WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, Jim; Lai Dong

    2012-09-01

    Compact binary white dwarfs (WDs) undergoing orbital decay due to gravitational radiation can experience significant tidal heating prior to merger. In these WDs, the dominant tidal effect involves the excitation of outgoing gravity waves in the inner stellar envelope and the dissipation of these waves in the outer envelope. As the binary orbit decays, the WDs are synchronized from outside in (with the envelope synchronized first, followed by the core). We examine the deposition of tidal heat in the envelope of a carbon-oxygen WD and study how such tidal heating affects the structure and evolution of the WD. We show that significant tidal heating can occur in the star's degenerate hydrogen layer. This layer heats up faster than it cools, triggering runaway nuclear fusion. Such 'tidal novae' may occur in all WD binaries containing a CO WD, at orbital periods between 5 minutes and 20 minutes, and precede the final merger by 10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} years.

  4. Complexity and white-dwarf structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sañudo, J.; Pacheco, A. F.

    2009-02-01

    From the low-mass non-relativistic case to the extreme relativistic limit, the density profile of a white dwarf is used to evaluate the C complexity measure [R. López-Ruiz, H.L. Mancini, X. Calbet, Phys. Lett. A 209 (1995) 321]. Similarly to the recently reported atomic case where, by averaging shell effects, complexity grows with the atomic number [C.P. Panos, K.Ch. Chatzisavvas, Ch.C. Moustakidis, E.G. Kyrkou, Phys. Lett. A 363 (2007) 78; A. Borgoo, F. De Proft, P. Geerlings, K.D. Sen, Chem. Phys. Lett. 444 (2007) 186; J. Sañudo, R. López-Ruiz, Int. Rev. Phys. 2 (2008) 223], here complexity grows as a function of the star mass reaching a maximum finite value in the Chandrasekhar limit.

  5. The frequency of planetary debris around young white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, D.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Farihi, J.

    2014-06-01

    Context. Heavy metals in the atmospheres of white dwarfs are thought in many cases to be accreted from a circumstellar debris disk, which was formed by the tidal disruption of a rocky planetary body within the Roche radius of the star. The abundance analysis of photospheric elements and conclusions about the chemical composition of the accreted matter are a new and promising method of studying the composition of extrasolar planetary systems. However, ground-based searches for metal-polluted white dwarfs that rely primarily on the detection of the Ca ii K line become insensitive at Teff > 15 000 K because this ionization state depopulates. Aims: We present the results of the first unbiased survey for metal pollution among hydrogen-atmosphere (DA type) white dwarfs with cooling ages in the range 20-200 Myr and 17 000 K white dwarfs studied, or 56% show traces of heavy elements. In 25 stars (showing only Si and occasionally C), the elements can be explained by radiative levitation alone, although we argue that accretion has very likely occurred recently. The remaining 23 white dwarfs (27%), however, must be currently accreting. Together with previous studies from the ground and adopting bulk Earth abundances for the debris, accretion rates range from a few 105 g s-1 to a few 108 g s-1, with no evident trend in cooling age from ≈40 Myr to ≈2 Gyr. Only a single, modest case of metal pollution (Ṁ < 106 g s-1) is found among ten white dwarfs with Teff > 23 000 K, in excellent agreement

  6. Detection of a white dwarf in a visual binary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1992-01-01

    The F6 giant HD 160365 was detected to have a white dwarf companion about 8 arcsec south of the star. The UV energy distribution observed with IUE shows that the white dwarf has an effective temperature of 23,000 +/- 2000 K. If log g = 8 the Lya profile indicates an effective temperature around 24,500 K. Using the theoretical models by Wesemael et al. (1980) one finds a visual magnitude of m(V) about 16.5. For T(eff) = 24,500 K one expects for a white dwarf a luminosity of log L/L(solar) about 1.3 and M(V) about 10.67. This gives a distance modulus for the system of m(V) - M(V) = 5.83 and an absolute magnitude M(V)= 0.3 for the giant.

  7. Detection of a white dwarf in a visual binary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1980-01-01

    The F6 giant HD 160365 was detected to have a white dwarf companion about 8 arcsec south of the star. The UV energy distribution observed with International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) shows that the white dwarf has an effective temperature of 23,000 +/- 2,000 K. If log g = 8 the Ly(alpha) profile indicates an effective temperature around 24,500 K. Using the theoretical models, one finds a visual magnitude of m(sub v) is approximately 16.5. For T(sub eff) = 24,500 K one expects for a white dwarf a luminosity of log L/solar luminosity is approximately -1.3 and M(sub V) is approximately 10.67. This gives a distance modulus for the system of m(sub v) - M(sub V) = 5.83 and an absolute magnitude M(sub v) = 0.3 for the giant.

  8. White dwarf models for type 1 supernovae and quiet supernovae, and presupernova evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nomoto, K.

    1980-01-01

    Supernova mechanisms in accreting white dwarfs are considered with emphasis on deflagration as a plausible mechanism for producing Type I supernovae and electron captures to form quiet supernovae leaving neutron stars. These outcomes depend on accretion rate of helium, initial mass and composition of the white dwarf. The various types of hydrogen shell burning in the presupernova stage are also discussed.

  9. Ultraviolet carbon lines in the spectrum of the white dwarf BPM 11668

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, G.

    1983-01-01

    The southern hemisphere DC white dwarf BPM 11668 has been found to show strong ultraviolet lines of neutral carbon using observations from the IUE satellite. This star seems typical of the growing number of DC white dwarfs found to be of this type and appears to have a carbon abundance near C:He = 0.0001, with an effective temperature of 8500 K.

  10. High-speed Photometric Observations of ZZ Ceti White Dwarf Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, E. M.; Limoges, M.-M.; Gianninas, A.; Bergeron, P.; Fontaine, G.; Dufour, P.; O'Malley, C. J.; Guvenen, B.; Biddle, L. I.; Pearson, K.; Deyoe, T. W.; Bullivant, C. W.; Hermes, J. J.; Van Grootel, V.; Grosjean, M.

    2015-06-01

    We present high-speed photometric observations of ZZ Ceti white dwarf candidates drawn from the spectroscopic survey of bright DA stars from the Villanova White Dwarf Catalog by Gianninas et al., and from the recent spectroscopic survey of white dwarfs within 40 parsecs of the Sun by Limoges et al. We report the discovery of six new ZZ Ceti pulsators from these surveys, and several photometrically constant DA white dwarfs, which we then use to refine the location of the ZZ Ceti instability strip.

  11. Merging white dwarfs and thermonuclear supernovae.

    PubMed

    van Kerkwijk, M H

    2013-06-13

    Thermonuclear supernovae result when interaction with a companion reignites nuclear fusion in a carbon-oxygen white dwarf, causing a thermonuclear runaway, a catastrophic gain in pressure and the disintegration of the whole white dwarf. It is usually thought that fusion is reignited in near-pycnonuclear conditions when the white dwarf approaches the Chandrasekhar mass. I briefly describe two long-standing problems faced by this scenario, and the suggestion that these supernovae instead result from mergers of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, including those that produce sub-Chandrasekhar-mass remnants. I then turn to possible observational tests, in particular, those that test the absence or presence of electron captures during the burning. PMID:23630372

  12. The origin of low-mass white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Schreiber, M. R.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Girven, J.; Gomez-Moran, A. Nebot

    2010-11-23

    We present white dwarf mass distributions of a large sample of post common-envelope binaries and wide white dwarf main sequence binaries and demonstrate that these distributions are statistically independent. While the former contains a much larger fraction of low-mass white dwarfs, the latter is similar to single white dwarf mass distributions. Taking into account observational biases we also show that the majority of low-mass white dwarfs are formed in close binaries.

  13. Massive double white dwarfs and the AM CVn birthrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Heinke, Craig O.; Gianninas, A.; Benni, P.; Agüeros, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    We present Chandra and Swift X-ray observations of four extremely low-mass (ELM) white dwarfs with massive companions. We place stringent limits on X-ray emission from all four systems, indicating that neutron star companions are extremely unlikely and that the companions are almost certainly white dwarfs. Given the observed orbital periods and radial velocity amplitudes, the total masses of these binaries are greater than 1.02-1.39 M⊙. The extreme mass ratios between the two components make it unlikely that these binary white dwarfs will merge and explode as Type Ia or underluminous supernovae. Instead, they will likely go through stable mass transfer through an accretion disc and turn into interacting AM CVn. Along with three previously known systems, we identify two of our targets, J0811 and J2132, as systems that will definitely undergo stable mass transfer. In addition, we use the binary white dwarf sample from the ELM Survey to constrain the inspiral rate of systems with extreme mass ratios. This rate, 1.7 × 10-4 yr-1, is consistent with the AM CVn space density estimated from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Hence, stable mass transfer double white dwarf progenitors can account for the entire AM CVn population in the Galaxy.

  14. Accretion Flows in Magnetic White Dwarf Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imamura, James N.

    2005-01-01

    We received Type A and B funding under the NASA Astrophysics Data Program for the analysis and interpretation of hard x-ray data obtained by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and other NASA sponsored missions for Intermediate Polars (IPS) and Polars. For some targets, optical data was available. We reduced and analyzed the X-ray spectra and the X-ray and optical (obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory) timing data using detailed shock models (which we constructed) to place constraints on the properties of the accreting white dwarfs, the high energy emission mechanisms of white dwarfs, and the large-scale accretion flows of Polars and IPS. IPS and Polars are white dwarf mass-transfer binaries, members of the larger class of cata,clysmic variables. They differ from the bulk of the cataclysmic variables in that they contain strongly magnetic white dwarfs; the white dwarfs in Polars have B, = 7 to 230 MG and those in IPS have B, less than 10 MG. The IPS and Polars are both examples of funneled accretion flows in strong magnetic field systems. The IPS are similar to x-ray pulsars in that accretion disks form in the systems which are disrupted by the strong stellar magnetic fields of the white dwarfs near the stellar surface from where the plasma is funneled to the surface of the white dwarf. The localized hot spots formed at the footpoints of the funnels coupled with the rotation of the white dwarf leads to coherent pulsed x-ray emission. The Polars offer an example of a different accretion topology; the magnetic field of the white dwarf controls the accretion flow from near the inner Lagrangian point of the system directly to the stellar surface. Accretion disks do not form. The strong magnetic coupling generally leads to synchronous orbital/rotational motion in the Polars. The physical system in this sense resembles the Io/Jupiter system. In both IPS and Polars, pulsed emission from the infrared to x-rays is produced as the funneled flows merge onto the

  15. Revisiting the luminosity function of single halo white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cojocaru, Ruxandra; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G.; Isern, Jordi; García-Berro, Enrique

    2015-09-01

    Context. White dwarfs are the fossils left by the evolution of low- and intermediate-mass stars, and have very long evolutionary timescales. This allows us to use them to explore the properties of old populations, like the Galactic halo. Aims: We present a population synthesis study of the luminosity function of halo white dwarfs, aimed at investigating which information can be derived from the currently available observed data. Methods: We employ an up-to-date population synthesis code based on Monte Carlo techniques, which incorporates the most recent and reliable cooling sequences for metal-poor progenitors as well as an accurate modeling of the observational biases. Results: We find that because the observed sample of halo white dwarfs is restricted to the brightest stars, only the hot branch of the white dwarf luminosity function can be used for these purposes, and that its shape function is almost insensitive to the most relevant inputs, such as the adopted cooling sequences, the initial mass function, the density profile of the stellar spheroid, or the adopted fraction of unresolved binaries. Moreover, since the cutoff of the observed luminosity has not yet been determined only the lower limits to the age of the halo population can be placed. Conclusions: We conclude that the current observed sample of the halo white dwarf population is still too small to obtain definite conclusions about the properties of the stellar halo, and the recently computed white dwarf cooling sequences, which incorporate residual hydrogen burning, should be assessed using metal-poor globular clusters.

  16. TWO NEW TIDALLY DISTORTED WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Winget, D. E.; Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.

    2012-04-10

    We identify two new tidally distorted white dwarfs (WDs), SDSS J174140.49+652638.7 and J211921.96-001825.8 (hereafter J1741 and J2119). Both stars are extremely low mass (ELM, {<=} 0.2 M{sub Sun }) WDs in short-period, detached binary systems. High-speed photometric observations obtained at the McDonald Observatory reveal ellipsoidal variations and Doppler beaming in both systems; J1741, with a minimum companion mass of 1.1 M{sub Sun }, has one of the strongest Doppler beaming signals ever observed in a binary system (0.59% {+-} 0.06% amplitude). We use the observed ellipsoidal variations to constrain the radius of each WD. For J1741, the star's radius must exceed 0.074 R{sub Sun }. For J2119, the radius exceeds 0.10 R{sub Sun }. These indirect radius measurements are comparable to the radius measurements for the bloated WD companions to A-stars found by the Kepler spacecraft, and they constitute some of the largest radii inferred for any WD. Surprisingly, J1741 also appears to show a 0.23% {+-} 0.06% reflection effect, and we discuss possible sources for this excess heating. Both J1741 and J2119 are strong gravitational wave sources, and the time-of-minimum of the ellipsoidal variations can be used to detect the orbital period decay. This may be possible on a timescale of a decade or less.

  17. DISCOVERY OF AN ULTRAMASSIVE PULSATING WHITE DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Hermes, J. J.; Castanheira, Barbara G.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Harrold, Samuel T.; Kepler, S. O.; Gianninas, A.; Brown, Warren R.

    2013-07-01

    We announce the discovery of the most massive pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf (WD) ever discovered, GD 518. Model atmosphere fits to the optical spectrum of this star show it is a 12, 030 {+-} 210 K WD with a log g =9.08 {+-} 0.06, which corresponds to a mass of 1.20 {+-} 0.03 M{sub Sun }. Stellar evolution models indicate that the progenitor of such a high-mass WD endured a stable carbon-burning phase, producing an oxygen-neon-core WD. The discovery of pulsations in GD 518 thus offers the first opportunity to probe the interior of a WD with a possible oxygen-neon core. Such a massive WD should also be significantly crystallized at this temperature. The star exhibits multi-periodic luminosity variations at timescales ranging from roughly 425 to 595 s and amplitudes up to 0.7%, consistent in period and amplitude with the observed variability of typical ZZ Ceti stars, which exhibit non-radial g-mode pulsations driven by a hydrogen partial ionization zone. Successfully unraveling both the total mass and core composition of GD 518 provides a unique opportunity to investigate intermediate-mass stellar evolution, and can possibly place an upper limit to the mass of a carbon-oxygen-core WD, which in turn constrains Type Ia supernovae progenitor systems.

  18. Time evolution of high-energy emissions of low-mass stars. I. Age determination using stellar chronology with white dwarfs in wide binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, A.; Catalán, S.; Ribas, I.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Stellar ages are extremely difficult to determine and often subject to large uncertainties, especially for field low-mass stars. We plan to carry out a calibration of the decrease in high-energy emissions of low-mass GKM stars with time, and therefore precise age determination is a key ingredient. The overall goal of our research is to study the time evolution of these high-energy emissions as an essential input to studying exoplanetary atmospheres. Aims: We propose to determine stellar ages with a methodology based on wide binaries. We are interested in systems composed of a low-mass star and a white dwarf (WD), where the latter serves as a stellar chronometer for the system. We aim at obtaining reliable ages for a sample of late-type stars older than 1 Gyr. Methods: We selected a sample of wide binaries composed by a DA type WD and a GKM companion. High signal-to-noise, low-resolution spectroscopic observations were obtained for most of the WD members of the sample. Atmospheric parameters were determined by fitting the spectroscopic data to appropiate WD models. The total ages of the systems were derived by using cooling sequences, an initial-final mass relationship and evolutionary tracks, to account for the progenitor life. Results: The spectroscopic observations have allowed us to determine ages for the binary systems using WDs as cosmochronometers. We obtained reliable ages for 27 stars between 1 and 5 Gyr, which is a range where age determination becomes difficult for field objects. Roughly half of these systems have cooling ages that contribute at least 30% the total age. We select those for further study since their age estimate should be less prone to systematic errors coming from the initial-final mass relationship. Conclusions: We have determined robust ages for a sizeable sample of GKM stars that can be subsequently used to study the time evolution of their emissions associated to stellar magnetic activity. Based on observations collected at

  19. A coronagraphic search for brown dwarfs around nearby stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakajima, T.; Durrance, S. T.; Golimowski, D. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    1994-01-01

    Brown dwarf companions have been searched for around stars within 10 pc of the Sun using the Johns-Hopkins University Adaptive Optics Coronagraph (AOC), a stellar coronagraph with an image stabilizer. The AOC covers the field around the target star with a minimum search radius of 1 sec .5 and a field of view of 1 arcmin sq. We have reached an unprecedented dynamic range of Delta m = 13 in our search for faint companions at I band. Comparison of our survey with other brown dwarf searches shows that the AOC technique is unique in its dynamic range while at the same time just as sensitive to brown dwarfs as the recent brown dwarf surveys. The present survey covered 24 target stars selected from the Gliese catalog. A total of 94 stars were detected in 16 fields. The low-latitude fields are completely dominated by background star contamination. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were carried out for a sample restricted to high latitudes and a sample with small angular separations. The high-latitude sample (b greater than or equal to 44 deg) appears to show spatial concentration toward target stars. The small separation sample (Delta Theta less than 20 sec) shows weaker dependence on Galactic coordinates than field stars. These statistical tests suggest that both the high-latitude sample and the small separation sample can include a substantial fraction of true companions. However, the nature of these putative companions is mysterious. They are too faint to be white dwarfs and too blue for brown dwarfs. Ignoring the signif icance of the statistical tests, we can reconcile most of the detections with distant main-sequence stars or white dwarfs except for a candidate next to GL 475. Given the small size of our sample, we conclude that considerably more targets need to be surveyed before a firm conclusion on the possibility of a new class of companions can be made.

  20. Nonlinear Analysis of Pulsating White Dwarf Lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, J. L.; Montgomery, M. H.; Shipman, H.; WET TEam

    2015-06-01

    Convection remains one of the largest sources of theoretical uncertainty in our understanding of stellar physics. For example, Bergeron (1995) show that basic parameters such as flux, line profiles, energy distribution, color indices, and equivalent widths are extremely sensitive to the assumed convective parameterization. This is compelling, since we use our knowledge of these basic parameters to calibrate white dwarf cooling sequences, provide detailed estimates for the ages of individual white dwarfs, and determine the age of the Galactic disk. The Whole Earth Telescope (WET) is engaged in a long term project to empirically calibrate the physical properties of convection in pulsating white dwarfs by combining asteroseismology and analysis of nonlinear light curves. Nonsinusoidal distortions, in the form of narrow peaks and wider valleys, are observed in many pulsating white dwarf light curves. These are a reflection of the local depth of the convection zone, a value which varies during a pulsation cycle. Applying asteroseismology and convective light curve fitting to a wide sample of pulsating white dwarfs provides an empirical map of how the convective response time (the convection zone “depth”) varies as a function of effective temperature, and this can be compared with theoretical models, both MLT and hydrodynamic. This project has resulted in a large database of white dwarf lightcurves and pulsation frequencies. We present current results for DA and DB pulsators, and provide a few examples of interesting pulsation behavior seen along the way.

  1. GRMHD formulation of highly super-Chandrasekhar rotating magnetized white dwarfs: stable configurations of non-spherical white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, Sathyawageeswar; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2015-11-01

    Here we extend the exploration of significantly super-Chandrasekhar magnetized white dwarfs by numerically computing axisymmetric stationary equilibria of differentially rotating magnetized polytropic compact stars in general relativity (GR), within the ideal magnetohydrodynamic regime. We use a general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) framework that describes rotating and magnetized axisymmetric white dwarfs, choosing appropriate rotation laws and magnetic field profiles (toroidal and poloidal). The numerical procedure for finding solutions in this framework uses the 3 + 1 formalism of numerical relativity, implemented in the open source XNS code. We construct equilibrium sequences by varying different physical quantities in turn, and highlight the plausible existence of super-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs, with masses in the range of 2-3 solar mass, with central (deep interior) magnetic fields of the order of 1014 G and differential rotation with surface time periods of about 1-10 s. We note that such white dwarfs are candidates for the progenitors of peculiar, overluminous Type Ia supernovae, to which observational evidence ascribes mass in the range 2.1-2.8 solar mass. We also present some interesting results related to the structure of such white dwarfs, especially the existence of polar hollows in special cases.

  2. HELIUM CORE WHITE DWARFS IN CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Ken J.; Bildsten, Lars; Idan, Irit

    2009-11-01

    Binary evolution predicts a population of helium core (M < 0.5 M{sub sun}) white dwarfs (WDs) that are slowly accreting hydrogen-rich material from low-mass main-sequence or brown dwarf donors with orbital periods less than 4 hr. Four binaries are presently known in the Milky Way that will reach such a mass-transferring state in a few Gyr. Despite these predictions and observations of progenitor binaries, there are still no secure cases of helium core WDs among the mass-transferring cataclysmic variables. This led us to calculate the fate of He WDs once accretion begins at a rate M-dot<10{sup -10}M-odot yr{sup -1} set by angular momentum losses. We show here that the cold He core temperatures (T{sub c} < 10{sup 7} K) and low M-dot thermonuclear runaway. Shara and collaborators noted that these large accumulated masses may lead to exceptionally long classical nova (CN) events. For a typical donor star of 0.2 M{sub sun}, such binaries will only yield a few hundred CNe, making these events rare among all CNe. We calculate the reheating of the accreting WD, allowing a comparison to the measured WD effective temperatures in quiescent dwarf novae and raising the possibility that WD seismology may be the best way to confirm the presence of a He WD. We also find that a very long (>1000 yr) stable burning phase occurs after the CN outburst, potentially explaining enigmatic short orbital period supersoft sources like RX J0537-7034 (P{sub orb} = 3.5 hr) and 1E 0035.4-7230 (P{sub orb} = 4.1 hr).

  3. Chandra Grating Spectroscopy of Three Hot White Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczak, J.; Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Schuh, S.; Drake, J. J.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopic observations of single hot white dwarfs are scarce. With the Chandra Low-Energy Transmission Grating, we have observed two white dwarfs, one is of spectral type DA (LB1919) and the other is a non-DA of spectral type PG1159 (PG1520+525). The spectra of both stars are analyzed, together with an archival Chandra spectrum of another DA white dwarf (GD246). Aims. The soft X-ray spectra of the two DA white dwarfs are investigated in order to study the effect of gravitational settling and radiative levitation of metals in their photospheres. LB1919 is of interest because it has a significantly lower metallicity than DAs with otherwise similar atmospheric parameters. GD246 is the only white dwarf known that shows identifiable individual iron lines in the soft X-ray range. For the PG1159 star, a precise effective temperature determination is performed in order to confine the position of the blue edge of the GW Vir instability region in the HRD. Methods. The Chandra spectra are analyzed with chemically homogeneous as well as stratified NLTE model atmospheres that assume equilibrium between gravitational settling and radiative acceleration of chemical elements. Archival EUV and UV spectra obtained with EUVE, FUSE, and HST are utilized to support the analysis. Results. No metals could be identified in LB1919. All observations are compatible with a pure hydrogen atmosphere. This is in stark contrast to the vast majority of hot DA white dwarfs that exhibit light and heavy metals and to the stratified models that predict significant metal abundances in the atmosphere. For GD246 we find that neither stratified nor homogeneous models can fit the Chandra spectrum. The Chandra spectrum of PG1520+525 constrains the effective temperature to T(sub eff) = 150 000 +/- 10 000 K. Therefore, this nonpulsating star together with the pulsating prototype of the GWVir class (PG1159-035) defines the location of the blue edge of the GWVir instability region

  4. Chandra grating spectroscopy of three hot white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczak, J.; Werner, K.; Rauch, T.; Schuh, S.; Drake, J. J.; Kruk, J. W.

    2012-10-01

    Context. High-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopic observations of single hot white dwarfs are scarce. With the Chandra Low-Energy Transmission Grating, we have observed two white dwarfs, one is of spectral type DA (LB 1919) and the other is a non-DA of spectral type PG 1159 (PG 1520+525). The spectra of both stars are analyzed, together with an archival Chandra spectrum of another DA white dwarf (GD 246). Aims: The soft X-ray spectra of the two DA white dwarfs are investigated in order to study the effect of gravitational settling and radiative levitation of metals in their photospheres. LB 1919 is of interest because it has a significantly lower metallicity than DAs with otherwise similar atmospheric parameters. GD 246 is the only white dwarf known that shows identifiable individual iron lines in the soft X-ray range. For the PG 1159 star, a precise effective temperature determination is performed in order to confine the position of the blue edge of the GW Vir instability region in the HRD. Methods: The Chandra spectra are analyzed with chemically homogeneous as well as stratified NLTE model atmospheres that assume equilibrium between gravitational settling and radiative acceleration of chemical elements. Archival EUV and UV spectra obtained with EUVE, FUSE, and HST are utilized to support the analysis. Results: No metals could be identified in LB 1919. All observations are compatible with a pure hydrogen atmosphere. This is in stark contrast to the vast majority of hot DA white dwarfs that exhibit light and heavy metals and to the stratified models that predict significant metal abundances in the atmosphere. For GD 246 we find that neither stratified nor homogeneous models can fit the Chandra spectrum. The Chandra spectrum of PG 1520+525 constrains the effective temperature to Teff = 150 000 ± 10 000 K. Therefore, this nonpulsating star together with the pulsating prototype of the GW Vir class (PG 1159 - 035) defines the location of the blue edge of the GW Vir

  5. Observational Constraints on the White Dwarf Mass--Radius Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswalt, Terry D.; Dhital, Saurav; Mizusawa, Trisha; Holberg, Jay B.; Zhao, Jingkun

    2014-02-01

    We propose to measure gravitational redshifts for white dwarf stars that have distant, non-interacting main-sequence companions. With independent radius constraints obtained from parallaxes and surface gravity determinations obtained by fitting the Balmer series from our spectra, we will make improved estimates of white dwarf masses and radii that can be critically compared with theoretical mass-radius relations specific to each star. These observations will allow us to examine serious discrepancies between the theoretical and empirical measurements of the white dwarf mass-radius relation and extend the range of masses over which it has been tested, spanning 0.5-1.2 Msun. Currently, the measured radius for only a single WD matches its predicted value. Using the same spectra, we will also estimate the metallicity of the main-sequence companion and examine how the initial-final-mass ratio for WDs depends on metallicity. Thus, this project will put robust constraints on two fundamental relations that govern our understanding of white dwarfs: the mass-ratio and the initial-final-mass relations.

  6. First Detection of Krypton and Xenon in a White Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Ringat, Ellen; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the first detection of the noble gases krypton (Z = 36) and xenon (54) in a white dwarf. About 20 KrVI-VII and Xe VI-VII lines were discovered in the ultraviolet spectrum of the hot DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289. The observations, performed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, also reveal highly ionized photospheric lines from other trans-iron group elements, namely Ga (31), Ge (32), As (33), Se (34), Mo (42), Sn (50), Te (52), and I (53), from which gallium and molybdenum are new discoveries in white dwarfs, too. For Kr and Xe, we performed an NLTE analysis and derived mass fractions of log Kr = -4.3 plus or minus 0.5 and log Xe = -4.2 plus or minus 0.6, corresponding to an enrichment by factors of 450 and 3800, respectively, relative to the Sun. The origin of the large overabundances is unclear. We discuss the roles of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the-precursor star and radiation-driven diffusion. It is possible that diffusion is insignificant and thaI the observed metal abundances constrain the evolutionary history of the star. Its hydrogen deficiency may be the consequence of a late helium-shell nash or a binary white dwarf merger.

  7. FIRST DETECTION OF KRYPTON AND XENON IN A WHITE DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, Klaus; Rauch, Thomas; Ringat, Ellen; Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-07-01

    We report on the first detection of the noble gases krypton (Z = 36) and xenon (54) in a white dwarf. About 20 Kr VI- VII and Xe VI- VII lines were discovered in the ultraviolet spectrum of the hot DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289. The observations, performed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, also reveal highly ionized photospheric lines from other trans-iron group elements, namely Ga (31), Ge (32), As (33), Se (34), Mo (42), Sn (50), Te (52), and I (53), from which gallium and molybdenum are new discoveries in white dwarfs, too. For Kr and Xe, we performed an NLTE analysis and derived mass fractions of log Kr = -4.3 {+-} 0.5 and log Xe = -4.2 {+-} 0.6, corresponding to an enrichment by factors of 450 and 3800, respectively, relative to the Sun. The origin of the large overabundances is unclear. We discuss the roles of neutron-capture nucleosynthesis in the precursor star and radiation-driven diffusion. It is possible that diffusion is insignificant and that the observed metal abundances constrain the evolutionary history of the star. Its hydrogen deficiency may be the consequence of a late helium-shell flash or a binary white dwarf merger.

  8. Critical mass of bacterial populations in a generalized Keller Segel model. Analogy with the Chandrasekhar limiting mass of white dwarf stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri; Sire, Clément

    2008-03-01

    We point out a remarkable analogy between the limiting mass of relativistic white dwarf stars (Chandrasekhar’s limit) and the critical mass of bacterial populations in a generalized Keller Segel model of chemotaxis [P.H. Chavanis, C. Sire, Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 016116]. This model is based on generalized stochastic processes leading to the Tsallis statistics. The equilibrium states correspond to polytropic configurations similar to gaseous polytropes in astrophysics. For the critical index n3=d/(d-2) (where d≥2 is the dimension of space), the theory of polytropes leads to a unique value of the mass M that we interpret as a limiting mass. In d=3, we find M=202.8956… and in d=2, we recover the well-known result M=8π (in suitable units). For MM, the system collapses and forms a Dirac peak containing a mass M surrounded by a halo. This paper exposes the model and shows, by simple considerations, the origin of the critical mass. A detailed description of the critical dynamics of the generalized Keller Segel model will be given in a forthcoming paper.

  9. FIRST RESULTS FROM THE SWARMS SURVEY. SDSS 1257+5428: A NEARBY, MASSIVE WHITE DWARF BINARY WITH A LIKELY NEUTRON STAR OR BLACK HOLE COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Badenes, Carles; Mullally, Fergal; Lupton, Robert H.; Thompson, Susan E. E-mail: mullally@astro.princeton.ed E-mail: sthomp@physics.udel.ed

    2009-12-20

    We present the first results from the SWARMS survey, an ongoing project to identify compact white dwarf (WD) binaries in the spectroscopic catalog of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The first object identified by SWARMS, SDSS 1257+5428, is a single-lined spectroscopic binary in a circular orbit with a period of 4.56 hr and a semiamplitude of 322.7 +- 6.3 km s{sup -1}. From the spectrum and photometry, we estimate a WD mass of 0.92{sup +0.28}{sub -0.32} M{sub sun}. Together with the orbital parameters of the binary, this implies that the unseen companion must be more massive than 1.62{sup +0.20}{sub -0.25} M{sub sun}, and is in all likelihood either a neutron star or a black hole. At an estimated distance of 48{sup +10}{sub -19} pc, this would be the closest known stellar remnant of a supernova explosion.

  10. New light on dark stars. Red dwarfs, low-mass stars, brown dwarfs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, I. N.; Hawley, S. L.

    This book presents a comprehensive discussion of both the astrophysical structure of individual M dwarf and brown dwarf star, and their collective statistical properties as a Galactic stellar population. The first section of the book discusses M dwarfs and brown dwarfs as individual objects - their observational properties, formation, internal structure and atmospheres. The second section deals with M dwarfs from the Galactic perspective - the number of stars, their possible contribution to dark matter and the missing mass and their use as probes of the stellar populations that make up our Galaxy. Contents: (1) Astronomical concepts. (2) Basic observational properties of low-mass dwarfs. (3) The structure, formation and evolution of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. (4) The photosphere. (5) Stellar activity. (6) A Galactic structure primer. (7) The stellar luminosity function. (8) The mass function. (9) Brown dwarfs: new light on dark stars. (10) Extrasolar planets. (11) M dwarfs in the Galactic halo. Appendix: The 8 parsec sample.

  11. Measuring M Dwarf Winds with DAZ White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, John H.

    2006-11-01

    Hydrogen atmosphere white dwarfs with metal lines, so-called DAZs, show evidence for ongoing accretion of material onto their surfaces. Some DAZs are known to have unresolved M dwarf companions, which could account for the observed accretion through a stellar wind. I combine observed Ca abundances of the DAZs with information on the orbital separation of their M dwarf companions to infer the mass-loss rate of the M dwarfs. I find that for three of the six known DAZs with M dwarf companions, a stellar wind can plausibly explain the observed accretion on the white dwarfs assuming Bondi-Hoyle accretion of solar abundance stellar winds on the order of 10-14 to 10-16 Msolar yr-1. The rest of the sample have companions with orbits >~1 AU and require companion mass-loss rates of >10-11 Msolar yr-1. I conclude that there must be an alternative explanation for accretion of material onto DAZs with widely separated companions. The inferred winds for two of the close binaries are orders of magnitude smaller than typically assumed for the angular momentum loss of red dwarf-white dwarf pairs due to magnetic braking from a stellar wind and may seriously affect predictions for the formation rate of CVs with low-mass companions. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with program 10255.

  12. Absolute Proper Motions to B~22.5. IV. Faint, Low-Velocity White Dwarfs and the White Dwarf Population Density Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, S. R.; Siegel, M. H.

    2002-04-01

    The reduced proper-motion diagram (RPMD) for a complete sample of 819 faint (B<=22.5) stars with high-accuracy proper motions (σμ~1 mas yr-1) in an area of 0.3 deg2 in the north Galactic pole field SA 57 is investigated. Eight stars with very large reduced proper motions are identified as faint white dwarf candidates. On the basis of larger than 6 σ measured proper motions and the lack of photometric variability over a 20 yr baseline, we discriminate these white dwarf candidates from the several times more numerous quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), which can potentially occupy a similar location in the RPMD. For comparison, less than 4 σ proper motions and photometric variability are found in all but one of 35 spectroscopically confirmed QSOs in the same field. While spectroscopic confirmation of their status as white dwarfs is a necessary, but difficult, outstanding task, we discuss the implausibility that these stars could be any kind of survey contaminant. High-quality proper motions lend confidence in our ability to separate white dwarfs from subdwarfs in the RPMD. If bona fide white dwarfs, the eight candidates found here represent a portion of the white dwarf population that hitherto has remained uninvestigated by previous surveys by virtue of the faint magnitudes and low proper motions of the stars. This faint, low-velocity sample represents an increase in the white dwarf sky surface density to B=22.5 by an order of magnitude than that found in the previously most complete surveys to this depth. However, because the majority of the stars discovered here are at projected distances of more than a disk scale height above the Galactic midplane, their existence does not affect significantly the typical estimates of the local white dwarf density. On the other hand, as distant white dwarf candidates with low, typically thin-disk-like transverse velocities (<40 km s-1), the newly discovered stars suggest a disk white dwarf scale height larger than the values of 250

  13. THE C-FLAME QUENCHING BY CONVECTIVE BOUNDARY MIXING IN SUPER-AGB STARS AND THE FORMATION OF HYBRID C/O/Ne WHITE DWARFS AND SN PROGENITORS

    SciTech Connect

    Denissenkov, P. A.; Herwig, F.; Truran, J. W.; Paxton, B. E-mail: fherwig@uvic.ca

    2013-07-20

    After off-center C ignition in the cores of super asymptotic giant branch (SAGB) stars, the C flame propagates all the way down to the center, trailing behind it the C-shell convective zone, and thus building a degenerate ONe core. This standard picture is obtained in stellar evolution simulations if the bottom C-shell convection boundary is assumed to be a discontinuity associated with a strict interpretation of the Schwarzschild condition for convective instability. However, this boundary is prone to additional mixing processes, such as thermohaline convection and convective boundary mixing. Using hydrodynamic simulations, we show that contrary to previous results, thermohaline mixing is too inefficient to interfere with the C-flame propagation. However, even a small amount of convective boundary mixing removes the physical conditions required for the C-flame propagation all the way to the center. This result holds even if we allow for some turbulent heat transport in the CBM region. As a result, SAGB stars build in their interiors hybrid C-O-Ne degenerate cores composed of a relatively large CO core (M{sub CO} Almost-Equal-To 0.2 M{sub Sun }) surrounded by a thick ONe zone ({Delta}M{sub ONe} {approx}> 0.85 M{sub Sun }) with another thin CO layer above. If exposed by mass loss, these cores will become hybrid C-O-Ne white dwarfs. Otherwise, the ignition of C-rich material in the central core, surrounded by the thick ONe zone, may trigger a thermonuclear supernova (SN) explosion. The quenching of the C-flame may have implications for the ignition mechanism of SN Ia in the double-degenerate merger scenario.

  14. The Ionization of the Local Interstellar Medium as Revealed by Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer Observations of N, O, and AR toward White Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, E. B.; Oegerle, W. R.; Gry, C.; Vallerga, J.; Sembach, K. R.; Shelton, R. L.; Ferlet, R.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; York, D. G.; Linsky, J. L.; Roth, K. C.; Dupree, A. K.; Edelstein, J.

    2000-07-01

    Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer spectra of the white dwarf stars G191-B2B, GD 394, WD 2211-495, and WD 2331-475 cover the absorption features out of the ground electronic states of N I, N II, N III, O I, and Ar I in the far-ultraviolet, providing new insights on the origin of the partial ionization of the local interstellar medium (LISM) and, for the case of G191-B2B, the interstellar cloud that immediately surrounds the solar system. Toward these targets the interstellar abundances of Ar I, and sometimes N I, are significantly below their cosmic abundances relative to H I. In the diffuse interstellar medium, these elements are not likely to be depleted onto dust grains. Generally, we expect that Ar should be more strongly ionized than H (and also O and N, whose ionizations are coupled to that of H via charge-exchange reactions) because the cross section for the photoionization of Ar I is very high. Our finding that Ar I/H I is low may help to explain the surprisingly high ionization of He in the LISM found by other investigators. Our result favors the interpretation that the ionization of the local medium is maintained by a strong extreme-ultraviolet flux from nearby stars and hot gases, rather than an incomplete recovery from a past, more highly ionized condition. Based on data obtained for the Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission operated by Johns Hopkins University. Financial support to US participants has been provided by NASA contract NAS5-32985.

  15. WHITE DWARF-RED DWARF SYSTEMS RESOLVED WITH THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE. II. FULL SNAPSHOT SURVEY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Farihi, J.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, S.

    2010-10-15

    Results are presented for a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys high-resolution imaging campaign of 90 white dwarfs with known or suspected low-mass stellar and substellar companions. Of the 72 targets that remain candidate and confirmed white dwarfs with near-infrared excess, 43 are spatially resolved into two or more components, and a total of 12 systems are potentially triples. For 68 systems where a comparison is possible, 50% have significant photometric distance mismatches between their white dwarf and M dwarf components, suggesting that white dwarf parameters derived spectroscopically are often biased due to the cool companion. Interestingly, 9 of the 30 binaries known to have emission lines are found to be visual pairs and hence widely separated, indicating an intrinsically active cool star and not irradiation from the white dwarf. There is a possible, slight deficit of earlier spectral types (bluer colors) among the spatially unresolved companions, exactly the opposite of expectations if significant mass is transferred to the companion during the common envelope phase. Using the best available distance estimates, the low-mass companions to white dwarfs exhibit a bimodal distribution in projected separation. This result supports the hypothesis that during the giant phases of the white dwarf progenitor, any unevolved companions either migrate inward to short periods of hours to days, or outward to periods of hundreds to thousands of years. No intermediate projected separations of a few to several AU are found among these pairs. However, a few double M dwarfs (within triples) are spatially resolved in this range, empirically demonstrating that such separations were readily detectable among the binaries with white dwarfs. A straightforward and testable prediction emerges: all spatially unresolved, low-mass stellar and substellar companions to white dwarfs should be in short-period orbits. This result has implications for substellar companion and

  16. The binary Feige 24 - The mass, radius, and gravitational redshift of the DA white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Shipman, Harry L.; Thorstensen, John R.; Thejll, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Observations are reported which refine the binary ephemeris of the Feige 24 system, which contains a peculiar hot DA white dwarf and an M dwarf with an atmosphere illuminated by extreme ultraviolet radiation from the white dwarf. With the new ephemeris and a set of IUE high-dispersion spectra, showing phase-dependent redshifted C IV, N V, and Si IV resonance lines, the orbital velocity, and hence the mass (0.54 + or - 0.20 solar masses), and the gravitational redshift of the white dwarf (14.1 + or - 5.2 km/s) are determined independently. It is shown that the measured Einstein redshift is consistent with an estimated radius for the white dwarf obtained from a model atmosphere solid angle and a parallax measurement. This radius is twice the Hamada-Salpeter radius for the given mass and offers a prospect to investigate the presence of a massive hydrogen envelope in that white dwarf star.

  17. Effective geometry of a white dwarf

    SciTech Connect

    Bini, D.; Cherubini, C.; Filippi, S.

    2011-03-15

    The ''effective geometry'' formalism is used to study the perturbations of a white dwarf described as a self-gravitating fermion gas with a completely degenerate relativistic equation of state of barotropic type. The quantum nature of the system causes an absence of homological properties, manifested instead by polytropic stars, and requires a parametric study of the solutions both at the numerical and analytical level. We have explicitly derived a compact analytical parametric approximate solution of Pade type, which gives density curves and stellar radii in good accordance with already existing numerical results. After validation of this new type of approximate solutions, we use them to construct the effective acoustic metric governing general perturbations following Chebsch's formalism. Even in this quantum case, the stellar surface exhibits a curvature singularity due to the vanishing of density, as already evidenced in past studies on nonquantum self-gravitating polytropic stars. The equations of the theory are finally numerically integrated in the simpler case of irrotational spherical pulsating perturbations, including the effect of backreaction, in order to have a dynamical picture of the process occurring in the acoustic metric.

  18. The binary white dwarf LHS 3236

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice K. B.; Stone, Ronald C.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard L.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Liu, Michael C.; Hartkopf, William I.; Ireland, Michael J.; Leggett, S. K.

    2013-12-10

    The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 ± 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km s{sup –1}, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0 yr period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M {sub ☉}; also possible is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M {sub ☉}. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ∼3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66-1.84 M {sub ☉}) is well above the Chandrasekhar limit; however, the timescale for coalescence is long.

  19. Evidence for very nearby hidden white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, K.; Chini, R.; Kaderhandt, L.; Chen, Z.; Lachaume, R.

    2016-06-01

    We report the discovery of a tertiary component to the prominent and nearby (d = 14 pc) visual binary α Fornacis. The new invisible component is part of a 4-d short-period Ba-Bb subsystem, whose K-type α For Ba primary shows a striking [Ba/Fe] = +0.26 dex overabundance, at variance with a close to solar [Ba/Fe] = +0.04 dex abundance for its distant visual companion α For A. For the even nearer (d = 8 pc) multiple star ξ Ursae Majoris and its alike 4-d Ba-Bb subsystem, we similarly find [Ba/Fe] = +0.37 dex for its G-type ξ UMa Ba primary, compared to a significantly lower [Ba/Fe] = +0.12 dex for the visual companion ξ UMa A. In both cases, the differential barium enrichment is direct evidence for short-period white dwarf systems and the creation of blue straggler stars through mass transfer and wind accretion, for their close and distant companions, respectively. These findings also imply that conventional stellar age datings for both α For and ξ UMa are likely not reliable.

  20. WD 0158-160, a new pulsating DB white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilkenny, D.

    2016-03-01

    The DB star, WD 0158-160 (=EC 01585-1600) is shown to be a variable white dwarf with a rich pulsation spectrum, dominated by a strong variation with a frequency near 1637 μHz (amplitude ˜0.024 mag, period 598 s), though at least 10 frequencies are detected between about 1285 and 5747 μHz (780-173 s) in a relatively small data set. At ˜14.5 mag, the star is one of the brightest known DBV stars.

  1. Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Nearby Dwarf Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrance, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The discovery of G77-61 (Dahn et al. 1977) -- a star with a carbon-rich spectrum a mere 58 pc away and therefore of relatively low luminosity -- led to the recognition that _dwarf_ carbon (dC) stars exist. As more dCs are now known, the accepted paradigm of the presence of atmospheric carbon is that dCs must contain a white dwarf secondary. While the white dwarf companion was going through an AGB stage, it deposited carbon-rich material in the atmosphere of the lower-mass (and now brighter) dwarf star. Indeed, a handful of the dC's have exhibited radial velocity signatures consistent with this picture. To allow for the carbon to still be present in the atmosphere past the AGB stage, a replenishing outer shell or disk has been proposed. Current understanding of the formation and evolution of a dC is, however, limited by the small number of objects and observations. We present a full range of fluxes and flux limits from 1 - 160 um including 2MASS, WISE, Spitzer, and Herschel observations for a list of the nearest carbon dwarfs. We reconstruct the spectral energy distribution exploring the mid-infrared region where any residual debris disks would be detectable. The carbon dwarfs have been historically studied in the visible, and these new infrared observations provide a picture of the circumstellar dust.

  2. Brown dwarfs as close companions to white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Stringfellow, G.S.; Bodenheimer, P.; Black, D.C. Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX )

    1990-02-01

    The influence of the radiation flux emitted by a white dwarf primary on the evolution of a closely orbiting brown dwarf (BD) companion is investigated. Full stellar evolutionary calculations are presented for both isolated and thermal bath cases, including effects of large variations in the atmospheric grain opacities. High grain opacities significantly increase the radii of the BDs, but the thermal bath does not. The major influence of the thermal bath is to increase substantially the surface temperature and luminosity of the BD at a given age. These results are compared with the observational properties of the possible BD companion of the white dwarf G29-38. Inclusion of both physical effects, high grain opacities and thermal bath, increases the mass range (0.034-0.063 solar masses) of viable models significantly, yet the final determination of whether the object is indeed a BD requires improvements in the observations of the system's properties. 37 refs.

  3. Brown dwarfs as close companions to white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bodenheimer, Peter; Black, David C.

    1990-01-01

    The influence of the radiation flux emitted by a white dwarf primary on the evolution of a closely orbiting brown dwarf (BD) companion is investigated. Full stellar evolutionary calculations are presented for both isolated and thermal bath cases, including effects of large variations in the atmospheric grain opacities. High grain opacities significantly increase the radii of the BDs, but the thermal bath does not. The major influence of the thermal bath is to increase substantially the surface temperature and luminosity of the BD at a given age. These results are compared with the observational properties of the possible BD companion of the white dwarf G29-38. Inclusion of both physical effects, high grain opacities and thermal bath, increases the mass range (0.034-0.063 solar masses) of viable models significantly, yet the final determination of whether the object is indeed a BD requires improvements in the observations of the system's properties.

  4. An atlas of optical spectra of DZ white dwarfs and related objects

    SciTech Connect

    Sion, E.M.; Kenyon, S.J.; Aannestad, P.A. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA Arizona State Univ., Tempe )

    1990-03-01

    An atlas of optical spectra and equivalent width measurements for DZ stars and several related objects is described. These data should improve abundance measurements for Ca/He, Mg/He, and Fe/He in these stars and provide tests for calculations of accretion, diffusion, and radiative transfer in white-dwarf atmospheres. Also reported is the possible detection of He I (3888-A) in three DZ white dwarfs, 0246 + 735, 1705 + 030, and 2215 + 388. 25 refs.

  5. A gaseous metal disk around a white dwarf.

    PubMed

    Gänsicke, B T; Marsh, T R; Southworth, J; Rebassa-Mansergas, A

    2006-12-22

    The destiny of planetary systems through the late evolution of their host stars is very uncertain. We report a metal-rich gas disk around a moderately hot and young white dwarf. A dynamical model of the double-peaked emission lines constrains the outer disk radius to just 1.2 solar radii. The likely origin of the disk is a tidally disrupted asteroid, which has been destabilized from its initial orbit at a distance of more than 1000 solar radii by the interaction with a relatively massive planetesimal object or a planet. The white dwarf mass of 0.77 solar mass implies that planetary systems may form around high-mass stars. PMID:17185598

  6. The White Dwarf Cooling Sequence of NGC 6397

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Brad M. S.; Anderson, Jay; Brewer, James; Dotter, Aaron; Fahlman, Greg. G.; Hurley, Jarrod; Kalirai, Jason; King, Ivan; Reitzel, David; Richer, Harvey B.; Rich, R. Michael; Shara, Michael M.; Stetson, Peter B.

    2007-12-01

    We present the results of a deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) exposure of the nearby globular cluster NGC 6397, focussing attention on the cluster's white dwarf cooling sequence. This sequence is shown to extend over 5 mag in depth, with an apparent cutoff at magnitude F814W~27.6. We demonstrate, using both artificial star tests and the detectability of background galaxies at fainter magnitudes, that the cutoff is real and represents the truncation of the white dwarf luminosity function in this cluster. We perform a detailed comparison between cooling models and the observed distribution of white dwarfs in color and magnitude, taking into account uncertainties in distance, extinction, white dwarf mass, progenitor lifetimes, binarity, and cooling model uncertainties. After marginalizing over these variables, we obtain values for the cluster distance modulus and age of μ0=12.02+/-0.06 and Tc=11.47+/-0.47 Gyr (95% confidence limits). Our inferred distance and white dwarf initial-final mass relations are in good agreement with other independent determinations, and the cluster age is consistent with, but more precise than, prior determinations made using the main-sequence turnoff method. In particular, within the context of the currently accepted ΛCDM cosmological model, this age places the formation of NGC 6397 at a redshift z~3, at a time when the cosmological star formation rate was approaching its peak. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with proposal GO-10424.

  7. GW Librae: a unique laboratory for pulsations in an accreting white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloza, O.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hermes, J. J.; Townsley, D. M.; Schreiber, M. R.; Szkody, P.; Pala, A.; Beuermann, K.; Bildsten, L.; Breedt, E.; Cook, M.; Godon, P.; Henden, A. A.; Hubeny, I.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Marsh, T. R.; de Martino, D.; Mukadam, A. S.; Myers, G.; Nelson, P.; Oksanen, A.; Patterson, J.; Sion, E. M.; Zorotovic, M.

    2016-07-01

    Non-radial pulsations have been identified in a number of accreting white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables. These stars offer insight into the excitation of pulsation modes in atmospheres with mixed compositions of hydrogen, helium, and metals, and the response of these modes to changes in the white dwarf temperature. Among all pulsating cataclysmic variable white dwarfs, GW Librae stands out by having a well-established observational record of three independent pulsation modes that disappeared when the white dwarf temperature rose dramatically following its 2007 accretion outburst. Our analysis of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet spectroscopy taken in 2002, 2010, and 2011, showed that pulsations produce variations in the white dwarf effective temperature as predicted by theory. Additionally in 2013 May, we obtained new HST/Cosmic Origin Spectrograph ultraviolet observations that displayed unexpected behaviour: besides showing variability at ≃275 s, which is close to the post-outburst pulsations detected with HST in 2010 and 2011, the white dwarf exhibits high-amplitude variability on an ≃4.4 h time-scale. We demonstrate that this variability is produced by an increase of the temperature of a region on white dwarf covering up to ≃30 per cent of the visible white dwarf surface. We argue against a short-lived accretion episode as the explanation of such heating, and discuss this event in the context of non-radial pulsations on a rapidly rotating star.

  8. THE INITIAL-FINAL MASS RELATION AMONG WHITE DWARFS IN WIDE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J. K.; Oswalt, T. D.; Willson, L. A.; Wang, Q.; Zhao, G. E-mail: toswalt@fit.edu E-mail: lwillson@iastate.edu

    2012-02-20

    We present the initial-final mass relation derived from 10 white dwarfs in wide binaries that consist of a main-sequence star and a white dwarf. The temperature and gravity of each white dwarf were measured by fitting theoretical model atmospheres to the observed spectrum using a {chi}{sup 2} fitting algorithm. The cooling time and mass were obtained using theoretical cooling tracks. The total age of each binary was estimated from the chromospheric activity of its main-sequence component to an uncertainty of about 0.17 dex in log t. The difference between the total age and white dwarf cooling time is taken as the main-sequence lifetime of each white dwarf. The initial mass of each white dwarf was then determined using stellar evolution tracks with a corresponding metallicity derived from spectra of their main-sequence companions, thus yielding the initial-final mass relation. Most of the initial masses of the white dwarf components are between 1 and 2 M{sub Sun }. Our results suggest a correlation between the metallicity of a white dwarf's progenitor and the amount of post-main-sequence mass loss it experiences-at least among progenitors with masses in the range of 1-2 M{sub Sun }. A comparison of our observations to theoretical models suggests that low-mass stars preferentially lose mass on the red giant branch.

  9. GW Librae: A unique laboratory for pulsations in an accreting white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloza, O.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hermes, J. J.; Townsley, D. M.; Schreiber, M. R.; Szkody, P.; Pala, A.; Beuermann, K.; Bildsten, L.; Breedt, E.; Cook, M.; Godon, P.; Henden, A. A.; Hubeny, I.; Knigge, C.; Long, K. S.; Marsh, T. R.; de Martino, D.; Mukadam, A. S.; Myers, G.; Nelson, P.; Oksanen, A.; Patterson, J.; Sion, E. M.; Zorotovic, M.

    2016-04-01

    Non-radial pulsations have been identified in a number of accreting white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables. These stars offer insight into the excitation of pulsation modes in atmospheres with mixed compositions of hydrogen, helium, and metals, and the response of these modes to changes in the white dwarf temperature. Among all pulsating cataclysmic variable white dwarfs, GW Librae stands out by having a well-established observational record of three independent pulsation modes that disappeared when the white dwarf temperature rose dramatically following its 2007 accretion outburst. Our analysis of HST ultraviolet spectroscopy taken in 2002, 2010 and 2011, showed that pulsations produce variations in the white dwarf effective temperature as predicted by theory. Additionally in May 2013, we obtained new HST/COS ultraviolet observations that displayed unexpected behaviour: besides showing variability at ≃275 s, which is close to the post-outburst pulsations detected with HST in 2010 and 2011, the white dwarf exhibits high-amplitude variability on a ≃4.4 h time-scale. We demonstrate that this variability is produced by an increase of the temperature of a region on white dwarf covering up to ≃30 per cent of the visible white dwarf surface. We argue against a short-lived accretion episode as the explanation of such heating, and discuss this event in the context of non-radial pulsations on a rapidly rotating star.

  10. Future Far-UV Studies of Hot White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.

    We are beginning to understand the evolution of the hot white dwarfs, but even with telescopes such as IUE and HST, we have still only observed a modest number of the most interesting objects with the spectral resolution and signal-to-noise required. This is in part arises from the intense competition for HST time, against both optical and IR observations as well as other far-UV bids. A key requirement of any new far-UV telescope is sufficient sensitivity to observe most of the ~100 or so brightest hot white dwarfs at high spectral resolution. A spectral resolving power of at least 30,000 is required for studies of white dwarfs. First it is necessary to detect and resolve photospheric, circumstellar and interstellar absorption features. Interstellar/circumstellar features may have several components that can only be separated in velocity space. For example, it is interesting to note that IUE was unable to resolve the photospheric and circumstellar CIV components of G191-B2B, discovered by the HST STIS instrument, leading to a serious overestimate of the carbon abundance in this star. There may be similar components in other stars observed only by IUE. In those stars that have highly stratified atmospheres, the detailed shape of the absorption lines is sensitive to the atmospheric structure. High-resolution observations of the line shapes can provide us with a direct probe of atmospheric structure.

  11. Mass-radius relation of strongly magnetized white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Prasanta; Bhattacharya, Dipankar

    2016-07-01

    We study the strongly magnetized white dwarf configurations in a self-consistent manner as a progenitor of the over-luminous type-Ia supernovae. We compute static equilibria of white dwarf stars containing a strong magnetic field and present the modification of white dwarf mass-radius relation caused by the magnetic field. From a static equilibrium study, we find that a maximum white dwarf mass of about 1.9 M_{⊙} may be supported if the interior poloidal field is as strong as approximately 10^{10} T. On the other hand, if the field is purely toroidal the maximum mass can be more than 5 M_⊙. All these modifications are mainly from the presence of Lorenz force. The effects of i) modification of equation of state due to Landau quantization ii) electrostatic interaction due to ions, ii) general relativistic calculation on the stellar structure and, iii) field geometry are also considered. These strongly magnetised configurations are sensitive to magnetic instabilities where the perturbations grow at the corresponding Alfven time scales.

  12. KNOW YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD: A DETAILED MODEL ATMOSPHERE ANALYSIS OF NEARBY WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Giammichele, N.; Bergeron, P.; Dufour, P. E-mail: pierre.bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca

    2012-04-01

    We present improved atmospheric parameters of nearby white dwarfs lying within 20 pc of the Sun. The aim of the current study is to obtain the best statistical model of the least-biased sample of the white dwarf population. A homogeneous analysis of the local population is performed combining detailed spectroscopic and photometric analyses based on improved model atmosphere calculations for various spectral types including DA, DB, DC, DQ, and DZ stars. The spectroscopic technique is applied to all stars in our sample for which optical spectra are available. Photometric energy distributions, when available, are also combined to trigonometric parallax measurements to derive effective temperatures, stellar radii, as well as atmospheric compositions. A revised catalog of white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is presented. We provide, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of the mass distribution and the chemical distribution of white dwarf stars in a volume-limited sample.

  13. Know Your Neighborhood: A Detailed Model Atmosphere Analysis of Nearby White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giammichele, N.; Bergeron, P.; Dufour, P.

    2012-04-01

    We present improved atmospheric parameters of nearby white dwarfs lying within 20 pc of the Sun. The aim of the current study is to obtain the best statistical model of the least-biased sample of the white dwarf population. A homogeneous analysis of the local population is performed combining detailed spectroscopic and photometric analyses based on improved model atmosphere calculations for various spectral types including DA, DB, DC, DQ, and DZ stars. The spectroscopic technique is applied to all stars in our sample for which optical spectra are available. Photometric energy distributions, when available, are also combined to trigonometric parallax measurements to derive effective temperatures, stellar radii, as well as atmospheric compositions. A revised catalog of white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood is presented. We provide, for the first time, a comprehensive analysis of the mass distribution and the chemical distribution of white dwarf stars in a volume-limited sample.

  14. Time-dependent models of accretion discs with nuclear burning following the tidal disruption of a white dwarf by a neutron star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalit, Ben; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-09-01

    We construct time-dependent one-dimensional (vertically averaged) models of accretion discs produced by the tidal disruption of a white dwarf (WD) by a binary neutron star (NS) companion. Nuclear reactions in the disc mid-plane burn the WD matter to increasingly heavier elements at sequentially smaller radii, releasing substantial energy which can impact the disc dynamics. A model for disc outflows is employed, by which cooling from the outflow balances other sources of heating (viscous, nuclear) in regulating the Bernoulli parameter of the mid-plane to a fixed value ≲0. We perform a comprehensive parameter study of the compositional yields and velocity distributions of the disc outflows for WDs of different initial compositions. For C/O WDs, the radial composition profile of the disc evolves self-similarly in a quasi-steady-state manner, and is remarkably robust to model parameters. The nucleosynthesis in helium WD discs does not exhibit this behaviour, which instead depends sensitively on factors controlling the disc mid-plane density (e.g. the strength of the viscosity, α). By the end of the simulation, a substantial fraction of the WD mass is unbound in outflows at characteristic velocities of ˜109 cm s-1. The outflows from WD-NS merger discs contain 10-4-3 × 10-3 M⊙ of radioactive 56Ni, resulting in fast (˜ week long) dim (˜1040 erg s-1) optical transients; shock heating of the ejecta by late-time outflows may increase the peak luminosity to ˜1043 erg s-1. The accreted mass on to the NS is probably not sufficient to induce gravitational collapse, but may be capable of spinning up the NS to periods of ˜10 ms, illustrating the feasibility of this channel in forming isolated millisecond pulsars.

  15. TRANSIT SURVEYS FOR EARTHS IN THE HABITABLE ZONES OF WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Agol, Eric

    2011-04-20

    To date the search for habitable Earth-like planets has primarily focused on nuclear burning stars. I propose that this search should be expanded to cool white dwarf stars that have expended their nuclear fuel. I define the continuously habitable zone of white dwarfs and show that it extends from {approx}0.005 to 0.02 AU for white dwarfs with masses from 0.4 to 0.9 M{sub sun}, temperatures less than {approx}10{sup 4} K, and habitable durations of at least 3 Gyr. As they are similar in size to Earth, white dwarfs may be deeply eclipsed by terrestrial planets that orbit edge-on, which can easily be detected with ground-based telescopes. If planets can migrate inward or reform near white dwarfs, I show that a global robotic telescope network could carry out a transit survey of nearby white dwarfs placing interesting constraints on the presence of habitable Earths. If planets were detected, I show that the survey would favor detection of planets similar to Earth: similar size, temperature, and rotation period, and host star temperatures similar to the Sun. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope could place even tighter constraints on the frequency of habitable Earths around white dwarfs. The confirmation and characterization of these planets might be carried out with large ground and space telescopes.

  16. Are All Dwarf Carbon Stars Binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farihi, Jay; Harris, Hugh; Subasavage, John; Bergfors, Carolina; Green, Paul; Gansicke, Boris

    2014-08-01

    The origin of dwarf carbon stars is a persistent astrophysical curiosity dating back to 1977. Only giant stars dredge up interior carbon, and hence the discovery of an unevolved dwarf star with C/O >1 was a big surprise. Astronomers are no closer to understanding these rare and spectrally peculiar stars 37 years later(!). The bulk of dwarf carbon stars show no sign of an evolved companion necessary to account for their externally polluted atmospheres. These stars are sensitive tracers of Galactic chemical evolution and star formation, and provide strong constraints on the potential for carbon-dominated (single star) planetary systems. We propose to conclusively validate or refute the hypothetical binary nature of dwarf carbon stars, and hence their chemical and physical formation channel(s). For all binaries, we will initially constrain and eventually measure orbital periods. By determining their physical separation during the previous epoch of mass transfer, we will distinguish between the Roche lobe overflow and wind capture models for the creation of carbon dwarfs.

  17. NEW EVOLUTIONARY SEQUENCES FOR HOT H-DEFICIENT WHITE DWARFS ON THE BASIS OF A FULL ACCOUNT OF PROGENITOR EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Althaus, L. G.; Panei, J. A.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.; Corsico, A. H.; Romero, A. D.; Rohrmann, R. D.

    2009-10-20

    We present full evolutionary calculations appropriate for the study of hot hydrogen-deficient DO white dwarfs, PG 1159 stars, and DB white dwarfs. White dwarf sequences are computed for a wide range of stellar masses and helium envelopes on the basis of a complete treatment of the evolutionary history of progenitors stars, including the core hydrogen and helium burning phases, the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch phase, and the born-again episode that is responsible for the hydrogen deficiency. We also provide colors and magnitudes for the new sequences for T {sub eff} < 40,000 K, where the NLTE effects are not dominant. These new calculations provide a homogeneous set of evolutionary tracks appropriate for mass and age determinations for both PG 1159 stars and DO white dwarfs. The calculations are extended down to an effective temperature of 7000 K. We applied these new tracks to redetermine stellar masses and ages of all known DO white dwarfs with spectroscopically determined effective temperatures and gravities, and compare them with previous results. We also compare for the first time consistent mass determinations for both DO and PG 1159 stars, and find a considerably higher mean mass for the DO white dwarfs. We discuss as well the chemical profile expected in the envelope of variable DB white dwarfs from the consideration of the evolutionary history of progenitor stars. Finally, we present tentative evidence for a different evolutionary channel, other than that involving the PG 1159 stars, for the formation of hot, hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs.

  18. Sirius B - A still mysterious white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesemael, F.; Fontaine, G.

    1982-02-01

    Observations and knowledge of Sirius B, the companion star to Sirius A are reviewed, noting the solar mass and terrestrial radius of the dwarf. The system is 2.65 pc distant, with separation between the stars oscillating from 8-32 AU. Spectral observations are best obtained when the stars are at maximum distance, and redshifts which affirm the theory of relativity have been detected. Copernicus satellite observations have also revealed the emissions of UV and X rays from the dwarf. It is noted that Grecian records over 2000 yr old cite Sirius as a red star, which implies that the dwarf was then a red star since Sirius A is a main sequence star, an implication which does not correspond with the known evolution of stars. Another mystery is cited, that of the tribal records of the Sudanese Dogon, which maintains an ancient legend of Sirius A having an invisible companion called Digitaria, composed of a substance called segala, which cannot be lifted by all the humans on earth combined.

  19. Liberating exomoons in white dwarf planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Matthew J.; Veras, Dimitri; Holman, Matthew J.; Gänsicke, Boris T.

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies indicate that more than a quarter of all white dwarf (WD) atmospheres are polluted by remnant planetary material, with some WDs being observed to accrete the mass of Pluto in 106 yr. The short sinking time-scale for the pollutants indicates that the material must be frequently replenished. Moons may contribute decisively to this pollution process if they are liberated from their parent planets during the post-main-sequence evolution of the planetary systems. Here, we demonstrate that gravitational scattering events amongst planets in WD systems easily trigger moon ejection. Repeated close encounters within tenths of planetary Hill radii are highly destructive to even the most massive, close-in moons. Consequently, scattering increases both the frequency of perturbing agents in WD systems, as well as the available mass of polluting material in those systems, thereby enhancing opportunities for collision and fragmentation and providing more dynamical pathways for smaller bodies to reach the WD. Moreover, during intense scattering, planets themselves have pericentres with respect to the WD of only a fraction of an astronomical unit, causing extreme Hill-sphere contraction, and the liberation of moons into WD-grazing orbits. Many of our results are directly applicable to exomoons orbiting planets around main-sequence stars.

  20. A white dwarf cooling age of 8 Gyr for NGC 6791 from physical separation processes.

    PubMed

    García-Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G; Renedo, Isabel; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Córsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, René D; Salaris, Maurizio; Isern, Jordi

    2010-05-13

    NGC 6791 is a well studied open cluster that it is so close to us that can be imaged down to very faint luminosities. The main-sequence turn-off age ( approximately 8 Gyr) and the age derived from the termination of the white dwarf cooling sequence ( approximately 6 Gyr) are very different. One possible explanation is that as white dwarfs cool, one of the ashes of helium burning, (22)Ne, sinks in the deep interior of these stars. At lower temperatures, white dwarfs are expected to crystallize and phase separation of the main constituents of the core of a typical white dwarf ((12)C and (16)O) is expected to occur. This sequence of events is expected to introduce long delays in the cooling times, but has not hitherto been proven. Here we report that, as theoretically anticipated, physical separation processes occur in the cores of white dwarfs, resolving the age discrepancy for NGC 6791. PMID:20463732

  1. Survival of a brown dwarf after engulfment by a red giant star.

    PubMed

    Maxted, P F L; Napiwotzki, R; Dobbie, P D; Burleigh, M R

    2006-08-01

    Many sub-stellar companions (usually planets but also some brown dwarfs) orbit solar-type stars. These stars can engulf their sub-stellar companions when they become red giants. This interaction may explain several outstanding problems in astrophysics but it is unclear under what conditions a low mass companion will evaporate, survive the interaction unchanged or gain mass. Observational tests of models for this interaction have been hampered by a lack of positively identified remnants-that is, white dwarf stars with close, sub-stellar companions. The companion to the pre-white dwarf AA Doradus may be a brown dwarf, but the uncertain history of this star and the extreme luminosity difference between the components make it difficult to interpret the observations or to put strong constraints on the models. The magnetic white dwarf SDSS J121209.31 + 013627.7 may have a close brown dwarf companion but little is known about this binary at present. Here we report the discovery of a brown dwarf in a short period orbit around a white dwarf. The properties of both stars in this binary can be directly observed and show that the brown dwarf was engulfed by a red giant but that this had little effect on it. PMID:16885979

  2. Spectroscopic Analysis of Hot (Pre-) White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reindl, Nicole

    2015-03-01

    In this work, different kinds of hot (pre-) white dwarfs (WD) were analyzed by means of static and expanding non-LTE model atmospheres to obtain a better understanding of the late, hot stages of stellar evolution. In the first paper, Reindl et al. (2014c), we derived for the first time the temporal evolution of the atmospheric parameters of the unusually quick evolving, hydrogen-rich central star of planetary nebula (CSPN) SAO 244567. We confirm that SAO 244567 must be a low-mass star (M < 0.55 M ). The slow evolution of the respective canonical stellar evolutionary models is, however, in strong contradiction to the observed fast evolution and the young planetary nebula. We speculate that the star could be a late He-shell flash object. Alternatively, it could be the outcome of a close-binary evolution. Then SAO 244567 would be a low-mass (0.35 M ) helium pre-WD after the common-envelope phase, during which the planetary nebula was ejected. The paper Reindl et al. (2014b) aimed to obtain clues about the nature of the exotic O(He) stars. The new optical spectra allowed a more precise determination of the atmospheric parameters of the two CSPNe, K 1- 27 and LoTr 4. Furthermore, upper limits for the mass-loss rates of K 1- 27, LoTr 4, HS 1522+6615, and HS 2209+8229 were derived. Finally, the atmospheric parameters of the O(He) stars were compared to those of other helium-dominated stars and stellar evolution calculations in order to explain a helium-dominated stellar evolution sequence. In Reindl et al. (2014a), we identified 24 DO WDs in the tenth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and analyzed them for the first time by means of non-LTE model atmospheres. Two of our objects are the coolest DO WDs ever discovered that still show a considerable amount of carbon in the atmosphere. This is in strong contradiction with diffusion calculations and we suggested that a weak mass-loss is present in DO WDs. The mass distribution of DO WDs beyond the wind limit

  3. WD0837+185: THE FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF AN EXTREME MASS-RATIO WHITE-DWARF-BROWN-DWARF BINARY IN PRAESEPE

    SciTech Connect

    Casewell, S. L.; Burleigh, M. R.; Wynn, G. A.; Alexander, R. D.; Lawrie, K. A.; Jameson, R. F.; Napiwotzki, R.; Dobbie, P. D.; Hodgkin, S. T.

    2012-11-10

    There is a striking and unexplained dearth of brown dwarf companions in close orbits (<3 AU) around stars more massive than the Sun, in stark contrast to the frequency of stellar and planetary companions. Although rare and relatively short-lived, these systems leave detectable evolutionary end points in the form of white-dwarf-brown-dwarf binaries and these remnants can offer unique insights into the births and deaths of their parent systems. We present the discovery of a close (orbital separation {approx}0.006 AU) substellar companion to a massive white dwarf member of the Praesepe star cluster. Using the cluster age and the mass of the white dwarf, we constrain the mass of the white dwarf progenitor star to lie in the range 3.5-3.7 M{sub Sun} (B9). The high mass of the white dwarf means the substellar companion must have been engulfed by the B star's envelope while it was on the late asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Hence, the initial separation of the system was {approx}2 AU, with common envelope evolution reducing the separation to its current value. The initial and final orbital separations allow us to constrain the combination of the common envelope efficiency ({alpha}) and binding energy parameters ({lambda}) for the AGB star to {alpha}{lambda} {approx} 3. We examine the various formation scenarios and conclude that the substellar object was most likely captured by the white dwarf progenitor early in the life of the cluster, rather than forming in situ.

  4. Dating Red Dwarfs: Determining the Ages of Red Dwarf Stars and their Hosted Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.; Kullberg, Evan; Watson, William; Michener, Scott

    2014-06-01

    Red Dwarf (dwarf M=dM) stars comprise over 75% of the stars in the Galaxy. The recent statistical analysis of exoplanet systems from the Kepler Mission indicates that about 15% of red dwarf stars host Earth-size planets orbiting in the liquid water Habitable Zones (HZ) of their host stars. This indicates that within 10 pc 33 Ly) of the Sun (which contains ~240 dM stars), there should be about 35 potentially habitable Earth-size planets. Extrapolating to the entire Galaxy indicates that about 50-100 billion earth-size planets may be orbiting within the HZs of red dwarfs.Determining the ages and radiation/plasma properties of these planet hosting dM stars is crucial in assessing the potential for life on their HZ exoplanets. With these aims in mind we have been carrying out multi-wavelength (X-ray - IR) studies of dM stars as part of our NSF/NASA sponsored “Living with a Red Dwarf” Program. Due to their low masses, nuclear evolution of red dwarfs is very slow and their physical properties (e.g. L/Lo, Teff, R/Ro) do not significantly change over the age of the universe This makes it nearly impossible to determine (nuclear) evolutionary ages as is done with more massive stars. However, their rotation-related magnetic dynamo properties such as- coronal X-ray and chromospheric emissions and star spots coverage dramatically decrease with time as the stars spin down from angular momentum loss via magnetic winds We report on the ongoing calibration of Age-Rotation and (magnetic) Activity relations of dM stars. The ages of the calibrator stars are found from memberships in clusters, & moving groups as well as memberships in wide binaries - ages known from white dwarf & main sequence star components. Kinematical ages are used for old high velocity stars. Using these relations, the ages of a dM stars can be estimated from their measured rotation periods, and/or from coronal & chromospheric emissions. We apply these relations to determine ages of nearby dM stars that host

  5. Magnetohydrostatics in the polar caps of accreting magnetized white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameury, J. M.; Lasota, J. P.

    1985-04-01

    The mechanism of quasi-periodic luminosity variations seen in cataclysmic variable stars is investigated theoretically. Numerical calculations are performed for the model proposed by Livio (1984), in which matter accreted onto the polar caps of a magnetized white dwarf causes repeated breaking of the magnetic-field lines; the method is based (by analogy) on the analysis of magnetic-field disruption in magnetized neutron stars of Hameury et al. (1983). It is found that any such magnetic-field breaking gives recurrence times orders of magnitude greater than those actually observed in magnetized cataclysmic variables suggesting that some other mechanism must be found for the quasi-periodic variations.

  6. Options of applying of numerical codes for the study of transient processes in a binary star with a white dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boneva, Daniela; Kononov, Dmitry

    In this paper we present the idea of applying of numerical codes, particularly of the ZEUS, for the study of transient processes in the close binary stars during the interaction. As a transient processes they could be long- and short-lived and we take into consideration both of them in our survey, as we explained their behavior and connection with tidal influence in the binary configuration. Basic features of the code are revealed. Using the hydrodynamical possibilities of ZEUS 2D and applying our hydrodynamical system of examination, we show what kind of possible results we can derive. This solution gives the initial distribution of the wave after tidally flow of the matter through the contact point of the binary. It is compared to the results obtained with recently employed codes, the ability of working with ZEUS and other numerical codes capabilities to find out the most suitable code or their combination and to make the problem solvable.

  7. The Hunt for Nearby White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasavage, John P., Jr.; Bergeron, P.; Henry, T. J.; Dufour, P.; Hambly, N. C.; Beaulieu, T. D.; RECONS

    2006-12-01

    White Dwarfs (WDs) serve as test beds to probe into astrophysically interesting questions such as (1) the ages of star clusters and Galactic components (i.e. disk, halo), (2) Galactic evolution, (3) halo dark matter constituents, (4) stellar structure theory, and (5) stellar evolution theory. The nearby WD population provides the brightest and most easily studied representatives. How confident are we that all of the nearest WDs have been identified? In an effort to answer this question, we have begun an initiative to identify and characterize new nearby WDs, particularly in the southern hemisphere. We identify new WDs using medium resolution (R 1000) optical spectroscopy, and estimate physical parameters and distances using optical photometry combined with 2MASS near-infrared photometry. For objects within 25 pc (Catalogue of Nearby Stars, and NStars Database horizons), we determine a trigonometric parallax via CTIOPI (Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation). Of the 43 new WD systems discovered so far, 21 are likely within 25 pc, a volume that contains 107 WDs with trigonometric parallaxes. A spectroscopic observing run in December will likely increase these values. Interesting objects include two that are likely double degenerates including one with a magnetic component, one that is a cool (T$_{eff}$ 5000 K) likely mixed atmosphere WD with deficient flux at near-infrared wavelengths, and three that are metal-rich. Observations are underway via the Hubble Space Telescope to resolve four potential double degenerates (the new magnetic WD and three other previously known WDs) for dynamical mass determinations. All ground-based observations are obtained as part of the SMARTS (Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System) Consortium at CTIO. We wish to thank NASA's Space Interferometry Mission, the National Science Foundation, the Space Telescope Science Institute, and GSU for their continued support.

  8. The Binary White Dwarf LHS 3236

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; Hartkopf, William I.; Ireland, Michael J.; Leggett, S. K.; Levine, Stephen E.; Liu, Michael C.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Monet, Alice K. B.; Stone, Ronald C.; Subasavage, John P.; Tilleman, Trudy; Walker, Richard L.

    2013-12-01

    The white dwarf LHS 3236 (WD1639+153) is shown to be a double-degenerate binary, with each component having a high mass. Astrometry at the U.S. Naval Observatory gives a parallax and distance of 30.86 ± 0.25 pc and a tangential velocity of 98 km s-1, and reveals binary orbital motion. The orbital parameters are determined from astrometry of the photocenter over more than three orbits of the 4.0 yr period. High-resolution imaging at the Keck Observatory resolves the pair with a separation of 31 and 124 mas at two epochs. Optical and near-IR photometry give a set of possible binary components. Consistency of all data indicates that the binary is a pair of DA stars with temperatures near 8000 and 7400 K and with masses of 0.93 and 0.91 M ⊙ also possible is a DA primary and a helium DC secondary with temperatures near 8800 and 6000 K and with masses of 0.98 and 0.69 M ⊙. In either case, the cooling ages of the stars are ~3 Gyr and the total ages are <4 Gyr. The combined mass of the binary (1.66-1.84 M ⊙) is well above the Chandrasekhar limit; however, the timescale for coalescence is long. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  9. Disintegrating Planetary Bodies Around a White Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Several months ago, the discovery of WD 1145+017 was announced. This white dwarf appears to be orbited by planetary bodies that are actively disintegrating due to the strong gravitational pull of their host. A follow-up study now reveals that this system has dramatically evolved since its discovery.Signs of DisruptionPotential planetary bodies orbiting a white dwarf would be exposed to a particular risk: if their orbits were perturbed and they passed inside the white dwarfs tidal radius, they would be torn apart. Their material could then form a debris disk around the white dwarf and eventually be accreted.Interestingly, we have two pieces of evidence that this actually happens:Weve observed warm, dusty debris disks around ~4% of white dwarfs, andThe atmospheres of ~25-50% of white dwarfs are polluted by heavy elements that have likely accreted recently.But in spite of this indirect evidence of planet disintegration, wed never observed planetary bodies actively being disrupted around white dwarfs until recently.Unusual TransitsIn April 2015, observations by Keplers K2 mission revealed a strange transit signal around WD 1145+017, a white dwarf 570 light-years from Earth that has both a dusty debris disk and a polluted atmosphere. This signal was interpreted as the transit of at least one, and possibly several, disintegrating planetesimals.In a recent follow-up, a team of scientists led by Boris Gnsicke (University of Warwick) obtained high-speed photometry of WD 1145+017 using the ULTRASPEC camera on the 2.4m Thai National Telescope. These observations were taken in November and December of 2015 roughly seven months after the initial photometric observations of the system. They reveal that dramatic changes have occurred in this short time.Rapid EvolutionA sample light curve from TNT/ULTRASPEC, obtained in December 2015 over 3.9 hours. Many varied transits are evident (click for a better view!). Transits labeled in color appear across multiple nights. [Gnsicke et al

  10. Feige 7 - A hot, rotating magnetic white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, J.; Angel, J. R. P.; Stockman, H. S.; Spinrad, H.; Beaver, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    Results are reported for image-tube-scanner and digicon observations of Feige 7, a faint blue star identified as a probable white dwarf. It is found that this star is a magnetic white dwarf showing a very rich spectrum with Zeeman subcomponents of both hydrogen and neutral helium as well as periodic spectrum and circular-polarization variations. A polarization period of 2.2 hr is computed, and a surface magnetic-field strength of about 18 MG is determined by matching features of the absorption spectrum to Zeeman components. It is suggested that the only reasonable explanation for the periodic variations in circular polarization is an oblique rotator with the spin axis approximately in the plane of the sky and tilted by about 24 deg to the magnetic axis. An effective temperature in the range from 20,000 to 25,000 K is estimated, an absolute magnitude of about 10.5 is derived, and the atmosphere is shown to be helium-dominated. The evolution of Feige 7 is discussed in terms of possible magnetic-field effects on atmospheric composition, rotation velocity (5.5 km/s for a radius of 7000 km), and the origin of white-dwarf magnetic fields.

  11. New Halo White Dwarf Candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dame, Kyra; Gianninas, A.; Kilic, Mukremin; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Brown, Warren R.; Williams, Kurtis A.; von Hippel, Ted; Harris, Hugh C.

    2016-08-01

    We present optical spectroscopy and near-infrared photometry of 57 faint (g = 19 - 22) high proper motion white dwarfs identified through repeat imaging of ≈3100 square degrees of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint by Munn et al. (2014). We use ugriz and JH photometry to perform a model atmosphere analysis, and identify ten ultracool white dwarfs with Teff < 4000 K, including the coolest pure H atmosphere white dwarf currently known, J1657+2638, with Teff = 3550 ± 100K. The majority of the objects with cooling ages larger than 9 Gyr display thick disc kinematics and constrain the age of the thick disc to ≥11 Gyr. There are four white dwarfs in our sample with large tangential velocities (vtan > 120 km s-1) and UVW velocities that are more consistent with the halo than the Galactic disc. For typical 0.6M⊙ white dwarfs, the cooling ages for these halo candidates range from 2.3 to 8.5 Gyr. However, the total main-sequence + white dwarf cooling ages of these stars would be consistent with the Galactic halo if they are slightly undermassive. Given the magnitude limits of the current large scale surveys, many of the coolest and oldest white dwarfs remain undiscovered in the solar neighborhood, but upcoming surveys such as GAIA and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) should find many of these elusive thick disc and halo white dwarfs.

  12. Radiative Levitation in Hot White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayer, P.; Fontaine, G.; Wesemael, F.

    1994-12-01

    We present the results of detailed calculations of radiative levitation in hot white dwarfs using the extensive and homogeneous atomic data given in TOPBASE. Radiative accelerations and equilibrium abundances have been computed for C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe on grids of pure hydrogen and pure helium stellar envelope models. The DA model grid has log g = 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, and 8.5, and spans the range of effective temperature 100,000 >= Teff >= 20,000 K in steps of 2,500 K. The DO/DB grid is similar but extends to Teff = 130,000 K. We discuss at some length the input physics used in order to provide a good physical understanding of radiative levitation under white dwarf conditions. We also discuss the depth dependence and the morphology of the reservoirs of levitating elements created by an equilibrium between the radiative acceleration and the local effective gravity in various stellar envelopes. The important role played in the morphology of the reservoirs by dominant ionization states in closed-shell electronic configurations is emphasized. Our central results are presented in the form of figures showing the behavior of the expected photospheric abundance of each element as a function of effective temperature and surface gravity. While only a handful of abundances are available from the few analyses of observations that have been carried out, we are nevertheless able to infer through a detailed comparison that equilibrium radiative levitation theory fails to explain the observed abundance patterns of heavy elements in hot white dwarfs. At least one other mechanism must be competing with radiative levitation and gravitational settling in the atmospheres/envelopes of hot white dwarfs. Finally, we indicate promising avenues for further progress in spectral evolution theory for white dwarfs. This work has been supported by NASA contract NAS5-30180.

  13. Studying planetary debris disks around isolated, hot white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkworth, Carolyn; Gaensicke, Boris; Marsh, Tom; Hoard, Donald; Girven, Jonathan

    2010-06-01

    While more than 440 extrasolar planets orbiting main sequence stars have been discovered, the destiny of planetary systems through the late stages of the evolution of their host stars is very uncertain. We identified metal-rich (CaII and MgII emission) gas disks around 5 relatively young, hot white dwarfs, three of which were the subject of a previous Spitzer program in Cycle-5. The Cycle-5 data revealed a large, dusty extension to the gaseous debris disks, likely originating with the tidal breakup of an asteroid left over from an ancient planetary system. Our recent intensive studies of the three original systems have now turned up variability in the line profiles of the gaseous disks, suggesting the exciting possibility that we are witnessing the real-time dynamical evolution of planetary debris around these white dwarfs. We propose to extend this study to two newly-discovered, cooler members of this small sample of objects, to determine whether dust and gas can also coexist around cooler stars. Since these stars should be too cool to produce the observed CaII emission, we suspect that there is additional mechanical heating in these systems, caused by the recent impacts of asteroids. If so, CaII emission would likely be the signature of the youngest, freshest debris disks around these stars.

  14. High-resolution FUSE and HST ultraviolet spectroscopy of the white dwarf central star of Sh 2-216

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, T.; Ziegler, M.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Oliveira, C. M.; Vande Putte, D.; Mignani, R. P.; Kerber, F.

    2007-07-01

    Context: We perform a comprehensive spectral analysis of LS V +46° 21 in order to compare its photospheric properties to theoretical predictions from stellar evolution theory as well as from diffusion calculations. Aims: LS V +46° 21 is the DAO-type central star of the planetary nebula Sh 2-216. High-resolution, high-S/N ultraviolet observations obtained with FUSE and STIS aboard the HST as well as the optical spectrum have been analyzed in order to determine the photospheric parameters and the spectroscopic distance. Methods: We performed a detailed spectral analysis of the ultraviolet and optical spectrum by means of state-of-the-art NLTE model-atmosphere techniques. Results: From the N IV - N V, O IV - O VI, Si IV - Si V, and Fe V - Fe VII ionization equilibria, we determined an effective temperature of (95± 2) kK with high precision. The surface gravity is log g = 6.9± 0.2. An unexplained discrepancy appears between the spectroscopic distance d = 224+46-58 pc and the parallax distance d = 129+6-5 pc of LS V +46° 21. For the first time, we have identified Mg IV and Ar VI absorption lines in the spectrum of a hydrogen-rich central star and determined the Mg and Ar abundances as well as the individual abundances of iron-group elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni). With the realistic treatment of metal opacities up to the iron group in the model-atmosphere calculations, the so-called Balmer-line problem (found in models that neglect metal-line blanketing) vanishes. Conclusions: Spectral analysis by means of NLTE model atmospheres has presently arrived at a high level of sophistication, which is now hampered largely by the lack of reliable atomic data and accurate line-broadening tables. Strong efforts should be made to improve upon this situation. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract

  15. The white-dwarf cooling sequence of NGC 6791: a unique tool for stellar evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Berro, E.; Torres, S.; Renedo, I.; Camacho, J.; Althaus, L. G.; Córsico, A. H.; Salaris, M.; Isern, J.

    2011-09-01

    hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs. Conclusions: Our simulations place interesting constraints on important characteristics of the stellar populations of NGC 6791. In particular, we find that the fraction of single helium-core white dwarfs must be smaller than 5%, that a subpopulation of stars with zero metallicity must be ≲12%, while if the adopted metallicity of the subpopulation is solar the upper limit is ~8%. Finally, we also find that the fraction of hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs in this particular cluster is surprinsingly small (≲6%).

  16. Quantum gases and white dwarfs with quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the effect of a generalized uncertainty principle produced by different approaches of quantum gravity within the Planck scale on statistical and thermodynamical properties of ideal fermion and boson gases. The partition function and some thermodynamical properties are investigated. The Bose-Einstein condensation and the ground state properties of fermion gases are also considered. The target approach is extended to a white dwarf as an application. The modified mass-radius relation is calculated. A decrease in the pressure of degenerate fermions due to the presence of quantum gravity leads to a contraction in the star radius. It is also found that the gravity background does not result in any change in white dwarf stability.

  17. White dwarfs and the age of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isern, J.; García--Berro, E.

    2004-09-01

    White dwarfs are the final remnants of low and intermediate mass stars. Their evolution is essentially a cooling process that lasts for ˜ 10 Gyr and allows to obtain information about the age of the Galaxy as well as about the past stellar formation rate in the solar neighborhood. One of the most important applications is to pose a severe constrain to the age of the Universe. For this reason it is important to identify all the relevant sources of energy as well as the mechanisms that control its flow to the space. In this paper we describe the state of the art of the white dwarf cooling theory and we discuss the uncertainties still remaining.

  18. Effective field theory for quantum liquid in dwarf stars

    SciTech Connect

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A. E-mail: rarosen@physik.su.se

    2010-04-01

    An effective field theory approach is used to describe quantum matter at greater-than-atomic but less-than-nuclear densities which are encountered in white dwarf stars. We focus on the density and temperature regime for which charged spin-0 nuclei form an interacting charged Bose-Einstein condensate, while the neutralizing electrons form a degenerate fermi gas. After a brief introductory review, we summarize distinctive properties of the charged condensate, such as a mass gap in the bosonic sector as well as gapless fermionic excitations. Charged impurities placed in the condensate are screened with great efficiency, greater than in an equivalent uncondensed plasma. We discuss a generalization of the Friedel potential which takes into account bosonic collective excitations in addition to the fermionic excitations. We argue that the charged condensate could exist in helium-core white dwarf stars and discuss the evolution of these dwarfs. Condensation would lead to a significantly faster rate of cooling than that of carbon- or oxygen-core dwarfs with crystallized cores. This prediction can be tested observationally: signatures of charged condensation may have already been seen in the recently discovered sequence of helium-core dwarfs in the nearby globular cluster NGC 6397. Sufficiently strong magnetic fields can penetrate the condensate within Abrikosov-like vortices. We find approximate analytic vortex solutions and calculate the values of the lower and upper critical magnetic fields at which vortices are formed and destroyed respectively. The lower critical field is within the range of fields observed in white dwarfs, but tends toward the higher end of this interval. This suggests that for a significant fraction of helium-core dwarfs, magnetic fields are entirely expelled within the core.

  19. A Second Case of Outbursts in a Pulsating White Dwarf Observed by Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, J. J.; Montgomery, M. H.; Bell, Keaton J.; Chote, P.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Kawaler, Steven D.; Clemens, J. C.; Dunlap, Bart H.; Winget, D. E.; Armstrong, D. J.

    2015-09-01

    We present observations of a new phenomenon in pulsating white dwarf stars: large-amplitude outbursts at timescales much longer than the pulsation periods. The cool ({T}{eff} = 11,060 K), hydrogen-atmosphere pulsating white dwarf PG 1149+057 was observed nearly continuously for more than 78.8 day by the extended Kepler mission in K2 Campaign 1. The target showed 10 outburst events, recurring roughly every 8 day and lasting roughly 15 hr, with maximum flux excursions up to 45% in the Kepler bandpass. We demonstrate that the outbursts affect the pulsations and therefore must come from the white dwarf. Additionally, we argue that these events are not magnetic reconnection flares, and are most likely connected to the stellar pulsations and the relatively deep surface convection zone. PG 1149+057 is now the second cool pulsating white dwarf to show this outburst phenomenon, after the first variable white dwarf observed in the Kepler mission, KIC 4552982. Both stars have the same effective temperature, within the uncertainties, and are among the coolest known pulsating white dwarfs of typical mass. These outbursts provide fresh observational insight into the red edge of the DAV instability strip and the eventual cessation of pulsations in cool white dwarfs.

  20. A search for white dwarfs in the Galactic plane: the field and the open cluster population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddi, R.; Catalán, S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Hermes, J. J.; Napiwotzki, R.; Koester, D.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Barentsen, G.; Farnhill, H. J.; Mohr-Smith, M.; Drew, J. E.; Groot, P. J.; Guzman-Ramirez, L.; Parker, Q. A.; Steeghs, D.; Zijlstra, A.

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the prospects for systematic searches of white dwarfs at low Galactic latitudes, using the VLT Survey Telescope H α Photometric Survey of the Galactic plane and Bulge (VPHAS+). We targeted 17 white dwarf candidates along sightlines of known open clusters, aiming to identify potential cluster members. We confirmed all the 17 white dwarf candidates from blue/optical spectroscopy, and we suggest five of them to be likely cluster members. We estimated progenitor ages and masses for the candidate cluster members, and compare our findings to those for other cluster white dwarfs. A white dwarf in NGC 3532 is the most massive known cluster member (1.13 M⊙), likely with an oxygen-neon core, for which we estimate an 8.8_{-4.3}^{+1.2} M⊙ progenitor, close to the mass-divide between white dwarf and neutron star progenitors. A cluster member in Ruprecht 131 is a magnetic white dwarf, whose progenitor mass exceeded 2-3 M⊙. We stress that wider searches, and improved cluster distances and ages derived from data of the ESA Gaia mission, will advance the understanding of the mass-loss processes for low- to intermediate-mass stars.

  1. ECHOES OF A DECAYING PLANETARY SYSTEM: THE GASEOUS AND DUSTY DISKS SURROUNDING THREE WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Melis, C.; Jura, M.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Albert, L.

    2010-10-20

    We have performed a comprehensive ground-based observational program aimed at characterizing the circumstellar material orbiting three single white dwarf stars previously known to possess gaseous disks. Near-infrared imaging unambiguously detects excess infrared emission toward Ton 345 and allows us to refine models for the circumstellar dust around two of the three white dwarf stars. We find that each white dwarf hosts gaseous and dusty disks that are roughly spatially coincident, a result that is consistent with a scenario in which dusty and gaseous material has its origin in remnant parent bodies of the white dwarfs' planetary systems. We briefly describe a new model for the gas disk heating mechanism in which the gaseous material behaves like a 'Z II' region. In this Z II region, gas primarily composed of metals is photoionized by ultraviolet light and cools through optically thick allowed Ca II-line emission.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: SDSS DR7 white dwarf catalog (Kleinman+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, S. J.; Kepler, S. O.; Koester, D.; Pelisoli, I.; Pecanha, V.; Nitta, A.; Costa, J. E. S.; Krzesinski, J.; Dufour, P.; Lachapelle, F.-R.; Bergeron, P.; Yip, C.-W.; Harris, H. C.; Eisenstein, D. J.; Althaus, L.; Corsico, A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report on the white dwarf catalog built from the SDSS DR7 (Cat. II/294). We have applied automated techniques supplemented by complete, consistent human identifications of each candidate white dwarf spectrum. We make use of the latest SDSS reductions and white dwarf model atmosphere improvements in our spectral fits, providing logg and Teff determinations for each identified clean DA and DB where we use the word "clean" to identify spectra that show only features of non-magnetic, nonmixed, DA or DB stars. Our catalog includes all white dwarf stars from the earlier Kleinman et al. (2004, Cat. J/ApJ/607/426) and Eisenstein et al. (2006, Cat. J/ApJS/167/40) catalogs, although occasionally with different identifications. (1 data file).

  3. Impact of Impurity Sedimentation on Cooling of White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daligault, Jerome

    2004-11-01

    The endpoint of stellar evolution of 98% of stars is the white dwarf phase in which nuclear fuel no longer burns, residual energy radiates away, and the star slowly cools. The cooling process in white dwarfs has important astrophysical consequences and is interesting in its own right because it calls for detailed knowledge of thermodynamic and transport properties of dense, strongly-coupled plasmas. Under these extreme conditions, ions are strongly coupled and ionic quantum effects can be important. Indeed, white dwarfs are made of a dense core of fully ionized mixtures, mainly carbon and oxygen, sustained against gravitational collapse by the pressure of degenerate, relativistic electrons. Energy outflow from the core is regulated by thin surface layers of helium and hydrogen. The most important sources of energy within the core are associated with crystallization; however, it has been suggested(*) that the cooling could be strongly delayed by the gravitational settling of ^22Ne impurities in liquid white dwarfs interiors, a mechanism previously overlooked. Simple models for this process treat the sedimentation of ^22Ne as diffusion in a classical, strongly coupled ionic plasma immersed in a uniform neutralizing electron background. Such a model suffers from uncertainties in the diffusion coefficient, which cannot be obtained via standard plasma kinetic theory. We first assessed this uncertainty by computing the diffusion coefficient using particle-particle particle-mesh molecular dynamics over the entire strongly coupled fluid regime. An analytical model was developed to extend the results into the quantum regime. These results were extended to the more realistic situation of ionic mixtures. These findings and their impact on the cooling process will be discussed. (*) L. Bildsten and D.M. Hall, ApJ 549, L219 (2001)

  4. Comparison of theoretical white dwarf cooling timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaris, M.; Althaus, L. G.; García-Berro, E.

    2013-07-01

    Context. An accurate assessment of white dwarf cooling times is paramount so that white dwarf cosmochronology of Galactic populations can be put on more solid grounds. This issue is particularly relevant in view of the enhanced observational capabilities provided by the next generation of extremely large telescopes, that will offer more avenues to use white dwarfs as probes of Galactic evolution and test-beds of fundamental physics. Aims: We estimate for the first time the consistency of results obtained from independent evolutionary codes for white dwarf models with fixed mass and chemical stratification, when the same input physics is employed in the calculations. Methods: We compute and compare cooling times obtained from two independent and widely used stellar evolution codes, BaSTI and LPCODE evolutionary codes, using exactly the same input physics for 0.55 M⊙ white dwarf models with both pure carbon and uniform carbon-oxygen (50/50 mass fractions) cores, and pure hydrogen layers with mass fraction qH = 10-4MWD on top of pure helium buffers of mass qHe = 10-2MWD. Results: Using the same radiative and conductive opacities, photospheric boundary conditions, neutrino energy loss rates, and equation of state, cooling times from the two codes agree within ~2% at all luminosities, except when log (L/L⊙) > -1.5 where differences up to ~8% do appear, because of the different thermal structures of the first white dwarf converged models at the beginning of the cooling sequence. This agreement is true for both pure carbon and uniform carbon-oxygen stratification core models, and also when the release of latent heat and carbon-oxygen phase separation are considered. We have also determined quantitatively and explained the effect of varying equation of state, low-temperature radiative opacities, and electron conduction opacities in our calculations, Conclusions: We have assessed for the first time the maximum possible accuracy in the current estimates of white dwarf

  5. A Search for Close Red Dwarf-White Dwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Mark R.; Henry, Todd J.; Subasavage, John P.

    2011-08-01

    We propose to observe 59 objects suspected to be red dwarf-white dwarf (RD-WD) binaries with separations < 3 arcsec using the CTIO 1.0m. Our goals are to use images of these objects to both resolve the systems and to obtain accurate BVRI photometry. The systems have been selected based on positions in three different color-color plots using SuperCOSMOS BRI plate photometry and 2MASS JHK photometry in accordance with the positions of known RD-WD binaries. This effort will identify candidates for detailed observations as part of the RECONS astrometric program on the CTIO 0.9m to yield accurate parallaxes and photocentric orbits. The parallaxes will then be used to determine the ages of the systems from WD cooling curves, and the orbits will eventually be used to measure dynamical masses. Ultimately, we aim to increase significantly the number of dynamical masses for white dwarfs because currently only three have been determined to 5% accuracy. The first observational step outlined here will allow us to identify appropriate systems for long-term work. This 1.0m project is likely to become the undergraduate senior thesis work of the PI.

  6. On the interpretation of the Exosat photometry of two hot DA white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Shipman, Harry L.; Petre, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Exosat photometric observations of the hot DA white dwarfs GD 2 and EG 70 are presented and analyzed using model atmosphere and synthetic spectrum calculations. The numerical accuracy of the calculations and their impact on the reliability of the results are addressed. The optimum atmospheric parameters that explain the complete spectral coverage are derived. The consequences of these conjectures for the spectral evolution theory of white dwarf stars are considered.

  7. SEISMOLOGY OF A MASSIVE PULSATING HYDROGEN ATMOSPHERE WHITE DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Kepler, S. O.; Pelisoli, Ingrid; Pecanha, Viviane; Costa, J. E. S.; Fraga, Luciano; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Castanheira, Barbara; Corsico, A. H.; Romero, A. D.; Althaus, Leandro; Kleinman, S. J.; Nitta, A.; Koester, D.; Kuelebi, Baybars; Kanaan, Antonio

    2012-10-01

    We report our observations of the new pulsating hydrogen atmosphere white dwarf SDSS J132350.28+010304.22. We discovered periodic photometric variations in frequency and amplitude that are commensurate with nonradial g-mode pulsations in ZZ Ceti stars. This, along with estimates for the star's temperature and gravity, establishes it as a massive ZZ Ceti star. We used time-series photometric observations with the 4.1 m SOAR Telescope, complemented by contemporary McDonald Observatory 2.1 m data, to discover the photometric variability. The light curve of SDSS J132350.28+010304.22 shows at least nine detectable frequencies. We used these frequencies to make an asteroseismic determination of the total mass and effective temperature of the star: M{sub *} = 0.88 {+-} 0.02 M{sub Sun} and T{sub eff} = 12, 100 {+-} 140 K. These values are consistent with those derived from the optical spectra and photometric colors.

  8. Peculiar variations of white dwarf pulsation frequencies and maestro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalessio, James Ruland

    In Part I we report on variations of the normal mode frequencies of the pulsating DB white dwarfs EC 20058-5234 and KIC 8626021 and the pulsating DA white dwarf GD 66. The observations of EC 20058-5234 and KIC 8626021 were motivated by the possibility of measuring the plasmon neutrino production rate of a white dwarf, while the observations of GD 66 were part of a white dwarf pulsation timing based planet search. We announce the discovery of periodic and quasi-periodic variations of multiple normal mode frequencies that cannot be due to the presence of planetary companions. We note the possible signature of a planetary companion to EC 20058-5234 and show that GD 66 cannot have a planet in a several AU orbit down to half a Jupiter mass. We also announce the discovery of secular variations of the normal mode frequencies of all three stars that are inconsistent with cooling alone. Importantly, the rates of period change of several modes of KIC 8626021 are consistent with evolutionary cooling, but are not yet statistically significant. These modes offer the best possibility of measuring the neutrino production rate in a white dwarf. We also observe periodic and secular variations in the frequency of a combination mode that exactly matches the variations predicted by the parent modes, strong observational evidence that combination modes are created by the convection zone and are not normal modes. Periodic variations in the amplitudes of many of these modes is also noted. We hypothesize that these frequency variations are caused by complex variations of the magnetic field strength and geometry, analogous to behavior observed in the Sun. In Part II we describe the MAESTRO software framework and the MAESTRO REDUCE algorithm. MAESTRO is a collection of astronomy specific MatLab software developed by the Whole Earth Telescope. REDUCE is an an algorithm that can extract the brightness of stars on a set of CCD images with minimal configuration and human interaction. The key to

  9. The Effect of 22NE Diffusion in the Evolution and Pulsational Properties of White Dwarfs with Solar Metallicity Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, María E.; Althaus, Leandro G.; Córsico, Alejandro H.; Vinyoles, Núria; Serenelli, Aldo M.; Isern, Jordi; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; García–Berro, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    Because of the large neutron excess of 22Ne, sedimentation of this isotope occurs rapidly in the interior of white dwarfs. This process releases an additional amount of energy, thus delaying the cooling times of the white dwarf. This influences the ages of different stellar populations derived using white dwarf cosmochronology. Furthermore, the overabundance of 22Ne in the inner regions of the star modifies the Brunt–Väisälä frequency, thus altering the pulsational properties of these stars. In this work we discuss the impact of 22Ne sedimentation in white dwarfs resulting from solar metallicity progenitors (Z = 0.02). We performed evolutionary calculations of white dwarfs with masses of 0.528, 0.576, 0.657, and 0.833 {M}ȯ derived from full evolutionary computations of their progenitor stars, starting at the zero-age main sequence all the way through the central hydrogen and helium burning, the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB), and post-AGB phases. Our computations show that at low luminosities ({log}(L/{L}ȯ )≲ -4.25), 22Ne sedimentation delays the cooling of white dwarfs with solar metallicity progenitors by about 1 Gyr. Additionally, we studied the consequences of 22Ne sedimentation on the pulsational properties of ZZ Ceti white dwarfs. We find that 22Ne sedimentation induces differences in the periods of these stars larger than the present observational uncertainties, particularly in more massive white dwarfs.

  10. THE HABITABILITY AND DETECTION OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS ORBITING COOL WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Fossati, L.; Haswell, C. A.; Patel, M. R.; Busuttil, R.; Bagnulo, S.; Kowalski, P. M.; Shulyak, D. V.; Sterzik, M. F. E-mail: C.A.Haswell@open.ac.uk E-mail: r.busuttil@open.ac.uk E-mail: kowalski@gfz-potsdam.de E-mail: msterzik@eso.org

    2012-09-20

    Since there are several ways planets can survive the giant phase of the host star, we examine the habitability and detection of planets orbiting white dwarfs. As a white dwarf cools from 6000 K to 4000 K, a planet orbiting at 0.01 AU would remain in the continuous habitable zone (CHZ) for {approx}8 Gyr. We show that photosynthetic processes can be sustained on such planets. The DNA-weighted UV radiation dose for an Earth-like planet in the CHZ is less than the maxima encountered on Earth, and hence non-magnetic white dwarfs are compatible with the persistence of complex life. Polarization due to a terrestrial planet in the CHZ of a cool white dwarf (CWD) is 10{sup 2} (10{sup 4}) times larger than it would be in the habitable zone of a typical M-dwarf (Sun-like star). Polarimetry is thus a viable way to detect close-in rocky planets around white dwarfs. Multi-band polarimetry would also allow us to reveal the presence of a planet atmosphere, providing a first characterization. Planets in the CHZ of a 0.6 M{sub Sun} white dwarf will be distorted by Roche geometry, and a Kepler-11d analog would overfill its Roche lobe. With current facilities a super-Earth-sized atmosphereless planet is detectable with polarimetry around the brightest known CWD. Planned future facilities render smaller planets detectable, in particular by increasing the instrumental sensitivity in the blue.

  11. Detection of trace helium in G104 - 27, a 26,000 K DA white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Kidder, K. M.; Wesemael, F.

    1990-01-01

    The detection of the He I 4471 A feature in the moderately hot DA white dwarf G104 - 27 places this star within the rather sparse class of DAB white dwarfs. It does not appear possible, on the basis of the present data, to distinguish between a stratified and a homogeneously mixed atmosphere. While a stratified structure would be natural for a DA white dwarf, G104 - 27 resides near the red edge of the DB gap, in a region where DA stars could transform into DB stars through convective mixing in the underlying He envelope and thereby destroy envelope stratification. Both atmospheres are consistent with the existing soft X-ray flux limit for this star.

  12. An upper limit on the contribution of accreting white dwarfs to the type Ia supernova rate.

    PubMed

    Gilfanov, Marat; Bogdán, Akos

    2010-02-18

    There is wide agreement that type Ia supernovae (used as standard candles for cosmology) are associated with the thermonuclear explosions of white dwarf stars. The nuclear runaway that leads to the explosion could start in a white dwarf gradually accumulating matter from a companion star until it reaches the Chandrasekhar limit, or could be triggered by the merger of two white dwarfs in a compact binary system. The X-ray signatures of these two possible paths are very different. Whereas no strong electromagnetic emission is expected in the merger scenario until shortly before the supernova, the white dwarf accreting material from the normal star becomes a source of copious X-rays for about 10(7) years before the explosion. This offers a means of determining which path dominates. Here we report that the observed X-ray flux from six nearby elliptical galaxies and galaxy bulges is a factor of approximately 30-50 less than predicted in the accretion scenario, based upon an estimate of the supernova rate from their K-band luminosities. We conclude that no more than about five per cent of type Ia supernovae in early-type galaxies can be produced by white dwarfs in accreting binary systems, unless their progenitors are much younger than the bulk of the stellar population in these galaxies, or explosions of sub-Chandrasekhar white dwarfs make a significant contribution to the supernova rate. PMID:20164924

  13. Seismic evidence for the loss of stellar angular momentum before the white-dwarf stage.

    PubMed

    Charpinet, S; Fontaine, G; Brassard, P

    2009-09-24

    White-dwarf stars represent the final products of the evolution of some 95% of all stars. If stars were to keep their angular momentum throughout their evolution, their white-dwarf descendants, owing to their compact nature, should all rotate relatively rapidly, with typical periods of the order of a few seconds. Observations of their photospheres show, in contrast, that they rotate much more slowly, with periods ranging from hours to tens of years. It is not known, however, whether a white dwarf could 'hide' some of its original angular momentum below the superficial layers, perhaps spinning much more rapidly inside than at its surface. Here we report a determination of the internal rotation profile of a white dwarf using a method based on asteroseismology. We show that the pulsating white dwarf PG 1159-035 rotates as a solid body (encompassing more than 97.5% of its mass) with the relatively long period of 33.61 +/- 0.59 h. This implies that it has lost essentially all of its angular momentum, thus favouring theories which suggest important angular momentum transfer and loss in evolutionary phases before the white-dwarf stage. PMID:19779446

  14. THE HYADES CLUSTER: IDENTIFICATION OF A PLANETARY SYSTEM AND ESCAPING WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckerman, B.; Xu, S.; Klein, B.; Jura, M. E-mail: sxu@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu

    2013-06-20

    Recently, some hot DA-type white dwarfs have been proposed to plausibly be escaping members of the Hyades. We used hydrogen Balmer lines to measure the radial velocities of seven such stars and confirm that three, and perhaps two others, are/were indeed cluster members and one is not. The other candidate Hyad is strongly magnetic and its membership status remains uncertain. The photospheres of at least one quarter of field white dwarf stars are ''polluted'' by elements heavier than helium that have been accreted. These stars are orbited by extended planetary systems that contain both debris belts and major planets. We surveyed the seven classical single Hyades white dwarfs and the newly identified (escaping) Hyades white dwarfs and found calcium in the photosphere of LP 475-242 of type DBA (now DBAZ), thus implying the presence of an orbiting planetary system. The spectrum of white dwarf GD 31, which may be, but probably is not, an escaping member of the Hyades, displays calcium absorption lines; these originate either from the interstellar medium or, less likely, from a gaseous circumstellar disk. If GD 31 was once a Hyades member, then it would be the first identified white dwarf Hyad with a cooling age >340 Myr.

  15. The Hyades Cluster: Identification of a Planetary System and Escaping White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Xu, S.; Klein, B.; Jura, M.

    2013-06-01

    Recently, some hot DA-type white dwarfs have been proposed to plausibly be escaping members of the Hyades. We used hydrogen Balmer lines to measure the radial velocities of seven such stars and confirm that three, and perhaps two others, are/were indeed cluster members and one is not. The other candidate Hyad is strongly magnetic and its membership status remains uncertain. The photospheres of at least one quarter of field white dwarf stars are "polluted" by elements heavier than helium that have been accreted. These stars are orbited by extended planetary systems that contain both debris belts and major planets. We surveyed the seven classical single Hyades white dwarfs and the newly identified (escaping) Hyades white dwarfs and found calcium in the photosphere of LP 475-242 of type DBA (now DBAZ), thus implying the presence of an orbiting planetary system. The spectrum of white dwarf GD 31, which may be, but probably is not, an escaping member of the Hyades, displays calcium absorption lines; these originate either from the interstellar medium or, less likely, from a gaseous circumstellar disk. If GD 31 was once a Hyades member, then it would be the first identified white dwarf Hyad with a cooling age >340 Myr.

  16. Spin and Magnetism of White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kissin, Yevgeni; Thompson, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    The magnetism and rotation of white dwarf (WD) stars are investigated in relation to a hydromagnetic dynamo operating in the progenitor during shell burning phases. The downward pumping of angular momentum in the convective envelope, in combination with the absorption of a planet or tidal spin-up from a binary companion, can trigger strong dynamo action near the core-envelope boundary. Several arguments point to the outer core as the source for a magnetic field in the WD remnant: the outer third of a ˜ 0.55 {M}⊙ WD is processed during the shell burning phase(s) of the progenitor; the escape of magnetic helicity through the envelope mediates the growth of (compensating) helicity in the core, as is needed to maintain a stable magnetic field in the remnant; and the intense radiation flux at the core boundary facilitates magnetic buoyancy within a relatively thick tachocline layer. The helicity flux into the growing core is driven by a dynamical imbalance with a latitude-dependent rotational stress. The magnetic field deposited in an isolated massive WD is concentrated in an outer shell of mass ≲ 0.1 {M}⊙ and can reach ˜10 MG. A buried toroidal field experiences moderate ohmic decay above an age ˜0.3 Gyr, which may lead to growth or decay of the external magnetic field. The final WD spin period is related to a critical spin rate below which magnetic activity shuts off and core and envelope decouple; it generally sits in the range of hours to days. WD periods ranging up to a year are possible if the envelope re-expands following a late thermal pulse.

  17. Variable White Dwarf Data Tables

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, P. A.

    1997-12-31

    Below, I give a brief explanation of the information in these tables. In all cases, I list the WD {number_sign}, either from the catalog of McCook {ampersand} Sion (1987) or determined by me from the epoch 1950 coordinates. Next, I list the most commonly used name (or alias), then I list the variable star designation if it is available. If not, I list the constellation name and a V** or?? depending on what the last designated variable star for that constellation is. I present epoch 2000 coordinates for all of the stars, which I precessed from the 1950 ones in most cases. I do not include proper motion effects; this is negligible for all except the largest proper motion DAV stars, such as L 19-2, BPM 37093, B 808, and G 29-38. Even in these cases, the error is no more than 30` in declination and 2 s in right ascension. I culled effective temperatures from the latest work (listed under each table); they are now much more homogeneous than before. I pulled the magnitude estimates from the appropriate paper, and they are mean values integrated over several cycles. The amplitude given is for the height of a typical pulse in the light curve. The periods correspond the dominant ones found in the light curve. In some cases, there is a band of power in a given period range, or the light curve is very complex, and I indicate this in the table. In the references, I generally list the paper with the most comprehensive pulsation analysis for the star in question. In some cases, there is more than one good reference, and I list them as well.

  18. Pulsating low-mass white dwarfs in the frame of new evolutionary sequences. III. The pre-ELM white dwarf instability strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.; Serenelli, A. M.; Kepler, S. O.; Jeffery, C. S.; Corti, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Context. Many low-mass (M⋆/M⊙ ≲ 0.45) and extremely low-mass (ELM, M⋆/M⊙ ≲ 0.18-0.20) white-dwarf stars are currently being found in the field of the Milky Way. Some of these stars exhibit long-period gravity-mode (g-mode) pulsations, and constitute the class of pulsating white dwarfs called ELMV stars. In addition, two low-mass pre-white dwarfs, which could be precursors of ELM white dwarfs, have been observed to show multiperiodic photometric variations. They could constitute a new class of pulsating low-mass pre-white dwarf stars. Aims: Motivated by this finding, we present a detailed nonadiabatic pulsation study of such stars, employing full evolutionary sequences of low-mass He-core pre-white dwarf models. Methods: Our pulsation stability analysis is based on a set of low-mass He-core pre-white dwarf models with masses ranging from 0.1554 to 0.2724 M⊙, which were derived by computing the nonconservative evolution of a binary system consisting of an initially 1 M⊙ ZAMS star and a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star companion. We have considered models in which element diffusion is accounted for and also models in which it is neglected. Results: We confirm and explore in detail a new instability strip in the domain of low gravities and low effective temperatures of the Teff - log g diagram, where low-mass pre-white dwarfs are currently found. The destabilized modes are radial and nonradial p and g modes excited by the κ - γ mechanism acting mainly at the zone of the second partial ionization of He, with non-negligible contributions from the region of the first partial ionization of He and the partial ionization of H. The computations with element diffusion are unable to explain the pulsations observed in the two known pulsating pre-white dwarfs, suggesting that element diffusion might be inhibited at these stages of the pre-white dwarf evolution. Our nonadiabatic models without diffusion, on the other hand, naturally explain the existence and range of

  19. Numerical Simulations of Double White Dwarf Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Clayton, G.; Tohline, J. E.; Even, W.; Fryer, C.; Diehl, S.; Geballe, T.; Herwig, F.

    2010-03-01

    We will present evolutions of white dwarf binaries from two independent codes (one SPH and one Eulerian). We attempt to match the initial data for semi-detached synchronously rotating binaries between these two fluid representations. Our set of simulations includes various initial mass ratios and we assume one of two different equations of state (polytropic or ideal gas) to span the parameter space between the two possible extreme cases of rapid, catastrophic merger through to long-lived, steady mass transfer. In this presentation, we will primarily highlight the level of agreement between the two codes and how the results vary with increasing numerical resolution. We will also discuss future work incorporating nuclear reactions into our simulations and the possible connections of double white dwarf mergers to astrophysical sources.

  20. General Relativistic and Newtonian White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshkayev, K.; Rueda, J. A.; Ruffini, R.; Siutsou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The properties of uniformly rotating white dwarfs (RWDs) are analyzed within the framework of Newton's gravity and general relativity. In both cases Hartle's formalism is applied to construct the internal and external solutions to the field equations. The white dwarf (WD) matter is described by the Chandrasekhar equation of state. The region of stability of RWDs is constructed taking into account the mass-shedding limit, inverse β-decay instability, and the boundary established by the turning points of constant angular momentum J sequences which separates stable from secularly unstable configurations. We found the minimum rotation period ˜ 0.28 s in both cases and maximum rotating masses ˜ 1.534M⊙ and ˜ 1.516M⊙ for the Newtonian and general relativistic WDs, respectively. By using the turning point method we show that general relativistic WDs can indeed be axisymmetrically unstable whereas the Newtonian WDs are stable.

  1. The field white dwarf mass distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Cummings, J.; Kalirai, J. S.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Gentile-Fusillo, N.; Raddi, R.

    2016-09-01

    We revisit the properties and astrophysical implications of the field white dwarf mass distribution in preparation of Gaia applications. Our study is based on the two samples with the best established completeness and most precise atmospheric parameters, the volume-complete survey within 20 pc and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) magnitude-limited sample. We explore the modelling of the observed mass distributions with Monte Carlo simulations, but find that it is difficult to constrain independently the initial mass function (IMF), the initial-to-final-mass relation (IFMR), the stellar formation history (SFH), the variation of the Galactic disc vertical scale height as a function of stellar age, and binary evolution. Each of these input ingredients has a moderate effect on the predicted mass distributions, and we must also take into account biases owing to unidentified faint objects (20 pc sample), as well as unknown masses for magnetic white dwarfs and spectroscopic calibration issues (SDSS sample). Nevertheless, we find that fixed standard assumptions for the above parameters result in predicted mean masses that are in good qualitative agreement with the observed values. It suggests that derived masses for both studied samples are consistent with our current knowledge of stellar and Galactic evolution. Our simulations overpredict by 40-50 per cent the number of massive white dwarfs (M > 0.75 M⊙) for both surveys, although we can not exclude a Salpeter IMF when we account for all biases. Furthermore, we find no evidence of a population of double white dwarf mergers in the observed mass distributions.

  2. Simulations of White Dwarf Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staff, J.; Menon, A.; Herwig, F.; Clayton, G. C.; Even, W. P.; Fryer, C. L.; Motl, P.; Tohline, J. E.; Geballe, T.; Pignatari, M.

    2013-01-01

    R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars may be the result of the merger of a CO and a He WD. We have performed six 3 dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of the merger of two WDs, keeping a total mass of 0.9 solar masses and varying the mass ratio (q) between 0.5 and 1. The simulations show that for high q, the two cores merge leading to a combined core consisting of material from both the former accretor and donor. For lower q, the donor star gets tidally disrupted and most of the donor material ends up outside the accretor core, with a hot interaction layer forming between them. A lower q leads to higher temperatures. We locate conditions that are suitable for nucleosynthesis to take place, especially looking for conditions favorable for creating 18O, since the 16O to 18O ratio in RCB stars is observed to be unusually low, of order unity. Using conditions found in the hydrodynamic simulations as input to our post-processing nucleosynthesis code, we find that oxygen ratios down to 4 can be reached, but only after a hundred years, assuming the conditions will remain constant for that long. The main problem preventing the oxygen ratio to drop lower is that much 16O is dredged up from the accretor in the merger process, thereby necessitating production of large amount of 18O in order to achieve ratios of order unity.

  3. THE SPECTRAL TYPES OF WHITE DWARFS IN MESSIER 4

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D. Saul; Richer, Harvey B.; Rich, R. Michael; Reitzel, David R.; Kalirai, Jason S.

    2009-11-01

    We present the spectra of 24 white dwarfs in the direction of the globular cluster Messier 4 obtained with the Keck/LRIS and Gemini/GMOS spectrographs. Determining the spectral types of the stars in this sample, we find 24 type DA and 0 type DB (i.e., atmospheres dominated by hydrogen and helium, respectively). Assuming the ratio of DA/DB observed in the field with effective temperature between 15,000-25,000 K, i.e., 4.2:1, holds for the cluster environment, the chance of finding no DBs in our sample simply due to statistical fluctuations is only 6 x 10{sup -3}. The spectral types of the approx100 white dwarfs previously identified in open clusters indicate that DB formation is strongly suppressed in that environment. Furthermore, all the approx10 white dwarfs previously identified in other globular clusters are exclusively type DA. In the context of these two facts, this finding suggests that DB formation is suppressed in the cluster environment in general. Though no satisfactory explanation for this phenomenon exists, we discuss several possibilities.

  4. CSS 41177: an eclipsing double white dwarf binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bours, Madelon

    2013-10-01

    The overwhelming majority of stellar remnants are white dwarfs. Despite their abundance and importance to, amongst others, Galactic age determinations and our understanding of type Ia supernovae fewer than a dozen white dwarfs have model-independent measurements of fundamental parameters like mass and radius. A major limitation on the observational side is that such parameters are extremely difficult to determine in a model-independant way for single white dwarfs. Close white dwarf binaries can provide these important tests.The largest class of white dwarf binaries in the Galaxy are the detached double white dwarfs, which are becoming increasingly popular as the progenitor systems of Type Ia supernovae. In recent years four eclipsing double white dwarfs have been found, creating the opportunity for precision mass and radius measurements of two white dwarfs at once. Our target, CSS 41177, contains two extremely low-gravity white dwarfs with very different temperatures, presenting us with a unique chance to test the existing mass-radius relation at its extremes.Here we propose a 2 orbit HST/COS FUV observation of CSS 41177, to accurately determine the temperature and surface gravity of the hot white dwarf. Through the flux ratio from the light curve this will at the same time constrain those of the cool white dwarf. Therefore it will allow us to add two more white dwarfs with accurate parameters to the short list of white dwarfs for which precise masses and radii are known.Note: The proposed observations are part of the doctoral thesis of Ms. Madelon C.P. Bours.

  5. Granulation properties of giants, dwarfs, and white dwarfs from the CIFIST 3D model atmosphere grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Freytag, B.; Steffen, M.; Caffau, E.

    2013-09-01

    Three-dimensional model atmospheres for giants, dwarfs, and white dwarfs, computed with the CO5BOLD code and part of the CIFIST grid, have been used for spectroscopic and asteroseismic studies. Unlike existing plane-parallel 1D structures, these simulations predict the spatially and temporally resolved emergent intensity so that granulation can be analysed, which provides insights on how convective energy transfer operates in stars. The wide range of atmospheric parameters of the CIFIST 3D simulations (3600 < Teff (K) < 13 000 and 1 < log g < 9) allows the comparison of convective processes in significantly different environments. We show that the relative intensity contrast is correlated with both the Mach and Péclet numbers in the photosphere. The horizontal size of granules varies between 3 and 10 times the local pressure scale height, with a tight correlation between the factor and the Mach number of the flow. Given that convective giants, dwarfs, and white dwarfs cover the same range of Mach and Péclet numbers, we conclude that photospheric convection operates in a very similar way in those objects. Table 1 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Excitation and Saturation of White Dwarf Pulsations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yanqin

    1998-06-01

    Variable hydrogen white dwarfs (DAV) pulsate in a number of low-order gravity-modes with periods from 100 s to 1200 s and amplitudes no larger than a few percent. We answer two questions in this thesis: the driving for these pulsations, and the saturation of their amplitudes. The surface convection zone in these stars, which adjusts its entropy level instantaneously during the pulsation, can drive the observed modes. This mechanism (called 'convective driving') was discovered by Brickhill but has been largely neglected so far. We find that modes with periods shorter than the thermal adjustment time of the convection zone can become overstable, but those with very short periods are hardly visible at the surface. As the star cools and the convection zone deepens, longer period modes can be excited. The driving rates increase sharply with period. We relate these to the time-scale of mode variability. We include complications arising from nonadiabaticity in the radiative interior and turbulent damping at the convective-radiative boundary. The former limits the driving and damping rates for strongly nonadiabatic modes, and relates the phase and amplitude of surface horizontal velocity in a gravity-mode to those of its flux variation. The turbulent damping results from the horizontal velocity shear below the convection zone, inside which there is little velocity shear and negligible damping. This suppresses the amplitudes of long period modes to below detection. The width of the theoretical DAV instability strip is about 1000 K. The growth of an overstable mode can be saturated by parametric instability, where energy transfers resonantly into two damped modes of roughly half its frequency. This occurs above a critical amplitude which depends on the 3-mode coupling coefficient and the nonadiabatic damping rates. The critical amplitudes all fall below a few percent, with longer period modes having larger surface amplitudes. Combined with the amplitude limits due to

  7. Population synthesis of Be/white dwarf binaries in the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raguzova, N. V.

    2001-03-01

    Using the ``Scenario Machine'' (a numerical co-de that models the evolution of large ensembles of binary systems) we study the number and physical properties of binary Be stars with white dwarfs taking account of the compact object cooling and we discuss the ways of their formation. In our calculations we take into account the influence of tidal synchronization on the evolution of stars in a close binary. The synchronization time scale may be less than the life-time of a Be star on the main sequence after the first mass transfer. It has strong effects on the resulting number distribution of binary Be stars over orbital periods. In particular, it can explain the lack of short period Be binaries. According to our calculations the number of binary systems containing a Be star paired with a white dwarf in the Galaxy is very large - 70% of all Be stars formed as a result of binary evolution must have a white dwarf as a companion. Based on our calculations we conclude that the compact companion in these systems must have a high surface temperature. The number distribution over the surface temperature peaks at 2 104 K for all white dwarfs and at 4 104 K for white dwarfs paired with early-type Be stars (between B0 and B2). The registration of white dwarfs in such systems is hampered by the fact that the entire orbit of a white dwarf is embedded in the dense circumstellar envelope of the primary star (our calculations show that the majority of Be/WD systems have orbital periods less than one year) and all extreme-UV and soft X-ray photons of a compact companion are absorbed by the Be star envelope. The detection of a white dwarf is possible during the period when the Be star disc-like envelope is lacking by the detection of white dwarf extreme-UV and soft X-ray emission. This method of registration appears to be particularly promising for ``single'' early-type Be stars because in these systems the white dwarfs must have a very high surface temperature. However, the loss of

  8. The white dwarf affair: Chandrasekhar, Eddington and the limiting mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooneratne, Sakura

    A thesis describing and analysing the controversy between Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar and Arthur Stanley Eddington over the limiting mass of white dwarf stars. The aim of the thesis is to discover why the controversy occurred and to analyse the reasons behind Eddington's rejection of relativistic degeneracy and the limiting mass. The ultimate reason behind Eddington's attack on relativistic degeneracy was found to be Eddington's severe objection to singularities which was apparent long before Chandrasekhar's discovery of the limiting mass and occurred in three separate areas of research undertaken by Eddington during this period: astrophysics, cosmology, general relativity and Dirac's relativistic equation of the electron which led to Eddington's fundamental theory. The thesis will focus on the problem of the limiting mass of white dwarfs between 1929 and 1935 but will use the problem to analyse Eddington's view of singularities within the three different research areas spanning two decades from 1916 to 1936. The Chandrasekhar-Eddington controversy is set within Eddington's earlier controversies with James Jeans and Edward Arthur Milne who together with Eddington founded theoretical astrophysics during the 1920s. The thesis will examine the problem of white dwarfs within the context of the earlier controversies on stellar structure. As well as the technical analysis of the controversy, the thesis will also analyse the social dynamics and interactions within the astronomical community and their impact on the controversies. The aim of this thesis is to create a more complete picture of the Chandrasekhar-Eddington controversy by analysing Eddington's arguments for rejecting relativistic degeneracy, the limiting mass of white dwarfs and singularities not just within the context of astrophysics, but also cosmology, general relativity and quantum mechanics and to provide some new explanations as to why Eddington opposed relativistic degeneracy.

  9. The WIRED Survey. IV. New Dust Disks from the McCook & Sion White Dwarf Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoard, D.W.; Debes, John H.; Wachter, Stefanie; Leisawitz, David T.; Cohen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We have compiled photometric data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey and other archival sources for the more than 2200 objects in the original McCook & Sion Catalog of Spectroscopically Identified White Dwarfs. We applied color-selection criteria to identify 28 targets whose infrared spectral energy distributions depart from the expectation for the white dwarf photosphere alone. Seven of these are previously known white dwarfs with circumstellar dust disks, five are known central stars of planetary nebulae, and six were excluded for being known binaries or having possible contamination of their infrared photometry. We fit white dwarf models to the spectral energy distributions of the remaining ten targets, and find seven new candidates with infrared excess suggesting the presence of a circumstellar dust disk. We compare the model dust disk properties for these new candidates with a comprehensive compilation of previously published parameters for known white dwarfs with dust disks. It is possible that the current census of white dwarfs with dust disks that produce an excess detectable at K-band and shorter wavelengths is close to complete for the entire sample of known WDs to the detection limits of existing near-IR all-sky surveys. The white dwarf dust disk candidates now being found using longer wavelength infrared data are drawn from a previously underrepresented region of parameter space, in which the dust disks are overall cooler, narrower in radial extent, and/or contain fewer emitting grains.

  10. The Fraction of DA White Dwarfs with Kilo--Gauss Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, S.; Aznar Cuadrado, R.; Napiwotzki, R.; Schmid, H. M.; Solanki, S. K.

    2007-09-01

    Current estimates for white dwarfs with fields in excess of 1 MG are about 10%; according to our first high-precision circular-polarimetric study of 12 bright white dwarfs with the VLT tep{p26_Aznar-etal:04} this number increases up to about 25%\\ in the kG regime. With our new sample of ten white dwarf observations (plus one sdO star) we wanted to improve the sample statistics to determine the incident of kG magnetic fields in white dwarfs. In one of our objects (LTT 7987) we detected a statistically significant (97% confidence level) longitudinal magnetic field varying between (-1± 0.5) kG and (+1± 0.5) kG. This would be the weakest magnetic field ever found in a white dwarf, but at this level of accuracy, systematic errors cannot completely be ruled out. Together with previous investigations, the fraction of kG magnetic fields in white dwarfs amounts to about 11-15% , which is close to current estimates for highly magnetic white dwarfs (>1 MG).

  11. Planets and Brown Dwarfs and Stars, Oh My! --- Companions Along the Road to the Nearest Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Todd J.; Davison, C. L.; Dieterich, S. B.; Ianna, P. A.; Jao, W. C.; Koerner, D. W.; Subasavage, J. P.; Tanner, A. M.; White, R. J.; RECONS

    2012-01-01

    RECONS (www.recons.org, REsearch Consortium On Nearby Stars) has been using astrometric techniques since 1999 to search for massive planets orbiting more than 130 nearby red and white dwarfs. Because of their proximity, nearby stars are natural locations to search for other solar systems --- the stars provide increased fluxes, larger astrometric perturbations, and higher probabilities for eventual resolution of planets than similar stars at larger distances. Unlike radial velocity searches, our astrometric effort is most sensitive to Jovian planets in Jovian orbits, i.e. those that span decades. We have discovered stellar companions with masses of a few hundred Jupiters, brown dwarf companions with masses of a few tens of Jupiters, and are now pushing into the realm of planets with masses of a few Jupiters around the nearest red dwarfs. Several previously unknown companions have been imaged via Gemini-AO observations, but we have also detected perturbations caused by enigmatic companions that elude direct detection. As we sweep through the mass regimes of stars to exoplanets for companions, we are now able to assess the various populations --- stars are common as companions, whereas brown dwarfs and massive planets are rare. We outline what we have discovered so far and place our exoplanet search results in context with an overview of the census of more than 60 stars with exoplanets known within 25 pc. This effort is supported by the NSF through grant AST-0908402 and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  12. White Dwarfs for Calibrating the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allyn Smith, J.; Wester, William; Tucker, Douglas Lee; Fix, Mees B.; Tremblay, Pier-Emmanuel; Gulledge, Deborah J.; McDonald, Christopher P.; Allam, Sahar S.; James, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is surveying some 5000 square degrees in the southern hemisphere in the grizY filter system using the new Dark Energy Camera. In order to verify meeting photometric calibration requirements, we are obtaining imaging of several hundred white dwarfs (confirmed and candidates) to select nearly 100 or more hydrogen atmosphere (DA) white dwarfs for spectroscopy in the DES footprint. The spectra that are obtained will be extracted and used to derive synthetic spectra that can be compared with DES measurements from imaging in each of the DES grizY filters. This comparison should be able to verify and help calibrate the survey to a level better than 2% photometrically and to better than 0.5% in colors. We will discuss the observational and modeling effort required to develop a well-characterized DAs sample and present some preliminary results. This set would form the basis of a larger set of southern hemisphere survey calibration stars, and additionally serve as a legacy calibration set in the upcoming era of the LSST survey and the giant segmented mirror observatories. These stars will be used to establish and monitor the color zero points for the DES photometric system and can be used to search for systematic errors in the color zero points over the DES footprint. These stars will also be used as some of the primary standards for the DES photometric system which will allow nightly atmospheric monitoring during DES operations.

  13. White dwarfs in an ungravity-inspired model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Mariji, Hodjat

    2016-05-01

    An ungravity-inspired model is employed to examine the astrophysical parameters of white dwarf stars (WDs) using polytropic and degenerate gas approaches. Based on the observed properties such as mass, radius, and luminosity of selected WDs, namely, Sirius B and ɛ Reticulum, bounds on the characteristic length and scaling dimension of the ungravity (UG) model are estimated. The UG effect on the Chandrasekhar limit for WDs is shown. The UG model is examined in the study of ultramassive WDs, e.g., EUVE J1746-706. The UG-inspired model implies that a new location for some WDs on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is found.

  14. Low mass stellar and substellar companionship among nearby white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radiszcz, R.; Méndez, R. A.

    2009-05-01

    This work is a systematic, deep search for stellar and substellar objects orbiting nearby white dwarfs (WDs). The scientific interest spans testing specific predictions of common envelope evolutionary phase models, as well as providing constraints to planetary system evolution in advanced stages of its parent star (Livio & Soker 1984; Willes & Wu 2005). Additionally, we seek to explore the hypothesis about the origin of metal lines in hydrogen WDs, produced by the accretion of tidal disturbed asteroidal or cometary material. This could be linked to the presence of a undetected substellar object that perturbed the orbits of these asteroids or comets (Debes & Sigurdsson 2002). Here, we show preliminary results of this project.

  15. THE BINARY FRACTION OF LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Justin M.; Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J.

    2011-04-01

    We describe spectroscopic observations of 21 low-mass ({<=}0.45 M{sub sun}) white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey obtained over four years. We use both radial velocities and infrared photometry to identify binary systems, and find that the fraction of single, low-mass WDs is {<=}30%. We discuss the potential formation channels for these single stars including binary mergers of lower-mass objects. However, binary mergers are not likely to explain the observed number of single low-mass WDs. Thus, additional formation channels, such as enhanced mass loss due to winds or interactions with substellar companions, are likely.

  16. Probing white dwarf interiors with LISA: periastron precession in eccentric double white dwarfs.

    PubMed

    Willems, B; Vecchio, A; Kalogera, V

    2008-02-01

    In globular clusters, dynamical interactions give rise to a population of eccentric double white dwarfs detectable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) up to the Large Magellanic Cloud. In this Letter, we explore the detectability of periastron precession in these systems with LISA. Unlike previous investigations, we consider contributions due to tidal and rotational distortions of the binary components in addition to general relativistic contributions to the periastron precession. At orbital frequencies above a few mHz, we find that tides and stellar rotation dominate, opening up a possibly unique window to the study of the interior and structure of white dwarfs. PMID:18352253

  17. Using self-organizing maps to identify potential halo white dwarfs.

    PubMed

    García-Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Isern, Jordi

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of an unsupervised classification of the disk and halo white dwarf populations in the solar neighborhood. The classification is done by merging the results of detailed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations, which reproduce very well the characteristics of the white dwarf populations in the solar neighborhood, with a catalogue of real stars. The resulting composite catalogue is analyzed using a competitive learning algorithm. In particular we have used the so-called self-organized map. The MC simulated stars are used as tracers and help in identifying the resulting clusters. The results of such an strategy turn out to be quite satisfactory, suggesting that this approach can provide an useful framework for analyzing large databases of white dwarfs with well determined kinematical, spatial and photometric properties once they become available in the next decade. Moreover, the results are of astrophysical interest as well, since a straightforward interpretation of several recent astronomical observations, like the detected microlensing events in the direction of the Magellanic Clouds, the possible detection of high proper motion white dwarfs in the Hubble Deep Field and the discovery of high velocity white dwarfs in the solar neighborhood, suggests that a fraction of the baryonic dark matter component of our galaxy could be in the form of old and dim halo white dwarfs. PMID:12672435

  18. A Search for Rocky Planets in Close Orbits around White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debes, John; Sandhaus, Phoebe; Ely, Justin

    2015-12-01

    The search for transiting habitable exoplanets has broadened to include several types of stars that are smaller than the Sun in order to increase the observed transit depth and hence the atmospheric signal of the planet. Of all current spectral types, white dwarfs are the most favorable for this type of investigation. The fraction of white dwarfs that possess close-in rocky planets is unknown, but several large angle surveys of stars have the photometric precision and cadence to discover at least one if they are common. Ultraviolet observations of white dwarfs may allow for detection of molecular oxygen or ozone in the atmosphere of a terrestrial planet. We use archival Hubble Space Telescope data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to search for transiting rocky planets around UV-bright white dwarfs. In the process, we discovered unusual variability in the pulsating white dwarf GD~133, which shows slow sinusoidal variations in the UV. While we detect no planets around our small sample of targets, we do place stringent limits on the possibility of transiting planets, down to sub-lunar radii. We also point out that non-transiting small planets in thermal equilibrium are detectable around hotter white dwarfs through infrared excesses, and identify two candidates.

  19. Spectroscopy of New High Proper Motion Stars in the Northern Sky. I. New Nearby Stars, New High-Velocity Stars, and an Enhanced Classification Scheme for M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lépine, Sébastien; Rich, R. Michael; Shara, Michael M.

    2003-03-01

    We define an enhanced spectral classification scheme for M dwarf stars and use it to derive spectral classification of 104 northern stars with proper motions larger than 0.5" yr-1 that we discovered in a survey of high proper motion stars at low Galactic latitudes. The final tally is as follows: 54 M dwarfs, 25 sdK and sdM subdwarfs, 14 esdK and esdM extreme subdwarfs, and 11 DA and DC white dwarfs. Among the most interesting cases, we find one star to be the coolest subdwarf ever reported (LSR 2036+5059, with spectral type sdM7.5), a new M9.0 dwarf only about 6 pc distant (LSR 1835+3259), and a new M6.5 dwarf only 7 pc from the Sun (LSR 2124+4003). Spectroscopic distances suggests that 27 of the M dwarfs, three of the white dwarfs, and one of the subdwarfs (LSR 2036+5059) are within 25 pc of the Sun, making them excellent candidates for inclusion in the solar neighborhood census. Estimated sky-projected velocities suggest that most of our subdwarfs and extreme subdwarfs have halo kinematics. We find that several white dwarfs and non-metal-poor M dwarfs also have kinematics consistent with the halo, and we briefly discuss their possible origin.

  20. Discovery of High Proper-Motion Ancient White Dwarfs: Nearby Massive Compact Halo Objects?

    PubMed

    Ibata; Irwin; Bienaymé; Scholz; Guibert

    2000-03-20

    We present the discovery and spectroscopic identification of two very high proper-motion ancient white dwarf stars, found in a systematic proper-motion survey. Their kinematics and apparent magnitude clearly indicate that they are halo members, while their optical spectra are almost identical to the recently identified cool halo white dwarf WD 0346+246. Canonical stellar halo models predict a white dwarf volume density that is 2 orders of magnitude less than the rho approximately 7x10-4 M middle dot in circle pc-3 inferred from this survey. With the caveat that the sample size is very small, it appears that a significant fraction, approximately 10%, of the local dark matter halo is in the form of very old, cool, white dwarfs. PMID:10702128

  1. LP 400-22, A Very Low Mass and High-Velocity White Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, Stephane; Oswalt, Terry D.; Smith, J. Allyn; Silvestri, Nicole M.

    2006-01-01

    We report the identification of LP 400-22 (WD 2234+222) as a very low mass and high-velocity white dwarf. The ultraviolet GALEX and optical photometric colors and a spectral line analysis of LP 400-22 show this star to have an effective temperature of 11,080+/-140 K and a surface gravity of log g = 6.32 +/-0.08. Therefore, this is a helium-core white dwarf with a mass of 0.17 M,. The tangential velocity of this white dwarf is 414+/-43 km/s, making it one of the fastest moving white dwarfs known. We discuss probable evolutionary scenarios for this remarkable object.

  2. Hydrogen in hot subdwarfs formed by double helium white dwarf mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Philip D.; Jeffery, C. Simon

    2016-09-01

    Isolated hot subdwarfs might be formed by the merging of two helium-core white dwarfs. Before merging, helium-core white dwarfs have hydrogen-rich envelopes and some of this hydrogen may survive the merger. We calculate the mass of hydrogen that is present at the start of such mergers and, with the assumption that hydrogen is mixed throughout the disrupted white dwarf in the merger process, estimate how much can survive. We find a hydrogen mass of up to about 2 × 10-3 M⊙ in merger remnants. We make model merger remnants that include the hydrogen mass appropriate to their total mass and compare their atmospheric parameters with a sample of apparently isolated hot subdwarfs, hydrogen-rich sdBs. The majority of these stars can be explained as the remnants of double helium white dwarf mergers.

  3. Strange stars, strange dwarfs, and planetary-like strange-matter objects

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, F.; Schaab, C.; Weigel, M.K.; Glendenning, N.K.

    1995-05-01

    This paper gives an overview of the properties of all possible equilibrium sequences of compact strange-matter stars with nuclear crusts, which range from strange stars to strange dwarfs. In contrast to their non-strange counterparts--neutron stars and white dwarfs--their properties are determined by two (rather than one) parameters, the central star density and the density at the base of the nuclear crust. This leads to stellar strange-matter configurations whose properties are much more complex than those of the conventional sequence. As an example, two generically different categories of stable strange dwarfs are found, which could be the observed white dwarfs. Furthermore the authors find very-low-mass strange stellar objects, with masses as small as those of Jupiter or even lighter planets. Such objects, if abundant enough, should be seen by the presently performed gravitational microlensing searches.

  4. The historical record for Sirius - Evidence for a white-dwarf thermonuclear runaway?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhweiler, Frederick C.; Kondo, Yoji; Sion, Edward M.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence was recently presented that in medieval times Sirius was a bright red star, rather than the present bluish-white star. Here, the results of attempts to detect possible planetary nebula ejecta toward Sirius using data obtained by the IUE are presented. Based on these results and in the light of recent advances in understanding white-dwarf evolution, it is proposed that Sirius B underwent a recent thermonuclear runaway event triggered by a diffusion-induced CN reaction.

  5. Massive Star Clusters in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Soeren

    2015-08-01

    Dwarf galaxies are often characterized by very high globular cluster specific frequencies, in some cases exceeding that of the Milky Way by a factor of 100 or more. Moreover, the GCs are typically much more metal-poor than the bulk of the field stars, so that a substantial fraction (up to 20-25% or more) of all metal-poor stars in some dwarf galaxies are associated with GCs. The metal-poor components of these galaxies thus represent an extreme case of the "specific frequency problem". In this talk I will review the current status of our understanding of GC systems in dwarf galaxies. Particular emphasis will be placed on the implications of the high GC specific frequencies for the amount of mass loss the clusters could have experienced and the constraints this provides on theories for the origin of multiple populations in globular clusters.

  6. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF UV-BRIGHT WHITE DWARFS FROM THE SANDAGE TWO-COLOR SURVEY OF THE GALACTIC PLANE

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, Sebastien; Bergeron, P.; Lanning, Howard H.

    2011-03-15

    We present spectroscopic observations confirming the identification of hot white dwarfs among UV-bright sources from the Sandage Two-color Survey of the Galactic Plane and listed in the Lanning (Lan) catalog of such sources. A subsample of 213 UV-bright Lan sources have been identified as candidate white dwarfs based on the detection of a significant proper motion. Spectroscopic observations of 46 candidates with the KPNO 2.1 m telescope confirm 30 sources to be hydrogen white dwarfs with subtypes in the DA1-DA6 range, and with one of the stars (Lan 161) having an unresolved M dwarf as a companion. Five more sources are confirmed to be helium white dwarfs, with subtypes from DB3 to DB6. One source (Lan 364) is identified as a DZ 3 white dwarf, with strong lines of calcium. Three more stars are found to have featureless spectra (to within detection limits) and are thus classified as DC white dwarfs. In addition, three sources are found to be hot subdwarfs: Lan 20 and Lan 480 are classified as sdOB, and Lan 432 is classified sdB. The remaining four objects are found to be field F star interlopers. Physical parameters of the DA and DB white dwarfs are derived from model fits.

  7. Chemical Abundances of Metal-poor stars in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, Kim A.; Jablonka, Pascale; Hill, Vanessa; Starkenburg, Else; Lemasle, Bertrand; Shetrone, Matthew; Irwin, Mike; Norris, John; Yong, David; Gilmore, Gerry; Salvadori, Stephania; Skuladottir, Asa; Tolstoy, Eline

    2016-08-01

    Stars in low-mass dwarf galaxies show a larger range in their chemical properties than those in the Milky Way halo. The slower star formation efficiency make dwarf galaxies ideal systems for testing nucleosynthetic yields. Not only are alpha-poor stars found at lower metallicities, and a higher fraction of carbon-enhanced stars, but we are also finding stars in dwarf galaxies that appear to be iron-rich. These are compared with yields from a variety of supernova predictions.

  8. The cool magnetic DAZ white dwarf NLTT 10480

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawka, A.; Vennes, S.

    2011-08-01

    We have identified a new cool magnetic white dwarf in the New Luyten Two-Tenths (NLTT) catalogue. The high proper-motion star NLTT 10480 (μ = 0.5″ yr-1) shows weak Zeeman-split lines of calcium as well as characteristic Hα and β Zeeman triplets. Using VLT X-shooter spectra, we measured a surface-averaged magnetic field BS ~ 0.5 MG. The relative intensity of the π and σ components of the calcium and hydrogen lines imply a high inclination (i ≳ 60°). The optical-to-infrared V - J colour index and the Ca I/Ca II ionization balance indicate a temperature between 4900 and 5200 K, while the Balmer line profiles favour a higher temperature of 5400 K. The discrepancy is potentially resolved by increasing the metallicity to 0.03 × solar, hence increasing the electron pressure. However, the measured calcium abundance and abundance upper limits for other elements (Na, Al, Si, and Fe) imply a low photospheric metallicity ≲ 10-4 solar. Assuming diffusion steady-state, a calcium accretion rate of log Ṁ(g s-1) = 5.6 ± 0.3 is required to sustain a calcium abundance of log n(Ca)/n(H) = -10.30 ± 0.30 in the white dwarf atmosphere. We examine the implications of this discovery for the incidence of planetary debris and weak magnetic fields in cool white dwarf stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile under programme ID 080.D-0521, 082.D-0750 and 086.D-0562.

  9. DUSTY DISKS AROUND WHITE DWARFS. I. ORIGIN OF DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Ruobing; Wang Yan; Lin, D. N. C.; Liu, X.-W. E-mail: yuw123@psu.ed E-mail: liuxw@bac.pku.edu.c

    2010-06-01

    A significant fraction of the mature FGK stars have cool dusty disks at least an order of magnitude brighter than the solar system's outer zodiacal light. Since such dusts must be continually replenished, they are generally assumed to be the collisional fragments of residual planetesimals analogous to the Kuiper-Belt objects. At least 10% of solar-type stars also bear gas giant planets. The fraction of stars with known gas giants or detectable debris disks (or both) appears to increase with the stellar mass. Here, we examine the dynamical evolution of systems of long-period gas giant planets and residual planetesimals as their host stars evolve off the main sequence, lose mass, and form planetary nebula around remnant white dwarf cores. The orbits of distant gas giant planets and super-km-size planetesimals expand adiabatically. During the most intense asymptotic giant branch mass-loss phase, sub-meter-size particles migrate toward their host stars due to the strong hydrodynamical drag by the intense stellar wind. Along their migration paths, gas giant planets capture and sweep up sub-km-size planetesimals onto their mean-motion resonances. These planetesimals also acquire modest eccentricities which are determined by the mass of the perturbing planets, and the rate and speed of stellar mass loss. The swept-up planetesimals undergo disruptive collisions which lead to the production of grains with an extended size range. The radiation drag on these particles is ineffective against the planets' resonant barrier and they form 30-50 AU size rings which can effectively reprocess the stellar irradiation in the form of FIR continuum. We identify the recently discovered dust ring around the white dwarf WD 2226-210 at the center of the Helix nebula as a prototype of such disks and suggest such rings may be common.

  10. The photospheric temperatures and composition of very hot He-rich white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Holberg, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported from a detailed analysis of Exosat observations of six hot He-rich white dwarfs belonging to, or related to, the spectroscopic subclass of PG1159 stars. These objects are thought to evolve directly from O VI type planetary nebulae nuclei and provide an important link in models of white dwarf evolution. When the Exosat data are compared with the predictions of an extensive grid of He-rich model atmospheres, it is possible to obtain temperature estimates for these stars that are much better constrained than previous attempts.

  11. Search for Higgs shifts in white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Onofrio, Roberto; Wegner, Gary A. E-mail: gary.a.wegner@dartmouth.edu

    2014-08-20

    We report on a search for differential shifts between electronic and vibronic transitions in carbon-rich white dwarfs BPM 27606 and Procyon B. The absence of differential shifts within the spectral resolution and taking into account systematic effects such as space motion and pressure shifts allows us to set the first upper bound of astrophysical origin on the coupling between the Higgs field and the Kreschmann curvature invariant. Our analysis provides the basis for a more general methodology to derive bounds to the coupling of long-range scalar fields to curvature invariants in an astrophysical setting complementary to the ones available from high-energy physics or table-top experiments.

  12. Thermonuclear Supernova Explosions From Hybrid White Dwarf Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcox, Donald E.; Townsley, Dean; Calder, Alan; Denissenkov, Pavel; Herwig, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent results in stellar evolution in which convective boundary mixing in SAGB stars can give rise to hybrid white dwarf (WD) stars with a C-O core inside an O-Ne shell, we simulate thermonuclear (Type Ia) supernovae from these hybrid progenitors. We use the FLASH code to perform multidimensional simulations in the deflagration to detonation transition (DDT) explosion paradigm from progenitor models produced with the MESA stellar evolution code that include the thermal energetics of the Urca process. We performed a suite of DDT simulations over a range of ignition conditions and compare to previous results from a suite of C-O white dwarfs. Despite significant variability within each suite, distinguishing trends are apparent in their Ni-56 yields and the kinetic properties of their ejecta. We comment on the feasibility of these hybrid WD explosions as the source of some classes of observed subluminous events. This research was supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE-FG02-87ER40317 and by resources at the Institute for Advanced Computational Science at Stony Brook University. The software used in this work was in part developed by the DOE-supported ASC/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago.

  13. Prevention of accretion onto white dwarfs by stellar winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, James

    1992-01-01

    There is indirect observational evidence that hot white dwarfs may have weak stellar winds. In this paper, the interaction between such a wind and the flow of ISM material in the gravitational field of the white dwarf is investigated with the aim of finding limits on the mass-loss rate and terminal velocity of winds capable of preventing accretion from the ISM. The limiting cases of no relative motion of the star and the ISM and supersonic relative motion of the star through ISM are separately investigated. Each case is treated by generalizing models for the interaction between the solar wind and the local ISM to include the effects of gravity. It is found that, for wind velocities expected for radiatively driven winds, mass-loss rates as low as 10 exp -21 solar mass/yr are sufficient to prevent accretion from the hot phase of the ISM. To prevent accretion during passages through cold clouds, wind mass-loss rates of order 10 exp -18 to 10 exp -17 are required.

  14. A Study of Short-term White Dwarf Variability Using gPhoton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Michael; Fleming, Scott W.; Caton, Daniel B.; Million, Chase; Shiao, Bernie

    2016-01-01

    The Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) was a UV space telescope that operated from 2003 until 2013. A new project at MAST, gPhoton takes advantage of the microchannel-plate photon detector aboard GALEX, which catalogued and time-stamped every photon event by putting the one trillion photon events into a database. Utilizing associated open-source software, gPhoton can create coadd images, movies and light curves at user-defined spatial and temporal scales. As part of early science investigations with gPhoton, 364 white dwarf stars from the McCook-Sion catalog with ample GALEX coverage were photometrically inspected for inter-visit variations during an REU program at STScI. Out of the 364 white dwarfs that were studied, three previously documented pulsating white dwarf stars were confirmed in the UV and (at least) three new pulsating white dwarf stars were discovered. Follow-up observations are conducted at Appalachian State University using optical telescopes at the Dark Sky Observatory. We compare optical and UV light curves of these new white dwarf pulsators and show a selection of other variables found with gPhoton.

  15. The white dwarf luminosity function - A possible probe of the galactic halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamanaha, Christopher M.; Silk, Joseph; Wood, M. A.; Winget, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    The dynamically inferred dark halo mass density, amounting to above 0.01 solar masses/cu pc at the sun's Galactocentric radius, can be composed of faint white dwarfs provided that the halo formed in a sufficiently early burst of star formation. The model is constrained by the observed disk white dwarf luminosity function which falls off below log (L/solar L) = -4.4, due to the onset of star formation in the disk. By using a narrow range for the initial mass function and an exponentially decaying halo star formation rate with an e-folding time equal to the free-fall time, all the halo dark matter is allowed to be in cool white dwarfs which lie beyond the falloff in the disk luminosity function. Although it is unlikely that all the dark matter is in these dim white dwarfs, a definite signature in the low-luminosity end of the white dwarf luminosity function is predicted even if they comprise only 1 percent of the dark matter. Current CCD surveys should answer the question of the existence of this population within the next few years.

  16. TOWARD A SPECTROSCOPIC CENSUS OF WHITE DWARFS WITHIN 40 pc OF THE SUN

    SciTech Connect

    Limoges, M.-M.; Bergeron, P.; Lepine, S. E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca

    2013-05-15

    We present the preliminary results of a survey aimed at significantly increasing the range and completeness of the local census of spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs. The current census of nearby white dwarfs is reasonably complete only to about 20 pc of the Sun, a volume that includes around 130 white dwarfs, a sample too small for detailed statistical analyses. This census is largely based on follow-up investigations of stars with very large proper motions. We describe here the basis of a method that will lead to a catalog of white dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun and north of the celestial equator, thus increasing by a factor of eight the extent of the northern sky census. White dwarf candidates are identified from the SUPERBLINK proper motion database, allowing us to investigate stars down to a proper motion limit {mu} > 40 mas yr{sup -1}, while minimizing the kinematic bias for nearby objects. The selection criteria and distance estimates are based on a combination of color-magnitude and reduced proper motion diagrams. Our follow-up spectroscopic observation campaign has so far uncovered 193 new white dwarfs, among which we identify 127 DA (including 9 DA+dM and 4 magnetic), 1 DB, 56 DC, 3 DQ, and 6 DZ stars. We perform a spectroscopic analysis on a subsample of 84 DAs, and provide their atmospheric parameters. In particular, we identify 11 new white dwarfs with spectroscopic distances within 25 pc of the Sun, including five candidates to the D < 20 pc subset.

  17. White dwarfs with hydrogen-deficient atmospheres and the dark matter content of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, S.; Camacho, J.; Isern, J.; García-Berro, E.

    2010-02-01

    Context. The nature of the several microlensing events observed by the MACHO team towards the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is still a subject of debate. Low-mass substellar objects and stars with masses larger than 1 Msun have been ruled out as major components of a massive astrophysical compact halo object (MACHO) galactic halo, while stars of half a solar mass seem to be viable candidates. Main sequence stars have been already discarded, and there are tight restrictions on the role played by white dwarfs with hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. Aims: In this paper we evaluate the contribution to the dark matter content of the Galaxy of white dwarfs with hydrogen-deficient atmospheres. Methods: For this purpose we use a Monte Carlo simulator which incorporates up-to-date evolutionary sequences of white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich and hydrogen-deficient atmospheres. We also take into account detailed descriptions of the thick disk and the halo of our Galaxy as well as of a reliable model of the LMC. Results: We find that the contribution of white dwarfs with hydrogen-deficient atmospheres moderately increases the theoretical estimate of the optical depth with respect to the value obtained when only hydrogen-rich white dwarfs are considered. We also find that the contribution of the thick disk population of white dwarfs is comparable to the halo contribution. However, the contributions of both the halo and the thick disk white-dwarf populations are still insufficient to explain the number of events observed by the MACHO team. Conclusions: Finally, we find that the contribution to the halo dark matter of the entire population under study is less than 10% at the 95% conficence level.

  18. Tracking star formation in dwarf cluster galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rude, Cody Millard

    The evolution of galaxies in dense environments can be affected by close encounters with neighboring galaxies and interactions with the intracluster medium (ICM). Dwarf galaxies may be especially susceptible to these effects due to their low mass. The goal of my dissertation research is to look for signs of star formation in cluster dwarf galaxies by measuring and comparing the r- and u-band luminosity functions of 15 low redshift Abell galaxy clusters using archival data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). Luminosity functions, dwarf-to-giant ratios, and blue fractions are measured in four cluster-centric annuli from stacked cluster data. To account for differences in cluster optical richness, each cluster is scaled according to r200, where r200 is the radius of a sphere, centered on the cluster, whose average density is 200 times the critical density of the universe. The outer region of the cluster sample shows an increase in the faint-end slope of the u-band luminosity function relative to the r-band, indicating star formation in dwarf galaxies. The blue fraction for dwarf galaxies steadily rises with increasing cluster-centric radii. The change in the blue fraction of giant galaxies also increases, but at a lower rate. Additionally, the inner regions of clusters ranging from 0.185 < z < 0.7 from the "Cluster Lensing and Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH)" are used to generate blue- and red-band luminosity functions, dwarf-to-giant ratios, and blue fractions. Comparisons of the inner region of the CLASH and CFHT clusters show an increase in the blue fraction of dwarf galaxies with redshift that is not present in giant galaxies.

  19. Two hot, low-field magnetic DA white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, J.; Schmidt, G. D.; Green, R. F.; Stockman, H. S.; Mcgraw, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Two hot stars discovered in the Palomar Green survey which were found to exhibit peculiarly broad and strong Balmer lines possibly indicative of low magnetic fields are discussed. The stars, PG 1658+441 and PG 0136+251, were found to have extended trough-shaped Balmer and Lyman-alpha line profiles when compared to nonmagnetic dwarfs of similar temperatures. Further observations of PG 1658+441 show it to correspond to a 30,000 K pure hydrogen atmosphere and confirm its nature as a magnetic object with a longitudinal field strength of about 0.7 megagauss and a mean surface field of about 2.3 megagauss. PG 0136+251 is found to be a hotter star (40,000-50,000 K) with weaker lines. Although no strong evidence for magnetic line splitting was obtained, it is argued that neither a high surface gravity nor very rapid rotation can account for the Balmer line shapes. Results thus extend the range of magnetic degenerates to include very hot white dwarfs, and demonstrate the usefulness of line-widths as indicators of possible low-field magnetic sources.

  20. THE FREQUENCY OF DEBRIS DISKS AT WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Sara D.; Patterson, Adam J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Leggett, S. K.; Dufour, P.; Bloom, J. S.; Starr, D. L.

    2012-11-20

    We present near- and mid-infrared photometry and spectroscopy from PAIRITEL, IRTF, and Spitzer of a metallicity-unbiased sample of 117 cool, hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarfs (WDs) from the Palomar-Green survey and find five with excess radiation in the infrared, translating to a 4.3{sup +2.7} {sub -1.2}% frequency of debris disks. This is slightly higher than, but consistent with the results of previous surveys. Using an initial-final mass relation, we apply this result to the progenitor stars of our sample and conclude that 1-7 M {sub Sun} stars have at least a 4.3% chance of hosting planets; an indirect probe of the intermediate-mass regime eluding conventional exoplanetary detection methods. Alternatively, we interpret this result as a limit on accretion timescales as a fraction of WD cooling ages; WDs accrete debris from several generations of disks for {approx}10 Myr. The average total mass accreted by these stars ranges from that of 200 km asteroids to Ceres-sized objects, indicating that WDs accrete moons and dwarf planets as well as solar system asteroid analogs.

  1. Freak waves in white dwarfs and magnetars

    SciTech Connect

    Sabry, R.; Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2012-12-15

    We report properties of ion acoustic freak waves that propagate in a plasma composed of warm ions and ultrarelativistic electrons and positrons. The dynamics of the nonlinear freak waves is governed by the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. The possible region for the freak waves to exist is defined precisely for typical parameters of white dwarfs and magnetars corona. It is found that for low wave number, the nonlinear ion-acoustic wave packets are structurally stable in magnetars corona than in white dwarfs. However, for large wave numbers the situation is opposite. The critical wave number threshold (k{sub c}), which indicates where the modulational instability sets in, is defined for both applications. It is seen that near to k{sub c} the freak wave amplitude becomes high, but it decreases whenever we stepped away from k{sub c}. For the wave numbers close to k{sub c}, the increase of the unperturbed density ratio of positrons-to-electrons ({beta}) would lead to increase the freak wave amplitude, but for larger wave numbers the amplitude decreases with the increase of {beta}.

  2. DISCOVERY OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN IN WHITE DWARF ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, S.; Jura, M.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Koester, D. E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.edu E-mail: ben@astro.ucla.edu

    2013-04-01

    With the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have detected molecular hydrogen in the atmospheres of three white dwarfs with effective temperatures below 14,000 K, G29-38, GD 133, and GD 31. This discovery provides new independent constraints on the stellar temperature and surface gravity of white dwarfs.

  3. Discovery of Molecular Hydrogen in White Dwarf Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Jura, M.; Koester, D.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B.

    2013-04-01

    With the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope, we have detected molecular hydrogen in the atmospheres of three white dwarfs with effective temperatures below 14,000 K, G29-38, GD 133, and GD 31. This discovery provides new independent constraints on the stellar temperature and surface gravity of white dwarfs.

  4. Iron abundance in the hot DA white dwarfs Feige 24 and G191 B2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vennes, Stephane; Chayer, Pierre; Thorstensen, John R.; Bowyer, Stuart; Shipman, Harry L.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to model calculations of the far- and extreme-UV line spectra of highly ionized Fe species (Fe IV, Fe V, and Fe VI) for hot high-gravity H-rich stars. A spectral analysis of 31 hr of exposure of the DA white dwarf Feige 24 with IUE in the echelle mode reveals the presence of Fe with an abundance relative to H by number of (5-10) x 10 exp -6 with an uncertainty dominated by the determination of stellar parameters. An analysis of IUE data from the white dwarf G191 B2B results in a similar Fe abundance if this star shares similar atmospheric parameters (Teff, g) with Feige 24. Fe is thus the second most abundant photospheric element in hot DA white dwarfs.

  5. Equilibrium structure of white dwarfs at finite temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshkayev, K. A.; Rueda, J. A.; Zhami, B. A.; Kalymova, Zh. A.; Balgymbekov, G. Sh.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, it has been shown by S. M. de Carvalho et al. (2014) that the deviations between the degenerate case and observations were already evident for 0.7-0.8 M⊙ white dwarfs. Such deviations were related to the neglected effects of finite temperatures on the structure of a white dwarf. Therefore, in this work by employing the Chandrasekhar equation of state taking into account the effects of temperature we show how the total pressure of the white dwarf matter depends on the mass density at different temperatures. Afterwards we construct equilibrium configurations of white dwarfs at finite temperatures. We obtain the mass-radius relations of white dwarfs for different temperatures by solving the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation, and compare them with the estimated masses and radii inferred from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4.

  6. White dwarf evolutionary sequences for low-metallicity progenitors: The impact of third dredge-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, Leandro G.; Camisassa, María E.; Miller Bertolami, Marcelo M.; Córsico, Alejandro H.; García-Berro, Enrique

    2015-04-01

    Context. White dwarfs are nowadays routinely used as reliable cosmochronometers, allowing several stellar populations to be dated. Aims: We present new white dwarf evolutionary sequences for low-metallicity progenitors. This is motivated by the recent finding that residual H burning in low-mass white dwarfs resulting from Z = 0.0001 progenitors is the main energy source over a significant part of their evolution. Methods: White dwarf sequences have been derived from full evolutionary calculations that take the entire history of progenitor stars into account, including the thermally pulsing and the post-asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phases. Results: We show that for progenitor metallicities in the range 0.00003 ≲ Z ≲ 0.001, and in the absence of carbon enrichment from the occurrence of a third dredge-up episode, the resulting H envelope of the low-mass white dwarfs is thick enough to make stable H burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This has a significant impact on white dwarf cooling times. This result is independent of the adopted mass-loss rate during the thermally-pulsing and post-AGB phases and in the planetary nebulae stage. Conclusions: We conclude that in the absence of third dredge-up episodes, a significant part of the evolution of low-mass white dwarfs resulting from low-metallicity progenitors is dominated by stable H burning. Our study opens the possibility of using the observed white dwarf luminosity function of low-metallicity globular clusters to constrain the efficiency of third dredge up episodes during the thermally-pulsing AGB phase of low-metallicity progenitors.

  7. White-dwarf + main-sequence binaries identified from the ninth data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lifang; Zhang, Fenghui; Han, Quanwang; Kong, Xiaoyang; Gong, Xiaobo

    2014-12-01

    We have identified 227 new spectroscopic white-dwarf + main-sequence (WDMS) binaries from the ninth data release (DR9) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The SDSS spectra of the newly found WDMS binaries with a DA white dwarf and an M-dwarf are analysed based on a spectral decomposition/fitting method. We obtain the effective temperatures, surface gravities and masses of the white dwarf, together with the spectral types and metallicities of the secondary star. Two independent distance estimates are derived from the flux-scaling factors between the WDMS SDSS spectra and the white dwarf and M-dwarf model spectra. We find that about 25 per cent of the newly found WDMS binaries show a significant discrepancy between the two distance estimates. This might be caused by the effects of M-dwarf stellar activity or irradiation of the M-dwarf companions by the white dwarf. The stellar parameter distributions are used to investigate the global properties of the newly found WDMS binaries. We find that the WDMS binaries with a low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≤ 4.0) usually have a massive DA white dwarf component with a higher surface gravity, and the metallicity is usually significantly different from solar. This suggests that the observational selection effects and the spectral S/N of the WDMS binaries have a significant influence on the determinations of these physical parameters of WDMS binaries.

  8. Calcium-rich gap transients: tidal detonations of white dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sell, P. H.; Maccarone, T. J.; Kotak, R.; Knigge, C.; Sand, D. J.

    2015-07-01

    We hypothesize that at least some of the recently discovered class of calcium-rich gap transients are tidal detonation events of white dwarfs (WDs) by black holes (BHs) or possibly neutron stars. We show that the properties of the calcium-rich gap transients agree well with the predictions of the tidal detonation model. Under the predictions of this model, we use a follow-up X-ray observation of one of these transients, SN 2012hn, to place weak upper limits on the detonator mass of this system that include all intermediate-mass BHs (IMBHs). As these transients are preferentially in the stellar haloes of galaxies, we discuss the possibility that these transients are tidal detonations of WDs caused by random flyby encounters with IMBHs in dwarf galaxies or globular clusters. This possibility has been already suggested in the literature but without connection to the calcium-rich gap transients. In order for the random flyby cross-section to be high enough, these events would have to be occurring inside these dense stellar associations. However, there is a lack of evidence for IMBHs in these systems, and recent observations have ruled out all but the very faintest dwarf galaxies and globular clusters for a few of these transients. Another possibility is that these are tidal detonations caused by three-body interactions, where a WD is perturbed towards the detonator in isolated multiple star systems. We highlight a number of ways this could occur, even in lower mass systems with stellar-mass BHs or neutron stars. Finally, we outline several new observational tests of this scenario, which are feasible with current instrumentation.

  9. 3D-Kinematics of White Dwarfs from the SPY-Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, R.; Heber, U.; Napiwotzki, R.

    2007-09-01

    We present a progress report on the kinematical analysis of the entire SPY (ESO SN Ia Progenitor surveY; see Napiwotzki et al. 2001) sample of about one thousand white dwarfs and hot subdwarfs. In a previous study (Pauli et al. 2003, 2006) 398 DA white dwarfs have been analysed already. Here we extend the study to 634 DA white dwarfs. We discuss kinematic criteria for a distinction of thin disk, thick disk and halo populations. This is the largest homogeneous sample of white dwarfs for which accurate 3D space motions have been determined. They have been derived from radial velocities, spectroscopic distances and proper motions from catalogues. Galactic orbits and further kine- matic parameters were computed. Our kinematic criteria for assigning popu- lation membership are deduced from a sample of F and G stars taken from the literature for which chemical criteria can be used to distinguish between thin disk, thick disk and halo members. The kinematic population classification scheme is based on the position in the V U-velocity diagram, the position in the eccentricity-JZ diagram and the Galactic orbit. We combine this with age estimates and find 12 halo and 37 thick disk members amongst our DA white dwarfs. We were unable to determine the population membership of only nine of them. The remaining members of the sample of 632 stars belong to the thin disk population.

  10. A Search for Rocky Planets in Close Orbits around White Dwarfs with COS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhaus, Phoebe; Debes, John H.; Ely, Justin; Hines, Dean C.

    2016-01-01

    The search for transiting habitable exoplanets has broadened to include several types of stars that are smaller than the Sun in order to increase the observed transit depth and hence the atmospheric signal of the planet. Of all current spectral types, white dwarfs are the most favorable for this type of investigation. The fraction of white dwarfs that possess close-in rocky planets is unknown, but several large angle surveys of stars have the photometric precision and cadence to discover at least one if they are common. Ultraviolet observations of white dwarfs may allow for detection of molecular oxygen or ozone in the atmosphere of a terrestrial planet. We use archival Hubble Space Telescope data from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to search for transiting rocky planets around UV-bright white dwarfs. In the process, we discovered unusual variability in the pulsating white dwarf GD~133, which shows slow sinusoidal variations in the UV. While we detect no planets around our small sample of targets, we do place stringent limits on the possibility of transiting planets, down to sub-lunar radii.

  11. Turbulence and Star Formation in Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollyday, Gigja; Hunter, Deidre Ann; Little Things Team

    2015-01-01

    We are interested in understanding the nature and role of turbulence in the interstellar medium of dwarf irregular galaxies. Turbulence, resulting from a variety of processes, is a potential source for cloud formation, and thus star formation. We have undertaken an indirect analysis of turbulence via the third (skewness) and fourth (kurtosis) moments of the distribution of atomic hydrogen gas densities using the LITTLE THINGS data for a 40-count sample of nearby (<10.3 Mpc) dwarf galaxies. We followed the formulism used by Burkhart et al. (2010) in a study of the SMC. We found that there is evidence of turbulence in dwarf galaxies at a level comparable to that found in the SMC, but we have found no correlation between integrated star formation rates and integrated kurtosis values nor a clear correlation between kurtosis as a function of radius with gas surface density and star formation profiles. We are grateful for a summer internship provided by the Research Experiences for Undergraduates program at Northern Arizona University, run by Dr. Kathy Eastwood and Dr. David Trilling and funded by the National Science Foundation through grant AST-1004107.

  12. The composition and structure of white dwarf atmospheres revealed by extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barstow, Martin A.; Hubeny, Ivan; Lanz, Thierry; Holberg, Jay B.; Sion, Edward M.

    1995-01-01

    The ROentgen SATellite (ROSAT) and Extreme UltraViolet Explorer (EUVE) all-sky surveys have resulted in an important change in our understanding of the general composition of hydrogen-rich DA white dwarf atmospheres, with the photospheric opacity dominated by heavy elements rather than helium in the hottest stars (T > 40, 000 K). Most stars cooler than 40,000 K have more or less pure H atmospheres. However, one question, which has not been resolved, concerned the specific nature of the heavy elements and the role of helium in the hottest white dwarfs. One view of white dwarf evolution requires that H-rich DA stars form by gravitational settling of He from either DAO or He-rich central stars of planetary nebulae. In this case, the youngest (hottest) DA white dwarfs may still contain visible traces of He. Spectroscopic observations now available with EUVE provide a crucial test of these ideas. Analysis of data from the EUVE Guest Observer programme and EUVE public archive allows quantitative consideration of the sources of EUV opacity and places limits on the abundance of He which may be present.

  13. The binary Feige 24 - The mass, radius, and gravitational redshift of the DA white dwarf

    SciTech Connect

    Vennes, S.; Shipman, H.L.; Thorstensen, J.R.; Thejll, P. Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH NORDITA, Copenhagen, Denmark )

    1991-05-01

    Observations are reported which refine the binary ephemeris of the Feige 24 system, which contains a peculiar hot DA white dwarf and an M dwarf with an atmosphere illuminated by extreme ultraviolet radiation from the white dwarf. With the new ephemeris and a set of IUE high-dispersion spectra, showing phase-dependent redshifted C IV, N V, and Si IV resonance lines, the orbital velocity, and hence the mass (0.54 + or {minus} 0.20 solar masses), and the gravitational redshift of the white dwarf (14.1 + or {minus} 5.2 km/s) are determined independently. It is shown that the measured Einstein redshift is consistent with an estimated radius for the white dwarf obtained from a model atmosphere solid angle and a parallax measurement. This radius is twice the Hamada-Salpeter radius for the given mass and offers a prospect to investigate the presence of a massive hydrogen envelope in that white dwarf star. 27 refs.

  14. Reliable Radii for M Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew; Feiden, Gregory A.; Gaidos, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Precise and accurate parameters for late-type (late K and M) dwarf stars are critical for characterizing their planets. A deluge of planets discovered by Kepler has driven the need for even more precise stellar radii. We present our efforts to better constrain the luminosity-radius and Teff-radius relations for late-type (K5-M6) stars, taking advantage of improved techniques to calculate bolometric fluxes and [Fe/H] for M dwarfs. We determine effective temperatures for these stars by comparing observed spectra to atmospheric models, and confirm the accuracy of these temperatures using stars with temperatures determined from long-baseline optical interferometry. Using the Stefan-Boltzmann law we can empirically determine radii for these stars to better than 5%. We find the Teff-radius relation depends strongly on [Fe/H], which was missed in earlier studies that used smaller samples or less precise methods. We expect our empirical relations to be increasingly useful with the arrival of Gaia parallaxes in the near future.

  15. Cataclysmic variable evolution - Clues from the underlying white dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sion, Edward M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an update of determinations of the CV white dwarf effective-temperature, T(eff), together with an initial exploration of the possible implications and constraints on the CV lifetimes and evolution based on the ensemble of white dwarf T(eff) values as a function of orbital period. The CV dwarf luminosities are derived by using the T(eff) data and adopting the masses of individual CV white dwarfs determined by Webbink (1990). The present ensemble of empirically determined white dwarf effective temperatures reveals a distribution centered near 16,000 K, implying a mean lower limit total cooling lifetime of 5 x 10 to the 8th yr for the majority of CV degenerates. The two coolest CV degenerates, VV Puppis and St LMi, were found among the strongly magnetic AM Her CVs.

  16. Angular Momentum Transport in Double White Dwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Tohline, Joel E.; Frank, Juhan

    2006-11-01

    We present simulations of dynamical mass transfer in a double white dwarf binary with an initial mass ratio of 0.4. The binary components are approximated as polytropes of index n = 3/2 and the synchronously rotating, semi-detached equilibrium binary is evolved hydrodynamically with the gravitational potential being computed through the solution of Poisson's equation. Upon initiating deep contact, the mass transfer rate grows by more than an order of magnitude over approximately ten orbits, as would be expected for dynamically unstable mass transfer. However, the mass transfer rate then reaches a peak value, the binary expands and the mass transfer event subsides over approximately 30 orbits. Despite the loss of orbital angular momentum into the spin of the accreting star, we find that the accretor's spin saturates and the binary responds as one would expect for a system with an accretion disk filling a substantial fraction of the accretor's Roche lobe. It appears that double white dwarf binaries may be more resilient against merger than previously anticipated though our simulations do not include radiation forces which may ultimately fill a common envelope which dooms the binary.

  17. The g-modes of white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobouti, Y.; Khajehpour, M. R. H.; Dixit, V. V.

    1980-01-01

    The neutral g-modes of a degenerate fluid at zero temperature are analyzed. The g-modes of a degenerate fluid at finite but small temperatures are then expanded in terms of those of the zero temperature fluid. For nonrelativistic degenerate fluids it is found that (1) the g-eigenvalues are proportional to T mu(6)sub e mu(-1)sub i, where T is the internal temperature of the fluid, mu sub e and mu sub i are the mean molecular weights of electrons and ions, respectively; (2) the ion pressure is solely responsible for driving the g-modes. For white dwarfs of about a solar mass, the periods of the g-oscillations are in the range of a few hundredths of seconds.

  18. Future Observations of White Dwarfs from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, M. A.; Casewell, S. L.

    2015-06-01

    We outline two possible future space missions suitable for the study of white dwarfs. These lie at the extreme ends of the spectrum of such opportunities in terms of cost and timescale. The SIRIUS extreme ultraviolet spectrograph will be proposed for the ESA/Chinese Academy of Sciences small, ≍ 50M Euro, mission. If selected it will fly in 2021. ATLAST is planned to be a very large UVOIR space observatory to provide a true replacement for the capabilities of HST. If it goes ahead, it will be a several billion-dollar project and will not fly before 2030. The paper provides further details on the technical capabilities of these space telescopes.

  19. The historical record for Sirius - Evidence for a white-dwarf thermonuclear runaway?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruhweiler, Frederick C.; Kondo, Yoji; Sion, Edward M.

    1986-11-01

    Schlosser and Bergmann (1985) presented evidence that in medieval times Sirius was a bright red star, rather than the present bluish-white star, from which they have suggested that Sirius B is a recently born white dwarf. However, their model poses severe evolutionary problems. The authors present the results of their attempts to detect possible planetary nebula ejecta toward Sirius, using data obtained by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. Based upon these results and in the light of recent advances in understanding white-dwarf evolution, the authors propose that Sirius B underwent a recent thermonuclear runaway event, triggered by a diffusion-induced CN reaction, to explain the historical behaviour of this star.

  20. On General Relativistic Uniformly Rotating White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Siutsou, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    The properties of uniformly rotating white dwarfs (RWDs) are analyzed within the framework of general relativity. Hartle's formalism is applied to construct the internal and external solutions to the Einstein equations. The white dwarf (WD) matter is described by the relativistic Feynman-Metropolis-Teller equation of state which generalizes that of Salpeter by taking into account the finite size of the nuclei, and the Coulomb interactions as well as electroweak equilibrium in a self-consistent relativistic fashion. The mass M, radius R, angular momentum J, eccentricity epsilon, and quadrupole moment Q of RWDs are calculated as a function of the central density ρ c and rotation angular velocity Ω. We construct the region of stability of RWDs (J-M plane) taking into account the mass-shedding limit, inverse β-decay instability, and the boundary established by the turning points of constant J sequences which separates stable from secularly unstable configurations. We found the minimum rotation periods ~0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 2.2 s and maximum masses ~1.500, 1.474, 1.467, 1.202 M ⊙ for 4He, 12C, 16O, and 56Fe WDs, respectively. By using the turning-point method, we found that RWDs can indeed be axisymmetrically unstable and we give the range of WD parameters where this occurs. We also construct constant rest-mass evolution tracks of RWDs at fixed chemical composition and show that, by losing angular momentum, sub-Chandrasekhar RWDs (mass smaller than maximum static one) can experience both spin-up and spin-down epochs depending on their initial mass and rotation period, while super-Chandrasekhar RWDs (mass larger than maximum static one) only spin up.

  1. ON GENERAL RELATIVISTIC UNIFORMLY ROTATING WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Boshkayev, Kuantay; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Siutsou, Ivan E-mail: jorge.rueda@icra.it E-mail: siutsou@icranet.org

    2013-01-10

    The properties of uniformly rotating white dwarfs (RWDs) are analyzed within the framework of general relativity. Hartle's formalism is applied to construct the internal and external solutions to the Einstein equations. The white dwarf (WD) matter is described by the relativistic Feynman-Metropolis-Teller equation of state which generalizes that of Salpeter by taking into account the finite size of the nuclei, and the Coulomb interactions as well as electroweak equilibrium in a self-consistent relativistic fashion. The mass M, radius R, angular momentum J, eccentricity {epsilon}, and quadrupole moment Q of RWDs are calculated as a function of the central density {rho} {sub c} and rotation angular velocity {Omega}. We construct the region of stability of RWDs (J-M plane) taking into account the mass-shedding limit, inverse {beta}-decay instability, and the boundary established by the turning points of constant J sequences which separates stable from secularly unstable configurations. We found the minimum rotation periods {approx}0.3, 0.5, 0.7, and 2.2 s and maximum masses {approx}1.500, 1.474, 1.467, 1.202 M {sub Sun} for {sup 4}He, {sup 12}C, {sup 16}O, and {sup 56}Fe WDs, respectively. By using the turning-point method, we found that RWDs can indeed be axisymmetrically unstable and we give the range of WD parameters where this occurs. We also construct constant rest-mass evolution tracks of RWDs at fixed chemical composition and show that, by losing angular momentum, sub-Chandrasekhar RWDs (mass smaller than maximum static one) can experience both spin-up and spin-down epochs depending on their initial mass and rotation period, while super-Chandrasekhar RWDs (mass larger than maximum static one) only spin up.

  2. GAS, STARS, AND STAR FORMATION IN ALFALFA DWARF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G. E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: jarle@strw.leidenuniv.nl E-mail: susan.g.neff@nasa.gov

    2012-06-15

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and H I components of 229 low H I mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H I masses <10{sup 7.7} M{sub Sun} and H I line widths <80 km s{sup -1}. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M{sub *}) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M{sub *} obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M{sub *} {approx}< 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper H I mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M{sub *} than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H I depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that H I disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  3. Gas, Stars, and Star Formation in Alfalfa Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Shan; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Brinchmann, Jarle; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Neff, Susan G.

    2012-01-01

    We examine the global properties of the stellar and Hi components of 229 low H i mass dwarf galaxies extracted from the ALFALFA survey, including a complete sample of 176 galaxies with H i masses <10(sup 7.7) solar mass and Hi line widths <80 kilometers per second. Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data are combined with photometric properties derived from Galaxy Evolution Explorer to derive stellar masses (M*) and star formation rates (SFRs) by fitting their UV-optical spectral energy distributions (SEDs). In optical images, many of the ALFALFA dwarfs are faint and of low surface brightness; only 56% of those within the SDSS footprint have a counterpart in the SDSS spectroscopic survey. A large fraction of the dwarfs have high specific star formation rates (SSFRs), and estimates of their SFRs and M* obtained by SED fitting are systematically smaller than ones derived via standard formulae assuming a constant SFR. The increased dispersion of the SSFR distribution at M* approximately less than10(exp 8)M(sub 0) is driven by a set of dwarf galaxies that have low gas fractions and SSFRs; some of these are dE/dSphs in the Virgo Cluster. The imposition of an upper Hi mass limit yields the selection of a sample with lower gas fractions for their M* than found for the overall ALFALFA population. Many of the ALFALFA dwarfs, particularly the Virgo members, have H i depletion timescales shorter than a Hubble time. An examination of the dwarf galaxies within the full ALFALFA population in the context of global star formation (SF) laws is consistent with the general assumptions that gas-rich galaxies have lower SF efficiencies than do optically selected populations and that Hi disks are more extended than stellar ones.

  4. New Opacities for Dense Helium and the Composition of Helium Rich, Very Cool White Dwarf Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski, P. M.; Mazevet, S.; Saumon, D.

    2004-12-01

    Very cool white dwarfs (T eff ≤ 4000K) are among the oldest stars in the Milky Way. They are of great interest as chronometers for understanding the history of star formation in our Galaxy. To realize the full potential of white dwarf cosmochronology, we need to understand better the physical processes that take place in the surface layers of cool white dwarfs. Strong surface gravity results in a compositionally stratified structure for those stars, with light elements "floating" to the surface. Accretion from the ISM over Gyrs should result in pure H atmosphere for all of them today, regardless of their initial composition. However, observations indicate that many very cool white dwarfs possess helium-rich atmospheres. Envelope models provide a possible explanation for this phenomenon, where He is transported to the atmosphere from the envelope by a convective zone which, for cool white dwarfs of T eff ≤ 5000K, can extend from the surface down to the helium layer. However, an analysis based on current atmospheric models gives a He abundance that is much higher than can be explained by the convective mixing model. We think that one of the main reason for this discrepancy is an inadequate description of the opacity used in current atmosphere models. The very cool helium-rich atmospheres, with densities up to 2 \\ g/cm3, are fluid, not gaseous. The description of the opacity must be revised for this high density regime. Using quantum molecular dynamics simulations we calculated new opacities for dense helium that are much larger than previously thought. As a result, a much lower helium abundance is found in the coolest white dwarfs, which is in much better agreement with the predictions of the convective mixing model. This research was supported by the United States Department of Energy under contract W-7405-ENG-36.

  5. Activity-Induced Radial Velocity Variation of M Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, Jan Marie; Korhonen, Heidi

    2014-04-01

    Stellar magnetic activity manifests itself in a variety of ways including starspots-cool, dark regions on the stellar surface. Starspots can cause variations (`jitter') in spectral line-profiles which can mimic the radial velocity (RV) variations caused by an orbiting planet, or create RV noise that can drown out a planetary signature. Cool, low-mass M dwarf stars can be highly active, which can make detection of potentially habitable planets around these stars difficult. We investigate radial velocity variations caused by different activity (spot) patterns on M dwarf stars in order to determine the limits of detectability for small planets orbiting active M dwarfs. We report on our progress toward the aim of answering the following questions: What types of spot patterns are realistic for M dwarf stars? What effect will spots have on M dwarf RV measurements? Can jitter from M dwarf spots mimic planetary signals? What is the ideal observing wavelength to reduce M dwarf jitter?

  6. The Extraordinary Cataclysmic Binary RU Pegasi: The Hottest White Dwarf in a Dwarf Nova?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sion, Edward M.; Urban, Joel

    2002-06-01

    We present the results of the first multicomponent synthetic spectral analysis of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) archival spectra of the long-period dwarf nova RU Peg during quiescence. The best-fit, high-gravity, solar composition photosphere models yield Teff=50,000-53,000 K with scale factor distances of 250 pc. Optically thick accretion disk models imply accretion rates between 1×10-9 and 1×10-10Msolar yr-1 in order to match the steeply sloping far-UV continuum. However, the best-fit accretion disk models yield distances from 600 to 1300 pc, well beyond the estimated distance range of 130-300 pc. Using rough theoretical flux arguments and the distance estimates, we find better agreement between the observed far-UV luminosity and the predicted far-UV luminosity of a hot, massive, white dwarf model than with an accretion disk model. RU Peg appears to contain the hottest white dwarf yet found in a dwarf nova. We cannot rule out that the far-UV energy distribution is due to a multitemperature white dwarf with cooler, more slowly rotating higher latitudes and a rapidly spinning, hotter equatorial belt. We discuss implications of our analysis for theoretical predictions of the disk instability theory of dwarf nova outbursts. We discuss a comparison between RU Peg's white dwarf and the observed properties of other analyzed white dwarfs in dwarf novae.

  7. An Ultramassive 1.28 M⊙ White Dwarf in NGC 2099

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Jeffrey D.; Kalirai, Jason S.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Bergeron, P.

    2016-03-01

    With the Keck I Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer we have observed nine white dwarf candidates in the very rich open cluster NGC 2099 (M37). The spectroscopy shows seven to be DA white dwarfs, one to be a DB white dwarf, and one to be a DZ white dwarf. Three of these DA white dwarfs are consistent with singly evolved cluster membership: an ultramassive (1.28{}-0.08+0.05 {M}⊙ ) and two intermediate-mass (0.70 and 0.75 {M}⊙ ) white dwarfs. Analysis of their cooling ages allows us to calculate their progenitor masses and establish new constraints on the initial-final mass relation. The intermediate-mass white dwarfs are in strong agreement with previous work over this mass regime. The ultramassive white dwarf has V = 24.5, ˜2 mag fainter than the other two remnants. The spectrum of this star has lower quality, so the derived stellar properties (e.g., {T}{{eff}}, log g) have uncertainties that are several times higher than the brighter counterparts. We measure these uncertainties and establish the star’s final mass as the highest-mass white dwarf discovered thus far in a cluster, but we are unable to calculate its progenitor mass because at this high mass and cooler {T}{{eff}} its inferred cooling age is highly sensitive to its mass. At the highest temperatures, however, this sensitivity of cooling age to an ultramassive white dwarf’s mass is only moderate. This demonstrates that future investigations of the upper-mass end of the initial-final mass relation must identify massive, newly formed white dwarfs (i.e., in young clusters with ages 50-150 Myr). Based on observations with the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  8. Blue Straggler-White Dwarf binaries in Galactic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekanayake, Gemunu B.; Wilhelm, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    The mass transfer in close binaries has been identified as the most probable formation channel for field blue straggler stars (BSSs). The companions to these BSSs are white dwarf stars (WDs) and can be detected at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths in the spectral energy distribution of the binary, if the mass transfer happened recently so that WD is young and hot.We chose a sample of 2,188 BSSs in the temperature range of 7,000 - 9000 K. and surface gravity, Log g > 3.8, using the Sloan Stellar Parameter Pipeline, from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS).From this, a sub-sample of 80 UV excess field BSSs were identified using UV photometry from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). By using a chi-square minimization technique we fit the observed SED of these UVe-BSSs to set of combined BS+WD models to find the best fitting WD parameters. By considering our fitting results and the theoretical estimates of mass-temperature relation for BSSs , we find that the likely companions to our sample of UVe-BSSs are He WDs. This means that the most likely scenario of formation of these UVe-BSSs is mass transfer onto a normal main sequence star from a red giant star.

  9. ON THE EFFECT OF EXPLOSIVE THERMONUCLEAR BURNING ON THE ACCRETED ENVELOPES OF WHITE DWARFS IN CATACLYSMIC VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Sion, Edward M.; Sparks, Warren E-mail: warrensparks@comcast.net

    2014-11-20

    The detection of heavy elements at suprasolar abundances in the atmospheres of some accreting white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables (CVs), coupled with the high temperatures needed to produce these elements, requires explosive thermonuclear burning. The central temperatures of any formerly more massive secondary stars in CVs undergoing hydrostatic CNO burning are far too low to produce these elements. Evidence is presented that at least some CVs contain donor secondaries that have been contaminated by white dwarf remnant burning during the common envelope phase and are transferring this material back to the white dwarf. This scenario does not exclude the channel in which formerly more massive donor stars underwent CNO processing in systems with thermal timescale mass transfer. Implications for the progenitors of CVs are discussed and a new scenario for the white dwarf's accretion-nova-outburst is given.

  10. A SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF WHITE DWARFS IN THE KISO SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Limoges, M.-M.; Bergeron, P. E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.c

    2010-05-10

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of white dwarfs found in the Kiso survey. Spectroscopic observations at high signal-to-noise ratio have been obtained for all DA and DB stars in the Kiso Schmidt ultraviolet excess survey (KUV stars). These observations led to the reclassification of several KUV objects, including the discovery of three unresolved DA+DB double-degenerate binaries. The atmospheric parameters (T{sub eff} and log g) are obtained from detailed model atmosphere fits to optical spectroscopic data. The mass distribution of our sample is characterized by a mean value of 0.606 M{sub sun} and a dispersion of 0.135 M{sub sun} for DA stars, and 0.758 M{sub sun} and a dispersion of 0.192 M{sub sun} for DB stars. Absolute visual magnitudes obtained from our spectroscopic fits allow us to derive an improved luminosity function for the DA and DB stars identified in the Kiso survey. Our luminosity function is found to be significantly different from earlier estimates based on empirical photometric calibrations of M{sub V} for the same sample. The results for the DA stars now appear entirely consistent with those obtained for the PG survey using the same spectroscopic approach. The space density for DA stars with M{sub V} {<=} 12.75 is 2.80 x 10{sup -4} pc{sup -3} in the Kiso survey, which is 9.6% smaller than the value found in the PG survey. The completeness of both surveys is briefly discussed.

  11. The stellar seismology of hot white dwarfs and planetary nebula nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawaler, Steven D.

    1987-01-01

    The pulsation properties of hot white dwarfs make it possible to determine their mass, surface composition, rotation, and rate of evolution, and provide constraints on their internal structure. Period spacings are sensitive measures of stellar mass and indicate surface layer structure. Measurement of the rate of period change for these stars provide a way to determine their cooling rates. Attention is also given to how well (or poorly) models of excitation of the pulsations fit within current models of planetary nebula nuclei and hot white dwarfs.

  12. A Disintegrating Minor Planet Transiting a White Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Johnson, John Asher; Rappaport, Saul; Bieryla, Allyson; Irwin, Jonathan; Lewis, John; Charbonneau, David; Latham, David W.; Ciardi, David; Schaefer, Laura; Kipping, David; Angus, Ruth; Eastman, Jason; Wright, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert; Dufour, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, evidence has accumulated suggesting that the photospheres of many white dwarfs are polluted by the remnants of small rocky bodies leftover from the progenitors' planetary systems. The evidence for this scenario is typically indirect and circumstantial. We report observations of a disintegrating minor planet transiting a polluted white dwarf. The transits are 5 minutes long, up to 40% deep, have an asymmetric profile and highly variable transit depths. This system provides strong corroborating evidence for the planet accretion model for white dwarf pollution and lets us watch the destruction of a solar system in real time.

  13. The Boundary Layer-White Dwarf Connection: CV White Dwarf Rotation and Line Formation Regions in the Prototype Dwarf Nova U Geminorum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sion, Edward

    1994-01-01

    The central accreting object in compact binaries and other accreting systems is usually hidden from direct observation, enshrouded by optically thick accretion disks which are opaque to the radiation emitted by the central object as it accretes matter. In the dwarf nova U Gem the underlying white dwarf accreter is clearly exposed in the far UV during dwarf nova quiescence. By probing the white dwarf with the sensitivity and velocity resolution of GHRS, just after the deposition of mass, energy and angular momentum into its envelope by the dwarf nova outburst event and also later in quiescence, we will obtain fundamental information such as: (1) the first rate of rotation of a CV white dwarf and hence the expected temperature and extent of the boundary layer during the high accretion (dwarf nova outburst) episode; (2) the delineation of the lower temperature line formation regions associated with the rotating, average (30-40,000K), photosphere of the white dwarf from the line formation region(s) of higher temperature ion species (e.g. NV 1238,1242) (boundary layer/accretion belt or putative hot corona?) surrounding the white dwarf; (3) the velocity amplitude and hence mass and gravitational redshift of the U Gem white dwarf; (4) the possible presence of persisting (but weaker in quiescence) radiation- driven selective ion wind (5) line profile variations to test physical mech- anisms that control the flow of accreted elements and hence abundance changes (diffusion, mixing, dilution, dredgeup and ongoing

  14. THE ELM SURVEY. V. MERGING MASSIVE WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, Scott J.; Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, A.; Allende Prieto, Carlos E-mail: skenyon@cfa.harvard.edu E-mail: alexg@nhn.ou.edu

    2013-05-20

    We present the discovery of 17 low-mass white dwarfs (WDs) in short-period (P {<=} 1 day) binaries. Our sample includes four objects with remarkable log g {approx_equal} 5 surface gravities and orbital solutions that require them to be double degenerate binaries. All of the lowest surface gravity WDs have metal lines in their spectra implying long gravitational settling times or ongoing accretion. Notably, six of the WDs in our sample have binary merger times <10 Gyr. Four have {approx}>0.9 M{sub Sun} companions. If the companions are massive WDs, these four binaries will evolve into stable mass transfer AM CVn systems and possibly explode as underluminous supernovae. If the companions are neutron stars, then these may be millisecond pulsar binaries. These discoveries increase the number of detached, double degenerate binaries in the ELM Survey to 54; 31 of these binaries will merge within a Hubble time.

  15. Panchromatic Calibration of Astronomical Observations with State-of-the-Art White Dwarf Model Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, T.

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of white dwarfs provide a powerful tool for cross-calibration and sensitivity control of instruments from the far infrared to the X-ray energy range. Such SEDs can be calculated from fully metal-line blanketed NLTE model-atmospheres that are e.g. computed by the Tübingen NLTE Model-Atmosphere Package (TMAP) that has arrived at a high level of sophistication. TMAP was successfully employed for the reliable spectral analysis of many hot, compact post-AGB stars. High-quality stellar spectra obtained over a wide energy range establish a data base with a large number of spectral lines of many successive ions of different species. Their analysis allows to determine effective temperatures, surface gravities, and element abundances of individual (pre-)white dwarfs with very small error ranges. We present applications of TMAP SEDs for spectral analyses of hot, compact stars in the parameter range from (pre-) white dwarfs to neutron stars and demonstrate the improvement of flux calibration using white-dwarf SEDs that are e.g. available via registered services in the Virtual Observatory.

  16. Iron and magnesium in the white dwarf GD 40 - A test of diffusion theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, H. L.; Greenstein, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    An outstanding problem in interpreting the properties of white-dwarf stars is related to the understanding of the chemical abundances in their atmospheres. The hydrogen-rich white-dwarf stars have monoelemental atmospheres, with small quantities of helium and no heavier elements observed in most, possibly all, stars with visible H lines. The helium-rich stars are more complex, and the existence of metallic lines in many of their spectra is now well confirmed. The DB star GD 40 (Gr 384) is the hottest He-rich white-dwarf star to show metal lines, apart from the extremely hot objects, such as HZ 21 and HD 149499B. The present investigation is concerned with IUE spectra which have been obtained of the GD 40. It is found that the near-UV is marked by strong Mg II lines along with broad blends of Fe II lines. An analysis is conducted of the abundances of Fe and Mg at the surface of GD 40 using a limited spectrum-synthesis technique with the measured equivalent widths of the best Fe II features.

  17. Physical Properties of the Current Census of Northern White Dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limoges, M.-M.; Bergeron, P.; Lépine, S.

    2015-08-01

    We present a detailed description of the physical properties of our current census of white dwarfs within 40 pc of the Sun, based on an exhaustive spectroscopic survey of northern hemisphere candidates from the SUPERBLINK proper motion database. Our method for selecting white dwarf candidates is based on a combination of theoretical color-magnitude relations and reduced proper motion diagrams. We reported in an earlier publication the discovery of nearly 200 new white dwarfs, and we present here the discovery of an additional 133 new white dwarfs, among which we identify 96 DA, 3 DB, 24 DC, 3 DQ, and 7 DZ stars. We further identify 178 white dwarfs that lie within 40 pc of the Sun, representing a 40% increase of the current census, which now includes 492 objects. We estimate the completeness of our survey at between 66% and 78%, allowing for uncertainties in the distance estimates. We also perform a homogeneous model atmosphere analysis of this 40 pc sample and find a large fraction of massive white dwarfs, indicating that we are successfully recovering the more massive, and less luminous objects often missed in other surveys. We also show that the 40 pc sample is dominated by cool and old white dwarfs, which populate the faint end of the luminosity function, although trigonometric parallaxes will be needed to shape this part of the luminosity function more accurately. Finally, we identify 4 probable members of the 20 pc sample, 4 suspected double degenerate binaries, and we also report the discovery of two new ZZ Ceti pulsators.

  18. PG1258+593 and its common proper motion magnetic white dwarf counterpart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girven, J.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Külebi, B.; Steeghs, D.; Jordan, S.; Marsh, T. R.; Koester, D.

    2010-05-01

    We confirm SDSSJ130033.48+590407.0 as a common proper motion companion to the well-studied hydrogen-atmosphere (DA) white dwarf PG1258+593 (GD322). The system lies at a distance of 68 +/- 3pc, where the angular separation of 16.1 +/- 0.1arcsec corresponds to a minimum binary separation of 1091 +/- 7au. SDSSJ1300+5904 is a cool (Teff = 6300 +/- 300K) magnetic white dwarf (B ~= 6mG). PG1258+593 is a DA white dwarf with Teff = 14790 +/- 77K and logg = 7.87 +/- 0.02. Using the white dwarf mass-radius relation implies the masses of SDSSJ1300+5904 and PG1258+593 are 0.54 +/- 0.06 and 0.54 +/- 0.01Msolar, respectively, and therefore a cooling age difference of 1.67 +/- 0.05Gyr. Adopting main-sequence lifetimes from stellar models, we derive an upper limit of 2.2Msolar for the mass of the progenitor of PG1258+593. A plausible range of initial masses is 1.4-1.8 Msolar for PG1258+593 and 2-3 Msolar for SDSSJ1300+5904. Our analysis shows that white dwarf common proper motion binaries can potentially constrain the white dwarf initial mass-final mass relation and the formation mechanism for magnetic white dwarfs. The magnetic field of SDSSJ1300+5904 is consistent with an Ap progenitor star. A common envelope origin of the system cannot be excluded, but requires a triple system as progenitor.

  19. Explosion of white dwarfs harboring hybrid CONe cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, E.; Gil-Pons, P.; Gutiérrez, J. L.; Doherty, C. L.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, it has been found that off-center carbon burning in a subset of intermediate-mass stars does not propagate all the way to the center, resulting in a class of hybrid CONe cores. The implications of a significant presence of carbon in the resulting massive degenerate cores have not been thoroughly explored so far. Here, we consider the possibility that stars hosting these hybrid CONe cores might belong to a close binary system and, eventually, become white dwarfs accreting from a nondegenerate companion at rates leading to a supernova explosion. We computed the hydrodynamical phase of the explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs harboring hybrid cores, assuming that the explosion starts at the center; this explosion occurs either as a detonation, as may be expected in some degenerate merging scenarios, or as a deflagration that afterward transitions into a delayed detonation. We assume these hybrid cores are made of a central CO volume, of mass MCO, surrounded by an ONe shell. We show that, in the case of a pure detonation, a medium-sized carbon-rich region, MCO (<0.4 M⊙), results in the ejection of a small fraction of the mantle while leaving a massive bound remnant. Part of this remnant is made of the products of the detonation, that is, Fe-group nuclei, but they are buried in its inner regions unless convection is activated during the ensuing cooling and shrinking phase of the remnant. In contrast, and somehow paradoxically, delayed detonations do not leave remnants other than for the minimum MCO we explored of MCO = 0.2 M⊙, and even in this case the remnant is as small as 0.13 M⊙. The ejecta produced by these delayed detonations are characterized by slightly smaller masses of 56Ni and substantially smaller kinetic energies than the ejecta obtained for a delayed detonation of a "normal" CO white dwarf. The optical emission expected from these explosions most likely do not match the observational properties of typical Type Ia supernovae

  20. Explosion of white dwarfs harboring hybrid CONe cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo, E.; Gil-Pons, P.; Gutiérrez, J. L.; Doherty, C. L.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it has been found that off-center carbon burning in a subset of intermediate-mass stars does not propagate all the way to the center, resulting in a class of hybrid CONe cores. The implications of a significant presence of carbon in the resulting massive degenerate cores have not been thoroughly explored so far. Here, we consider the possibility that stars hosting these hybrid CONe cores might belong to a close binary system and, eventually, become white dwarfs accreting from a nondegenerate companion at rates leading to a supernova explosion. We computed the hydrodynamical phase of the explosion of Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs harboring hybrid cores, assuming that the explosion starts at the center; this explosion occurs either as a detonation, as may be expected in some degenerate merging scenarios, or as a deflagration that afterward transitions into a delayed detonation. We assume these hybrid cores are made of a central CO volume, of mass MCO, surrounded by an ONe shell. We show that, in the case of a pure detonation, a medium-sized carbon-rich region, MCO (<0.4 M⊙), results in the ejection of a small fraction of the mantle while leaving a massive bound remnant. Part of this remnant is made of the products of the detonation, that is, Fe-group nuclei, but they are buried in its inner regions unless convection is activated during the ensuing cooling and shrinking phase of the remnant. In contrast, and somehow paradoxically, delayed detonations do not leave remnants other than for the minimum MCO we explored of MCO = 0.2 M⊙, and even in this case the remnant is as small as 0.13 M⊙. The ejecta produced by these delayed detonations are characterized by slightly smaller masses of 56Ni and substantially smaller kinetic energies than the ejecta obtained for a delayed detonation of a "normal" CO white dwarf. The optical emission expected from these explosions most likely do not match the observational properties of typical Type Ia supernovae

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: White dwarf main-sequence binaries (Rebassa-Mansergas+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Agurto-Gangas, C.; Schreiber, M. R.; Gansicke, B. T.; Koester, D.

    2014-07-01

    The spectroscopic catalogue of white dwarf main-sequence (WDMS) binaries from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is the largest and most homogeneous sample of compact binary stars currently known. However, because of selection effects, the current sample is strongly biased against systems containing cool white dwarfs and/or early-type companions, which are predicted to dominate the intrinsic population. In this study, we present colour selection criteria that combines optical (ugriz DR8 SDSS) plus infrared (yjhk DR9 UKIRT Infrared Sky Survey, JHK Two Micron All Sky Survey and/or W1W2 Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer) magnitudes to select 3419 photometric candidates of harbouring cool white dwarfs and/or dominant (M dwarf) companions. We demonstrate that 84 percent of our selected candidates are very likely genuine WDMS binaries, and that the white dwarf effective temperatures and secondary star spectral types of 71 percent of our selected sources are expected to be below <~10000-15000K, and concentrated at ~M2-3, respectively. We also present an updated version of the spectroscopic SDSS WDMS binary catalogue, which incorporates 47 new systems from SDSS DR8. The bulk of the DR8 spectroscopy is made up of main-sequence stars and red giants that were targeted as part of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) Survey, therefore the number of new spectroscopic WDMS binaries in DR 8 is very small compared to previous SDSS data releases. Despite their low number, DR8 WDMS binaries are found to be dominated by systems containing cool white dwarfs and therefore represent an important addition to the spectroscopic sample. The updated SDSS DR8 spectroscopic catalogue of WDMS binaries consists of 2316 systems. We compare our updated catalogue with recently published lists of WDMS binaries and conclude that it currently represents the largest, most homogeneous and cleanest sample of spectroscopic WDMS binaries from SDSS. (5 data files).

  2. A Young White Dwarf with an Infrared Excess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Jura, M.; Pantoja, B.; Klein, B.; Zuckerman, B.; Su, K. Y. L.; Meng, H. Y. A.

    2015-06-01

    Using observations of Spitzer/IRAC, we report the serendipitous discovery of excess infrared emission from a single white dwarf PG 0010+280. At a temperature of 27,220 K and a cooling age of 16 Myr, it is the hottest and youngest white dwarf to display an excess at 3-8 μm. The infrared excess can be fit by either an opaque dust disk within the tidal radius of the white dwarf or a 1300 K blackbody, possibly from an irradiated substellar object or a re-heated giant planet. PG 0010+280 has two unique properties that are different from white dwarfs with a dust disk: (i) relatively low emission at 8 μm and (ii) non-detection of heavy elements in its atmosphere from high-resolution spectroscopic observations with Keck/HIRES. The origin of the infrared excess remains unclear.

  3. A search for cataclysmic binaries containing strongly magnetic white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, H. E.; Chanmugam, G.

    1982-01-01

    The AM Herculis type binaries which contain accreting white dwarfs with surface magnetic fields of a few times 10 to the seventh power gauss were studied. If white dwarfs in cataclysmic binaries have a range of field strengths similar to that among single white dwarfs. AM Her like systems should exist with fields as high as 3 x 10 to the eighth power gauss. It is suggested that such objects will not have the strong optical polarization of the AM Her variables; however, they exhibit high harmonic cyclotron emission, making them spectacular UV sources. We made IUE observations of seven candidate cataclysmic variables selected for optical similarity to AM Her binaries. Although all seven objects were detected in the UV, none display unusually strong UV continua. It is suggested that the distribution of magnetic field strengths among single white dwarfs may be different from that among binaries.

  4. Type Ia supernovae from merging white dwarfs. I. Prompt detonations

    SciTech Connect

    Moll, R.; Woosley, S. E.; Raskin, C.; Kasen, D.

    2014-04-20

    Merging white dwarfs are a possible progenitor of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). Numerical models suggest that a detonation might be initiated before the stars have coalesced to form a single compact object. Here we study such prompt detonations by means of numerical simulations, modeling the disruption and nucleosynthesis of the stars until the ejecta reach the coasting phase, and generating synthetic light curves and spectra. Three models are considered with primary masses 0.96 M {sub ☉}, 1.06 M {sub ☉}, and 1.20 M {sub ☉}. Of these, the 0.96 M {sub ☉} dwarf merging with a 0.81 M {sub ☉} companion, with an {sup 56}Ni yield of 0.58 M {sub ☉}, is the most promising candidate for reproducing common SNe Ia. The more massive mergers produce unusually luminous SNe Ia with peak luminosities approaching those attributed to 'super-Chandrasekhar' mass SNe Ia. While the synthetic light curves and spectra of some of the models resemble observed SNe Ia, the significant asymmetry of the ejecta leads to large orientation effects. The peak bolometric luminosity varies by more than a factor of two with the viewing angle, and the velocities of the spectral absorption features are lower when observed from angles where the light curve is brightest. The largest orientation effects are seen in the ultraviolet, where the flux varies by more than an order of magnitude. The set of three models roughly obeys a width-luminosity relation, with the brighter light curves declining more slowly in the B band. Spectral features due to unburned carbon from the secondary star are also seen in some cases.

  5. WHITE-DWARF-MAIN-SEQUENCE BINARIES IDENTIFIED FROM THE LAMOST PILOT SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Juanjuan; Luo Ali; Li Yinbi; Wei Peng; Zhao Jingkun; Zhao Yongheng; Song Yihan; Zhao Gang E-mail: lal@nao.cas.cn

    2013-10-01

    We present a set of white-dwarf-main-sequence (WDMS) binaries identified spectroscopically from the Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST, also called the Guo Shou Jing Telescope) pilot survey. We develop a color selection criteria based on what is so far the largest and most complete Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 WDMS binary catalog and identify 28 WDMS binaries within the LAMOST pilot survey. The primaries in our binary sample are mostly DA white dwarfs except for one DB white dwarf. We derive the stellar atmospheric parameters, masses, and radii for the two components of 10 of our binaries. We also provide cooling ages for the white dwarf primaries as well as the spectral types for the companion stars of these 10 WDMS binaries. These binaries tend to contain hot white dwarfs and early-type companions. Through cross-identification, we note that nine binaries in our sample have been published in the SDSS DR7 WDMS binary catalog. Nineteen spectroscopic WDMS binaries identified by the LAMOST pilot survey are new. Using the 3{sigma} radial velocity variation as a criterion, we find two post-common-envelope binary candidates from our WDMS binary sample.

  6. Relativistically-Compressed Exploding White-Dwarf Model for Sgr A East

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, D P; Wilson, J R; Mathews, G J

    2004-11-10

    Recently, a new mechanism for Type I supernovae has been proposed whereby relativistic terms enhance the self gravity of a carbon-oxygen white dwarf as it passes near a black hole. It was suggested but not confirmed that this relativistic compression can cause the central density to exceed the threshold for pycnonuclear reactions so that a thermonuclear runaway ensues. Here, we present numerical studies of such relativistically induced explosions of white dwarfs and red giant cores of various mass (particularly a typical 0.6 M{sub {circle_dot}} white dwarf) as they pass near a 3.7 x 10{sup 6} black hole like Sgr A* in the Galactic center. We confirm by hydrodynamic thermonuclear burn simulations in three spatial dimensions that white dwarfs and red giant cores do indeed ignite and explode. In fact they seem to explode even farther from the black hole than earlier estimates due to increased internal temperatures from adiabatic heating as the stars are compressed. We find that the compression is sufficiently fast that red giant cores, or young (< 10{sup 8} yr) white dwarfs can even be heated to thermonuclear rather than pychnonuclear ignition. We propose that such an event might explain the observed ''mixed-morphology'' Sgr A East supernova remnant in the Galactic center.

  7. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF THE OLDEST WHITE DWARFS IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    SciTech Connect

    Kilic, Mukremin; Kowalski, Piotr M.; Reach, William T.; Von Hippel, Ted

    2009-05-10

    We present Spitzer 5-15 {mu}m spectroscopy of one cool white dwarf and 3.6-8 {mu}m photometry of 51 cool white dwarfs with T {sub eff} < 6000 K. The majority of our targets have accurate BVRIJHK photometry and trigonometric parallax measurements available, which enables us to perform a detailed model atmosphere analysis using their optical, near- and mid-infrared photometry with state-of-the-art model atmospheres. We demonstrate that the optical and infrared spectral energy distributions of cool white dwarfs are well reproduced by our grid of models. Our best-fit models are consistent with the observations within 5% in all filters except the IRAC 8 {mu}m band, which has the lowest signal-to-noise ratio photometry. Excluding the ultracool white dwarfs, none of the stars in our sample show significant mid-infrared flux deficits or excesses. The nondetection of mid-infrared excess flux around our {approx}2-9 Gyr old targets constrain the fraction of cool white dwarfs with warm debris disks to 0.8{sup +1.5} {sub -0.8} %.

  8. Collapsed White Dwarfs as Gamma-Ray Burst Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.; Qadir, A.

    1995-09-01

    It has been suggested by Usov (1992) that accreting white dwarfs, collapsing to neutron stars may be the sources of the gamma-ray bursts observed at cosmological distances, provided they rotate very fast and have enormously high magnetic fields. In this model the burst's durationτ is given by the ratio of pulsar kinetic energy and magneticdipole luminosity, so that in order to account for the shortest (τ ˜ 0.1 s) bursts, the pulsars must rotate very fast (with periodP ˜ 0.5 ms) and have magnetic fields of 1016 - 1017 G. Though the high pulsar frequency was anticipated (Qadir and Rafique, 1986) and has been shown to be plausible (Abramowicz, 1990), the extremely high magnetic fields seem anomalous as observed neutron stars have fields below ˜ 1013 G. The problem with Usov's proposal is reduced by incorporating the relativistic corrections for fast rotating magnetic dipoles (Belinskyet al., 1994) or magnetic stars (De Paolis and Qadir, 1994). These corrections substantially enhance the radiation efficiency due to the existence of a magnetic synchrotron effect so that the magnetic field required for the explanation of the shortest gamma-ray bursts is strongly reduced. As such the model becomes much more plausible.

  9. THE ELM SURVEY. II. TWELVE BINARY WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Agueeros, M. A.; Heinke, Craig

    2011-01-20

    We describe new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low-mass white dwarfs (ELM WDs, {approx}0.2 M{sub sun}) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 and the MMT Hypervelocity Star survey. We identify four new short period binaries, including two merger systems. These observations bring the total number of short period binary systems identified in our survey to 20. No main-sequence or neutron star companions are visible in the available optical photometry, radio, and X-ray data. Thus, the companions are most likely WDs. Twelve of these systems will merge within a Hubble time due to gravitational wave radiation. We have now tripled the number of known merging WD systems. We discuss the characteristics of this merger sample and potential links to underluminous supernovae, extreme helium stars, AM CVn systems, and other merger products. We provide new observational tests of the WD mass-period distribution and cooling models for ELM WDs. We also find evidence for a new formation channel for single low-mass WDs through binary mergers of two lower mass objects.

  10. The White Dwarf Luminosity Function from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Imaging Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Hugh C.; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Kilic, Mukremin; Liebert, James; Williams, Kurtis A.; von Hippel, Ted; Levine, Stephen E.; Monet, David G.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Kleinman, S. J.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Nitta, Atsuko; Winget, D. E.; Brinkmann, J.; Fukugita, Masataka; Knapp, G. R.; Lupton, Robert H.; Smith, J. Allyn; Schneider, Donald P.

    2006-01-01

    A sample of white dwarfs is selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 3 using their reduced proper motions, based on improved proper motions from combined SDSS and USNO-B data. Numerous SDSS and follow-up spectra (Kilic and coworkers) are used to quantify completeness and contamination of the sample; kinematics models are used to understand and correct for velocity-dependent selection biases. A luminosity function is constructed covering the range 7white dwarf luminosity function based on 6000 stars is remarkably smooth and rises nearly monotonically to Mbol=15.3. It then drops abruptly, although the small number of low-luminosity stars in the sample and their unknown atmospheric composition prevent quantitative conclusions about this decline. Stars are identified that may have high tangential velocities, and a preliminary luminosity function is constructed for them.

  11. More than scratching the surface: dredge-up in simulations of double white dwarf mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Staff, J. E.; Raskin, C.; Marcello, D.; Clayton, G. C.; Fryer, C.; Frank, J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the strange isotopic abundances of R Corona Borealis stars (e.g. 16O / 18O ~ 1) as well as other properties of these unusual stars may naturally be explained if they originate from the merger of a He white dwarf with a CO white dwarf. However, the merger process that reignites these stellar remnants is highly dynamic and violent. Hydrodynamic instabilities in the accreting star will dredge up oxygen 16 from the accretor at the same time that material from the donor star is fusing to form oxygen 18. Recent stellar evolution calculations have indicated that if dredge up is strongly suppressed, the merger remnant will appear as an R Corona Borealis star but it is not clear how or if dredge up can be shut down. In this presentation we will compare double white dwarf merger simulations performed with three independent codes (SPH, fixed grid Eulerian and adaptive mesh refinement) to ascertain how much accretor material is lifted into the proto-envelope of the merged object.

  12. The temperature, mass and chemical composition of the bare ONe white dwarf SDSS1102+4054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2010-09-01

    SDSS1102+2054 is a cool white dwarf with a helium-dominated atmosphere that exhibits strong oxygen and carbon lines in its optical spectrum. The oxygen-to-carbon {O/C} abundance ratio implied by the line strengths is much larger than unity, which rules out out a carbon-oxygen core composition and provides strong evidence that SDSS1102+2054 is a naked oxygen-neon {ONe} core. Stellar evolution models predict that such extreme O/C abundance ratios are achieved only in the most massive stars that just avoid core-collapse, and we hence believe that SDSS1102+2054 descends from an intermediate mass star close to the 8-10Msun boundary between stars leaving behind either white dwarfs, or neutron stars. As such, this white dwarf has the potential to provide important constraints on our understanding of the evolution of intermediate mass stars, in particular testing predictions of mass loss, the efficiency of convective core mixing, and the relevant nuclear reaction rates. We propose to obtain intermediate-resolution HST/COS spectroscopy of SDSS1102+2054 to overcome the limitations of the available ground-based data and accurately measure its effective temperature, mass, and Mg abundance, and stringently test the current models of stellar evolution.

  13. ORBITAL EVOLUTION OF COMPACT WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, David L.; Bildsten, Lars; Steinfadt, Justin D. R. E-mail: bildsten@kitp.ucsb.edu

    2012-10-10

    The newfound prevalence of extremely low mass (ELM, M{sub He} < 0.2 M{sub Sun }) helium white dwarfs (WDs) in tight binaries with more massive WDs has raised our interest in understanding the nature of their mass transfer. Possessing small (M{sub env} {approx} 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun }) but thick hydrogen envelopes, these objects have larger radii than cold WDs and so initiate mass transfer of H-rich material at orbital periods of 6-10 minutes. Building on the original work of D'Antona et al., we confirm the 10{sup 6} yr period of continued inspiral with mass transfer of H-rich matter and highlight the fact that the inspiraling direct-impact double WD binary HM Cancri likely has an ELM WD donor. The ELM WDs have less of a radius expansion under mass loss, thus enabling a larger range of donor masses that can stably transfer matter and become a He mass transferring AM CVn binary. Even once in the long-lived AM CVn mass transferring stage, these He WDs have larger radii due to their higher entropy from the prolonged H-burning stage.

  14. TIDAL INTERACTIONS IN MERGING WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2011-10-20

    The recently discovered system J0651 is the tightest known detached white dwarf (WD) binary. Since it has not yet initiated Roche-lobe overflow, it provides a relatively clean environment for testing our understanding of tidal interactions. I investigate the tidal heating of each WD, parameterized in terms of its tidal Q parameter. Assuming that the heating can be radiated efficiently, the current luminosities are consistent with Q {sub 1} {approx} 7 x 10{sup 10} and Q {sub 2} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 7}, for the He and C/O WDs, respectively. Conversely, if the observed luminosities are merely from the cooling of the WDs, these estimated values of Q represent the upper limits. A large Q {sub 1} for the He WD means its spin velocity will be slower than that expected if it was tidally locked, which, since the binary is eclipsing, may be measurable via the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. After one year, gravitational wave emission shifts the time of eclipses by 5.5 s, but tidal interactions cause the orbit to shrink more rapidly, changing the time by up to an additional 0.3 s after a year. Future eclipse timing measurements may therefore infer the degree of tidal locking.

  15. Magnetically powered outbursts from white dwarf mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2014-02-01

    Merger of a white dwarf binary creates a differentially rotating object which is expected to generate strong magnetic fields. Kinetic energy stored in differential rotation is partially dissipated in the magnetically dominated corona, which forms a hot variable outflow with ejection velocity comparable to 109 cm s-1. The outflow should carry significant mass and energy for hours to days, creating an expanding fireball with the following features. (i) The fireball is initially opaque and its internal energy is dominated by the trapped thermal radiation. The stored heat is partially converted to kinetic energy of the flow (through adiabatic cooling) and partially radiated away. (ii) Internal shocks develop in the fireball and increase its radiative output. (iii) A significant fraction of the emitted energy is in the optical band. As a result, a bright optical transient with luminosity L ˜ 1041-1042 erg s-1 and a characteristic peak duration comparable to 1 d may be expected from the merger. In contrast to classical novae or supernovae, the transient does not involve nuclear energy. The decay after its peak reflects the damping of differential rotation in the merger remnant. Such outbursts may be detected in the local Universe with current and upcoming optical surveys.

  16. A Dark Spot on a Massive White Dwarf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Gianninas, Alexandros; Bell, Keaton J.; Curd, Brandon; Brown, Warren R.; Hermes, J. J.; Dufour, Patrick; Wisniewski, John P.; Winget, D. E.; Winget, K. I.

    2015-12-01

    We present the serendipitous discovery of eclipse-like events around the massive white dwarf SDSS J152934.98+292801.9 (hereafter J1529+2928). We selected J1529+2928 for time-series photometry based on its spectroscopic temperature and surface gravity, which place it near the ZZ Ceti instability strip. Instead of pulsations, we detect photometric dips from this white dwarf every 38 minutes. Follow-up optical spectroscopy observations with Gemini reveal no significant radial velocity variations, ruling out stellar and brown dwarf companions. A disintegrating planet around this white dwarf cannot explain the observed light curves in different filters. Given the short period, the source of the photometric dips must be a dark spot that comes into view every 38 minutes due to the rotation of the white dwarf. Our optical spectroscopy does not show any evidence of Zeeman splitting of the Balmer lines, limiting the magnetic field strength to B < 70 kG. Since up to 15% of white dwarfs display kG magnetic fields, such eclipse-like events should be common around white dwarfs. We discuss the potential implications of this discovery on transient surveys targeting white dwarfs, like the K2 mission and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. This work is based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, McDonald Observatory, and the Apache Point Observatory 3.5-m telescope. The latter is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium. Gemini Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  17. A Spectroscopic Survey and Analysis of Bright, Hydrogen-rich White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianninas, A.; Bergeron, P.; Ruiz, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    We have conducted a spectroscopic survey of over 1300 bright (V <= 17.5), hydrogen-rich white dwarfs based largely on the last published version of the McCook & Sion catalog. The complete results from our survey, including the spectroscopic analysis of over 1100 DA white dwarfs, are presented. High signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra were obtained for each star and were subsequently analyzed using our standard spectroscopic technique where the observed Balmer line profiles are compared to synthetic spectra computed from the latest generation of model atmospheres appropriate for these stars. First, we present the spectroscopic content of our sample, which includes many misclassifications as well as several DAB, DAZ, and magnetic white dwarfs. Next, we look at how the new Stark broadening profiles affect the determination of the atmospheric parameters. When necessary, specific models and analysis techniques are used to derive the most accurate atmospheric parameters possible. In particular, we employ M dwarf templates to obtain better estimates of the atmospheric parameters for those white dwarfs that are in DA+dM binary systems. Certain unique white dwarfs and double-degenerate binary systems are also analyzed in greater detail. We then examine the global properties of our sample including the mass distribution and their distribution as a function of temperature. We then proceed to test the accuracy and robustness of our method by comparing our results to those of other surveys such as SPY and Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Finally, we revisit the ZZ Ceti instability strip and examine how the determination of its empirical boundaries is affected by the latest line profile calculations. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla or Paranal Observatories under program ID 078.D-0824(A).

  18. A SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY AND ANALYSIS OF BRIGHT, HYDROGEN-RICH WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Gianninas, A.; Bergeron, P.; Ruiz, M. T. E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca

    2011-12-20

    We have conducted a spectroscopic survey of over 1300 bright (V {<=} 17.5), hydrogen-rich white dwarfs based largely on the last published version of the McCook and Sion catalog. The complete results from our survey, including the spectroscopic analysis of over 1100 DA white dwarfs, are presented. High signal-to-noise ratio optical spectra were obtained for each star and were subsequently analyzed using our standard spectroscopic technique where the observed Balmer line profiles are compared to synthetic spectra computed from the latest generation of model atmospheres appropriate for these stars. First, we present the spectroscopic content of our sample, which includes many misclassifications as well as several DAB, DAZ, and magnetic white dwarfs. Next, we look at how the new Stark broadening profiles affect the determination of the atmospheric parameters. When necessary, specific models and analysis techniques are used to derive the most accurate atmospheric parameters possible. In particular, we employ M dwarf templates to obtain better estimates of the atmospheric parameters for those white dwarfs that are in DA+dM binary systems. Certain unique white dwarfs and double-degenerate binary systems are also analyzed in greater detail. We then examine the global properties of our sample including the mass distribution and their distribution as a function of temperature. We then proceed to test the accuracy and robustness of our method by comparing our results to those of other surveys such as SPY and Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Finally, we revisit the ZZ Ceti instability strip and examine how the determination of its empirical boundaries is affected by the latest line profile calculations.

  19. On interstellar accretion and the rejuvenation of white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truran, J. W.; Wyatt, S. P.; Starrfield, S. G.; Strittmatter, P. A.; Sparks, W. M.

    1977-01-01

    The paper investigates physical conditions which can give rise to thermonuclear runaways in the hydrogen envelopes of low-luminosity white dwarfs. Specifically, calculations are performed for white dwarfs of 0.5, 0.75, 1, and 1.25 solar masses with envelope masses in the range from 0.00001 to 0.001 solar mass and initial luminosities of 0.00001 to 0.01 times the solar value. It is found that envelope masses as low as 0.0001 solar mass are sufficient to initiate thermonuclear runaways on more massive white dwarfs with luminosities as low as about 0.001 the solar value. The runaway time scales under these conditions, typically of the order of a billion years, are comparable to the time scales for cooling of white dwarfs to these low luminosities. Since time-averaged accretion rates as low as a few times 10 to the -14th power solar mass per year are sufficient to reconstitute such envelopes, also on a time scale of several billion years, it is suggested that the association of novalike events with binary systems may not be unique. Accretion of interstellar matter onto isolated white dwarfs may, under some circumstances, be sufficient to rekindle and perhaps rejuvenate the dwarf. Such evolutionary behavior might define a new and distinct class of objects.

  20. A heating mechanism for the chromospheres of M dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giampapa, M. S.; Golub, L.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G.; Linsky, J. L.; Worden, S. P.

    1981-01-01

    The atmospheric structure of the dwarf M-stars which is especially important to the general field of stellar chromospheres and coronae was investigated. The M-dwarf stars constitute a class of objects for which the discrepancy between the predictions of the acoustic wave chromospheric/coronal heating hypothesis and the observations is most vivid. It is assumed that they represent a class of stars where alternative atmospheric heating mechanisms, presumably magnetically related, are most clearly manifested. Ascertainment of the validity of a hypothesis to account for the origin of the chromospheric and transition region line emission in M-dwarf stars is proposed.

  1. Star Formation in Dwarf Galaxies: Life in a Rough Neighborhood

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, S

    2003-10-16

    Star formation within dwarf galaxies is governed by several factors. Many of these factors are external, including ram-pressure stripping, tidal stripping, and heating by external UV radiation. The latter, in particular, may prevent star formation in the smallest systems. Internal factors include negative feedback in the form of UV radiation, winds and supernovae from massive stars. These act to reduce the star formation efficiency within dwarf systems, which may, in turn, solve several theoretical and observational problems associated with galaxy formation. In this contribution, we discuss our recent work being done to examine the importance of the many factors in the evolution of dwarf galaxies.

  2. Formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs from common envelopes.

    PubMed

    Nordhaus, Jason; Wellons, Sarah; Spiegel, David S; Metzger, Brian D; Blackman, Eric G

    2011-02-22

    The origin of highly magnetized white dwarfs has remained a mystery since their initial discovery. Recent observations indicate that the formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs is intimately related to strong binary interactions during post-main-sequence phases of stellar evolution. If a low-mass companion, such as a planet, brown dwarf, or low-mass star, is engulfed by a post-main-sequence giant, gravitational torques in the envelope of the giant lead to a reduction of the companion's orbit. Sufficiently low-mass companions in-spiral until they are shredded by the strong gravitational tides near the white dwarf core. Subsequent formation of a super-Eddington accretion disk from the disrupted companion inside a common envelope can dramatically amplify magnetic fields via a dynamo. Here, we show that these disk-generated fields are sufficiently strong to explain the observed range of magnetic field strengths for isolated, high-field magnetic white dwarfs. A higher-mass binary analogue may also contribute to the origin of magnetar fields. PMID:21300910

  3. Formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs from common envelopes

    PubMed Central

    Nordhaus, Jason; Wellons, Sarah; Spiegel, David S.; Metzger, Brian D.; Blackman, Eric G.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of highly magnetized white dwarfs has remained a mystery since their initial discovery. Recent observations indicate that the formation of high-field magnetic white dwarfs is intimately related to strong binary interactions during post-main-sequence phases of stellar evolution. If a low-mass companion, such as a planet, brown dwarf, or low-mass star, is engulfed by a post-main-sequence giant, gravitational torques in the envelope of the giant lead to a reduction of the companion’s orbit. Sufficiently low-mass companions in-spiral until they are shredded by the strong gravitational tides near the white dwarf core. Subsequent formation of a super-Eddington accretion disk from the disrupted companion inside a common envelope can dramatically amplify magnetic fields via a dynamo. Here, we show that these disk-generated fields are sufficiently strong to explain the observed range of magnetic field strengths for isolated, high-field magnetic white dwarfs. A higher-mass binary analogue may also contribute to the origin of magnetar fields. PMID:21300910

  4. Infrared Properties of Star Forming Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaduvescu, Ovidiu

    2005-11-01

    Dwarf galaxies are the most common galaxies in the Universe. They are systems believed to consist of matter in a near-primordial state, from which giant galaxies probably form. As such, they are important probes for studying matter in its near-primordial state. In an effort to study the main physical and chemical properties of dwarfs, the present thesis focuses upon the main physical properties of dwarfs. Two classes of star forming dwarf galaxies are considered: dwarf irregulars (dIs), and blue compact dwarfs (BCDs). A third class, dwarf ellipticals (dEs), is studied based on its structural properties and compared with dIs. Possible evolutionary connections are addressed between dIs and BCDs. To measure the luminosity, deep imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) is considered. Compared with the visible, the NIR domain gives a better gauge of the galaxy mass contained in the old stellar populations, minimising the starburst contribution and also the effects of extinction. Two observing samples of star-forming dwarf galaxies are considered. The first includes 34 dIs in the Local Volume closer than 5 Mpc. The second sample includes 16 BCDs in the Virgo Cluster. In six observing runs between 2001 and 2004, we acquired deep NIR images (J and K_s) using the 3.6m Canada-France-Hawaii-Telescope (CFHT) in Hawaii and the 2.1m telescope at the National Astronomical Observatory ''San Pedro Martir'' (OAN-SPM) in Mexico. Deep spectrocopy was acquired in 2003 on the 8.1m Gemini-North telescope in Hawaii. We completed the observed samples with spectroscopic data from the literature, and photometry from the 2MASS survey and GOLDMine database. From a statistical study at CFHT, we derived some strategies necessary to image optimally faint extended sources in the NIR. Due to the airglow variation in the atmosphere and the thermal contribution of the dome, telescope and the instrumentation, repeated observations of the sky must be alternated every 3-4 minutes with the science images, in

  5. Dwarf Star Erupts in Giant Flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This movie taken by NASA'S Galaxy Evolution Explorer shows one of the largest flares, or star eruptions, ever recorded at ultraviolet wavelengths. The star, called GJ 3685A, just happened to be in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer's field of view while the telescope was busy observing galaxies. As the movie demonstrates, the seemingly serene star suddenly exploded once, then even more intensely a second time, pouring out in total about one million times more energy than a typical flare from our Sun. The second blast of light constituted an increase in brightness by a factor of at least 10,000.

    Flares are huge explosions of energy stemming from a single location on a star's surface. They are caused by the brief destruction of a star's magnetic fields. Many types of stars experience them, though old, small, rapidly rotating 'red dwarfs' like GJ 3685A tend to flare more frequently and dramatically. These stars, called flare stars, can experience powerful eruptions as often as every few hours. Younger stars, in general, also erupt more often. One of the reasons astronomers study flare stars is to gain a better picture and history of flare events taking place on the Sun.

    A preliminary analysis of the GJ 3685A flare shows that the mechanisms underlying stellar eruptions may be more complex than previously believed. Evidence for the two most popular flare theories was found.

    Though this movie has been sped up (the actual flare lasted about 20 minutes), time-resolved data exist for each one-hundredth of a second. These observations were taken at 2 p.m. Pacific time, April 24, 2004. In the still image, the time sequence starts in the upper left panel, continues in the upper right, then moves to the lower left and ends in the lower right.

    The circular and linear features that appear below and to the right of GJ 3685A during the flare event are detector artifacts caused by the extreme brightness of the flare.

  6. High-resolution UVES/VLT spectra of white dwarfs observed for the ESO SN Ia Progenitor Survey. III. DA white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koester, D.; Voss, B.; Napiwotzki, R.; Christlieb, N.; Homeier, D.; Lisker, T.; Reimers, D.; Heber, U.

    2009-10-01

    Context: The ESO Supernova Ia Progenitor Survey (SPY) took high-resolution spectra of more than 1000 white dwarfs and pre-white dwarfs. About two thirds of the stars observed are hydrogen-dominated DA white dwarfs. Here we present a catalog and detailed spectroscopic analysis of the DA stars in the SPY. Aims: Atmospheric parameters effective temperature and surface gravity are determined for normal DAs. Double-degenerate binaries, DAs with magnetic fields or dM companions, are classified and discussed. Methods: The spectra are compared with theoretical model atmospheres using a χ2 fitting technique. Results: Our final sample contains 615 DAs, which show only hydrogen features in their spectra, although some are double-degenerate binaries. 187 are new detections or classifications. We also find 10 magnetic DAs (4 new) and 46 DA+dM pairs (10 new). Based on data obtained at the Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for programmes 165.H-0588 and 167.D-0407.

  7. FORETELLINGS OF RAGNAROeK: WORLD-ENGULFING ASYMPTOTIC GIANTS AND THE INHERITANCE OF WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Mustill, Alexander J.; Villaver, Eva

    2012-12-20

    The search for planets around white dwarf stars, and evidence for dynamical instability around them in the form of atmospheric pollution and circumstellar disks, raises questions about the nature of planetary systems that can survive the vicissitudes of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB). We study the competing effects, on planets at several AU from the star, of strong tidal forces arising from the star's large convective envelope, and of the planets' orbital expansion due to stellar mass loss. We study, for the first time, the evolution of planets while following each thermal pulse on the AGB. For Jovian planets, tidal forces are strong, and can pull into the envelope planets initially at {approx}3 AU for a 1 M{sub Sun} star and {approx}5 AU for a 5 M{sub Sun} star. Lower-mass planets feel weaker tidal forces, and terrestrial planets initially within 1.5-3 AU enter the stellar envelope. Thus, low-mass planets that begin inside the maximum stellar radius can survive, as their orbits expand due to mass loss. The inclusion of a moderate planetary eccentricity slightly strengthens the tidal forces experienced by Jovian planets. Eccentric terrestrial planets are more at risk, since their eccentricity does not decay and their small pericenter takes them inside the stellar envelope. We also find the closest radii at which planets will be found around white dwarfs, assuming that any planet entering the stellar envelope is destroyed. Planets are in that case unlikely to be found inside {approx}1.5 AU of a white dwarf with a 1 M{sub Sun} progenitor and {approx}10 AU of a white dwarf with a 5 M{sub Sun} progenitor.

  8. New pulsating white dwarfs in cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, R.; Uthas, H.; Ytre-Eide, M.; Solheim, J.-E.; Warner, B.

    2006-07-01

    The number of discovered non-radially pulsating white dwarfs (WDs) in cataclysmic variables (CVs) is increasing rapidly by the aid of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We performed photometric observations of two additional objects, SDSS J133941.11+484727.5 (SDSS 1339), independently discovered as a pulsator by Gänsicke et al., and SDSS J151413.72+454911.9, which we identified as a CV/ZZ Ceti hybrid. In this Letter we present the results of the remote observations of these targets performed with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) during the Nordic-Baltic Research School at Molėtai Observatory, and follow-up observations executed by NOT in service mode. We also present three candidates we found to be non-pulsating. The results of our observations show that the main pulsation frequencies agree with those found in previous CV/ZZ Ceti hybrids, but specifically for SDSS 1339 the principal period differs slightly between individual observations and also from the recent independent observation by Gänsicke et al. Analysis of SDSS colour data for the small sample of pulsating and non-pulsating CV/ZZ Ceti hybrids found so far seems to indicate that the r - i colour could be a good marker for the instability strip of this class of pulsating WDs. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. E-mail: ricky@astro.lu.se

  9. Thermonuclear detonations ensuing white dwarf mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, M.; Guillochon, J.; Brüggen, M.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rosswog, S.

    2015-12-01

    The merger of two white dwarfs (WDs) has for many years not been considered as the favoured model for the progenitor system of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). But recent years have seen a change of opinion as a number of studies, both observational and theoretical, have concluded that they should contribute significantly to the observed SN Ia rate. In this paper, we study the ignition and propagation of detonation through post-merger remnants and we follow the resulting nucleosynthesis up to the point where a homologous expansion is reached. In our study we cover the entire range of WD masses and compositions. For the emergence of a detonation we study three different setups. The first two are guided by the merger remnants from our earlier simulations, while for the third one the ignitions were set by placing hotspots with properties determined by spatially resolved calculations taken from the literature. There are some caveats to our approach which we investigate. We carefully compare the nucleosynthetic yields of successful explosions with SN Ia observations. Only three of our models are consistent with all the imposed constraints and potentially lead to a standard Type Ia event. The first one, a 0.45 M⊙ helium (He) + 0.9 M⊙ carbon-oxygen (CO) WD system produces a sub-luminous, SN 1991bg-like event while the other two, a 0.45 M⊙ He+1.1 M⊙ oxygen-neon WD system and a 1.05 + 1.05 M⊙ system with two CO WDs, are good candidates for common SNe Ia.

  10. Near-UV absorption in very cool DA white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Saumon, D.; Holberg, J. B.; Kowalski, P. M. E-mail: holberg@argus.lpl.arizona.edu

    2014-07-20

    The atmospheres of very cool, hydrogen-rich white dwarfs (WDs) (T{sub eff} < 6000 K) are challenging to model because of the increased complexity of the equation of state, chemical equilibrium, and opacity sources in a low-temperature, weakly ionized dense gas. In particular, many models that assume relatively simple models for the broadening of atomic levels and mostly ideal gas physics overestimate the flux in the blue part of their spectra. A solution to this problem that has met with some success is that additional opacity at short wavelengths comes for the extreme broadening of the Lyman α line of atomic H by collisions primarily with H{sub 2}. For the purpose of validating this model more rigorously, we acquired Hubble Space Telescope STIS spectra of eight very cool WDs (five DA and three DC stars). Combined with their known parallaxes, BVRIJHK, and Spitzer IRAC photometry, we analyze their entire spectral energy distribution (from 0.24 to 9.3 μm) with a large grid of model atmospheres and synthetic spectra. We find that the red wing of the Lyman α line reproduces the rapidly decreasing near-UV flux of these very cool stars very well. We determine better constrained values of T{sub eff} and gravity as well as upper limits to the helium abundance in their atmospheres.

  11. A DOUBLE WHITE-DWARF COOLING SEQUENCE IN {omega} CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, A.; Anderson, J.; Salaris, M.; Cassisi, S.; Bedin, L. R.; Piotto, G.; Bergeron, P.

    2013-06-01

    We have applied our empirical-point-spread-function-based photometric techniques on a large number of calibration-related WFC3/UVIS UV-B exposures of the core of {omega} Cen, and found a well-defined split in the bright part of the white-dwarf cooling sequence (WDCS). The redder sequence is more populated by a factor of {approx}2. We can explain the separation of the two sequences and their number ratio in terms of the He-normal and He-rich subpopulations that had been previously identified along the cluster main sequence. The blue WDCS is populated by the evolved stars of the He-normal component ({approx}0.55 M{sub Sun} CO-core DA objects), while the red WDCS hosts the end products of the He-rich population ({approx}0.46 M{sub Sun} objects, and {approx}10% CO-core and {approx}90% He-core WDs). The He-core WDs correspond to He-rich stars that missed the central He ignition, and we estimate their fraction by analyzing the population ratios along the cluster horizontal branch.

  12. Accretion of planetary debris onto the unique white dwarf GD394

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David

    2014-10-01

    It is now undisputed that metal-pollution of the H or He atmospheres observed in a substantial fraction of white dwarfs is due to accretion of planetary debris. While significant progress has been made in establishing the frequency of such evolved planetary systems, and statistics on the abundances of the debris material are beginning to emerge, very little is known regarding the delivery mechanism of the debris. Given that the red giant progenitors of the metal-polluted white dwarfs evaporated all planetary material within >1 AU, the debris found at many white dwarfs must originate originally from a substantial distance of the star. The canonical model is that remaining planets perturb the orbits of astroids, sending them onto a white dwarf grazing course, where the extreme gravity will result in their tidal disruption. The debris then must undergo complex dynamical evolution, and eventually fall into the white dwarf atmosphere. EUV light curves of GD394, an extremely metal-polluted white dwarf, suggest a strong variation of the metal abundances over the stellar surface. We propose to obtain spin-phase resolved high-resolution spectroscopy of GD394 over its 1.15d rotation period to resolve the abundance pattern on its surface from variations in the photospheric metal lines, and thereby probe the geometry of the circumstellar debris. Line profile variations can be used to reconstruct the surface distribution of the metals using Roche tomography. In addition, comparison to a single archive HST/GHRS observation from 1992 will place tight constraints on the long-term variation of the accretion rate, and the life time of the circumstellar debris.

  13. Cool White Dwarfs in Cataclysmic Variables: Hubble Space Telescope Results on EG Cancri and HV Virginis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Sion, Edward M.; Howell, Steve B.

    2002-08-01

    Our Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet spectra of the low mass transfer rate cataclysmic variables EG Cnc and HV Vir at 4 yr and 8 yr past their last superoutburst have shown that the white dwarfs in these systems are among the coolest yet observed in disk-accreting close binaries. The UV-optical fluxes of EG Cnc are consistent with a 11,700-13,000 K white dwarf at a distance of 350-475 pc, while those of HV Vir fit with a 12,500-14,000 K white dwarf at 400-550 pc, with logg=8.0+/-0.5 for both stars. In each case, the metal abundance is near 0.3 solar, while the rotation rates are considerably less than breakup. If these systems formed above the period gap and evolved to their short periods in an evolution time of several Gyr, then their white dwarfs are hotter than field white dwarfs of comparable age and hotter than those in close binary systems of similar orbital period that contain magnetic white dwarfs. If these systems have indeed passed the period minimum in their evolution, the implication is that they are significantly heated by the long-term effects of mass transfer from their close companions. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555 and with the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium (ARC).

  14. The Discovery of the Most Metal-rich White Dwarf: Composition of a Tidally Disrupted Extrasolar Dwarf Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, P.; Kilic, M.; Fontaine, G.; Bergeron, P.; Lachapelle, F.-R.; Kleinman, S. J.; Leggett, S. K.

    2010-08-01

    Cool white dwarf stars are usually found to have an outer atmosphere that is practically pure in hydrogen or helium. However, a small fraction have traces of heavy elements that must originate from the accretion of extrinsic material, most probably circumstellar matter. Upon examining thousands of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra, we discovered that the helium-atmosphere white dwarf SDSS J073842.56+183509.6 shows the most severe metal pollution ever seen in the outermost layers of such stars. We present here a quantitative analysis of this exciting star by combining high signal-to-noise ratio follow-up spectroscopic and photometric observations with model atmospheres and evolutionary models. We determine the global structural properties of our target star, as well as the abundances of the most significant pollutants in its atmosphere, i.e., H, O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, and Fe. The relative abundances of these elements imply that the source of the accreted material has a composition similar to that of Bulk Earth. We also report the signature of a circumstellar disk revealed through a large infrared excess in JHK photometry. Combined with our inferred estimate of the mass of the accreted material, this strongly suggests that we are witnessing the remains of a tidally disrupted extrasolar body that was as large as Ceres.

  15. THE DISCOVERY OF THE MOST METAL-RICH WHITE DWARF: COMPOSITION OF A TIDALLY DISRUPTED EXTRASOLAR DWARF PLANET

    SciTech Connect

    Dufour, P.; Fontaine, G.; Bergeron, P.; Lachapelle, F.-R.; Kilic, M.; Kleinman, S. J.; Leggett, S. K.

    2010-08-10

    Cool white dwarf stars are usually found to have an outer atmosphere that is practically pure in hydrogen or helium. However, a small fraction have traces of heavy elements that must originate from the accretion of extrinsic material, most probably circumstellar matter. Upon examining thousands of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectra, we discovered that the helium-atmosphere white dwarf SDSS J073842.56+183509.6 shows the most severe metal pollution ever seen in the outermost layers of such stars. We present here a quantitative analysis of this exciting star by combining high signal-to-noise ratio follow-up spectroscopic and photometric observations with model atmospheres and evolutionary models. We determine the global structural properties of our target star, as well as the abundances of the most significant pollutants in its atmosphere, i.e., H, O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, and Fe. The relative abundances of these elements imply that the source of the accreted material has a composition similar to that of Bulk Earth. We also report the signature of a circumstellar disk revealed through a large infrared excess in JHK photometry. Combined with our inferred estimate of the mass of the accreted material, this strongly suggests that we are witnessing the remains of a tidally disrupted extrasolar body that was as large as Ceres.

  16. Outer boundary conditions for evolving cool white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrmann, R. D.; Althaus, L. G.; García-Berro, E.; Córsico, A. H.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2012-10-01

    Context. White dwarf evolution is essentially a gravothermal cooling process, which, for cool white dwarfs, depends on the treatment of the outer boundary conditions. Aims: We provide detailed outer boundary conditions that are appropriate to computing the evolution of cool white dwarfs by employing detailed nongray model atmospheres for pure hydrogen composition. We also explore the impact on the white dwarf cooling times of different assumptions for energy transfer in the atmosphere of cool white dwarfs. Methods: Detailed nongray model atmospheres were computed by considering nonideal effects in the gas equation of state and chemical equilibrium, collision-induced absorption from molecules, and the Lyman α quasi-molecular opacity. We explored the impact of outer boundary conditions provided by updated model atmospheres on the cooling times of 0.60 and 0.90 M⊙ white dwarf sequences. Results: Our results show that the use of detailed outer boundary conditions becomes relevant for effective temperatures lower than 5800 K for sequences with 0.60 M⊙ and 6100 K with 0.90 M⊙. Detailed model atmospheres predict ages that are up to ≈10% shorter at log (L/L⊙) = -4 when compared with the ages derived using Eddington-like approximations at τRoss = 2/3. We also analyze the effects of various assumptions and physical processes that are relevant in the calculation of outer boundary conditions. In particular, we find that the Lyα red wing absorption does not substantially affect the evolution of white dwarfs. Conclusions: White dwarf cooling timescales are sensitive to the surface boundary conditions for Teff ≲ 6000 K. Interestingly enough, nongray effects have few consequences on these cooling times at observable luminosities. In fact, collision-induced absorption processes, which significantly affect the spectra and colors of old white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich atmospheres, have no noticeable effects on their cooling rates, except throughout the Rosseland mean

  17. Cool white dwarf companions to four millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassa, C. G.; Antoniadis, J.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Koester, D.; Kramer, M.; Ransom, S. R.; Stappers, B. W.

    2016-02-01

    We report on photometric and spectroscopic observations of white dwarf companions to four binary radio millisecond pulsars, leading to the discovery of companions to PSRs J0614-3329, J1231-1411 and J2017+0603. We place limits on the brightness of the companion to PSR J0613-0200. Optical spectroscopy of the companion to PSR J0614-3329 identifies it as a DA-type white dwarf with a temperature of Teff = 6460 ± 80 K, a surface gravity log g = 7.0 ± 0.2 cgs and a mass of MWD = 0.24 ± 0.04 M⊙. We find that the distance to PSR J0614-3329 is smaller than previously estimated, removing the need for the pulsar to have an unrealistically high γ-ray efficiency. Comparing the photometry with predictions from white dwarf cooling models allows us to estimate temperatures and cooling ages of the companions to PSRs J0613-0200, J1231-1411 and J2017+0603. We find that the white dwarfs in these systems are cool Teff < 4000 K and old ≳ 5 Gyr. Thin hydrogen envelopes are required for these white dwarfs to cool to the observed temperatures, and we suggest that besides hydrogen shell flashes, irradiation driven mass loss by the pulsar may have been important.

  18. Discovery of a brown dwarf in the Pleiades star cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolo, R.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.; Martín, E. L.

    1995-09-01

    BROWN dwarfs are cool star-like objects that have insufficient mass to maintain stable nuclear fusion in their interiors. Although brown dwarfs are not stars, they are expected to form in the same way, and their frequency of occurrence should reflect the trends seen in the birthrates of low-mass stars. But finding brown dwarfs has proved to be difficult, because of their low intrinsic luminosity. The nearby Pleiades star cluster is widely recognized as a likely host for detectable brown dwarfs because of its young age - the still-contracting brown dwarfs should radiate a large fraction of their gravitational energy at near-infrared wavelengths. Here we report the discovery of a brown dwarf near the centre of the Pleiades. The luminosity and temperature of this object are so low that its mass must be less than 0.08 solar masses, the accepted lower limit on the mass of a true star1-3. The detection of only one brown dwarf within our survey area is consistent with a smooth extrapolation of the stellar mass function of the Pleiades4, suggesting that brown dwarfs, although probably quite numerous in the Galactic disk, are unlikely to comprise more than ~1% of its mass.

  19. Toward a Network of Faint DA White Dwarfs as High-precision Spectrophotometric Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayan, G.; Axelrod, T.; Holberg, J. B.; Matheson, T.; Saha, A.; Olszewski, E.; Claver, J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Bohlin, R. C.; Deustua, S.; Rest, A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the initial results from a program aimed at establishing a network of hot DA white dwarfs to serve as spectrophotometric standards for present and future wide-field surveys. These stars span the equatorial zone and are faint enough to be conveniently observed throughout the year with large-aperture telescopes. The spectra of these white dwarfs are analyzed in order to generate a non-local-thermodynamic-equilibrium model atmosphere normalized to Hubble Space Telescope colors, including adjustments for wavelength-dependent interstellar extinction. Once established, this standard star network will serve ground-based observatories in both hemispheres as well as space-based instrumentation from the UV to the near IR. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this concept and show how two different approaches to the problem using somewhat different assumptions produce equivalent results. We discuss the lessons learned and the resulting corrective actions applied to our program.

  20. Habitable planets around white and brown dwarfs: the perils of a cooling primary.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Rory; Heller, René

    2013-03-01

    White and brown dwarfs are astrophysical objects that are bright enough to support an insolation habitable zone (IHZ). Unlike hydrogen-burning stars, they cool and become less luminous with time; hence their IHZ moves in with time. The inner edge of the IHZ is defined as the orbital radius at which a planet may enter a moist or runaway greenhouse, phenomena that can remove a planet's surface water forever. Thus, as the IHZ moves in, planets that enter it may no longer have any water and are still uninhabitable. Additionally, the close proximity of the IHZ to the primary leads to concern that tidal heating may also be strong enough to trigger a runaway greenhouse, even for orbital eccentricities as small as 10(-6). Water loss occurs due to photolyzation by UV photons in the planetary stratosphere, followed by hydrogen escape. Young white dwarfs emit a large amount of these photons, as their surface temperatures are over 10(4) K. The situation is less clear for brown dwarfs, as observational data do not constrain their early activity and UV emission very well. Nonetheless, both types of planets are at risk of never achieving habitable conditions, but planets orbiting white dwarfs may be less likely to sustain life than those orbiting brown dwarfs. We consider the future habitability of the planet candidates KOI 55.01 and 55.02 in these terms and find they are unlikely to become habitable. PMID:23537137

  1. SHORT-PERIOD g-MODE PULSATIONS IN LOW-MASS WHITE DWARFS TRIGGERED BY H-SHELL BURNING

    SciTech Connect

    Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2014-09-20

    The detection of pulsations in white dwarfs with low mass offers the possibility of probing their internal structures through asteroseismology and placing constraints on the binary evolutionary processes involved in their formation. In this Letter, we assess the impact of stable H burning on the pulsational stability properties of low-mass He-core white dwarf models resulting from binary star evolutionary calculations. We found that besides a dense spectrum of unstable radial modes and nonradial g and p modes driven by the κ mechanism due to the partial ionization of H in the stellar envelope, some unstable g modes with short pulsation periods are also powered by H burning via the ε mechanism of mode driving. This is the first time that ε destabilized modes are found in models representative of cool white dwarf stars. The short periods recently detected in the pulsating low-mass white dwarf SDSS J111215.82+111745.0 could constitute the first evidence of the existence of stable H burning in these stars, in particular in the so-called extremely low-mass white dwarfs.

  2. Temperatures for hot and pulsating DB white dwarfs obtained with the IUE Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, James; Wesemael, F.; Hansen, C. J.; Fontaine, G.; Shipman, Harry L.

    1986-01-01

    Ultraviolet energy distributions are presented for 12 hot, helium-atmosphere DB white dwarfs, including the four known pulsating stars which define an empirical DB instability strip. The UV spectrophotometry is reported, and the energy distributions are matched with two separate grids of DB model atmosphere calculations, so that effective temperature estimates may be derived. The sources of uncertainty in the UV temperature fits are assessed, and a comparison with estimates from optical data is made.

  3. COOL WHITE DWARFS FOUND IN THE UKIRT INFRARED DEEP SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, S. K.; Nitta, A.; Lodieu, N.

    2011-07-01

    We present the results of a search for cool white dwarfs in the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS). The UKIDSS LAS photometry was paired with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to identify cool hydrogen-rich white dwarf candidates by their neutral optical colors and blue near-infrared colors, as well as faint reduced proper motion magnitudes. Optical spectroscopy was obtained at Gemini Observatory and showed the majority of the candidates to be newly identified cool degenerates, with a small number of G- to K-type (sub)dwarf contaminants. Our initial search of 280 deg{sup 2} of sky resulted in seven new white dwarfs with effective temperature T{sub eff} {approx} 6000 K. The current follow-up of 1400 deg{sup 2} of sky has produced 13 new white dwarfs. Model fits to the photometry show that seven of the newly identified white dwarfs have 4120 K {<=}T{sub eff} {<=} 4480 K, and cooling ages between 7.3 Gyr and 8.7 Gyr; they have 40 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub tan} {<=} 85 km s{sup -1} and are likely to be thick disk 10-11 Gyr-old objects. The other half of the sample has 4610 K {<=}T{sub eff} {<=} 5260 K, cooling ages between 4.3 Gyr and 6.9 Gyr, and 60 km s{sup -1} {<=} v{sub tan} {<=} 100 km s{sup -1}. These are either thin disk remnants with unusually high velocities, or lower-mass remnants of thick disk or halo late-F or G stars.

  4. Luminosities and temperatures of M dwarf stars from infrared photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veeder, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    Bolometric magnitudes for a large number of M type dwarf stars, obtained by broadband infrared photometry at 1.65, 2.2, and 3.5 microns, are reviewed. The data obtained indicate that one parameter is sufficient to describe the blanketing in all of the UBVRI bands for all types of M dwarfs. In general, late M dwarfs seem to have lower effective temperatures than are predicted by theoretical models.

  5. Spin-up and mixing in accreting white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Livio, M.; Truran, J.W.

    1987-07-01

    It is demonstrated that existing theories of mixing in accreting white dwarfs encounter difficulties when confronted with observations of enrichments in nova ejecta. Arguments are presented, based on the Ekman spin-up process, which suggest that angular momentum transport from the accreted material to the white dwarf is more efficient than previously thought. This should lead to matter spreading over the entire white dwarf surface, as well as inward mixing. It is shown that when efficient transfer of angular momentum is taken into account, the gross features of nova outbursts can be reproduced, with the runaway occuring in a mixed layer. Some implications of the results for DQ Her, the hibernation model of novae, recurrent novae, and soft X-ray emission are discussed. 63 references.

  6. An Update on the Quirks of Pulsating, Accreting White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S.; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Hermes, J. J.; Toloza, Odette

    2015-06-01

    At the 18th European White Dwarf Workshop, we reported results for several dwarf novae containing pulsating white dwarfs that had undergone an outburst in 2006-2007. HST and optical data on the white dwarfs in GW Lib, EQ Lyn and V455 And all showed different behaviors in the years following their outbursts. We continued to follow these objects for the last 2 years, providing timescales of 6-7 years past outburst. All three reached their optical quiescent values within 4 years but pulsational stability has not returned. EQ Lyn showed its pre-outburst pulsation period after 3 years, but it continues to show photometric variability that alternates between pulsation and disk superhump periods while remaining at quiescence. V455 And has almost reached its pre-outburst pulsation period, while GW Lib still remains heated and with a different pulsation spectrum than at quiescence. These results indicate that asteroseismology provides a unique picture of the effects of outburst heating on the white dwarf.

  7. Wind-driven evolution of white dwarf binaries to type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Ablimit, Iminhaji; Xu, Xiao-jie; Li, X.-D.

    2014-01-01

    In the single-degenerate scenario for the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), a white dwarf rapidly accretes hydrogen- or helium-rich material from its companion star and appears as a supersoft X-ray source. This picture has been challenged by the properties of the supersoft X-ray sources with very low mass companions and the observations of several nearby SNe Ia. It has been pointed out that the X-ray radiation or the wind from the accreting white dwarf can excite winds or strip mass from the companion star, thus significantly influencing the mass transfer processes. In this paper, we perform detailed calculations of the wind-driven evolution of white dwarf binaries. We present the parameter space for the possible SN Ia progenitors and for the surviving companions after the SNe. The results show that the ex-companion stars of SNe Ia have characteristics more compatible with the observations, compared with those in the traditional single-degenerate scenario.

  8. Amplitude Variability as Evidence of Crystallization in GD 518 and Other Massive Pulsating White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, J. J.; Kepler, S. O.; Montgomery, M. H.; Gianninas, A.; Castanheira, Barbara G.; Winget, D. E.

    2015-06-01

    In 2013 March we discovered pulsations in the most massive pulsating hydrogen-atmosphere white dwarf to date, GD 518. Model atmosphere fits to the optical spectrum of this star show it is a Teff = 12,030±210 K, log g = 9.08±0.06 white dwarf, which corresponds to a mass of 1.20±0.03 M⊙. Such a massive WD should also be significantly crystallized at this temperature, and may possibly contain an oxygen-neon core. The star exhibits multi-periodic luminosity variations at timescales ranging from roughly 425 to 595 s and amplitudes up to 0.7% in a given night, consistent in period and amplitude with the observed variability of typical ZZ Ceti stars, although the pulsation amplitudes change drastically over the 33 days of our discovery observations. We investigate the possibility that these amplitude variations are a consequence of the pulsation modes sampling only the non-crystallized outer mass fraction of the white dwarf (perhaps <0.05 M⊙ of material), and thus have very low mode inertia. Amplitude variability could be an observational consequence of a significantly crystallized stellar interior.

  9. STRENGTHENING THE CASE FOR ASTEROIDAL ACCRETION: EVIDENCE FOR SUBTLE AND DIVERSE DISKS AT WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Farihi, J.; Jura, M.; Zuckerman, B.; Lee, J.-E. E-mail: jura@astro.ucla.ed E-mail: jelee@sejong.ac.k

    2010-05-10

    Spitzer Space Telescope IRAC 3-8 {mu}m and AKARI IRC 2-4 {mu}m photometry are reported for 10 white dwarfs with photospheric heavy elements; nine relatively cool stars with photospheric calcium and one hotter star with a peculiar high carbon abundance. A substantial infrared excess is detected at HE 2221-1630, while modest excess emissions are identified at HE 0106-3253 and HE 0307+0746, implying these latter two stars have relatively narrow ({Delta}r < 0.1 R{sub sun}) rings of circumstellar dust. A likely 7.9 {mu}m excess is found at PG 1225-079 and may represent, together with G166-58, a sub-class of dust ring with a large inner hole. The existence of attenuated disks at white dwarfs substantiates the connection between their photospheric heavy elements and the accretion of disrupted minor planets, indicating many polluted white dwarfs may harbor orbiting dust, even those lacking an obvious infrared excess.

  10. The hot white-dwarf companions of HR 1608, HR 8210, and HD 15638

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landsman, Wayne; Simon, Theodore; Bergeron, P.

    1993-01-01

    We have obtained low-dispersion IUE spectra of the late-type stars HD 15638 (F3 V), HR 1608 (=63 Eridani, KO IV), and HR 8210 (A8m). Each of these stars had been detected as a strong EUV source with the Wide Field Camera aboard the ROSAT satellite. The short-wavelength IUE spectrum of each star reveals the presence of a hot white-dwarf companion. We have fit the Lyman-alpha profile and UV continuum of each white dwarf using pure hydrogen models. The excellent fit of the data to the models provides confirmation of the Finley and Koester absolute calibration of the SWP camera of IUE. The UV data alone are insufficient to constrain the model gravity, but an additional constraint is provided by the photometric distance to the late-type primary. The most interesting of the three white dwarfs is the companion to HR 8210 for which our results imply a mass of 1.15 +0.05/-0.15 solar mass. This result is in good agreement with the lower limit on the mass derived from the spectroscopic orbit (greater than 1.1 solar mass), provided that the inclination is close to 90 deg.

  11. A compact planetary nebula around the hot white dwarf EGB 6/PG 0950 + 139

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebert, James; Green, Richard; Bond, Howard E.; Holberg, J. B.; Wesemael, F.

    1989-01-01

    The remarkable central star (0950 + 139), a very hot DA/DAO white dwarf, of the planetary nebula EGB 6 is described. Follow-up observations relevant to the analyses of both the nebula and the stellar photosphere are presented. Three kinds of scenarios are discussed to account for the existence of this peculiar nebula, but none appears very promising. The first consideration is that the nebula was ejected from the white dwarf as a discret event. This hypothesis is heavily constrained by the nebular size, density, and expansion rate; by the low luminosity and radius of the star; and by the absence of evidence for variation in density-sensitive forbidden lines from 1978 to 1987. No plausible mechanism can cause the observed amount of mass to be lost directly from a white dwarf in a steady or sporadic wind, at outflow velocities orders of magnitude below the escape velocity. Final consideration is given to the possibility that the gas is lost from a close companion star, but there is no evidence that this is a close binary system.

  12. Magnetic field evolution in white dwarfs: The hall effect and complexity of the field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muslimov, A. G.; Van Horn, H. M.; Wood, M. A.

    1995-01-01

    We calculate the evolution of the magnetic fields in white dwarfs, taking into account the Hall effect. Because this effect depends nonlinearly upon the magnetic field strength B, the time dependences of the various multipole field components are coupled. The evolution of the field is thus significantly more complicated than has been indicated by previous investigations. Our calculations employ recent white dwarf evolutionary sequences computed for stars with masses 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 solar mass. We show that in the presence of a strong (up to approximately 10(exp 9) G) internal toroidal magnetic field; the evolution of even the lowest order poloidal modes can be substantially changed by the Hall effect. As an example, we compute the evolution of an initially weak quadrupole component, which we take arbitrarily to be approximately 0.1%-1% of the strength of a dominant dipole field. We find that coupling provided by the Hall effect can produce growth of the ratio of the quadrupole to the dipole component of the surface value of the magnetic field strength by more than a factor of 10 over the 10(exp 9) to 10(exp 10) year cooling lifetime of the white dwarf. Some consequences of these results for the process of magnetic-field evolution in white dwarfs are briefly discussed.

  13. A White Dwarf-Based Investigation of the IRAC Photometric Absolute Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holberg, Jay; Bergeron, Pierre

    2006-05-01

    We propose a SPITZER Archive Program to use the extensive set of DA (pure hydrogen) white dwarfs in the SPITZER Science Archive to: 1) perform an independent investigation of the absolute calibration of the IRAC bands, 2) to evaluated the claim (Kilic et al. 2005) that cool white dwarfs possess unexplained flux deficits in the IRAC 4.5 micron and 8 micron channels, and 3) to systematically investigate the effects of Collisionally Induced Opacities and other opacity sources in cool white dwarfs. Our proposed data set consists primarily of the large set of those DA white dwarfs which have been observed with IRAC, AND which possess spectroscopically determined temperatures and gravities. These stars are placed on the HST photometric scale, with its well defined links to Vega, to optical fluxes, and to the 2MASS Near-IR bands. Model atmosphere fluxes, precisely matching the optical and 2MASS photometry and optical spectroscopy, are used to predict the corresponding IRAC fluxes. This procedure is demonstrated for a set of published IRAC observations.

  14. An experimental platform for creating white dwarf photospheres in the laboratory: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, M. H.; Falcon, Ross E.; Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Gomez, T. A.; Carlson, A. L.; Bliss, D. E.; Nagayama, T.; Stein, M.; Winget, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    We present the current status of the White Dwarf Photosphere Experiment at the Z Pulsed Power Facility at Sandia National Laboratories. This experiment has evolved into a unique platform for simultaneously measuring emission, absorption, and back-lighter continua spectra of plasmas with white dwarf (WD) photospheric compositions and conditions (Te∼1 eV, ne∼1016-1018e/cm3); our current experiments involve line profile measurements of hydrogen-corresponding to the most common surface composition in white dwarf stars, with future experiments planned for helium, carbon, and oxygen. These profiles will test line broadening theories used in white dwarf model atmospheres to infer the fundamental parameters (e.g., effective temperature and mass) of thousands of WDs. This experiment uses the large amount of x-rays generated from a z-pinch dynamic hohlraum to radiatively drive plasma formation in a gas cell. We reach significantly higher densities than the landmark study of Wiese et al. (1972), thereby putting competing line broadening theories to the test in a regime where their predictions strongly diverge. The simultaneous measurement of emission, absorption, and back-lighter continua in macroscopic plasmas represents a significant advance relative to hydrogen line profile experiments of the past.

  15. Comparing the white dwarf cooling sequences in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397

    SciTech Connect

    Richer, Harvey B.; Goldsbury, Ryan; Heyl, Jeremy; Hurley, Jarrod; Dotter, Aaron; Kalirai, Jason S.; Woodley, Kristin A.; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Rich, R. Michael; Shara, Michael M. E-mail: rgoldsb@phas.ubc.ca E-mail: jhurley@swin.edu.au E-mail: jkalirai@stsci.edu E-mail: greg.fahlman@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca E-mail: mshara@amnh.org

    2013-12-01

    Using deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging, color-magnitude diagrams are constructed for the globular clusters 47 Tuc and NGC 6397. As expected, because of its lower metal abundance, the main sequence of NGC 6397 lies well to the blue of that of 47 Tuc. A comparison of the white dwarf cooling sequences of the two clusters, however, demonstrates that these sequences are indistinguishable over most of their loci—a consequence of the settling out of heavy elements in the dense white dwarf atmosphere and the near equality of their masses. Lower quality data on M4 continues this trend to a third cluster whose metallicity is intermediate between these two. While the path of the white dwarfs in the color-magnitude diagram is nearly identical in 47 Tuc and NGC 6397, the numbers of white dwarfs along the path are not. This results from the relatively rapid relaxation in NGC 6397 compared to 47 Tuc and provides a cautionary note that simply counting objects in star clusters in random locations as a method of testing stellar evolutionary theory is likely dangerous unless dynamical considerations are included.

  16. Identification and Spectral Classification of Close Red Dwarf Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chivers, James

    2015-01-01

    The position angle, angular and linear separation, distance, and spectral class of 713 red dwarf binary star systems are reported based on data-mining the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 10. 707 of these systems are new discoveries.

  17. Calcium rich transients: tidal detonations of white dwarfs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccarone, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    We propose for a 40 kilosecond TOO observation of a new Ca-rich gap transient. These enigmatic objects, with properties intermediate between those of classical novae and Type Ia supernovae, can be well-explained by tidal detonations of low mass white dwarfs by intermediate mass black holes. In such a case, fall-back accretion of the tidal debris would power an X-ray source for which we propose to search. Because supermassive black holes will swallow white dwarfs whole, a successful outcome to this proposal would both explain the Ca-rich gap transients *and* establish the existence of intermediate mass black holes.

  18. Astro-archaeology - The white dwarfs and hot subwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Horn, Hugh M.

    1991-01-01

    By 'astroarcheology' is presently meant the effort to ascertain the Galaxy's past in light of what is found in its most ancient, white dwarf constituents. Attention is given to the controversial role of the hot subdwarfs and the theory of white dwarf spectral evolution, as well as to the concept of the 'Whole Earth Telescope', involving continuous photometric coverage of rapidly varying astronomical sources and thereby eliminating the otherwise troublesome diurnal gaps in data. Much higher resolution of the power spectra of these objects is attainable by these means than any current alternative.

  19. An analytical model of accretion onto white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospina, N.; Hernanz, M.

    2013-05-01

    The analytical model of Frank et al. (2002) has been used to investigate the structure of the accretion stream onto white dwarfs (WD). In particular, the post-shock region (temperature, density and gas velocity distributions) and X-ray spectrum emitted by this region. We have obtained the temperature, density and gas velocity distributions of the emission region for different masses of white dwarfs and at different positions in the shock coordinate. Also, we calculated the emitted spectrum for different WD masses and at different positions of the shock with the principal objective of study the accretion at different points of the emission region.

  20. All things White Dwarf: The State of Stellar Forensics at the University of Texas and Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winget, Donald

    2011-10-01

    Astronomy has always been considered an observational science, in contrast with other experimental sciences like physics, chemistry, biology, and geology. This is because it has not been possible to perform experiments on the objects we observe. This situation has changed in a way that is transformational. We are now able to make macroscopic bits of star stuff in the lab: plasmas created under conditions that are the same as the plasmas in stars. Although laboratory astrophysics has long been an important part of astronomical research, what has changed is the ability to produce large enough chunks of a star that we can make measurements and perform experiments. In this way, astronomy joins her sister sciences in becoming an experimental science as well as an observational one. I will describe how this came about, the technology behind it, and the results of recent laboratory experiments. Most importantly, we will discuss how this will change our understanding of the universe and its contents. This work will shed new light on our recent discoveries involving McDonald Observatory: planets around white dwarf stars, massive carbon/oxygen variable white dwarf stars, and white dwarf-white dwarf binaries -- including one detached double eclipsing system with an orbital period of 12 minutes. We should measure the rate of change of the orbital period in this system within a year and we expect it to be the highest S/N source of gravitational radiation, easily detectable with LISA or similar approaches.

  1. New theories of convection in the context of a recent analysis of the DBV white dwarf GD 358

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    1997-06-01

    We present updated evolutionary calculations for carbon-oxygen DB white dwarfs using the self-consistent model for turbulent convection recently developed by Canuto, Goldman & Mazzitelli (CGM). To this end, we employ a detailed stellar evolutionary code in which we include a new equation of state for helium plasmas computed by Saumon, Chabrier & Van Horn as well as new OPAL radiative opacities. The present study is aimed at assessing the compatibility of the CGM model with the recent effective temperature redetermination of the pulsating DB white dwarf star GD 358. This star defines the blue edge of the DB white dwarf instability strip. Using thermal time-scale arguments, we find that the DB blue edges given by the CGM fit to the effective temperature of GD 358 are much better than those given by the previous Canuto & Mazzitelli model.

  2. AN IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF DA WHITE DWARFS FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE 4

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Bergeron, P.; Gianninas, A. E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca

    2011-04-01

    We present an improved spectroscopic and photometric analysis of hydrogen-line DA white dwarfs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4 (SDSS DR4) based on model atmospheres that include improved Stark broadening profiles with non-ideal gas effects. We also perform a careful visual inspection of all spectroscopic fits with high signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns > 12) and present improved atmospheric parameters (T{sub eff} and log g) for each white dwarf. Through a comparison of spectroscopic and photometric temperatures, we report the discovery of 35 DA+DB/DC double degenerate candidates and two helium-rich DA stars. We also determine that a cutoff at S/N = 15 optimizes the size and quality of the sample for computing the mean mass of DA white dwarfs, for which we report a value of 0.613 M{sub sun}. We compare our results to previous analyses of the SDSS DR4 and find a good agreement if we account for the shift produced by the improved Stark profiles. Finally, the properties of DA white dwarfs in the SDSS are weighed against those of the Villanova White Dwarf Catalog sample of Gianninas et al. We find systematically lower masses (by about 3% on average), a difference that we trace back to the data reduction procedure of the SDSS. We conclude that a better understanding of these differences will be important to determine the absolute temperature scale and mean mass of DA white dwarfs.

  3. DETECTION OF WHITE DWARF COMPANIONS TO BLUE STRAGGLERS IN THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 188: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR RECENT MASS TRANSFER

    SciTech Connect

    Gosnell, Natalie M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Geller, Aaron M.; Sills, Alison; Leigh, Nathan; Knigge, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Several possible formation pathways for blue straggler stars have been developed recently, but no one pathway has yet been observationally confirmed for a specific blue straggler. Here we report the first findings from a Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar Blind Channel far-UV photometric program to search for white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars. We find three hot and young white dwarf companions to blue straggler stars in the 7 Gyr open cluster NGC 188, indicating that mass transfer in these systems ended less than 300 Myr ago. These companions are direct and secure observational evidence that these blue straggler stars were formed through mass transfer in binary stars. Their existence in a well-studied cluster environment allows for observational constraints of both the current binary system and the progenitor binary system, mapping the entire mass transfer history.

  4. Molecular magnetic dichroism in spectra of white dwarfs.

    PubMed

    Berdyugina, S V; Berdyugin, A V; Piirola, V

    2007-08-31

    We present novel calculations of the magnetic dichroism appearing in molecular bands in the presence of a strong magnetic field, which perturbs the internal structure of the molecule and results in net polarization due to the Paschen-Back effect. Based on that, we analyze new spectropolarimetric observations of the cool magnetic helium-rich white dwarf G99-37, which shows strongly polarized molecular bands in its spectrum. In addition to previously known molecular bands of the C2 Swan and CH A-X systems, we find a firm evidence for the violet CH B-X bands at 390 nm and C2 Deslandres-d'Azambuja bands at 360 nm. Combining the polarimetric observations with our model calculations, we deduce a dipole magnetic field of 7.5+/-0.5 MG with the positive pole pointing towards the Earth. We conclude that the developed technique is an excellent tool for studying magnetic fields on cool magnetic stars. PMID:17930997

  5. Most Double Degenerate Low-mass White Dwarf Binaries Merge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J.; Gianninas, A.

    2016-06-01

    We estimate the merger rate of double degenerate binaries containing extremely low mass (ELM; \\lt 0.3 M ⊙) white dwarfs (WDs) in the Galaxy. Such WDs are detectable for timescales of 0.1–1 Gyr in the ELM Survey; the binaries they reside in have gravitational wave merger times of 0.001–100 Gyr. To explain the observed distribution requires that most ELM WD binary progenitors detach from the common envelope phase with <1 hr orbital periods. We calculate the local space density of ELM WD binaries and estimate a merger rate of 3 × 10‑3 yr‑1 over the entire disk of the Milky Way; the merger rate in the halo is 10 times smaller. The ELM WD binary merger rate exceeds by a factor of 40 the formation rate of stable mass transfer AM CVn binaries, marginally exceeds the rate of underluminous supernovae, and is identical to the formation rate of R CrB stars. On this basis, we conclude that ELM WD binaries can be the progenitors of all observed AM CVn and possibly underluminous supernovae; however, the majority of He+CO WD binaries go through unstable mass transfer and merge, e.g., into single massive ∼1 M ⊙ WDs.

  6. Simplified Simulation of Mass Transfer in Double White Dwarf Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannah, Sara; Frank, Juhan

    2016-01-01

    The behavior both stable and unstable mass transfer in semi-detached double white dwarfs triggers a cornucopia of astrophysical phenomena including Type Ia supernovae and AM CVn stars. Current 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution these systems following the mass transfer, binary orbital parameters, and the self-consistent gravitational field over several tens of orbital periods have produced a wealth of data. However, these simulations can take weeks to months in high-performance computing platforms to execute. To help with the interpretation of results of such large scale simulations, and to enable a quick exploration of binary parameter space, we have developed a Mathematica code that integrates forward in time a system of 5 ODEs describing the orbit-averaged evolution of the binary separation as well as the radius, mass, and spin angular momentum of both components of the binary. By adjusting a few parameters describing the mass transfer as a function of the Roche-lobe overflow and the strength of the tidal coupling between the orbit and component spins we are able to obtain approximate fits to previously run hydrodynamic simulations. This simplified simulation is able to run simulations similar to the hydrodynamic versions in a matter of seconds on a dual-core PC or Mac computer.

  7. THE ELM SURVEY. IV. 24 WHITE DWARF MERGER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kilic, Mukremin; Brown, Warren R.; Kenyon, S. J.; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Heinke, Craig O.; Agueeros, M. A.; Kleinman, S. J.

    2012-06-01

    We present new radial velocity and X-ray observations of extremely low mass (ELM, {approx}0.2 M{sub Sun }) white dwarf (WD) candidates in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 area. We identify seven new binary systems with 1-18 hr orbital periods. Five of the systems will merge due to gravitational wave radiation within 10 Gyr, bringing the total number of merger systems found in the ELM Survey to 24. The ELM Survey has now quintupled the known merger WD population. It has also discovered the eight shortest period detached binary WD systems currently known. We discuss the characteristics of the merger and non-merger systems observed in the ELM Survey, including their future evolution. About half of the systems have extreme mass ratios. These are the progenitors of the AM Canum Venaticorum systems and Type Ia supernovae. The remaining targets will lead to the formation of extreme helium stars, subdwarfs, or massive WDs. We identify three targets that are excellent gravitational wave sources. These should be detected by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna like missions within the first year of operation. The remaining targets are important indicators of what the Galactic foreground may look like for gravitational wave observatories.

  8. MASS CONSTRAINTS FROM ECLIPSE TIMING IN DOUBLE WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, David L.

    2010-07-10

    I demonstrate that an effect similar to the Roemer delay, familiar from timing radio pulsars, should be detectable in the first eclipsing double white dwarf (WD) binary, NLTT 11748. By measuring the difference of the time between the secondary and primary eclipses from one-half period (4.6 s), one can determine the physical size of the orbit and hence constrain the masses of the individual WDs. A measurement with uncertainty <0.1 s-possible with modern large telescopes-will determine the individual masses to {+-}0.02 M{sub sun} when combined with good-quality (<1 km s{sup -1}) radial velocity data, although the eccentricity must also be known to high accuracy ({+-}10{sup -3}). Mass constraints improve as P {sup -1/2} (where P is the orbital period), so this works best in wide binaries and should be detectable even for non-degenerate stars, but such constraints require the mass ratio to differ from 1, as well as undistorted orbits.

  9. Surprising Rapid Collapse of Sirius B from Red Giant to White Dwarf Through Mass Transfer to Sirius a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, Shahinaz; Ali, Ola

    2013-03-01

    Sirius was observed in antiquity as a red star. In his famous astronomy textbook the Almagest written 140 AD, Ptolemy described the star Sirius as fiery red. He curiously depicted it as one of six red-colored stars. The other five are class M and K stars, such as Arcturus and Betelgeuse. Apparent confirmation in ancient Greek and Roman sources are found and Sirius was also reported red in Europe about 1400 years ago. Sirius must have changed to a white dwarf in the night of Ascension. The star chapter in the Quran started with "by the star as it collapsed (1) your companion have not gone astray nor being misled (2), and in verse 49 which is the rotation period of the companion Sirius B around Sirius A, it is said" He is the Lord of Sirius (49). If Sirius actually was red what could have caused it to change into the brilliant bluish-white star we see today? What the naked eye perceives as a single star is actually a binary star system, consisting of a white main sequence star of spectral type A1V, termed Sirius A, and a faint white dwarf companion of spectral type DA2, termed Sirius B. The red color indicates that the star seen then was a red giant. It looks that what they have seen in antiquity was Sirius B which was then a red giant and it collapsed to form a white dwarf. Since there is no evidence of a planetary nebula, then the red Sirius paradox can be solved in terms of stellar evolution with mass transfer. Sirius B was the most massive star which evolved to a red giant and filled the Roche lobe. Mass transfer to Sirius A occurred through the Lagrangian point. Sirius A then became more massive while Sirius B lost mass and shrank. Sirius B then collapsed abruptly into a white dwarf. In the case of Algol, Ptolmy observed it as white star but it was red at the time of El sufi. At present it is white. The rate of mass transfer from Sirius B to Sirius A, and from Algol B to A is estimated from observational data of colour change from red to bullish white to be 0

  10. On the occurrence and detectability of Bose-Einstein condensation in helium white dwarfs

    SciTech Connect

    Benvenuto, O.G.; Vito, M.A. De E-mail: adevito@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar

    2011-02-01

    It has been recently proposed that helium white dwarfs may provide promising conditions for the occurrence of the Bose-Einstein condensation. The argument supporting this expectation is that in some conditions attained in the core of these objects, the typical De Broglie wavelength associated with helium nuclei is of the order of the mean distance between neighboring nuclei. In these conditions the system should depart from classical behavior showing quantum effects. As helium nuclei are bosons, they are expected to condense. In order to explore the possibility of detecting the Bose-Einstein condensation in the evolution of helium white dwarfs we have computed a set of models for a variety of stellar masses and values of the condensation temperature. We do not perform a detailed treatment of the condensation process but mimic it by suppressing the nuclei contribution to the equation of state by applying an adequate function. As the cooling of white dwarfs depends on average properties of the whole stellar interior, this procedure should be suitable for exploring the departure of the cooling process from that predicted by the standard treatment. We find that the Bose-Einstein condensation has noticeable, but not dramatic effects on the cooling process only for the most massive white dwarfs compatible with a helium dominated interior ( ≈ 0.50M{sub s}un) and very low luminosities (say, Log(L/L{sub s}un) < −4.0). These facts lead us to conclude that it seems extremely difficult to find observable signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. Recently, it has been suggested that the population of helium white dwarfs detected in the globular cluster NGC 6397 is a good candidate for detecting signals of the Bose-Einstein condensation. We find that these stars have masses too low and are too bright to have an already condensed interior.

  11. Potential Impacts of ASTRO-H on the Studies of Accreting White Dwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Koji; Yuasa, Tadayuki; Harayama, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu; Long, Knox S.; Terada, Yukikatsu; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; ASTRO-H Team

    2015-01-01

    Interacting binaries in which a white dwarf accretes material from a companion - cataclysmic variables (CVs) in which the mass loss is via Roche-lobe overflow, and symbiotic stars in which the white dwarf captures the wind of a late type giant - are important populations of X-ray sources. Accretion onto the white dwarf surface often creates shocks with temperatures in the 10-50 keV range. If the post-shock region stays optically thin, it produces multi-temperature plasma emission over the medium to hard X-ray band (~0.5-50 keV). This makes them well-matched to the capabilities of the upcoming ASTRO-H mission, which will allow high-resolution spectroscopy in the 0.3-10 keV range with the microcalorimeter instrument, Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS), and simultaneous imaging spectroscopy in the 5-80 keV range with the Hard X-ray Imager (HXI). We will highlight several areas in which ASTRO-H can make unique contributions to the studies of these binaries. For example, X-ray emitting plasma in many of these systems are expected to have such high densities that only the SXS can provide density diagnostics. The prominent Fe K lines will allow dynamical studies of the X-ray emitting plasma for which velocities of order 1,000 km s-2 are expected. Finally, we discuss the potential of ASTRO-H to study the reflection off the white dwarf surface, both via the continuum bump observable with the HXI and the 6.4 keV fluorescent iron line with the SXS. For near Chandrasekhar-mass white dwarfs, the gravitational redshift of the latter is within reach of the instrumental capability and may provide the best direct measurement of their masses.

  12. White dwarfs constraints on dark sector models with light particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ubaldi, Lorenzo

    2014-06-24

    The white dwarf luminosity function is well understood in terms of standard model physics and leaves little room for exotic cooling mechanisms related to the possible existence of new weakly interacting light particles. This puts significant constraints on the parameter space of models that contain a massive dark photon and light dark sector particles.

  13. UV Spectroscopy of a Peculiar White Dwarf Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCully, Curtis

    2012-10-01

    While type Ia supernovae {SNe Ia} have been extremely useful for studying the cosmic expansion history, their explosion mechanism and progenitor system remain unsolved problems. Moreover, as large samples of SNe are observed, the diversity among these explosions has grown: not all exploding white dwarfs look like normal SNe Ia. Understanding why these "peculiar" objects are different from the normal ones can help explain the standard SN Ia scenario, as well as give us a better understanding of the many endpoints of stellar evolution. Connecting observations to physical models has been difficult for both normal and peculiar white dwarf supernovae. The ultraviolet is an unexplored wavelength region for peculiar SNe Ia; the high opacity in the UV from typical thermonuclear burning products means that the UV flux in white dwarf supernovae is very sensitive to the outermost layers of ejecta. This material is the least processed, and is thus an ideal place to look for clues to progenitors and explosion mechanisms. Here we propose target-of-opportunity UV spectroscopy of a peculiar white dwarf SN using the STIS NUV-MAMA instrument to add a unique piece of the puzzle connecting peculiar SNe Ia and their progenitors.

  14. Accretion of rotating fluids by barytropes - Numerical results for white-dwarf models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durisen, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Numerical sequences of rotating axisymmetric nonmagnetic equilibrium models are constructed which represent the evolution of a barytropic star as it accretes material from a rotating medium. Two accretion geometries are considered - one approximating accretion from a rotating cloud and the other, accretion from a Keplerian disk. It is assumed that some process, such as Ekman spin-up or nonequilibrium oscillations, maintains nearly constant angular velocity along cylinders about the rotation axis. Transport of angular momentum in the cylindrically radial direction by viscosity is included. Fluid instabilities and other physical processes leading to enhancement of this transport are discussed. Particular application is made to zero-temperature white-dwarf models, using the degenerate electron equation of state. An initially nonrotating 0.566-solar-mass white dwarf is followed during the accretion of more than one solar mass of material. Applications to degenerate stellar cores, to mass-transfer binary systems containing white dwarfs, such as novae and dwarf novae, to Type I supernovae, and to galactic X-ray sources are considered.

  15. Detection limits for close eclipsing and transiting substellar and planetary companions to white dwarfs in the WASP survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faedi, F.; West, R. G.; Burleigh, M. R.; Goad, M. R.; Hebb, L.

    2011-01-01

    We have performed extensive simulations to explore the possibility of detecting eclipses and transits of close, substellar and planetary companions to white dwarfs in WASP (the UK Wide-Angle Search for Planets) light curves. Our simulations cover companions ˜0.3 < Rpl < 12 R? and orbital periods 2 < P < 15 d, equivalent to orbital radii 0.003 < a < 0.1 au. For Gaussian random noise, WASP is sensitive to transits by companions as small as the Moon orbiting a V≃ 12 white dwarf. For fainter white dwarfs, WASP is sensitive to increasingly larger radius bodies. However, in the presence of correlated noise structure in the light curves, the sensitivity drops, although Earth-sized companions remain detectable, in principle, even in low signal-to-noise data. Mars-sized, and even Mercury-sized, bodies yield reasonable detection rates in high-quality light curves with little residual noise. We searched for eclipses and transit signals in long-term light curves of a sample of 194 white dwarfs resulting from a cross-correlation of the McCook & Sion catalogue and the WASP archive. No evidence for eclipsing or transiting substellar and planetary companions was found. We used this non-detection and results from our simulations to place tentative upper limits to the frequency of such objects in close orbits at white dwarfs. While only weak limits can be placed on the likely frequency of Earth-sized or smaller companions, brown dwarfs and gas giants (radius ≈Rjup) with periods <0.1-0.2 d must certainly be rare (<10 per cent). More stringent constraints likely require significantly larger white dwarf samples, higher observing cadence and continuous coverage. The short duration of eclipses and transits of white dwarfs compared to the cadence of WASP observations appears to be one of the main factors limiting the detection rate in a survey optimized for planetary transits of main-sequence stars.

  16. An atmospheric analysis of the carbon-rich white dwarf G35 - 26

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thejll, Peter; Shipman, Harry L.; Macdonald, James; Macfarland, W. M.

    1990-01-01

    The first detailed atmospheric analysis of the DQ white dwarf G35 - 26 is presented. The analysis is based on published spectra and on helium-rich, homogeneous, blanketed LTE models containing carbon, hydrogen, and small amounts of N, O, and Ca, and on the assumption that G35 - 26 is a single star. The observed spectra are fitted against the model spectra, and T(eff), log(g), and abundances of H, He, C are determined along with upper limits on N, O, and Ca. The mass and zero temperature Hamada-Salpeter (ZTHS) radius, distance, parallax, and tangential velocity are derived. The mass, 1.2-1.33 solar, is the highest yet observed for a single white dwarf if the star is on the ZTHS relation. O + Ne + Mg white dwarf in this mass range are predicted by theory and G35 - 26 may be the first such object discovered. Given an ZTHS radius, the distance is between 33 and 69 pc.

  17. A Search for Metal Lines in the Spectra of DA White Dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical analysis was carried out in order to interpret the ultraviolet spectra of DB white dwarfs obtained earlier with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. Here the results of the IUE ultraviolet spectroscopy combined with visual data and model atmospheres of DB white dwarfs are reported. In particular, a search for spectra lines due to the element carbon using the ultraviolet was made. In no case is there a positive detection of carbon and from these data, and upper limits for carbon by number relative to helium are derived in the range of C: He 10 to the minus 5 power to 10 to the minus 7 power for the 16 DB stars with ultraviolet spectra in the temperature range 11400 K T sub EFF less than 2300 K. The low carbon abundances found in the atmospheres of the DB stars agree well with the hypothesis that the atmospheric carbon observed in the cooler DQ members of the helium-rich white dwarf sequence is produced by a convective dredging mechanism.

  18. Soft gamma-ray repeaters and anomalous X-ray pulsars as highly magnetized white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Rao, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    We explore the possibility that soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) and anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) are powered by highly magnetized white dwarfs (B-WDs). We take a sample of SGRs and AXPs and provide the possible parameter space in mass, radius, and surface magnetic field based on their observed properties (period and its derivative) and the assumption that these sources obey the mass-radius relation derived for the B-WDs. The radius and magnetic field of B-WDs are adequate to explain energies in SGRs/AX