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1

State building energy codes status  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

NONE

1996-09-01

2

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

2009-04-30

3

75 FR 54131 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...requirements for pool heater controls...is provided by solar heat from the sun...Building Envelope Thermal Measures...Maximum fenestration solar heat 0.40...HVAC and/or water heating equipment...outside the building thermal envelope are reduced...glazed fenestration solar heat gain...

2010-09-03

4

76 FR 42688 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...requirements for pool heater controls (on-off...is provided by solar heat from the...Building Envelope Thermal Measures The 2009...Maximum fenestration solar heat 0.40...HVAC and/or water heating equipment...outside the building thermal envelope are reduced...glazed fenestration solar heat gain...

2011-07-19

5

76 FR 64924 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Regulatory Analysis A. Review...preliminary analysis, a preponderance... Building thermal envelope improvements...in allowable Solar Heat Gain Coefficient...heating in the performance compliance...assumptions in the performance compliance...Efficiency Building Thermal Envelope Improvements...fenestration solar heat gain...

2011-10-19

6

41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements...85 Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements...in fire protection? Federally owned buildings are generally exempt from State...

2013-07-01

7

41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements...85 Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements...in fire protection? Federally owned buildings are generally exempt from State...

2012-01-01

8

41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements...85 Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements...in fire protection? Federally owned buildings are generally exempt from State...

2010-07-01

9

41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements...85 Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements...in fire protection? Federally owned buildings are generally exempt from State...

2014-01-01

10

41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements...85 Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements...in fire protection? Federally owned buildings are generally exempt from State...

2011-01-01

11

77 FR 29322 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...that the Simulated Performance Alternative in...window area in the performance approach are identical...Based on DOE's analysis, a preponderance...include: Building thermal envelope improvements...in allowable Solar Heat Gain Coefficient...heating in the performance compliance...

2012-05-17

12

Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

2005-09-15

13

Building and Facility Codes Code Building Location Bldg # Coordinates  

E-print Network

Building and Facility Codes Code Building Location Bldg # Coordinates APM Applied Physics & Mathematics Building Muir 249 F7 ASANT Asante Hall Eleanor Roosevelt 446 F5 BIO Biology Building Muir 259 F7 BIRCH Birch Aquarium SIO 2300 S-D7 BONN Bonner Hall Revelle 131 G8 BSB Biomedical Sciences Building

Russell, Lynn

14

Building Codes and Regulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

Fisher, John L.

15

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

2009-04-06

16

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

2009-04-02

17

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

2009-04-07

18

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

2009-04-17

19

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

2009-04-15

20

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

2009-04-15

21

Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic

Eric E. Richman; David B. Belzer; David W. Winiarski

2005-01-01

22

Seminar on building codes and standards  

SciTech Connect

A seminar was conducted for state building code officials and state energy officials to discuss the following: status of the states regulatory activities for energy conservation standards for buildings; the development, administration, and enforcement processes for energy conservation standards affecting new construction; lighting and thermal standards for existing buildings; status of the development and implementation of the Title III Program, Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS); and current status of the State Energy Conservation Program. The welcoming address was given by John Wenning and the keynote address was delivered by John Millhone. Four papers presented were: Building Energy Performance Standards Development, James Binkley; Lighting Standards in Existing Buildings, Dorothy Cronheim; Implementation of BEPS, Archie Twitchell; Sanctions for Building Energy Performance Standards, Sue Sicherman.

Not Available

1980-01-01

23

78 FR 47677 - DOE Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy...in assessing compliance with building energy codes at the local, state...assistance for states implementing building energy codes, DOE developed and...

2013-08-06

24

75 FR 20833 - Building Energy Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EERE-2010-BT-BC-0012] Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy...compliance with the current model building energy codes or their equivalent. DOE...compliance with the latest model building energy codes, Standard...

2010-04-21

25

Increasing energy efficiency through improved enforcement of building energy codes  

SciTech Connect

The US Government has developed a series of performance standards to improve the energy efficiency of buildings in the United States. Building code officials are central to the implementation and enforcement of the building energy standards. This paper gives survey results that show that building code officials need additional staff, training, and tools to do their work more effectively.

Shankle, D.L.; Lesperance, A.M.; Fowler, R.A.

1992-04-01

26

Active Fault Near-Source Zones Within and Bordering the State of California for the 1997 Uniform Building Code  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fault sources in the Project 97 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the state of California were used to construct maps for defining near-source seismic coefficients, Na and Nv, incorporated in the 1997 Uniform Building Code (ICBO 1997). The near-source factors are based on the distance from a known active fault that is classified as either Type A or Type B. To determine the near-source factor, four pieces of geologic information are required: (1) recognizing a fault and determining whether or not the fault has been active during the Holocene, (2) identifying the location of the fault at or beneath the ground surface, (3) estimating the slip rate of the fault, and (4) estimating the maximum earthquake magnitude for each fault segment. This paper describes the information used to produce the fault classifications and distances.

Petersen, M.D.; Toppozada, T.R.; Cao, T.; Cramer, C.H.; Reichle, M.S.; Bryant, W.A.

2000-01-01

27

San Francisco Building Code Amendments to the  

E-print Network

Green Building Standards Code 2010 California Residential Code Operative date: January 1, 2011 #12;2 #12 Code, the 2010 California Residential Code and the 2010 Cal Green Code which is Part 2, 2.5 & 11 is to ensure that barrier-free design is incorporated in all buildings, facilities, site work and other

28

A Retrospective Analysis of Commercial Building Energy Codes: 1990 – 2008  

SciTech Connect

Building Energy Codes Program's efforts are designed to result in increased stringency in national model energy codes, more rapid and broader adoption by states and localities of updated codes, and increased compliance and enforcement. Report estimates the historical impact of Building Energy Codes Program in terms of energy savings achieved that are based upon various editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 (ASHRAE Standard 90.1).

Belzer, David B.; McDonald, Sean C.; Halverson, Mark A.

2010-10-01

29

1994 Building energy codes and standards workshops: Summary and documentation  

SciTech Connect

During the spring of 1994, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, conducted five two-day Regional Building Energy Codes and Standards workshops across the United States. Workshops were held in Chicago, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Dallas, and Denver. The workshops were designed to benefit state-level officials including staff of building code commissions, energy offices, public utility commissions, and others involved with adopting/updating, implementing, and enforcing state building codes in their states. The workshops provided an opportunity for state and other officials to learn more about the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requirements for residential and commercial building energy codes, the Climate Change Action Plan, the role of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Building Energy Standards Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, the commercial and residential codes and standards, the Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS), Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEM), training issues, and other topics related to the development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement of building energy codes. In addition to receiving information on the above topics, workshop participants were also encouraged to inform DOE of their needs, particularly with regard to implementing building energy codes, enhancing current implementation efforts, and building on training efforts already in place. This paper documents the workshop findings and workshop planning and follow-up processes.

Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.

1994-09-01

30

Office of Codes and Standards resource book. Section 1, Building energy codes and standards  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide: A discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stakeholders in the building energy codes and standards arena. The Resource Book is considered an evolving document and will be updated occasionally. Users are requested to submit additional data (e.g., more current, widely accepted, and/or documented data) and suggested changes to the address listed below. Please provide sources for all data provided.

Hattrup, M.P.

1995-01-01

31

Energy code for office buildings in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Energy code for office buildings in Israel, currently under development, is presented. This code is based on a prescriptive approach, which can be easily applied as a tool for the design of office buildings through all the design stages including the early ones. The prescriptive approach suggested is based on the results obtained from an energetic–economic optimization model

E. Shaviv; A. Yezioro; I. G. Capeluto

2008-01-01

32

Impacts of lateral code changes associated with the 2006 International Building Code and the 2008 California Building Code  

E-print Network

The 2008 California Building Code (CBC) will adopt the structural section of the 2006 International Building Code (IBC), which includes alterations to the procedure to determine earthquake design loading, and a drastic ...

Ratley, Desirée Page

2007-01-01

33

76 FR 64931 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...EERE-2011-BT-BC-0046] Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis AGENCY...the request for information on Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis published...the request for information on Building Energy Code Cost Analysis and...

2011-10-19

34

New "Risk-Targeted" Seismic Maps Introduced into Building Codes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Throughout most municipalities of the United States, structural engineers design new buildings using the U.S.-focused International Building Code (IBC). Updated editions of the IBC are published every 3 years. The latest edition (2012) contains new "risk-targeted maximum considered earthquake" (MCER) ground motion maps, which are enabling engineers to incorporate a more consistent and better defined level of seismic safety into their building designs.

Luco, Nicholas; Garrett, B.; Hayes, J.

2012-01-01

35

Technology Innovation and Building Energy Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of this dissertation is to add insight on the following general question: Has public policy stimulated energy-related technological change in buildings? Greater understanding of how policy influences technological change in the building sector can translate into better-designed policy mechanisms, ultimately accelerating innovation and adoption of energy-saving technologies. These technologies can enable building users to reduce their energy consumption and associated environmental impacts. This research addresses this general question using a case study of building controls technology, and poses the following specific research question: Has the use of building energy codes stimulated adoption of building controls? Building controls can be used in any type of building, of any vintage, and in any location; the systems come in a variety of configurations with a common objective; and they affect major sources of building energy consumption. Since they are used in both residential and commercial sectors, both of these sectors are included in the analysis. To address this research question, data are assembled from diverse sources and analyzed in multiple ways. The chapters proceed in a sequence that adds insight on individual aspects of the process of innovation in building controls. Chapter 1 reviews the literature on technological change, the characteristics of the building industry, and related energy policy. Chapter 2 uses patent citation data to characterize invention. Chapter 3 measures trends in technology prices to assess innovation. Chapter 4 uses federal commercial and residential building surveys to measure diffusion. Chapter 5 examines building energy code policies, selected for their relatively long history, widespread use, and relevance to building controls. In Chapter 6, data from Chapters 2 through 5 are used as inputs to a regression model to identify the effect of policy on adoption of the technology. Findings are discussed in Chapter 7. The results show that total commercial square footage or total residential homes, cumulative depreciated patents, and the price of the technology are the most consistent significant predictors of EMCS and PT adoption. Building energy codes and their enforcement offered mixed results, with more consistent evidence of a positive effect on PT adoption.

Altwies, Joy E.

36

Building Energy Efficiency in India: Compliance Evaluation of Energy Conservation Building Code  

SciTech Connect

India is experiencing unprecedented construction boom. The country doubled its floorspace between 2001 and 2005 and is expected to add 35 billion m2 of new buildings by 2050. Buildings account for 35% of total final energy consumption in India today, and building energy use is growing at 8% annually. Studies have shown that carbon policies will have little effect on reducing building energy demand. Chaturvedi et al. predicted that, if there is no specific sectoral policies to curb building energy use, final energy demand of the Indian building sector will grow over five times by the end of this century, driven by rapid income and population growth. The growing energy demand in buildings is accompanied by a transition from traditional biomass to commercial fuels, particularly an increase in electricity use. This also leads to a rapid increase in carbon emissions and aggravates power shortage in India. Growth in building energy use poses challenges to the Indian government. To curb energy consumption in buildings, the Indian government issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which applies to commercial buildings with a connected load of 100 kW or 120kVA. It is predicted that the implementation of ECBC can help save 25-40% of energy, compared to reference buildings without energy-efficiency measures. However, the impact of ECBC depends on the effectiveness of its enforcement and compliance. Currently, the majority of buildings in India are not ECBC-compliant. The United Nations Development Programme projected that code compliance in India would reach 35% by 2015 and 64% by 2017. Whether the projected targets can be achieved depends on how the code enforcement system is designed and implemented. Although the development of ECBC lies in the hands of the national government – the Bureau of Energy Efficiency under the Ministry of Power, the adoption and implementation of ECBC largely relies on state and local governments. Six years after ECBC’s enactment, only two states and one territory out of 35 Indian states and union territories formally adopted ECBC and six additional states are in the legislative process of approving ECBC. There are several barriers that slow down the process. First, stakeholders, such as architects, developers, and state and local governments, lack awareness of building energy efficiency, and do not have enough capacity and resources to implement ECBC. Second, institution for implementing ECBC is not set up yet; ECBC is not included in local building by-laws or incorporated into the building permit process. Third, there is not a systematic approach to measuring and verifying compliance and energy savings, and thus the market does not have enough confidence in ECBC. Energy codes achieve energy savings only when projects comply with codes, yet only few countries measure compliance consistently and periodic checks often indicate poor compliance in many jurisdictions. China and the U.S. appear to be two countries with comprehensive systems in code enforcement and compliance The United States recently developed methodologies measuring compliance with building energy codes at the state level. China has an annual survey investigating code compliance rate at the design and construction stages in major cities. Like many developing countries, India has only recently begun implementing an energy code and would benefit from international experience on code compliance. In this paper, we examine lessons learned from the U.S. and China on compliance assessment and how India can apply these lessons to develop its own compliance evaluation approach. This paper also provides policy suggestions to national, state, and local governments to improve compliance and speed up ECBC implementation.

Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Delgado, Alison

2014-03-26

37

A Comparative Study on Seismic Analysis of Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) with Other Building Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic framework of Bangladesh and adjoining areas indicate that Bangladesh lies well within an active seismic zone. The after effect of earthquake is more severe in an underdeveloped and a densely populated country like ours than any other developed countries. Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) was first established in 1993 to provide guidelines for design and construction of new structure subject to earthquake ground motions in order to minimize the risk to life for all structures. A revision of BNBC 1993 is undergoing to make this up to date with other international building codes. This paper aims at the comparison of various provisions of seismic analysis as given in building codes of different countries. This comparison will give an idea regarding where our country stands when it comes to safety against earth quake. Primarily, various seismic parameters in BNBC 2010 (draft) have been studied and compared with that of BNBC 1993. Later, both 1993 and 2010 edition of BNBC codes have been compared graphically with building codes of other countries such as National Building Code of India 2005 (NBC-India 2005), American Society of Civil Engineering 7-05 (ASCE 7-05). The base shear/weight ratios have been plotted against the height of the building. The investigation in this paper reveals that BNBC 1993 has the least base shear among all the codes. Factored Base shear values of BNBC 2010 are found to have increased significantly than that of BNBC 1993 for low rise buildings (?20 m) around the country than its predecessor. Despite revision of the code, BNBC 2010 (draft) still suggests less base shear values when compared to the Indian and American code. Therefore, this increase in factor of safety against the earthquake imposed by the proposed BNBC 2010 code by suggesting higher values of base shear is appreciable.

Bari, Md. S.; Das, T.

2013-09-01

38

Flood Related Costs -Allowable Building Codes: MFK Cost Center  

E-print Network

Flood Related Costs - Allowable Building Codes: MFK Cost Center Code Building Description 0456 incurred flood-related costs in a building not listed above please contact Donna Pearcy, Director of Risk Management, at telephone number 335-0010. Flood Related Costs - Allowable Improvement Codes: MFK Cost Center

39

Technical Options for Energy Conservation in Buildings. National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards and National Bureau of Standards Joint Emergency Workshop on Energy Conservation in Buildings. (Washington, D.C., June 19, 1973) NBS Technical Note 789.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this report is to provide reference material on the technical options for energy conservation in buildings. Actions pertinent to existing buildings and new buildings are considered separately. Regarding existing buildings, principal topics include summer cooling, winter heating, and other energy-related features such as insulation,…

National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC. Inst. for Applied Technology.

40

ICAN Computer Code Adapted for Building Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in developing composite micromechanics and macromechanics theories over the last three decades. These activities have resulted in several composite mechanics theories and structural analysis codes whose applications range from material behavior design and analysis to structural component response. One of these computer codes, the Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN), is designed primarily to address issues related to designing polymer matrix composites and predicting their properties - including hygral, thermal, and mechanical load effects. Recently, under a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with a Fortune 500 corporation, Master Builders Inc., ICAN was adapted to analyze building materials. The high costs and technical difficulties involved with the fabrication of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites sometimes limit their use. Particulate-reinforced composites can be thought of as a viable alternative. They are as easily processed to near-net shape as monolithic materials, yet have the improved stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness that is characteristic of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. For example, particlereinforced metal-matrix composites show great potential for a variety of automotive applications, such as disk brake rotors, connecting rods, cylinder liners, and other hightemperature applications. Building materials, such as concrete, can be thought of as one of the oldest materials in this category of multiphase, particle-reinforced materials. The adaptation of ICAN to analyze particle-reinforced composite materials involved the development of new micromechanics-based theories. A derivative of the ICAN code, ICAN/PART, was developed and delivered to Master Builders Inc. as a part of the cooperative activity.

Murthy, Pappu L. N.

1997-01-01

41

Reusable State Machine Code Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.

Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.

2010-12-01

42

Photovoltaic and solar-thermal technologies in residential building codes, tackling building code requirements to overcome the impediments to applying new technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the building code requirements and impediments to applying photovoltaic (PV) and solar-thermal technologies in residential buildings (one- or two-family dwellings). It reviews six modern model building codes that represent the codes to be adopted by most locations in the coming years: International Residential Code, First Draft (IRC), International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), International Mechanical Code (IMC), International

D. Wortman; L. Echo-Hawk; J. Wiechman; S. Hayter; D. Gwinner

1999-01-01

43

Potential Job Creation in Minnesota as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes  

SciTech Connect

Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

2013-09-01

44

Potential Job Creation in Rhode Island as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes  

SciTech Connect

Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

2013-09-01

45

Potential Job Creation in Tennessee as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes  

SciTech Connect

Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

2013-09-01

46

Potential Job Creation in Nevada as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes  

SciTech Connect

Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

2013-09-01

47

Statewide Savings Projections from the Adoption of Commercial Building Energy Codes in Illinois  

SciTech Connect

ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. A number of jurisdictions in the state of Illinois are considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as their commercial building energy code. This report builds on the results of a previous study, "Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions," to estimate the total potential impact of adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as a statewide commercial building code in terms of Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) savings, total primary energy savings, and pollution emissions reductions.

Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.

2002-09-30

48

Proposed Energy Provisions of the California Green Building Standards Code  

E-print Network

· Zero net energy not included as elective measure or definition · Revised High Efficacy LightingProposed Energy Provisions of the California Green Building Standards Code Part 11 of the California Building Code (also known as CalGreen) Patrick Saxton, P.E. patrick.saxton@energy.ca.gov 916

49

Could Building Energy Codes Mandate Rooftop Solar in the Future?  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores existing requirements and compliance options for both commercial and residential code structures. Common alternative compliance options are discussed including Renewable Energy Credits (RECs), green-power purchasing programs, shared solar programs and other community-based renewable energy investments. Compliance options are analyzed to consider building lifespan, cost-effectiveness, energy trade-offs, enforcement concerns and future code development. Existing onsite renewable energy codes are highlighted as case studies for the code development process.

Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.; Williams, Jeremiah

2012-08-01

50

The Florida Energy Efficiency Building Code, the Second Generation  

E-print Network

This paper discusses the Revision of the Residential Sections of the Florida Energy Efficiency Code for Building Construction. The procedures utilized in the Revision and the concepts integrated in to the 2nd Generation of the Florida Specific...

Dixon, R. W.

1985-01-01

51

Building guide : how to build Xyce from source code.  

SciTech Connect

While Xyce uses the Autoconf and Automake system to configure builds, it is often necessary to perform more than the customary %E2%80%9C./configure%E2%80%9D builds many open source users have come to expect. This document describes the steps needed to get Xyce built on a number of common platforms.

Keiter, Eric Richard; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Sholander, Peter E.; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Verley, Jason C.

2013-08-01

52

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation  

E-print Network

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states |A>=(|0>+e^{i\\pi/4}|1>)/\\sqrt{2} produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k+8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

Austin G. Fowler; Simon J. Devitt; Cody Jones

2013-01-29

53

Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka  

SciTech Connect

1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

2000-09-30

54

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in Iowa  

SciTech Connect

The state of Iowa is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

2002-09-07

55

BUILDING CODES: BARRIERS TO GREEN INNOVATION  

E-print Network

-residential building criteria include planning and design, energy efficiency, water efficiency and conservation management, energy and water efficiency, responsible material selection, minimization of CO2 emissions requirements for residential structures regarding site development, energy efficiency1 , water efficiency

56

Building up energy efficiency: an analysis of the relationship between energy efficiency building codes and electricity consumption in the U.S. residential sector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of climate change caused by the release of greenhouse gases (GHG) are a growing concern for state governments in the United States. The majority of state governments have attempted to mitigate GHG emissions through energy efficiency programs to combat the rising demand for electricity. In order to manage the increasing demand for electricity, states have adopted International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) for new residential buildings to offset the demand for energy. This paper studies the relationship between state level residential building codes and electricity consumption rates. Using state-level panel data, I construct a database of state residential building code adoptions and energy use from 2000-2010 to measure the relationship between state regulation and residential electricity consumption using an OLS Fixed Effects model. My most conclusive findings suggest that there is a negative association between specific code adoption and electricity consumption, but only in states with low rates of new residential construction. I find that the adoption of the 2006 IECC building code in states with low rates of new residential construction is associated with a 1.7 percent decrease in electrical consumption per 10,000 residents. I also find that the adoption of an up-to-date building code is associated with a .7 percent decrease in electrical consumption per 10,000 residents in states with low rates of new residential construction.

Merlo, Matthew John

57

7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Voluntary National Model Building Codes E Exhibit E to Subpart...1924—Voluntary National Model Building Codes The following documents address the health and safety aspects of buildings and related structures and are...

2011-01-01

58

7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Voluntary National Model Building Codes E Exhibit E to Subpart...1924—Voluntary National Model Building Codes The following documents address the health and safety aspects of buildings and related structures and are...

2013-01-01

59

7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... true Voluntary National Model Building Codes E Exhibit E to Subpart...1924—Voluntary National Model Building Codes The following documents address the health and safety aspects of buildings and related structures and are...

2014-01-01

60

7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Voluntary National Model Building Codes E Exhibit E to Subpart...1924—Voluntary National Model Building Codes The following documents address the health and safety aspects of buildings and related structures and are...

2010-01-01

61

7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Voluntary National Model Building Codes E Exhibit E to Subpart...1924—Voluntary National Model Building Codes The following documents address the health and safety aspects of buildings and related structures and are...

2012-01-01

62

78 FR 55245 - Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy...to evaluate compliance with building energy codes and general approaches...Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Office,...

2013-09-10

63

24 CFR 200.925b - Residential and institutional building code comparison items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and institutional building code comparison...and institutional building code comparison...detectors; (7) Building alarm systems...Structural loads and seismic design. (1) Design...components. (1) Steel; (2)...

2010-04-01

64

Understanding Energy Code Acceptance within the Alaska Building Community  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the technical assistance provided to the Alaska Home Financing Corporation on behalf of PNNL regarding the assessment of attitudes toward energy codes within the building community in Alaska. It includes a summary of the existing situation and specific assistance requested by AHFC, the results of a questionnaire designed for builders surveyed in a suburban area of Anchorage, interviews with a lender, a building official, and a research specialist, and recommendations for future action by AHFC.

Mapes, Terry S.

2012-02-14

65

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.

Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

2004-04-30

66

COLLEGE OF BUSINESS CODE COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

COLLEGE OF BUSINESS CODE COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY Adopted May 6, 1996 Amended January 23, 1998.............................................................................................................................................................3 2. COLLEGE OBJECTIVES ...........................................................................................................................................3 4. COLLEGE OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICERS

67

New York State Code Adoption Analysis: Lighting Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The adoption of the IECC 2003 Energy code will include a set of Lighting Power Density (LPD) values that are effectively a subset of the values in Addendum g to the ASHRAE/IESNA/ANSI 90.1-2001 Standard which will soon be printed as part of the 90.1-2004 version. An analysis of the effectiveness of this adoption for New York State can be provided by a direct comparison of these values with existing LPD levels represented in the current IECC 2000 code, which are themselves a subset of the current ASHRAE/IESNA/ANSI 90.1-2001 Standard (without addenda). Because the complete ASHRAE 2001 and 2004 sets of LPDs are supported by a set of detailed models, they are best suited to provide the basis for an analysis comparison of the two code levels of lighting power density stringency. It is important to note that this kind of analysis is a point-to-point comparison where a fixed level of real world activity is assumed. It is understood that buildings are not built precisely to code levels and that actual percentage of compliance above and below codes will vary among individual buildings and building types. However, without specific knowledge of this real world activity for all buildings in existence and in the future (post-code adoption) it is not possible to analyze actual effects of code adoption. However, it is possible to compare code levels and determine the potential effect of changes from one code requirement level to another. This is the comparison and effectiveness assessment

Richman, Eric E.

2004-10-20

68

Enforcing Building Energy Codes in China: Progress and Comparative Lessons  

SciTech Connect

From 1995 to 2005, building energy use in China increased more rapidly than the world average. China has been adding 0.4 to 1.6 billion square meters of floor space annually , making it the world’s largest market for new construction. In fact, by 2020, China is expected to comprise half of all new construction. In response to this, China has begun to make important steps towards achieving building energy efficiency, including the implementation of building energy standards that requires new buildings to be 65% more efficient than buildings from the early 1980s. Making progress on reducing building energy use requires both a comprehensive code and a robust enforcement system. The latter – the enforcement system – is a particularly critical component for assuring that a building code has an effect. China has dramatically enhanced its enforcement system in the past two years, with more detailed requirements for ensuring enforcement and new penalties for non-compliance. We believe that the U.S. and other developed countries could benefit from learning about the multiple checks and the documentation required in China. Similarly, some of the more user-friendly enforcement approaches developed in the U.S. and elsewhere may be useful for China as it strives to improve enforcement in rural and smaller communities. In this article, we provide context to China’s building codes enforcement system by comparing it to the U.S. Among some of the enforcement mechanisms we look at are testing and rating procedures, compliance software, and training and public information.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Halverson, Mark A.; Delgado, Alison

2010-08-15

69

Adoption, implementation and enforcement of commercial building energy codes in New Mexico and Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering ways to encourage states to adopt energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial buildings in the private sector. Such standards are now mandatory for federal buildings, and for private buildings in 34 states; in the remaining 16 states, the standards serve as guidelines for voluntary compliance. In this study for DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assessed the process by which energy codes for commercial buildings were adopted and implemented in Arizona and New Mexico. Information was gathered primarily through a series of interviews with state officials, city building officials, architects and engineers, builders, and staff from utilities in the two states. Until other state processes are studied, the extent of the similarities and dissimilarities to the situation in New Mexico and Arizona are unknown. A more extensive study may show that at least some elements of the two state's experience have been paralleled in other parts of the country. General strategies to encourage the adoption of energy codes, assist implementation, and support enforcement were developed based on the research from Arizona and New Mexico and are presented in this report. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Callaway, J W; Thurman, A G; Shankle, D L

1991-07-01

70

Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

2011-07-01

71

Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Options for Compliance  

SciTech Connect

As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, use of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including envelope, mechanical and lighting, have been pressed to the end of reasonable limits. Research has been conducted to determine the mechanism for implementing this requirement (Kaufman 2011). Kaufmann et al. determined that the most appropriate way to structure an on-site renewable requirement for commercial buildings is to define the requirement in terms of an installed power density per unit of roof area. This provides a mechanism that is suitable for the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on future buildings to offset electricity and reduce the total building energy load. Kaufmann et al. suggested that an appropriate maximum for the requirement in the commercial sector would be 4 W/ft{sup 2} of roof area or 0.5 W/ft{sup 2} of conditioned floor area. As with all code requirements, there must be an alternative compliance path for buildings that may not reasonably meet the renewables requirement. This might include conditions like shading (which makes rooftop PV arrays less effective), unusual architecture, undesirable roof pitch, unsuitable building orientation, or other issues. In the short term, alternative compliance paths including high performance mechanical equipment, dramatic envelope changes, or controls changes may be feasible. These options may be less expensive than many renewable systems, which will require careful balance of energy measures when setting the code requirement levels. As the stringency of the code continues to increase however, efficiency trade-offs will be maximized, requiring alternative compliance options to be focused solely on renewable electricity trade-offs or equivalent programs. One alternate compliance path includes purchase of Renewable Energy Credits (RECs). Each REC represents a specified amount of renewable electricity production and provides an offset of environmental externalities associated with non-renewable electricity production. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible issues with RECs and comparable alternative compliance options. Existing codes have been examined to determine energy equivalence between the energy generation requirement and the RECs alternative over the life of the building. The price equivalence of the requirement and the alternative are determined to consider the economic drivers for a market decision. This research includes case studies that review how the few existing codes have incorporated RECs and some of the issues inherent with REC markets. Section 1 of the report reviews compliance options including RECs, green energy purchase programs, shared solar agreements and leases, and other options. Section 2 provides detailed case studies on codes that include RECs and community based alternative compliance methods. The methods the existing code requirements structure alternative compliance options like RECs are the focus of the case studies. Section 3 explores the possible structure of the renewable energy generation requirement in the context of energy and price equivalence. The price of RECs have shown high variation by market and over time which makes it critical to for code language to be updated frequently for a renewable energy generation requirement or the requirement will not remain price-equivalent over time. Section 4 of the report provides a maximum case estimate for impact to the PV market and the REC market based on the Kaufmann et al. proposed requirement levels. If all new buildings in the commercial sector complied with the requirement to install rooftop PV arrays, nearly 4,700 MW of solar would be installed in 2012, a major increase from EIA estimates of 640 MW of solar generation capacity installed in 2009. The residential sector could contribute roughly an additional 2,300 MW based on the same code requirement levels of 4 W/ft{sup 2} of r

Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.

2011-09-30

72

Assessment of state`s needs for building energy information tools  

SciTech Connect

In this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, Building Energy Standards Program (BESP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), conducted two surveys of state agencies involved with building codes (including each state energy office) to determine what resources they would find most helpful in complying with the residential and commercial energy efficiency requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. PNL conducted a telephone survey of all 50 states and then a mail survey of each state plus Washington, DC and the six trust territories. In the mail survey the survey participants were provided with a list of 27 hypothetical tool descriptions; the participants were asked to choose the tools they thought would be most useful in helping them implement building energy codes and standards in their state. The respondents were also asked to characterize their state`s commercial and/or residential building energy code development/implementation processes. The mail survey respondents were also asked if they would be interested in serving on task forces for commercial or residential code development, implementation, enforcement or utility programs.

Hattrup, M.P.; Gilbride, T.L.

1994-08-01

73

Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.  

SciTech Connect

This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

Washington State Energy Code Program

1992-05-01

74

Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India  

SciTech Connect

India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human resources available in the state and local governments, involving third-party inspectors could rapidly expand the capacity for plan reviews and broad implementation. However, the procedures of involving third-parties need to be carefully designed in order to guarantee a fair process. For example, there should be multiple checks and certification requirements for third-party inspectors, and the government should have the final approval when third-party inspectors are used in a project. This paper discusses different approaches of involving third-parties in ECBC enforcement; the Indian states may choose the approaches that work best in their given circumstances.

Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

2013-01-31

75

Recommendations on Implementing the Energy Conservation Building Code in Rajasthan, India  

SciTech Connect

India launched the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007 and Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) recently indicated that it would move to mandatory implementation in the 12th Five-Year Plan. The State of Rajasthan adopted ECBC with minor modifications; the new regulation is known as the Energy Conservation Building Directives – Rajasthan 2011 (ECBD-R). It became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. This report provides recommendations on an ECBD-R enforcement roadmap for the State of Rajasthan.

Yu, Sha; Makela, Eric J.; Evans, Meredydd; Mathur, Jyotirmay

2012-02-01

76

Environmental performance of green building code and certification systems.  

PubMed

We examined the potential life-cycle environmental impact reduction of three green building code and certification (GBCC) systems: LEED, ASHRAE 189.1, and IgCC. A recently completed whole-building life cycle assessment (LCA) database of NIST was applied to a prototype building model specification by NREL. TRACI 2.0 of EPA was used for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). The results showed that the baseline building model generates about 18 thousand metric tons CO2-equiv. of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and consumes 6 terajoule (TJ) of primary energy and 328 million liter of water over its life-cycle. Overall, GBCC-compliant building models generated 0% to 25% less environmental impacts than the baseline case (average 14% reduction). The largest reductions were associated with acidification (25%), human health-respiratory (24%), and global warming (GW) (22%), while no reductions were observed for ozone layer depletion (OD) and land use (LU). The performances of the three GBCC-compliant building models measured in life-cycle impact reduction were comparable. A sensitivity analysis showed that the comparative results were reasonably robust, although some results were relatively sensitive to the behavioral parameters, including employee transportation and purchased electricity during the occupancy phase (average sensitivity coefficients 0.26-0.29). PMID:24483287

Suh, Sangwon; Tomar, Shivira; Leighton, Matthew; Kneifel, Joshua

2014-03-01

77

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the requirements of the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code® (IECC) on residential buildings on a state-by-state basis with a separate, stand-alone chapter for each state. A summary of the requirements of the code is given for each state. The 2009 IECC is then compared to the current state code for most states or typical current construction practice for the states that do not have a residential energy efficiency code. This is the final version of a draft report by the same name that was previously cleared for release (ERICA # PNNL-18545).

Lucas, Robert G.; Cole, Pamala C.

2009-10-01

78

Empirical evidence for site coefficients in building code provisions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Site-response coefficients, Fa and Fv, used in U.S. building code provisions are based on empirical data for motions up to 0.1 g. For larger motions they are based on theoretical and laboratory results. The Northridge earthquake of 17 January 1994 provided a significant new set of empirical data up to 0.5 g. These data together with recent site characterizations based on shear-wave velocity measurements provide empirical estimates of the site coefficients at base accelerations up to 0.5 g for Site Classes C and D. These empirical estimates of Fa and Fnu; as well as their decrease with increasing base acceleration level are consistent at the 95 percent confidence level with those in present building code provisions, with the exception of estimates for Fa at levels of 0.1 and 0.2 g, which are less than the lower confidence bound by amounts up to 13 percent. The site-coefficient estimates are consistent at the 95 percent confidence level with those of several other investigators for base accelerations greater than 0.3 g. These consistencies and present code procedures indicate that changes in the site coefficients are not warranted. Empirical results for base accelerations greater than 0.2 g confirm the need for both a short- and a mid- or long-period site coefficient to characterize site response for purposes of estimating site-specific design spectra.

Borcherdt, R.D.

2002-01-01

79

Building Environmental Sustainability Bowling Green State University  

E-print Network

standards and develop a model for the incorporation of these standards into future renovation and building of environmentally sustainable development into institutional policies and practices" (Association of UniversityBuilding Environmental Sustainability at Bowling Green State University Final Report Bud Beatty

Moore, Paul A.

80

A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL…

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

81

HOW HAVE CHANGES IN BUILDING CODE PROVISIONS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAME STRUCTURES IMPROVED SEISMIC SAFETY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides an analytical comparison of seismic performance of a typical California office building designed according to the 1967 Uniform Building Code and the 2003 International Building Code. The seismic performance predictions are based on a performance assessment method developed by the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center, which employs incremental nonlinear dynamic time1history analyses. Comparisons are made for

A. B. Liel; C. B. Haselton; G. G. Deierlein

82

Comparison of current state residential energy codes with the 1992 model energy code for one- and two-family dwellings; 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report is one in a series of documents describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the program for DOE. The goal of the program is to develop and support the adopting, implementation, and enforcement of Federal, State, and Local energy codes for new buildings. The program approach to meeting the goal is to initiate and manage individual research and standards and guidelines development efforts that are planned and conducted in cooperation with representatives from throughout the buildings community. Projects under way involve practicing architects and engineers, professional societies and code organizations, industry representatives, and researchers from the private sector and national laboratories. Research results and technical justifications for standards criteria are provided to standards development and model code organizations and to Federal, State, and local jurisdictions as a basis to update their codes and standards. This effort helps to ensure that building standards incorporate the latest research results to achieve maximum energy savings in new buildings, yet remain responsive to the needs of the affected professions, organizations, and jurisdictions. Also supported are the implementation, deployment, and use of energy-efficient codes and standards. This report documents findings from an analysis conducted by PNL of the State`s building codes to determine if the codes meet or exceed the 1992 MEC energy efficiency requirements (CABO 1992a).

Klevgard, L.A.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lucas, R.G.

1995-01-01

83

Building a Successful Palestinian State  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the past 50 years, there has been much debate and hand-wringing over how best to create a self-sustaining and independent Palestinian state. While many attempts have been made, in some sense very little substantial progress has been made. A team of researchers at the RAND Corporation has created this 453-page monograph that contains a singularly comprehensive set of recommendations for the success of an independent Palestinian state. Released in April 2005, the report contains proposals for a number of transportation links between the West Bank and Gaza that would hopefully open the door for access to jobs, food, water, health care, and other such public services. The report itself does not comment on how Israelis and Palestinians can reach a settlement to create such a state, but rather focuses almost entirely on what would happen in such a state were created. Based on research conducted from 2002 to 2004, this report will definitely be thought-provoking and compelling for persons with an interest in political economy, development issues, and the future of this highly contested region.

84

Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis  

SciTech Connect

As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

2011-09-30

85

Building code compliance and enforcement: The experience of San Francisco's residential energy conservation ordinance and California's building standards for new construction  

SciTech Connect

As part of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) technical assistance to the Sustainable City Project, compliance and enforcement activities related to local and state building codes for existing and new construction were evaluated in two case studies. The analysis of the City of San Francisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance (RECO) showed that a limited, prescriptive energy conservation ordinance for existing residential construction can be enforced relatively easily with little administrative costs, and that compliance with such ordinances can be quite high. Compliance with the code was facilitated by extensive publicity, an informed public concerned with the cost of energy and knowledgeable about energy efficiency, the threat of punishment (Order of Abatement), the use of private inspectors, and training workshops for City and private inspectors. The analysis of California's Title 24 Standards for new residential and commercial construction showed that enforcement of this type of code for many climate zones is more complex and requires extensive administrative support for education and training of inspectors, architects, engineers, and builders. Under this code, prescriptive and performance approaches for compliance are permitted, resulting in the demand for alternative methods of enforcement: technical assistance, plan review, field inspection, and computer analysis. In contrast to existing to construction, building design and new materials and construction practices are of critical importance in new construction, creating a need for extensive technical assistance and extensive interaction between enforcement personnel and the building community. Compliance problems associated with building design and installation did occur in both residential and nonresidential buildings. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

Vine, E.

1990-11-01

86

The Evergreen State College BUILDING EVACUATION PLAN  

E-print Network

The Evergreen State College Olympia, WA For emergencies, dial 911 Note: This document provides basic evacuation;2 Table of Contents Section Page A. Purpose 3 B. Basic Evacuation Procedures 3 C. Basic Emergency Members 4 E. Emergency Equipment and Supplies 6 F. Building Evacuation Sites 6 G. Campus Map of Evacuation

87

Abestos in Buildings: The State Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The widespread use of asbestos for several decades in building construction has created major public health concerns for state governments. If asbestos is not thoroughly bound in cement, plaster, resin or some other stable material, it will flake and powder, releasing countless microscopic fibers into the air. Asbestos fibers penetrate deep into…

Neilander, Dennis K.; Sacarto, Douglas M.

1988-01-01

88

Building State Capacity in Dissemination: Literature Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review was developed by and principally for the National Testing Service (NTS) Dissemination Project Staff. It is one of eight activities being used by NTS to develop a design for an evaluation of the State Capacity Building Program. The review is in two parts. The first part provides background information, evaluation methodologies and…

Strang, Ernest W.

89

State thermal/lighting scoreboard: Florida revising earlier thermal code  

SciTech Connect

A status report is given for steps taken in Florida, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia to pass state thermal and lighting building standards in compliance with Federal regulations. The report describes and gives the present status of legislation, the extent of public support or opposition, and information on whom to contact to make comment. Florida is revising an earlier code to set up a pont system which can be calculated on a hand-held calculator and which makes adjustments for the state's nine separate climates. Pennsylvania legislators are struggling with definitions and exemptions to balance the conservation potential of separate metering with the support of other groups for central heating systems. The West Virginia legislature has failed to pass a state standard, although 33 municipalities have done so. (DCK)

Ruth, P.

1980-01-07

90

Innovation and Standardization in School Building: A Proposal for the National Code in Italy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document discusses the University of Florence's experience and concepts as it developed the research to define a proposal for designing a new national school building code. Section 1 examines the current school building code and the Italian Reform Process in Education between 1960 and 2000. Section 2 details and explains the new school…

Ridolfi, Giuseppe

91

Recommendations for 15% Above ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Code-Compliant Building Energy Efficiency Measures for Small Retail Buildings  

E-print Network

closely with code officials, energy raters, manufacturers, state officials and other stakeholders to develop cost effective energy efficiency measures. This report presents detailed information about the recommendations for achieving 15% above code...

Kim, H.; Kim, K.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.

2012-01-01

92

Energy Metrics for State Government Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring true progress towards energy conservation goals requires the accurate reporting and accounting of energy consumption. An accurate energy metrics framework is also a critical element for verifiable Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Energy conservation in government can reduce expenditures on energy costs leaving more funds available for public services. In addition to monetary savings, conserving energy can help to promote energy security, air quality, and a reduction of carbon footprint. With energy consumption/GHG inventories recently produced at the Federal level, state and local governments are beginning to also produce their own energy metrics systems. In recent years, many states have passed laws and executive orders which require their agencies to reduce energy consumption. In June 2008, SC state government established a law to achieve a 20% energy usage reduction in state buildings by 2020. This study examines case studies from other states who have established similar goals to uncover the methods used to establish an energy metrics system. Direct energy consumption in state government primarily comes from buildings and mobile sources. This study will focus exclusively on measuring energy consumption in state buildings. The case studies reveal that many states including SC are having issues gathering the data needed to accurately measure energy consumption across all state buildings. Common problems found include a lack of enforcement and incentives that encourage state agencies to participate in any reporting system. The case studies are aimed at finding the leverage used to gather the needed data. The various approaches at coercing participation will hopefully reveal methods that SC can use to establish the accurate metrics system needed to measure progress towards its 20% by 2020 energy reduction goal. Among the strongest incentives found in the case studies is the potential for monetary savings through energy efficiency. Framing energy conservation as budget enhancement is found to be a particularly useful approach in political environments that are not always receptive to climate change oriented efforts. For example, the NC Utility Savings Initiative claims to have saved over $400 million in avoided tax costs. The case studies reveal a wide range of individual successes as a result of energy conservation efforts. Despite the successes found, results indicate that most states have not obtained or completely measured progress towards their energy reduction goals.

Michael, Trevor

93

Building Codes for Classrooms 34MK 3401 Market Street JMHH Jon M. Huntsman Hall  

E-print Network

Building Codes for Classrooms 34MK 3401 Market Street JMHH Jon M. Huntsman Hall 35MK 3550 Market Market Street KWH Kelly Writers House ACHM Anatomy/Chemistry Building L-FH Lauder-Fischer Hall ADDM Fisher-Bennett Hall LIPP Lippincott BLOC Blockley Hall LLAB Leidy Labs CAST Caster Building LRSM Lab

Plotkin, Joshua B.

94

Energy Efficiency Pilot Projects in Jaipur: Testing the Energy Conservation Building Code  

SciTech Connect

The Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) in Jaipur, India is constructing two new buildings on its campus that allow it to test implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), which Rajasthan made mandatory in 2011. PNNL has been working with MNIT to document progress on ECBC implementation in these buildings.

Evans, Meredydd; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Yu, Sha

2014-03-26

95

Making Automated Building Code Checking A Reality1 Charles S. Han, John Kunz, Kincho H. Law  

E-print Network

CAD. The user can at any time send this toilet facility design to a code-checker which is written in Java@cive.stanford.edu law@cive.stanford.edu 1. Introduction Currently, design and construction documents submitted set of building codes. The complexity and changing nature of codes leads to delays in both the design

Stanford University

96

Federal, state and utility roles in reducing new building greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper will explore the role of implementation of building energy codes and standards in reducing US greenhouse gas emissions. It will discuss the role of utilities in supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency in improving the efficiency of new buildings. The paper will summarize Federal policies and programs that improve code compliance and increase overall greenhouse gas emission reductions. Finally, the paper will discuss the role of code compliance and the energy and greenhouse gas emission reductions that have been realized from various Federal, State and utility programs that enhance compliance.

Johnson, J.A.; Shankle, D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Boulin, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-03-01

97

The State of Energy Codes in Texas  

E-print Network

The State of Energy Codes in Texas CATEE November 20, 2014 ESL-KT-14-11-44 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Who is SPEER • Member-based, non-profit 501(c)3 organization • The Newest Regional Energy... Efficiency Organization (REEO) • Founded in 2011 • 45 members from wide cross section of E.E. industries ESL-KT-14-11-44 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 Members ESL-KT-14-11-44 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through...

Herbert, C.

2014-01-01

98

Impacts of Standard 90.1-2007 for Commercial Buildings at State Level  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the requirements of Standard 90.1-2007 on commercial buildings on a state-by-state basis with a separate, stand-alone chapter for each state. Standard 90.1-2007 is compared to the current state code for most states. This is the final version of the draft previously cleared and assigned ERICA # PNNL-18544, titled "Commercial Nationwide Report."

Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Gowri, Krishnan

2009-10-12

99

Optimal superdense coding of entangled states  

E-print Network

We present a one-shot method for preparing pure entangled states between a sender and a receiver at a minimal cost of entanglement and quantum communication. In the case of preparing unentangled states, an earlier paper showed that a 2n-qubit quantum state could be communicated to a receiver by physically transmitting only n+o(n) qubits in addition to consuming n ebits of entanglement and some shared randomness. When the states to be prepared are entangled, we find that there is a reduction in the number of qubits that need to be transmitted, interpolating between no communication at all for maximally entangled states and the earlier two-for-one result of the unentangled case, all without the use of any shared randomness. We also present two applications of our result: a direct proof of the achievability of the optimal superdense coding protocol for entangled states produced by a memoryless source, and a demonstration that the quantum identification capacity of an ebit is two qubits.

Anura Abeyesinghe; Patrick Hayden; Graeme Smith; Andreas Winter

2006-08-09

100

Building a State Industrial Energy Efficiency Network  

E-print Network

?Building a State Industrial Energy Efficiency Network? Kathey Ferland Project Manager Texas Industries of the Future University of Texas at Austin (512)232-4823 or kferland@mail.utexas.edu http://TexasIOF.ces.utexas.edu Texas... tailored to the specific needs of Texas industrial energy users. The presentation will cover recent activities of the program, technology highlights from a conference on NOx reduction and energy efficiency, and upcoming events. ...

Ferland, K.

2005-01-01

101

Institutions by imposition : colonial lessons for contemporary state-building  

E-print Network

What explains variation in institution-building under foreign occupations? Why do some state-building missions produce effective and durable state institutions, while others leave a legacy of weak or dysfunctional ones? I ...

Matsuzaki, Reo

2011-01-01

102

The long and winding road of state building  

E-print Network

Chapter 15 The long and winding road of state building Sagar Raj Sharma1 1. Context Post and services, including security. In this book, we have attempted to view state-building as essentially with various such aspects of state-building in today's post-conflict Nepal. The first two chapters have dealt

Richner, Heinz

103

20. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

104

19. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

19. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

105

18. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

18. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. FACADE, ELEVATION - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

106

A brief introduction on training and public information of building energy codes in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

This report is associated with the project of Implementation of Building Energy Codes in China (55793). The report aims to give Chinese audience a brief introduction on training and public information activities of building energy codes in the U.S. The report contains four sections: Section One is about the development history and implementation of building energy codes in the U.S. Section Two is about the organizations of training and public information activities, mainly focused on ASHRAE, ICC, federal and state government. Policy implication, which is Section Three, addresses the role of federal government and on-line training and public information activities in promoting training and public information (the current China training system lacks strong support of central government and on-line training activities). Conclusions are made in Section Four. This report will be uploaded to an upcoming Chinese website which is devoted to provide first-time free on-line training and public information of building energy codes in China.

Shui, Bin

2010-12-01

107

Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy-Efficiency Measures for Commercial Office Buildings  

E-print Network

This paper presents an overview of the recommendations for achieving 15% above code energy performance for commercial office buildings complying with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999. To accomplish the 15% annual energy consumption reductions, ten measures...

Mukhopadhyay, J.; Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.; Cho, S.

108

Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Commercial Office Buildings  

E-print Network

energy consumption of a simulated commercial building to determine the 15% above-code recommendations. The analysis also reports end-use energy use, including: heating, cooling, domestic hot water use, fans, heat rejection, equipment and lighting loads...

Montgomery, C.; Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Liu, Z.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Cho, S.

109

A continuous curriculum for building code blue competency.  

PubMed

Staff response to a code blue can be cultivated when a continuous curriculum for code blue competency is used. This curriculum details ongoing code blue education yet requires only small increments of time for the inservice classes. The curriculum, adaptable to any unit, consists of three components: a unit-specific orientation to emergency equipment; exercises in critical thinking and doing; and exercises in documentation. PMID:12760002

Jankouskas, T S

2001-01-01

110

BARREL VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING COLUMNS AND STATE CAPITOL BUILDING. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BARREL VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING COLUMNS AND STATE CAPITOL BUILDING. - Soldiers' & Sailors' Memorial Bridge, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at State Street (State Route 3014), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

111

How does a brain build a cognitive code?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses how competition between afferent data and learned feedback expectancies can stabilize a developing code by buffering committed populations of detectors against continual erosion by new environmental demands. The gating phenomena that result lead to dynamically maintained critical periods and to attentional phenomena such as overshadowing in the adult. The functional unit of cognitive coding is suggested to be an

Stephen Grossberg

1980-01-01

112

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Michigan  

SciTech Connect

The state of Michigan is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

2002-09-30

113

Grid Code Facility / Building Name M36 525 Addams Fine Arts Hall  

E-print Network

Shoemaker Green #12;Grid Code Facility / Building Name M36 525 Addams Fine Arts Hall N34 95 Chemistry Building of the School of Medicine M36 10 Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts M36 45, 3600) N42 9211 Alexander School, Penn M34 560 Alumni Relations (Sweeten Alumni House) P36 5 Anatomy

Sharp, Kim

114

Optimal dense coding with arbitrary pure entangled states  

E-print Network

We examine dense coding with an arbitrary pure entangled state sharing between the sender and the receiver. Upper bounds on the average success probability in approximate dense coding and on the probability of conclusive results in unambiguous dense coding are derived. We also construct the optimal protocol which saturates the upper bound in each case.

Yuan Feng; Runyao Duan; Zhengfeng Ji

2006-08-17

115

3. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Collection Sacramento ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Collection Sacramento Co. History Thompson & West Sketch of 1880 Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER - B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128-132 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

116

Natural ventilation possibilities for buildings in the United States  

E-print Network

In the United States, many of the commercial buildings built in the last few decades are completely mechanically air conditioned, without the capability to use natural ventilation. This habit has occurred in building designs ...

Dean, Brian N. (Brian Nathan), 1974-

2001-01-01

117

10. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1893. Courtesy of Trenton Free Public Library. 2-6 East State Street is to the right of the image, with the sign for a dentist prominent on the corner. The mass of wires entering the fourth floor window suggests the location of the Western Union Telegraph Office in the building. - 2-6 East State Street (Commercial Building), 2-6 East State Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

118

Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building America program implemented a new Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) Team in 2013. The Team’s mission is to assist Building America (BA) research teams and partners in identifying and resolving conflicts between Building America innovations and the various codes and standards that govern the construction of residences. A CSI Roadmap was completed in September, 2013. This guidance document was prepared using the information in the CSI Roadmap to provide BA research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America (BA) innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods. For more information on the BA CSI team, please email: CSITeam@pnnl.gov

Cole, Pamala C.; Halverson, Mark A.

2013-09-01

119

Technical support document for the proposed Federal Commercial Building energy code  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the justification and technical documentation for all changes and updates made (since 1993) to the Energy Code for Commercial and High-Rise Residential Buildings, the codified version of ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989, ``Energy Efficient Design of New Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings.`` These changes and updates, which were subject to the ASHRAE addenda approval process, include Addenda b, c, d, e, g, and i. A seventh addenda, Addenda f, which has not been officially approved by ASHRAE, has been included into the proposed rule. Also included in the changes was technical work conducted to justify revisions to the 1993 DOE lighting power densities. The updated text will be reviewed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and issued as the new Federal Commercial Building Energy Code (10 CFR 434); Mandatory for New Federal Commercial and Multi-Family High Rise Residential Buildings.

Somasundaram, S.; Halverson, M.A.; Jones, C.C.; Hadley, D.L.

1995-11-01

120

Lessons learned from new construction utility demand side management programs and their implications for implementing building energy codes  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) through its Building Energy Standards Program (BESP). The purpose of this task was to identify demand-side management (DSM) strategies for new construction that utilities have adopted or developed to promote energy-efficient design and construction. PNL conducted a survey of utilities and used the information gathered to extrapolate lessons learned and to identify evolving trends in utility new-construction DSM programs. The ultimate goal of the task is to identify opportunities where states might work collaboratively with utilities to promote the adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy-efficient building energy codes.

Wise, B.K.; Hughes, K.R.; Danko, S.L.; Gilbride, T.L.

1994-07-01

121

76 FR 56413 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...industry process for review and modification of such codes.'' \\1...zone would be simulated in a weather location representative of...on simulation results from weather locations representative of...full year, based on typical weather data for a location. It...

2011-09-13

122

76 FR 43287 - Building Energy Standards Program: Determination Regarding Energy Efficiency Improvements in the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...efficiency codes, including increasing...their building energy codes...describes the process for States...commercial building energy efficiency codes, including increasing...commercial building energy efficiency...consensus process open to...

2011-07-20

123

Energy codes and the Recovery Act: Guidance for states addressing 90% compliance requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided state financial support aimed at stimulating the national economy while creating efficiency gains through the implementation of modern building energy codes. These requirements call for compliance with targeted energy codes, including a plan to demonstrate a 90% compliance rate by 2017. In support of these requirements, the Federal Government has published a recommended methodology for states to reference as they work to demonstrate compliance with new energy codes. Unfortunately, the path to meeting this goal remains unclear and many questions still exist at the state and stakeholder levels. The present study examines compliance issues faced within U.S. states to enable effective policy decisions, with a primary goal to provide states with guidance and options to address energy code compliance requirements. A descriptive statistical analysis of survey responses gathered in code enforcement jurisdictions provides a baseline of local practices and current implementation issues. State challenges and subsequent recommendations are analyzed through recent case studies, and considered against expectations of the Federal methodology. Findings culminate in a set of recommendations with consideration for unique background scenarios and barriers observed in the study. The resulting guidance can be considered by states as they install policies and take action in addressing Recovery Act requirements.

Williams, Jeremiah Lee

124

21. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy: Credit: Nevada State Archives ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

21. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy: Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. BASEMENT AND ROOF PLANS - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

125

22. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

22. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. SECTION AND PLANS OF CUPOLA - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

126

Compositional model-driven design of embedded code for energy-efficient buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

In embedded software development, model-driven design is well recognized. In this article we describe a compositional model-driven approach for auto-generating embedded code for improving the energy efficiency of building automation applications. We show how we can use a component-based hybrid-systems modelling framework to generate models for simulation and verification. Then, we auto-generate embeddable code from these models. We empirically demonstrate

A. Mady; M. Boubekeur; G. Provan

2009-01-01

127

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE WITH TAILINGS ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. COLLAPSED ADIT APPROXIMATELY 25 YARDS UPHILL TO THE LEFT OF FAR BUILDING. TIP TOP AND ONTARIO ARE LOCATED OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

128

Evaluation of the seismic performance of a code-conforming reinforced-concrete frame building—from seismic hazard to collapse safety and economic losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A state-of-the-art seismic performance assessment is illustrated through application to a reinforced- concrete moment-frame building designed per current (2003) building code provisions. Performance is quantified in terms of economic losses and collapse safety. The assessment includes site-specific seismic hazard analyses, nonlinear dynamic structural response simulations to collapse, damage analyses, and loss estimation. When selecting ground motion records for nonlinear

Christine A. Goulet; B. Haselton; Judith Mitrani-Reiser; James L. Beck; Gregory G. Deierlein; Keith A. Porter; Jonathan P. Stewart

2007-01-01

129

Rewards for passive solar design in the Building Code of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Building Code of Australia (BCA) 5 star benchmark substantially rewards passive solar design and makes it difficult for non-passive solar designs to be approved in Perth. This study shows that winter heating loads are substantially reduced in passive solar designed houses, but external wall material is not a significant factor. On the other hand, a reduction of summertime air

Neville Peterkin

2009-01-01

130

Probabilistic seismic hazard map for Bulgaria as a basis for a new building code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seismic hazard map proposed as part of a new building code for Bulgaria is presented here on basis of the recommendations in EUROCODE 8. Seismic source zones within an area of about 200 km around Bulgaria were constructed considering seismicity, neotectonic and geological development. The most time consuming work was to establish a homogeneous earthquake catalogue out of different

S. D. Simeonova; D. E. Solakov; G. Leydecker; H. Busche; T. Schmitt; D. Kaiser

2006-01-01

131

Probabilistic seismic hazard map for Romania as a basis for a new building code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A seismic hazard map proposed as part of a new building code for Romania is presented here on basis of the recommendations in EUROCODE 8. Seismic source zones within an area of about 200 km around Romania were constructed considering seismicity, neotectonics and geological development. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in terms of intensities is performed following Cornell (1968) with

L. Ardeleanu; G. Leydecker; K.-P. Bonjer; H. Busche; D. Kaiser; T. Schmitt

2005-01-01

132

Design of Moore finite state machine with extended coding space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The proposed method is targeted on reduction of hardware amount in logic circuit of Moore finite-state machine implemented with programmable logic arrays (PLA). The method is based on using more than minimal amount of variables in codes of FSM internal states. The method includes two stages of state encoding. The second stage is connected with recoding of states inside each class of pseudoequivalent states.

Titarenko, Larysa; Hebda, Olena; Barkalov, Alexander

2014-10-01

133

Modeling Planet-Building Stellar Disks with Radiative Transfer Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the nature of the many planetary systems found outside of our own solar system cannot be completed without knowledge of the beginnings these systems. By detecting planets in very young systems and modeling the disks of material around stars from which they form, we can gain a better understanding of planetary origin and evolution. The efforts presented here have been in modeling two pre-transitional disk systems using a radiative transfer code. With the first of these systems, V1247 Ori, a model that fits the spectral energy distribution (SED) well and whose parameters are consistent with existing interferometry data (Kraus et al 2013) has been achieved. The second of these two systems, SAO 206462, has presented a different set of challenges but encouraging SED agreement between the model and known data gives hope that the model can produce images that can be used in future interferometry work. This work was supported by NASA ADAP grant NNX09AC73G, and the IR&D program at The Aerospace Corporation.

Swearingen, Jeremy R.; Sitko, Michael L.; Whitney, Barbara; Grady, Carol A.; Wagner, Kevin Robert; Champney, Elizabeth H.; Johnson, Alexa N.; Warren, Chelsea C.; Russell, Ray W.; Hammel, Heidi B.; Lisse, Casey M.; Cure, Michel; Kraus, Stefan; Fukagawa, Misato; Calvet, Nuria; Espaillat, Catherine; Monnier, John D.; Millan-Gabet, Rafael; Wilner, David J.

2015-01-01

134

Building Code Challenging the Ethics Behind Adobe Architecture in North Cyprus.  

PubMed

Adobe masonry is part of the vernacular architecture of Cyprus. Thus, it is possible to use this technology in a meaningful way on the island. On the other hand, although adobe architecture is more sustainable in comparison to other building technologies, the use of it is diminishing in North Cyprus. The application of Turkish building code in the north of the island has created complications in respect of the use of adobe masonry, because this building code demands that reinforced concrete vertical tie-beams are used together with adobe masonry. The use of reinforced concrete elements together with adobe masonry causes problems in relation to the climatic response of the building as well as causing other technical and aesthetic problems. This situation makes the design of adobe masonry complicated and various types of ethical problems also emerge. The objective of this article is to analyse the ethical problems which arise as a consequence of the restrictive character of the building code, by analysing two case studies and conducting an interview with an architect who was involved with the use of adobe masonry in North Cyprus. According to the results of this article there are ethical problems at various levels in the design of both case studies. These problems are connected to the responsibilities of architects in respect of the social benefit, material production, aesthetics and affordability of the architecture as well as presenting distrustful behaviour where the obligations of architects to their clients is concerned. PMID:24696019

Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; Sahali, Oznem

2014-04-01

135

A method to prove violation of building code sound insulation standards in small condominiums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building code sound insulation standards are health measures intended to protect people from excessive noise. In the USA, minimum values for Field Sound Transmission Loss (FSTC), and Field Impact Insulation Class (FIIC) are widely used to rate noise insulation between adjacent condominiums. Current American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) field test standards specify minimum room volumes for each of 16 one-third octave band test frequencies. For field impact insulation class ratings (FIIC), ASTM E 1007 specifies a minimum room volume of 2100 ft3 for valid measurement in the 100-Hz band. For air-borne sound transmission class ratings (FSTC), ASTM E 336 specifies minimum room volumes of 1400 ft3 for valid measurement in the 125-Hz band. FIIC and FSTC cannot be determined for bedrooms and kitchens of smaller condominiums which fail the minimum size requirement for the lowest bands. However, upper bounds can be determined merely by excluding invalid lower bands from computations. It is shown that when the upper bound on FIIC or FSTC falls below the code requirement (field values of 45 under the Uniform Building Code and the International Building Code), one may logically conclude that the code requirement is violated under existing standards.

Lubman, David

2003-10-01

136

EVOLUTION OF STATE CODES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reviews four surveys of state onsite sewage disposal regulations from 1949 to 1980 and identifies the changes and trends of these changes. The physical meaning of various state regulatory requirements are analyzed against the present scientific knowledge. The primary co...

137

Building for School and Community. III: United States. OECD Programme on Educational Building.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Programme on Educational Building (PEB) has sponsored the analysis of projects in various countries that associate school buildings with community facilities. The texts brought together in this volume concern the United States. A paper prepared by the Office of Education provides information on the historical and administrative background of…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

138

Building Standards for the Handicapped, 1965. Supplement No. 7 to the National Building Code of Canada.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for incorporating provisions for the physically handicapped into the design and construction of public facilities are reviewed. Performance criteria and recommendations are given for facility planning, site development, and building equipment. Hazards and safety precautions are discussed, with specifications for architectural elements…

National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

139

6. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, California Original: Ante 1860 Re-photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

140

32. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, California Original: Re-photo: February 1940 DETAIL OF ENTRANCE (East Elevation) - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

141

33. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

33. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, California Original: 1860's Re-photo: February 1940 INTERIOR OF CHURCH BEFORE RESTORATION - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

142

8. Historic American Buildings Survey Illinois State Historical Library, Photographer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic American Buildings Survey Illinois State Historical Library, Photographer SECOND FLOOR HALL LOOKING SOUTH INTO STUDY - David Davis Mansion, Monroe & Davis Streets, Bloomington, McLean County, IL

143

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Museum ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Museum EAST (FRONT) FACADE, ORIGINAL CONDITION WITH CUPOLA AND PORCH (no date) - Abraham Curry House, 406 North Nevada Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

144

CODE FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY  

E-print Network

CODE FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY Adopted 21 September 1989 Revised 4 of the Department, and (d) supplying residents and agencies of the State of Colorado with needed information 13 September 2006 Revised 7 May 2008 1. Mission for the Department of Biology The primary mission

145

Building Gifted Education: One State at a Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Marland" Report was the impetus and structure to provide a more systematic approach to building state and regional gifted programs. One of the strategies used to proliferate the spread of programming for gifted students throughout the states was the National/State Leadership Training Institute on the Gifted and Talented…

Jolly, Jennifer L.

2014-01-01

146

22 CFR 9b.8 - Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b.8 Section 9b.8...GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.8 Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes. (a) Department of...

2010-04-01

147

22 CFR 9b.4 - Department of State building press pass for technical crews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Department of State building press pass for technical crews. 9b...REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.4 Department of State building press pass for technical crews....

2013-04-01

148

22 CFR 9b.5 - Temporary Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Temporary Department of State press building passes. 9b.5 Section 9b.5 ...REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.5 Temporary Department of State press building passes. A media...

2010-04-01

149

22 CFR 9b.5 - Temporary Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Temporary Department of State press building passes. 9b.5 Section 9b.5 ...REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.5 Temporary Department of State press building passes. A media...

2011-04-01

150

22 CFR 9b.8 - Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b.8 Section 9b.8...GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.8 Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes. (a) Department of...

2014-04-01

151

22 CFR 9b.8 - Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b.8 Section 9b.8...GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.8 Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes. (a) Department of...

2012-04-01

152

22 CFR 9b.4 - Department of State building press pass for technical crews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Department of State building press pass for technical crews. 9b...REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.4 Department of State building press pass for technical crews....

2012-04-01

153

22 CFR 9b.5 - Temporary Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Temporary Department of State press building passes. 9b.5 Section 9b.5 ...REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.5 Temporary Department of State press building passes. A media...

2014-04-01

154

22 CFR 9b.5 - Temporary Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Temporary Department of State press building passes. 9b.5 Section 9b.5 ...REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.5 Temporary Department of State press building passes. A media...

2013-04-01

155

22 CFR 9b.8 - Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b.8 Section 9b.8...GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.8 Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes. (a) Department of...

2013-04-01

156

22 CFR 9b.5 - Temporary Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Temporary Department of State press building passes. 9b.5 Section 9b.5 ...REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.5 Temporary Department of State press building passes. A media...

2012-04-01

157

22 CFR 9b.8 - Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b.8 Section 9b.8...GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.8 Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes. (a) Department of...

2011-04-01

158

22 CFR 9b.4 - Department of State building press pass for technical crews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Department of State building press pass for technical crews. 9b...REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.4 Department of State building press pass for technical crews....

2011-04-01

159

22 CFR 9b.4 - Department of State building press pass for technical crews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-04-01 false Department of State building press pass for technical crews. 9b...REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.4 Department of State building press pass for technical crews....

2014-04-01

160

22 CFR 9b.4 - Department of State building press pass for technical crews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Department of State building press pass for technical crews. 9b...REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.4 Department of State building press pass for technical crews....

2010-04-01

161

Building Code Compliance and Enforcement: The Experience of SanFrancisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinanace and California'sBuildign Standards for New Construction  

SciTech Connect

As part of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) technical assistance to the Sustainable City Project, compliance and enforcement activities related to local and state building codes for existing and new construction were evaluated in two case studies. The analysis of the City of San Francisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance (RECO) showed that a limited, prescriptive energy conservation ordinance for existing residential construction can be enforced relatively easily with little administrative costs, and that compliance with such ordinances can be quite high. Compliance with the code was facilitated by extensive publicity, an informed public concerned with the cost of energy and knowledgeable about energy efficiency, the threat of punishment (Order of Abatement), the use of private inspectors, and training workshops for City and private inspectors. The analysis of California's Title 24 Standards for new residential and commercial construction showed that enforcement of this type of code for many climate zones is more complex and requires extensive administrative support for education and training of inspectors, architects, engineers, and builders. Under this code, prescriptive and performance approaches for compliance are permitted, resulting in the demand for alternative methods of enforcement: technical assistance, plan review, field inspection, and computer analysis. In contrast to existing construction, building design and new materials and construction practices are of critical importance in new construction, creating a need for extensive technical assistance and extensive interaction between enforcement personnel and the building community. Compliance problems associated with building design and installation did occur in both residential and nonresidential buildings. Because statewide codes are enforced by local officials, these problems may increase over time as energy standards change and become more complex and as other standards (eg, health and safety codes) remain a higher priority. The California Energy Commission realizes that code enforcement by itself is insufficient and expects that additional educational and technical assistance efforts (eg, manuals, training programs, and toll-free telephone lines) will ameliorate these problems.

Vine, E.

1990-11-01

162

National Fire Codes. A Compilation of NFPA Codes, Standards, Recommended Practices, and Manuals. Volume 4: Building Construction and Facilities. 1969-70.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A selected group of NFPA codes and standards pertaining to building construction and facilities is presented. The recommendations are phrased in terms of performance or objectives, the intent being to permit the utilization of any methods, devices or materials which will produce the desired results. The major topics included are--(1) building

National Fire Protection Association, Boston, MA.

163

Feedbacks from Focus Group Meeting on Training and Implementation of Building Energy Codes in China  

SciTech Connect

A focus group meeting is a very effective quality research approach to collect information on a specific project. Through focus group meetings at both Changchun and Ningbo in August 2010, the project team gained a more complete understandings of key stakeholders (such as their education level), their training needs and expectations, key factors influencing their decision making, and incurred implementation difficulties. In addition, the meeting helped the project team (especially PNNL) improve its understanding of the implementation status of building energy codes in other regions (such as small cities and counties neighboring to urban areas, small townships and rural areas distant from urban areas). The collected feedbacks will serve as important input not only for better design of training materials and the development of an on-line training website, but also for development of follow-up projects to promote building energy codes in China.

Shui, Bin; Lin , Haiyan; Song, Bo; Halverson, Mark A.; Evans, Meredydd; Zhu, Xiaojiao

2011-01-01

164

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.

Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

2004-09-30

165

NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

2013-01-01

166

12. Former evacuees' barracks building, now located on State Highway ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Former evacuees' barracks building, now located on State Highway 139 approximately 3 miles southeast of the Tule Lake Project side; view to south, 90 mm lens. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

167

Sustainable tourism and post-conflict state building  

E-print Network

Sharma2 1. Sustainable development and sustainable tourism Sustainable development is a patternChapter 5 Sustainable tourism and post- conflict state building Pranil Kumar Upadhayaya1 Sagar Raj natural capital in the short term at the expense of long-term development. Bhatta (2000) states

Richner, Heinz

168

US Department of Energy Office of Codes and Standards resource book  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide a discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stockholders in the building energy codes and standards arena.

NONE

1996-01-01

169

Local equivalence, surface-code states, and matroids  

SciTech Connect

Recently, Ji et al. disproved the local-unitary-local Clifford (LU-LC) conjecture and showed that the local unitary (LU) and local Clifford (LC) equivalence classes of the stabilizer states are not always the same. Despite the fact that this settles the LU-LC conjecture, a sufficient condition for stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture is not known. In this paper, we investigate further the properties of stabilizer states with respect to local equivalence. Our first result shows that there exist infinitely many stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture. In particular, we show that for all numbers of qubits n{>=}28, there exist distance-two stabilizer states which are counterexamples to the LU-LC conjecture. We prove that, for all odd n{>=}195, there exist stabilizer states with distance greater than two that are LU equivalent but not LC equivalent. Two important classes of stabilizer states that are of great interest in quantum computation are the cluster states and stabilizer states of the surface codes. We show that, under some minimal restrictions, both these classes of states preclude any counterexamples. In this context, we also show that the associated surface codes do not have any encoded non-Clifford transversal gates. We characterize the Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) surface-code states in terms of a class of minor closed binary matroids. In addition to making a connection to an important open problem in binary matroid theory, this characterization does in some cases provide an efficient test for CSS states that are not counterexamples.

Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

2010-08-15

170

Energy Use and Design Options for Texas State Buildings  

E-print Network

in proposed new construction in state-owned buildings. The Energy Systems Group of the Department of Mechanical Engineering at Texas A&M University worked jointly with the Energy Management Center (EMC) of the Governor's Office (formerly the Energy Efficiency... TO RECORDS AND STORAGE BUILDING 43 IV CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 47 APPENDIX A 50 REFERENCES 52 viii LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 2.1 Maximum Overall Transmittance (ASHRAE) 8 3.1 Peak Cooling and Heating Base Travis Building ASHRAE. . 13 3.2 Annual...

Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D. L.

1988-01-01

171

Controlled Dense Coding with Six-particle Nonmaximal Graph State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two schemes, with Von Neumann measurement and generalized measurement, for controlled dense coding are investigated by using a six-particle nonmaximal graph state. The results for the average amounts of information are unique from the different two schemes. The supervisor may control the average amount of information transmitted from the sender to the receiver by adjusting the local measurement angle.

Liu, Desheng

2015-01-01

172

Impact of seismic code provisions in the central U.S.: a performance evaluation of a reinforced concrete building  

E-print Network

provisions to determine whether they will perform adequately during two different design-level earthquakes in this region. A four-story reinforced concrete (RC) moment frame with wide-module pan joists was designed according to current building codes...

Kueht, Erin

2009-05-15

173

Building New States: Lessons from Eritrea  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the Derg's overthrow in 1991, Eritrea embarked on the construction of a new state. New economic institutions were created, and considerable reform undertaken. Problems in co-ordinating reform and reconstruction were largely avoided, mainly because of the institutional 'clean slate' facing the country at independence and the high level of social solidarity and other social capital that characterize the country.

Gote Hansson

2001-01-01

174

Nuclear New Build in the United States 1990-2010: A Three State Analysis  

E-print Network

This research examines nuclear energy policy across three states in the United States (US) - Georgia, Pennsylvania, and Texas - from 1990-2010. The main research question seeks to ascertain what the prerequisites are for successful nuclear new build...

Heffron, Raphael J.

2012-01-23

175

A Comparison of Building Energy Code Stringency: 2009 IECC Versus 2012 IECC for Commercial Construction in Texas  

E-print Network

to Section 502 of the 2009 IECC: Building Envelope Requirements Comments Compliance Path: Prescriptive Compliance Path: Performance The 2012 code provides two options for prescriptive compliance of the building thermal envelope with the code... of slab insulation when the position of the slab is greater than 24 inches below the finished exterior grade. As stringent N.A Table C402.1.2 Opaque Thermal Envelope Assembly Requirements (Perf.) Most of the values are more stringent for the climate...

Mukhopadhyay, J.; Baltazar, J.; Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Ellis, S.

2011-01-01

176

Recommended requirements to code officials for solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. Model document for code officials on solar heating and cooling of buildings  

SciTech Connect

These recommended requirements include provisions for electrical, building, mechanical, and plumbing installations for active and passive solar energy systems used for space or process heating and cooling, and domestic water heating. The provisions in these recommended requirements are intended to be used in conjunction with the existing building codes in each jurisdiction. Where a solar relevant provision is adequately covered in an existing model code, the section is referenced in the Appendix. Where a provision has been drafted because there is no counterpart in the existing model code, it is found in the body of these recommended requirements. Commentaries are included in the text explaining the coverage and intent of present model code requirements and suggesting alternatives that may, at the discretion of the building official, be considered as providing reasonable protection to the public health and safety. Also included is an Appendix which is divided into a model code cross reference section and a reference standards section. The model code cross references are a compilation of the sections in the text and their equivalent requirements in the applicable model codes. (MHR)

None

1980-06-01

177

Strategies and Challenges for Energy Efficient Retrofitting: Study of the Empire State Building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational and maintenance cost of existing buildings is escalating making it tough for both the owner and the tenants. Retrofitting them with state of the art technologies help them to keep pace with amended recent code provisions and thus extending the older building stocks one more chance to live responsively. Retrofitted iconic buildings can thus retain their status in commerce driven real estate sector. It helps in reducing green house gas emission as well. World's iconic skyscraper, the Empire State Building (ESB), has undergone an exemplary retrofit process since 2008 to reduce its energy demands. To achieve the goal of operational cost and energy consumption reduction, stiff challenges had taken care in a systematic manner to realize benefit throughout the entire lifespan of the ESB. Least disturbances to the tenant and on-site component handling strategies required precise planning. The present paper explores strategies and process adopted for retrofitting the ESB, and derived insightful guidelines towards operational cost savings and energy efficiency of existing buildings through retrofitting.

De, B.; Mukherjee, M.

2013-11-01

178

Ground-state coding in partially connected neural networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patterns over (-1,0,1) define, by their outer products, partially connected neural networks, consisting of internally strongly connected, externally weakly connected subnetworks. The connectivity patterns may have highly organized structures, such as lattices and fractal trees or nests. Subpatterns over (-1,1) define the subcodes stored in the subnetwork, that agree in their common bits. It is first shown that the code words are locally stable stares of the network, provided that each of the subcodes consists of mutually orthogonal words or of, at most, two words. Then it is shown that if each of the subcodes consists of two orthogonal words, the code words are the unique ground states (absolute minima) of the Hamiltonian associated with the network. The regions of attraction associated with the code words are shown to grow with the number of subnetworks sharing each of the neurons. Depending on the particular network architecture, the code sizes of partially connected networks can be vastly greater than those of fully connected ones and their error correction capabilities can be significantly greater than those of the disconnected subnetworks. The codes associated with lattice-structured and hierarchical networks are discussed in some detail.

Baram, Yoram

1989-01-01

179

NASA Lewis steady-state heat pipe code users manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis heat pipe code was developed to predict the performance of heat pipes in the steady state. The code can be used as a design tool on a personal computer or with a suitable calling routine, as a subroutine for a mainframe radiator code. A variety of wick structures, including a user input option, can be used. Heat pipes with multiple evaporators, condensers, and adiabatic sections in series and with wick structures that differ among sections can be modeled. Several working fluids can be chosen, including potassium, sodium, and lithium, for which monomer-dimer equilibrium is considered. The code incorporates a vapor flow algorithm that treats compressibility and axially varying heat input. This code facilitates the determination of heat pipe operating temperatures and heat pipe limits that may be encountered at the specified heat input and environment temperature. Data are input to the computer through a user-interactive input subroutine. Output, such as liquid and vapor pressures and temperatures, is printed at equally spaced axial positions along the pipe as determined by the user.

Tower, Leonard K.; Baker, Karl W.; Marks, Timothy S.

1992-01-01

180

Building the United States National Vegetation Classification  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

2012-01-01

181

THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY HANKIN CHAIR IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION  

E-print Network

THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY HANKIN CHAIR IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION The College also serves as the Director of the Pennsylvania Housing Research Center (PHRC), comes with significant.g., Smart Spaces Center, the Center for Sustainability, Protective Technology Center), the Pennsylvania

Guiltinan, Mark

182

A Plastic Temporal Brain Code for Conscious State Generation  

PubMed Central

Consciousness is known to be limited in processing capacity and often described in terms of a unique processing stream across a single dimension: time. In this paper, we discuss a purely temporal pattern code, functionally decoupled from spatial signals, for conscious state generation in the brain. Arguments in favour of such a code include Dehaene et al.'s long-distance reverberation postulate, Ramachandran's remapping hypothesis, evidence for a temporal coherence index and coincidence detectors, and Grossberg's Adaptive Resonance Theory. A time-bin resonance model is developed, where temporal signatures of conscious states are generated on the basis of signal reverberation across large distances in highly plastic neural circuits. The temporal signatures are delivered by neural activity patterns which, beyond a certain statistical threshold, activate, maintain, and terminate a conscious brain state like a bar code would activate, maintain, or inactivate the electronic locks of a safe. Such temporal resonance would reflect a higher level of neural processing, independent from sensorial or perceptual brain mechanisms. PMID:19644552

Dresp-Langley, Birgitta; Durup, Jean

2009-01-01

183

State-Dependent Population Coding in Primary Auditory Cortex  

PubMed Central

Sensory function is mediated by interactions between external stimuli and intrinsic cortical dynamics that are evident in the modulation of evoked responses by cortical state. A number of recent studies across different modalities have demonstrated that the patterns of activity in neuronal populations can vary strongly between synchronized and desynchronized cortical states, i.e., in the presence or absence of intrinsically generated up and down states. Here we investigated the impact of cortical state on the population coding of tones and speech in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of gerbils, and found that responses were qualitatively different in synchronized and desynchronized cortical states. Activity in synchronized A1 was only weakly modulated by sensory input, and the spike patterns evoked by tones and speech were unreliable and constrained to a small range of patterns. In contrast, responses to tones and speech in desynchronized A1 were temporally precise and reliable across trials, and different speech tokens evoked diverse spike patterns with extremely weak noise correlations, allowing responses to be decoded with nearly perfect accuracy. Restricting the analysis of synchronized A1 to activity within up states yielded similar results, suggesting that up states are not equivalent to brief periods of desynchronization. These findings demonstrate that the representational capacity of A1 depends strongly on cortical state, and suggest that cortical state should be considered as an explicit variable in all studies of sensory processing. PMID:25653363

Pachitariu, Marius; Lyamzin, Dmitry R.; Sahani, Maneesh

2015-01-01

184

State-dependent population coding in primary auditory cortex.  

PubMed

Sensory function is mediated by interactions between external stimuli and intrinsic cortical dynamics that are evident in the modulation of evoked responses by cortical state. A number of recent studies across different modalities have demonstrated that the patterns of activity in neuronal populations can vary strongly between synchronized and desynchronized cortical states, i.e., in the presence or absence of intrinsically generated up and down states. Here we investigated the impact of cortical state on the population coding of tones and speech in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of gerbils, and found that responses were qualitatively different in synchronized and desynchronized cortical states. Activity in synchronized A1 was only weakly modulated by sensory input, and the spike patterns evoked by tones and speech were unreliable and constrained to a small range of patterns. In contrast, responses to tones and speech in desynchronized A1 were temporally precise and reliable across trials, and different speech tokens evoked diverse spike patterns with extremely weak noise correlations, allowing responses to be decoded with nearly perfect accuracy. Restricting the analysis of synchronized A1 to activity within up states yielded similar results, suggesting that up states are not equivalent to brief periods of desynchronization. These findings demonstrate that the representational capacity of A1 depends strongly on cortical state, and suggest that cortical state should be considered as an explicit variable in all studies of sensory processing. PMID:25653363

Pachitariu, Marius; Lyamzin, Dmitry R; Sahani, Maneesh; Lesica, Nicholas A

2015-02-01

185

Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code  

E-print Network

The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

Meier, Adam M; Knill, Emanuel

2012-01-01

186

Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code  

E-print Network

The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

Adam M. Meier; Bryan Eastin; Emanuel Knill

2012-04-18

187

Building Content Owned Bldg # Account No. Building/Property Name Location City Value Value by State Year Built Sq Ft  

E-print Network

Building Content Owned Bldg # Account No. Building/Property Name Location City Value Value by State 48 3027 25-26-GC284-000 AGY GIN BUILDING SNOWS MILL RD WATKINSVILLE 12500 0 Y 1960 8300 3028 25-26-GC

Arnold, Jonathan

188

International Code Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Code Council is �a membership association dedicated to building safety and fire prevention, develops the codes used to construct residential and commercial buildings, including homes and schools. Most U.S. cities, counties and states that adopt codes choose the International Codes developed by the International Code Council.� Although some sections of the site are reserved for members only (which requires a fee), there is a remarkable amount of material available to non-members. Available on the website are details about codes development, how to acquire an opinion on a code from multiple sources and how to reach a building code liaison for your locality. Under the �Certification and Testing� tab, users can find sample certification exam questions as well as outlines. The site also provides links to various periodicals, ICC meetings and also includes an event calendar to see dates for industry conferences and upcoming trade shows.

189

Modernity, State-Formation, Nation Building, and Education in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Europe, North America, Asia, and certain countries of the Middle East, e.g., Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, and Cyprus, institutionalized\\u000a education in schools and universities and more broadly paideia\\/culture, have been considered to be important mechanisms in the formation of modern states and the building of nations since the\\u000a period of the Enlightenment in the closing decades of the eighteenth century

Andreas M. Kazamias

190

Approved Module Information for EC314C, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Building Services Module Code: EC314C  

E-print Network

and electricity Professional/Subject Specific Skills i. Management decision skills with respect to buildingApproved Module Information for EC314C, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Building Services Module Code: EC building services incorporated into a building, to enable them to successfully manage this aspect

Neirotti, Juan Pablo

191

On the number of encoder states for capacity approaching d = 1 codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The number of encoder states is a key measure of complexity of a finite-state constrained code. In this paper, we derive analytically the relationship between the number of encoder states and the size of capacity approaching d = 1 codes. By defining the number of encoder states as (generalized) Fibonacci numbers, we obtain the optimum encoder states, which maximize the

Kui Cai; Kees A. Schouhamer Immink

2005-01-01

192

Simple scheme for encoding and decoding a qubit in unknown state for various topological codes  

PubMed Central

We present a scheme for encoding and decoding an unknown state for CSS codes, based on syndrome measurements. We illustrate our method by means of Kitaev toric code, defected-lattice code, topological subsystem code and 3D Haah code. The protocol is local whenever in a given code the crossings between the logical operators consist of next neighbour pairs, which holds for the above codes. For subsystem code we also present scheme in a noisy case, where we allow for bit and phase-flip errors on qubits as well as state preparation and syndrome measurement errors. Similar scheme can be built for two other codes. We show that the fidelity of the protected qubit in the noisy scenario in a large code size limit is of , where p is a probability of error on a single qubit per time step. Regarding Haah code we provide noiseless scheme, leaving the noisy case as an open problem. PMID:25754905

?odyga, Justyna; Mazurek, Pawe?; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Micha?

2015-01-01

193

Simple scheme for encoding and decoding a qubit in unknown state for various topological codes.  

PubMed

We present a scheme for encoding and decoding an unknown state for CSS codes, based on syndrome measurements. We illustrate our method by means of Kitaev toric code, defected-lattice code, topological subsystem code and 3D Haah code. The protocol is local whenever in a given code the crossings between the logical operators consist of next neighbour pairs, which holds for the above codes. For subsystem code we also present scheme in a noisy case, where we allow for bit and phase-flip errors on qubits as well as state preparation and syndrome measurement errors. Similar scheme can be built for two other codes. We show that the fidelity of the protected qubit in the noisy scenario in a large code size limit is of , where p is a probability of error on a single qubit per time step. Regarding Haah code we provide noiseless scheme, leaving the noisy case as an open problem. PMID:25754905

?odyga, Justyna; Mazurek, Pawe?; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Micha?

2015-01-01

194

Simple scheme for encoding and decoding a qubit in unknown state for various topological codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a scheme for encoding and decoding an unknown state for CSS codes, based on syndrome measurements. We illustrate our method by means of Kitaev toric code, defected-lattice code, topological subsystem code and 3D Haah code. The protocol is local whenever in a given code the crossings between the logical operators consist of next neighbour pairs, which holds for the above codes. For subsystem code we also present scheme in a noisy case, where we allow for bit and phase-flip errors on qubits as well as state preparation and syndrome measurement errors. Similar scheme can be built for two other codes. We show that the fidelity of the protected qubit in the noisy scenario in a large code size limit is of , where p is a probability of error on a single qubit per time step. Regarding Haah code we provide noiseless scheme, leaving the noisy case as an open problem.

?odyga, Justyna; Mazurek, Pawe?; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Micha?

2015-03-01

195

75 FR 17644 - Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home Facilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...38 CFR Part 51 RIN 2900-AN59 Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home...National Fire Protection Association's NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. This change is...response to ``RIN 2900-AN59--Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State...

2010-04-07

196

Synthesis of finite state machines with transformation of the object's codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthesis of finite state machines (FSM) with transformation of the object's codes is given. The general method of transformation of codes of state in the codes of microoperations' sets and vice versa is proposed. The circuit structures of Mealy and Moore automata are proposed and the method of their design is discussed. The further optimization is connected with increasing the

A. Barkalov

2004-01-01

197

Impact of 2003 Building Technology, State and Community Programs on United States Employment and Earned Income  

SciTech Connect

As part of measuring the impact of government programs for improving the energy efficiency of the nation's building stock, this report uses the ImBuild II model to assess the future economic impacts of Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) FY 2003 portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The energy savings expected to be created by market penetration of the BTS programs have the potential of creating nearly 270,000 jobs and about $3.41 billion in wage income(1999$) by the year 2030.

Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Elliott, Douglas B.

2002-07-08

198

Improving Building Construction Specifications in State and Local Governments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

State and local governments can benefit from master specifications systems that centralize data on all types of building materials, products, and processes. Most of these systems are organized according to the MASTERFORMAT system, which, along with guide specifications that require the insertion or deletion of standardized information, resulted from the specific needs of users and providers. For jurisdictions preparing their own specifications, staff time and cost are reduced. For those subcontracting the preparation, master specifications provide a means of evaluating the specifications submitted. Current management specification systems described include SPECINTACT, OMSPEC, MASTERPEC, and the NAVFAC, Corps of Engineers, and GSA guide specifications.

1980-01-01

199

Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)  

SciTech Connect

In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and fire safety. A related issue is the degree to which new standards are adopted and enforced. In the U.S., standards are developed using a consensus process, and local government agencies are free to implement these standards or to ignore them. For example, some U.S. states are still using 2003 versions of the building efficiency standards. There is also a great variation in the degree to which the locally adopted standards are enforced in different U.S. cities and states. With a more central process in China, these issues are different, but possible impacts of variable enforcement efficacy may also exist. Therefore, current building codes in China will be compared to the current state of building fire-safety and energy-efficiency codes in the U.S. and areas for possible improvements in both countries will be explored. In particular, the focus of the applications in China will be on green buildings. The terminology of 'green buildings' has different meanings to different audiences. The U.S. research is interested in both new, green buildings, and on retrofitting existing inefficient buildings. An initial effort will be made to clarify the scope of the pertinent wall insulation systems for these applications.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Song, Bo [China Academy of Building Research; Zhang, Sisi [China Academy of Building Research

2012-08-01

200

State-of-the-Art Review Whole Building, Building Envelope, and HVAC Component and System Simulation and Design Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been well documented that the HVAC equipment and systems in commercial office buildings are among the highest consumers of electricity across the United States. Substantial reductions in energy use could be accomplished along with improved occupant comfort levels if buildings were constructed as an optimized entity rather than as the sum of separately designed and separately optimized components.

P. Jacobs; H. Henderson

2002-01-01

201

Build a speaker Ohio State University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering July 2011  

E-print Network

Build a speaker Ohio State University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering July 2011 1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering BUILD A SPEAKER By Betty Lise Anderson, and that field produces the force. #12;Build a speaker Ohio State University Department of Electrical

Anderson, Betty Lise

202

On the Number of Encoder States of a Type of RLL Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the number of encoder states and the probable size of certain runlength-limited (RLL) codes is derived analytically. By associating the number of encoder states with (generalized) Fibonacci numbers, the minimum number of encoder states is obtained, which maximizes the rate of the designed code, irrespective of the codeword length.

Kui Cai; Kees A. Schouhamer Immink

2006-01-01

203

Heat recovery and thermal storage : a study of the Massachusetts State Transportation Building  

E-print Network

A study of the energy system at the Massachusetts State Transportation Building was conducted. This innovative energy system utilizes internal-source heat pumps and a water thermal storage system to provide building heating ...

Bjorklund, Abbe Ellen

1986-01-01

204

76 FR 11339 - Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home Facilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...38 CFR Part 51 RIN 2900-AN59 Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home...National Fire Protection Association's NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. The change is...National Fire Protection Association's NFPA 101, Life Safety Code (2009...

2011-03-02

205

New residential construction compliance: Evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code program  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code Program (WSECP). In 1990, the Washington State Legislature passed a residential energy efficiency code to be effective July 1, 1992. Bonneville supported passage and implementation of the code to ensure that new residences in the State of Washington were as energy efficient as economically feasible. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) is conducting the WSECP for Bonneville to support code implementation. This support takes several forms, including providing training to code enforcement officials, technical support both in the field and through telephone ``hot lines,`` and computerized tools to review house plans for code compliance. WSEO began implementing the WSECP in 1992, prior to the effective date of the new code. This first phase of the WSECP was the subject of an earlier process evaluation conducted by PNL. From that evaluation PNL found that most new homes being built immediately after the code went into effect were ``grand-fathered`` under the old code. The training program for the new code was in place and sessions were being attended by the jurisdictions but it was too early to determine if the training was effective in improving code compliance and easing the transition to the new energy code. That is the subject of this evaluation.

Warwick, W.M.; Lee, A.D.; Sandahl, L.J.; Durfee, D.L.; Richman, E.E.

1993-07-01

206

Performance evaluation of spread-spectrum code acquisition system using four-state Markov process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct sequence serial search acquisition scheme based on the assumption that there are two adjacent in-phase states (H1 cell) in the code position uncertainty region, on which the received pseudorandom noise (PN) code and the local despreading PN code signal is coarsely aligned, is presented. To utilize both cells, the test statistic is composed of the observation on the

Lie-Liang Yang; Jan Simsa

1998-01-01

207

Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures on Implementing Houston Amendments to Multifamily Residential Buildings in Houston Texas  

E-print Network

.78 AFUE furnace with a 0.93 AFUE furnace would increase the cost by $600 to $1,500 for each unit. Fenestration Options Decreased SHGC and U-value: The Houston building officials recommended a SHGC value of 0.35 for the test case but, as per the 15...% above code report, an SHGC of 0.3 is implemented for test case as it is more stringent than the one recommended by Houston building officials. The U-Factor is taken as 0.35 Btu/h-sq. ft.-?F. The cost of improving the SHGC and U...

Mukhopadhyay, J.; Liu, Z.; Malhotra, M.; Kota, S.; Blake, S.; Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

208

Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 m×7.80 m = 127.90 m2 with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is much higher than the requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code while the selected ground conditions represent the same characteristics. The main reason is that the ordinate of the horizontal elastic response spectrum for Eurocode 8 is increased by the soil factor. In TEC'07 force-based linear assessment, the seismic demands at cross-sections are to be checked with residual moment capacities; however, the chord rotations of primary ductile elements must be checked for Eurocode safety verifications. On the other hand, the demand curvatures from linear methods of analysis of Eurocode 8 together with TEC'07 are almost similar.

Toprak, A. Emre; Gülay, F. Gülten; Ruge, Peter

2008-07-01

209

Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake  

SciTech Connect

Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 mx7.80 m = 127.90 m{sup 2} with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is much higher than the requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code while the selected ground conditions represent the same characteristics. The main reason is that the ordinate of the horizontal elastic response spectrum for Eurocode 8 is increased by the soil factor. In TEC'07 force-based linear assessment, the seismic demands at cross-sections are to be checked with residual moment capacities; however, the chord rotations of primary ductile elements must be checked for Eurocode safety verifications. On the other hand, the demand curvatures from linear methods of analysis of Eurocode 8 together with TEC'07 are almost similar.

Toprak, A. Emre; Guelay, F. Guelten [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Civil Eng., Maslak, Istanbul, 34469 (Turkey); Ruge, Peter [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Statik und Dynamik der Tragwerke, Dresden, 01062 (Germany)

2008-07-08

210

Quantum steganography with a large payload based on dense coding and entanglement swapping of Greenberger—Horne—Zeilinger states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum steganography protocol with a large payload is proposed based on the dense coding and the entanglement swapping of the Greenberger—Horne—Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Its super quantum channel is formed by building up a hidden channel within the original quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) scheme. Based on the original QSDC, secret messages are transmitted by integrating the dense coding and the entanglement swapping of the GHZ states. The capacity of the super quantum channel achieves six bits per round covert communication, much higher than the previous quantum steganography protocols. Its imperceptibility is good, since the information and the secret messages can be regarded to be random or pseudo-random. Moreover, its security is proved to be reliable.

Ye, Tian-Yu; Jiang, Li-Zhen

2013-05-01

211

Impact of building technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income  

SciTech Connect

As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. This assessment is being done for the first time in FY99 as a supplement to the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA--formerly, Quality Metrics) estimates of primary energy savings and environmental and direct financial benefits of the BTS programs. The programmatic needs of BTS suggest that a simple, flexible, user-friendly method is needed to derive national employment and income impacts of individual BTS programs. Therefore, BTS funded Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a special-purpose version of the Impact Analysis for Planning (IMPLAN) national input-output model (Minnesota IMPLAN Group, Inc. 1997) specifically to estimate the employment and income effects of building energy technologies. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. Extensive documentation and a user`s guide are provided in Scott et al. (1998). Compared with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as the published multipliers from the Department of Commerce Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS 2), ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. In this report, the authors use the ImBuild model to calculate the impact of all 32 BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997.

Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Elliott, D.B.; Schultz, R.W.

1998-04-01

212

Exponents of quantum fixed-length pure-state source coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive the optimal exponent of the error probability of the quantum fixed-length pure-state source coding in both cases of blind coding and visible coding. The optimal exponent is universally attained by Jozsa et al.'s [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 1714 (1998)] universal code. In the direct part, a group representation theoretical type method is essential. In the converse part, Nielsen and Kempe's [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5184 (2001)] lemma is essential.

Hayashi, Masahito

2002-09-01

213

COPERNIC: A state-of-the-art fuel rod performance code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The second of three planned versions of the COPERNIC fuel performance code is nearing completion. The COPERNIC code development effort was launched in 1992 as part of a larger Framatome effort to develop a new generation of fuel-management codes. The COPERNIC code was developed primarily to produce accurate steady-state and transient extended-burnup fuel performance predictions and incorporate advanced materials. The

E. Bonnaud; C. Bernard; E. Van Schel

1997-01-01

214

State Code of Ethics The General Statutes of the State of Connecticut make provisions for preventing a  

E-print Network

State Code of Ethics The General Statutes of the State of Connecticut make provisions for preventing a State employee from using his/her public position or confidential information gained in State service for personal financial benefit. In accordance with C.G.S. 1 84(i), a State employee and his

Alpay, S. Pamir

215

Impact of the Level of State Tax Code Progressivity on Children's Health Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research study examines the impact of the level of state tax code progressivity on selected children's health outcomes. Specifically, it examines the degree to which a state's tax code ranking along the progressive-regressive continuum relates to percentage of low birthweight babies, infant and child mortality rates, and percentage of…

Granruth, Laura Brierton; Shields, Joseph J.

2011-01-01

216

Building a State Coalition for Nursing Home Excellence  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the Study: This article describes the successful evolution of a state coalition for nursing home excellence that brought together organizations that had once worked in silos to improve the quality of care through the implementation of culture change for Arkansas’ 240 nursing homes with 27,700 residents. Design and Methods: The Coalition was established in 2004 when stakeholders were invited to participate in a retreat to explore how they could come together with a common goal to improve the care of older Arkansans. These stakeholders were encouraged to bring their organization’s perspectives to the Coalition and determine ways to work with others. The continuous refinement of the Coalition’s activities involved revisiting goals of the Coalition, assessing the need for other stakeholders, identifying gaps and overlaps in quality and culture change programming, and providing feedback to Coalition members. Results: The Coalition stakeholders had the leadership to articulate and mobilize others around a common vision of improving quality of care in nursing homes through culture change. Over time, the Coalition members developed a willingness to share resources and to speak as one voice. Implications: Stakeholders from diverse organizations and governing bodies can come together to complement each other’s work and collaborate on programs to build a better system of care for the frail and elderly persons across a state. The success of this statewide effort lends support for policies that encourage regional coalitions of providers to improve care. PMID:24443610

Beck, Cornelia

2014-01-01

217

Whether a Building or a State of Mind, the Central Office Must Evolve  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central office is both a physical place and a state of mind. In some school systems, the central office is a separate building located away from schools. In other communities, the office is housed in one of the school buildings. When someone mentions "central office," they may not be referring only to the building. They may also mean the tip…

Mizell, Hayes

2010-01-01

218

Implementation of an analytical verification technique on three building energy-analysis codes: SUNCAT 2. 4, DOE 2. 1, and DEROB III  

SciTech Connect

An analytical verification technique for building energy analysis codes has been developed. For this technique, building models are developed that can be both solved analytically and modeled using the analysis codes. The output of the codes is then compared with the analytical solutions. In this way, the accuracy of selected mechanisms in the codes can be verified. The procedure consists of several tests and was run on SUNCAT 2.4, DOE 2.1, and DEROB III. The results are presented and analyzed.

Wortman, D.; O'Doherty, B.; Judkoff, R.

1981-01-01

219

Literature review of United States utilities computer codes for calculating actinide isotope content in irradiated fuel  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews the accuracy and precision of methods used by United States electric utilities to determine the actinide isotopic and element content of irradiated fuel. After an extensive literature search, three key code suites were selected for review. Two suites of computer codes, CASMO and ARMP, are used for reactor physics calculations; the ORIGEN code is used for spent fuel calculations. They are also the most widely used codes in the nuclear industry throughout the world. Although none of these codes calculate actinide isotopics as their primary variables intended for safeguards applications, accurate calculation of actinide isotopic content is necessary to fulfill their function.

Horak, W.C.; Lu, Ming-Shih.

1991-12-01

220

New Seismic Hazard study in Spain Aimed at the revision of the Spanish Building Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a global overview of the recent study carried out in Spain for the new hazard map, which final goal is the revision of the Building Code in our country (NCSE-02). The study was carried our for a working group joining experts from The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) , being the different phases of the work supervised by an expert Committee integrated by national experts from public institutions involved in subject of seismic hazard. The PSHA method (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) has been followed, quantifying the epistemic uncertainties through a logic tree and the aleatory ones linked to variability of parameters by means of probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations. In a first phase, the inputs have been prepared, which essentially are: 1) a project catalogue update and homogenization at Mw 2) proposal of zoning models and source characterization 3) calibration of Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE's) with actual data and development of a local model with data collected in Spain for Mw < 5.5. In a second phase, a sensitivity analysis of the different input options on hazard results has been carried out in order to have criteria for defining the branches of the logic tree and their weights. Finally, the hazard estimation was done with the logic tree shown in figure 1, including nodes for quantifying uncertainties corresponding to: 1) method for estimation of hazard (zoning and zoneless); 2) zoning models, 3) GMPE combinations used and 4) regression method for estimation of source parameters. In addition, the aleatory uncertainties corresponding to the magnitude of the events, recurrence parameters and maximum magnitude for each zone have been also considered including probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations The main conclusions of the study are presented here, together with the obtained results in terms of PGA and other spectral accelerations SA (T) for return periods of 475, 975 and 2475 years. The map of the coefficient of variation (COV) are also represented to give an idea of the zones where the dispersion among results are the highest and the zones where the results are robust.

Rivas-Medina, A.; Benito, B.; Cabañas, L.; Martínez-Solares, J. M.; Ruíz, S.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Carreño, E.; Crespo, M.; García-Mayordomo, J.

2013-05-01

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22 CFR 9b.6 - Grounds for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b...9b.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES §...

2010-04-01

222

22 CFR 9b.7 - Procedures for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b...9b.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES §...

2011-04-01

223

22 CFR 9b.6 - Grounds for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b...9b.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES §...

2013-04-01

224

22 CFR 9b.7 - Procedures for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b...9b.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES §...

2013-04-01

225

22 CFR 9b.7 - Procedures for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b...9b.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES §...

2010-04-01

226

22 CFR 9b.6 - Grounds for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b...9b.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES §...

2012-04-01

227

22 CFR 9b.6 - Grounds for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b...9b.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES §...

2014-04-01

228

22 CFR 9b.7 - Procedures for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b...9b.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES §...

2012-04-01

229

22 CFR 9b.6 - Grounds for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b...9b.6 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES §...

2011-04-01

230

22 CFR 9b.7 - Procedures for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b...9b.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES §...

2014-04-01

231

Incomplete and biased perpetrator coding among hospitalized assaults for women in the United States  

PubMed Central

Methods: Hospital discharge data for 1997 were solicited from states with good E coding completeness. Data were received from 19 states (51.9% of women in the United States, ages 15–49). For assaulted women, a regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with perpetrator code assignment using age, payment source, pregnancy status, race, and severity as covariates. Results: Among 137 887 injured hospitalized women age 15–49, there were 7402 assaults (5.4%). Among all assaults to women, perpetrator coding was poor (8.8%). Among those that were perpetrator coded, 83.7% were spouse/partner related. Age was positively associated with probability of having a perpetrator code (p<0.001). Those paid by a private source were 42.9% more likely to have a perpetrator code (p = 0.007). Pregnant women were seven times more likely to have a perpetrator code (p<0.001). Non-white women were 66.8% less likely to have a perpetrator code (p<0.001) than white women. Conclusions: The poor use of perpetrator codes in hospital discharge data minimizes their usefulness for surveillance of serious injury from intimate partner violence. An implication of this research is the need to understand the gaps and strengthen the completeness of perpetrator documentation and coding. The findings suggest caution when interpreting the results from existing hospital discharge data based intimate partner violence surveillance systems. PMID:15066979

Weiss, H; Ismailov, R; Lawrence, B; Miller, T

2004-01-01

232

Energy efficiency capital requirements for buildings in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of energy savings for any national energy efficiency or environmental improvement program should be based on a reasonable understanding of how much of the market can be served by such a program and what is the total value of investment required (capital requirements) to accomplish the savings claimed by the program. Current information on the energy savings performance and capital requirements of large-scale energy efficiency programs is used to develop a simple framework for analysis of capital requirements and the size of markets (dollar value of the markets) to compare with proposed new initiatives or programs. The comparison provides a reality check on the energy savings claimed. Based on this framework, current energy efficiency efforts and estimates of @p for proposed initiatives are examined. The examination shows that, in the United States, investment requirements for achieving claimed national energy savings goals should be estimated more consistently and that constraints related to the dollar volume of markets do not appear to be considered adequately. The analysis framework is used to show that major growth in costing energy efficiency markets is needed, and that simple reliance on existing approaches such as current utility DSM programs will not be adequate to reach proposed goals. Any nation serious about achieving needed energy use reductions in buildings should have reliable information about the costs of and increase in market size needed for achieving reduction goals. The analysis framework presented here will help improve that reliability.

MacDonald, M.

1994-12-31

233

DESIGN OF MEALY FINITE-STATE MACHINES WITH THE TRANSFORMATION OF OBJECT CODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optimization method of the logic circuit of a Mealy finite-state machine is proposed. It is based on the transformation of object codes. The objects of the Mealy FSM are internal states and sets of microoperations. The main idea is to express the states as some functions of sets of microoperations (internal states) and tags. The application of this method

ALEXANDER A. BARKALOV

234

Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Utah  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current Utah code, the 2006 IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of $168 to $188 for an average new house in Utah at recent fuel prices.

Cole, Pamala C.; Lucas, Robert G.

2009-05-01

235

Determination for the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code, Residential Buildings – Technical Support Document  

SciTech Connect

Provides a technical analysis showing that the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code contains improvements in energy efficiency compared to its predecessor, the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code. DOE is required by law to issue "determinations" of whether or not new editions of the IECC improve energy efficiency.

Lucas, Robert G.

2009-09-26

236

Approved Module Information for EC307C, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Green Building Module Code: EC307C  

E-print Network

Approved Module Information for EC307C, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Green Building Module Code: EC307 construction; * Conventional and novel materials appropriate for green building; ProfessionalC School: Engineering and Applied Science Module Type: Standard Module New Module? No Module Credits

Neirotti, Juan Pablo

237

Series of experiments for empirical validation of solar gain modeling in building energy simulation codes—Experimental setup, test cell characterization, specifications and uncertainty analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical validation of building energy simulation codes is an important component in understanding the capacity and limitations of the software. Within the framework of Task 34\\/Annex 43 of the International Energy Agency (IEA), a series of experiments was performed in an outdoor test cell. The objective of these experiments was to provide a high-quality data set for code developers and

H. Manz; P. Loutzenhiser; T. Frank; P. A. Strachan; R. Bundi; G. Maxwell

2006-01-01

238

Impact of 2001 Building Technology, State and Community Programs on United States Employment and Wage Income  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1999$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Elliott, Douglas B.

2000-03-20

239

Impact of 2001 Building Technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model allied In Build is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1995$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

MJ Scott; DJ Hostick; DB Elliott

2000-03-20

240

A mathematical approach to the study of the United States Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Code (Code) is a document containing over 22 million words that represents a large and important source of Federal statutory law. Scholars and policy advocates often discuss the direction and magnitude of changes in various aspects of the Code. However, few have mathematically formalized the notions behind these discussions or directly measured the resulting representations. This paper addresses the current state of the literature in two ways. First, we formalize a representation of the United States Code as the union of a hierarchical network and a citation network over vertices containing the language of the Code. This representation reflects the fact that the Code is a hierarchically organized document containing language and explicit citations between provisions. Second, we use this formalization to measure aspects of the Code as codified in October 2008, November 2009, and March 2010. These measurements allow for a characterization of the actual changes in the Code over time. Our findings indicate that in the recent past, the Code has grown in its amount of structure, interdependence, and language.

Bommarito, Michael J.; Katz, Daniel M.

2010-10-01

241

Code for the College of Health and Human Sciences Colorado State University  

E-print Network

and Exercise Science, Department of · Food Science and Human Nutrition, Department of · Human DevelopmentCode for the College of Health and Human Sciences Colorado State University Approved by HHS Faculty and administrative processes of the College of Health and Human Sciences (HHS). This Code for HHS operation is used

242

Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR reprograms chromatin state to promote cancer metastasis  

E-print Network

LETTERS Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR reprograms chromatin state to promote cancer metastasis Rajnish intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are pervasively transcribed in the genome1­3 yet their potential cells induced genome-wide re-targeting of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to an occupancy pattern

Dever, Jennifer A.

243

Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures on Implementing Houston Amendments to Multifamily Residential Buildings in Houston, Texas  

E-print Network

recommended a SHGC value of 0.35 for the test case but, as per the 15% above code report, an SHGC of 0.3 is implemented for test case as it is more stringent than the one recommended by Houston building officials. The U-Factor is taken as 0.35 Btu... change of 0.35 ACH, as requested by the city of Houston officials. The cost of decreasing infiltration is between $350 and $1,500 for each unit. Lighting options Energy Star Indoor Lamps: Two options for high efficiency lamps were simulated...

Mukhopadhyay, Jaya; Liu, Zi; Malhotra, Mini; Kota, Sandeep; Blake, Sheila; Haberl, Jeff; Culp, Charles; Yazdani, Bahman

244

Use of formal methods for building qualified code generator for safer automotive systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this position paper, we address issues of the development of correct-by-construction components for GeneAuto a qualifiable (according to DO178B-ISO26262 recommendations) automatic code generator. It transforms Simulink, Stateflow and Scicos models to MISRA C code for safety critical systems. This approach which combines classical development process and formal specification and verification using proof-assistants, led to preliminary fruitful exchanges with certification

Nassima Izerrouken; Olivier Ssi Yan Kai; Marc Pantel; Xavier Thirioux

2010-01-01

245

Large Hospital Buildings in the United States in 2007  

EIA Publications

Hospitals consume large amounts of energy because of how they are run and the many people that use them. They are open 24 hours a day; thousands of employees, patients, and visitors occupy the buildings daily; and sophisticated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems control the temperatures and air flow. In addition, many energy intensive activities occur in these buildings: laundry, medical and lab equipment use, sterilization, computer and server use, food service, and refrigeration.

2012-01-01

246

COPERNIC: A state-of-the-art fuel rod performance code  

SciTech Connect

The second of three planned versions of the COPERNIC fuel performance code is nearing completion. The COPERNIC code development effort was launched in 1992 as part of a larger Framatome effort to develop a new generation of fuel-management codes. The COPERNIC code was developed primarily to produce accurate steady-state and transient extended-burnup fuel performance predictions and incorporate advanced materials. The COPERNIC code predictions are applicable to UO{sub 2}, UO{sub 2}-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and mixed-oxide fuel types. The first version of the code, which was completed in 1995 and is currently being licensed in France, was extensively benchmarked to moderately high burnups. The second version contains several improved models and is also being benchmarked to moderately high burnups. The third version will be benchmarked to very high burnups. Model highlights and measured-to-predicted data comparisons for the second version are presented in this paper.

Bonnaud, E.; Bernard, C.; Van Schel, E. [Framatome, Lyon (France)] [and others

1997-12-01

247

Lessons Learned from Continuous Commissioning of the Robert E. Johnson State Office Building, Austin, TX  

E-print Network

ESL-TR-08-08-03 Lessons Learned from Continuous Commissioning ® of the Robert E. Johnson State Office Building, Austin, TX Submitted to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory By David Claridge, Ph.D., P.E. John Bynum Energy....5% annual lighting energy savings or 5.6% annual whole building energy savings based on a DOE-2 simulation analysis. Three main lessons were learned from the experience with the Robert E. Johnson building: • The traditional design...

Bynum, J.; Claridge, D. E.

2008-09-22

248

State variable integration in SOA Energy Management System for building air-conditioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancement of Energy Management Systems (EMSs) for building facilities is becoming more important for sustainable development. The Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) will be a powerful approach for these systems. Distributed type building air-conditioners, which are dominant in Japan, have many distributed raw state variables required by an EMS. This makes it difficult to apply the SOA to those EMSs. We

Chuzo Ninagawa; Tomotaka Sato

2010-01-01

249

Building a Low-Cost Eye Tracker Pennsylvania State University Brite Lab  

E-print Network

1 Building a Low-Cost Eye Tracker Pennsylvania State University Brite Lab Sponsors: Dr. Scarlett project aims to design and build a low-cost eye tracking system for use in determining the effectiveness to detect eye movement across a computer screen and analyzed this eye movement using open-source software

Demirel, Melik C.

250

Impact of Climate Change Heating and Cooling Energy Use in Buildings in the United States  

E-print Network

. Keywords: climate change; building energy use; global warming; EnergyPlus; natural ventilation 1. Introduction Climate change and global warming have been of major concern to the public because1 Impact of Climate Change Heating and Cooling Energy Use in Buildings in the United States Haojie

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

251

Analysis of Code-Compliant Construction in Texas Based on Texas Building Energy Performance Standards (TBEPS)  

E-print Network

.1% with the prescriptive path, depending on the climate zone and the heating system type of a house. The analysis for large office buildings also determined that the commercial provisions of 2012 IECC are more stringent that the 2009 IECC. The annual total site energy...

Mukhopadhyay, J.; Baltazar, J.C.; Kim, H.; Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J.

2013-01-01

252

Build Notifications in Agile Environments Abstract. In an agile software development environment, developers write code  

E-print Network

Build Notifications in Agile Environments Abstract. In an agile software development environment, continuous integration 1 Introduction Agile methods [1] are becoming popular in the software industry. In agile software development projects, there may be anywhere from one to hundreds of developers working

Denzinger, Jörg

253

List updated 7/26/2013 BLDG. # BLDG. CODE BUILDING NAME  

E-print Network

SHED 9 HB10 GR SOUTH AQUACULTURE GREENHOUSE H5, H6 HB11 AA ACTED AMINISTRATION BUILDING HB12 GR SOUTH EDUCATION CENTER AND CONFERENCE HB36 DH AQUACULTURE LAB HB37 DM JOHNSON HOUSE APARTMENTS HB38 MO BARROWS

Fernandez, Eduardo

254

Recommendations for 2009 IECC 15% Above Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Residential Buildings  

E-print Network

: Climate Zone 2, 3, and 4, and the 2009 IECC code-compliance base-case models were constructed for each climate zone. Two options based on the choice of heating fuel type were considered: (a) natural gas (gas-fired furnace for space heating, and gas water...

Kim, H.; Liu, Z.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Montgomery, C.

255

Comparison of building energy use data between the United States and China  

SciTech Connect

Buildings in the United States and China consumed 41percent and 28percent of the total primary energy in 2011, respectively. Good energy data are the cornerstone to understanding building energy performance and supporting research, design, operation, and policy making for low energy buildings. This paper presents initial outcomes from a joint research project under the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency. The goal is to decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders. This paper first reviews and compares several popular existing building energy monitoring systems in both countries. Next a standard energy data model is presented. A detailed, measured building energy data comparison was conducted for a few office buildings in both countries. Finally issues of data collection, quality, sharing, and analysis methods are discussed. It was found that buildings in both countries performed very differently, had potential for deep energy retrofit, but that different efficiency measures should apply.

Xia , Jianjun; Hong , Tianzhen; Shen, Qi; Feng , Wei; Yang, Le; Im , Piljae; Lu, Alison; Bhandari , Mahabir

2013-10-30

256

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567  

E-print Network

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567 Tel 541-737-7600 | Fax 541-737-7914 | osustudent.insurance@oregonstate.edu http. Address __________________________ Phone: __________________________ The Insurance charge will be charged

Tullos, Desiree

257

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567  

E-print Network

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567 Tel 541-737-7600 | Fax 541-737-7914 | osustudent.insurance@oregonstate.edu http an assistantship Address __________________________ Phone: __________________________ The Insurance charge

Tullos, Desiree

258

The limits of state building : the politics of war and the ideology of peace  

E-print Network

When can the international community build strong state institutions - such as security forces or electoral institutions - in post-conflict societies? An influential technical perspective argues that authority, resources, ...

Radin, Andrew M. (Andrew Marc)

2012-01-01

259

BIOINFORMATICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY 2014 Molecular Biology Building, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011-3260  

E-print Network

BIOINFORMATICS AND COMPUTATIONAL BIOLOGY 2014 Molecular Biology Building, Iowa State University of recommendation in my file at the Bioinformatics and Computational Biology program, Iowa State University. [ ] I in the Bioinformatics and Computational Biology program at Iowa State University. We would appreciate your evaluation

Mayfield, John

260

Bandera: extracting finite-state models from Java source code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite-state verification techniques, such as model checking, have shown promise as a cost-effective means for finding defects in hardware designs. To date, the application of these techniques to software has been hindered by several obstacles. Chief among these is the problem of constructing a finite-state model that approximates the executable behavior of the software system of interest. Current best-practice involves

James C. Corbett; Matthew B. Dwyer; John Hatcliff; Shawn Laubach; C. S. Pasareanu; Robby; Hongjun Zheng

2000-01-01

261

Student-Reported School Drinking Fountain Availability by Youth Characteristics and State Plumbing Codes  

PubMed Central

Introduction Caloric intake among children could be reduced if sugar-sweetened beverages were replaced by plain water. School drinking water infrastructure is dictated in part by state plumbing codes, which generally require a minimum ratio of drinking fountains to students. Actual availability of drinking fountains in schools and how availability differs according to plumbing codes is unknown. Methods We abstracted state plumbing code data and used the 2010 YouthStyles survey data from 1,196 youth aged 9 through 18 years from 47 states. We assessed youth-reported school drinking fountain or dispenser availability and differences in availability according to state plumbing codes, sociodemographic characteristics, and area-level characteristics. Results Overall, 57.3% of youth reported that drinking fountains or dispensers in their schools were widely available, 40.1% reported there were only a few, and 2.6% reported that there were no working fountains. Reported fountain availability differed significantly (P < .01) by race/ethnicity, census region, the fountain to student ratio specified in plumbing codes, and whether plumbing codes allowed substitution of nonplumbed water sources for plumbed fountains. “Widely available” fountain access ranged from 45.7% in the West to 65.4% in the Midwest and was less common where state plumbing codes required 1 fountain per more than 100 students (45.4%) compared with 1 fountain per 100 students (60.1%) or 1 fountain per fewer than 100 students (57.6%). Conclusion Interventions designed to increase consumption of water may want to consider the role of plumbing codes in availability of school drinking fountains. PMID:24742393

Park, Sohyun; Wilking, Cara

2014-01-01

262

Capacity, Mutual Information, and Coding for FiniteState Markov Channels  

E-print Network

Capacity, Mutual Information, and Coding for Finite­State Markov Channels Andrea J. Goldsmith probability converges weakly, and the channel's mutual information is then a closed­form continuous function with 4PSK modulation. Index Terms: Finite­State Markov Channels, Capacity, Mutual Information, Decision

Varaiya, Pravin

263

3 CFR - Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United State Code  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3 of the United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the reporting functions conferred upon the...

2014-01-01

264

New State Standards  

E-print Network

Texas Energy Codes Update & SECO Resources Felix A. Lopez, P.E Senior Engineer State Energy Conservation Office (SECO) CATEE-2011 Dallas Agenda ? Texas Energy Codes Update ? Chapter 447-TX Government Code ?TX Design Stds.-State... Chapter 447.004-TX Gov. Code ? State that SECO shall establish and publish mandatory energy and water conservation design standards for each new state building or major renovation project ? SECO shall define ?major renovation project? and shall...

Lopez, F. A.

2011-01-01

265

Building Stone of the United States: The NIST Test Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report explains how the NIST test wall was constructed to study the performance and durability of various building stones under uniform climatic conditions. It was built by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 1948 and is currently located at their facility in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Users may read and see pictures of the wall's physical features, its orientation, and search among descriptions and pictures of the various types of stone which are incorporated into the wall.

Jaime Raz

266

Do Merit-Aid Programs Help States Build Skilled Workforces?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major developments in financing undergraduate education in the United States in the past 20 years has been the introduction of broad-based merit-aid programs by state governments. The typical program waives tuition and fees at public colleges and universities for state residents who have attained a respectable grade-point average…

Groen, Jeffrey A.

2011-01-01

267

On the optimum bit orders with respect to the state complexity of trellis diagrams for binary linear codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It was shown earlier that for a punctured Reed-Muller (RM) code or a primitive BCH code, which contains a punctured RM code of the same minimum distance as a large subcode, the state complexity of the minimal trellis diagram is much greater than that for an equivalent code obtained by a proper permutation on the bit positions. To find a permutation on the bit positions for a given code that minimizes the state complexity of its minimal trellis diagram is an interesting and challenging problem. This permutation problem is related to the generalized Hamming weight hierarchy of a code, and is shown that for RM codes, the standard binary order of bit positions is optimum at every bit position with respect to the state complexity of a minimal trellis diagram by using a theorem due to Wei. The state complexity of trellis diagram for the extended and permuted (64, 24) BCH code is discussed.

Kasami, Tadao; Takata, Toyoo; Fujiwara, Toru; Lin, Shu

1993-01-01

268

DIFFREALWAVE: A parallel real wavepacket code for the quantum mechanical calculation of reactive state-to-state differential cross sections in atom plus diatom collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parallel computer code for the calculation of quantum state-to-state atom diatom differential reactive cross sections is presented and discussed. The code is based on the real wavepacket approach. The theory underlying the code is discussed and the parallelisation methods used are described. All the input parameters needed by the program are described. Results of test calculations to investigate the

Marlies Hankel; Sean C. Smith; Stephen K. Gray; Gabriel G. Balint-Kurti

2008-01-01

269

Washington State Juvenile Justice Code: An Experiment in Justice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Washington State juvenile justice system, serious or repeat offenders receive the full panoply of due process rights and procedures, with the exception of jury trials; minor offenders are diverted to community boards that require community service or victim restitution; and status offenders are removed from the courts' jurisdiction and…

Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

270

Legacy Code Modernization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past decade, high performance computing has evolved rapidly; systems based on commodity microprocessors have been introduced in quick succession from at least seven vendors/families. Porting codes to every new architecture is a difficult problem; in particular, here at NASA, there are many large CFD applications that are very costly to port to new machines by hand. The LCM ("Legacy Code Modernization") Project is the development of an integrated parallelization environment (IPE) which performs the automated mapping of legacy CFD (Fortran) applications to state-of-the-art high performance computers. While most projects to port codes focus on the parallelization of the code, we consider porting to be an iterative process consisting of several steps: 1) code cleanup, 2) serial optimization,3) parallelization, 4) performance monitoring and visualization, 5) intelligent tools for automated tuning using performance prediction and 6) machine specific optimization. The approach for building this parallelization environment is to build the components for each of the steps simultaneously and then integrate them together. The demonstration will exhibit our latest research in building this environment: 1. Parallelizing tools and compiler evaluation. 2. Code cleanup and serial optimization using automated scripts 3. Development of a code generator for performance prediction 4. Automated partitioning 5. Automated insertion of directives. These demonstrations will exhibit the effectiveness of an automated approach for all the steps involved with porting and tuning a legacy code application for a new architecture.

Hribar, Michelle R.; Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Haoqiang; Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

271

Can you build an iPhone app without writing a single line of code?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the last ESIP summer meeting, a study was conducted to explore different commercial tools now available that allow one to create a mobile app without writing a single line of code. The proposed research comprised of two components. First, systematically evaluate different tools to create mobile apps along the dimensions of features and price. Second, create an iPhone app prototype for the ESIP community using some of these tools. The initial assessment classified the currently available tools to create mobile app tools into two categories. The tools that fall under the first category require no programming, but the content for the mobile apps are fed to it either via a web site RSS feed or entered manually. Consequently, these tools only support limited user interactivity. These tools follow the business model of website hosting services. This business model offers a set of templates to the end users with limited customization features to create their content in order to publish to websites. The second category of tools requires programming, but the code can be written in popular languages such as Javascript (compatible with most mobile platforms) rather than mobile app specific languages. For the second component of the study, two ESIP iPhone app prototypes were created. The first prototype required no programming and used the AppMakr tool. Objective C was used to create the second iPhone prototype from scratch and the source code for this prototype is available on the ESIP website. The study concluded that existing tools do make it easy to create a simple mobile app especially if one already has a well designed website. The associated costs are adequate but not cheap. However, if the mobile app has requirements that require interactivity and specialized customization then one needs to work with a mobile app developer.

Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.

2011-12-01

272

15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Commercial Buildings in Texas  

E-print Network

,497 191 0.486.4% $967 20.2% $28,533 $39,433 $16,465 12.6% $1,919 -3.2% -$491 Energy Systems Laboratory - August 2007 7 Natural Gas Heating (Chambers, Hardin, Jefferson, Liberty and Orange Counties) Table 7a: 15% Above Code Savings (Commercial... ? Natural Gas Heating) for Chambers, Hardin, Jefferson, Liberty and Orange Counties Non attainment and affected count ies (all) Non attainment and affected count ies (corresponding to the table) JEFFERSON LIBERTY HARDIN CHAMBERS ORANGE Note: 1...

Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

273

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions  

SciTech Connect

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for energy efficienty design and construction of new commercial buildings. This report assesses the benefits and costs of adopting this standard as the building energy code in Illinois. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using BLAST combined with a Life-Cycle Cost approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.; Friedrich, Michele

2002-05-01

274

The etiquette of state-building and modernisation in dependent states: performing stateness and the normalisation of separate development in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper reflects upon the continuing allure of state-building and modernisation in peripheral, `new' states and regions. The central argument is to suggest that our understanding of the conflicts surrounding `nation-building' can be improved upon by looking at one of the most powerful symbols of the neo-colonial, economic and institutional dependency and territorial artificiality of the `nation-state'- the South African

Peris Sean Jones

2002-01-01

275

Environmental impacts of building integrated PV applications in the state public buildings sector  

SciTech Connect

If the US is to meet its commitments for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emission reductions, as anticipated by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change and the Clean air Act Amendments of 1990, it almost certainly must implement policies to increase the use of renewable energy. This paper evaluates the potential of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to deliver high-value electrical services while offsetting SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Their study focuses on PV applications in the public buildings sector because of its potential for speeding the commercialization of the technology in a market conducive to long-term return on investment. The study investigates the economic and environmental implications of PV meeting 2% of the energy demand of public buildings. The specific application investigated is a roof-mounted dispatchable peak-shaving system with uninterruptible power supply (UPS) capability. Several previous studies have shown that such a system is cost-effective on the basis of the energy services it provides. The present analysis indicates that this application can play an important role in helping the US meet its CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions targets.

Byrne, J.; Agbemabiese, L.; Kliesch, J.; Eiffert, P.; Hadjilambrinos, C.; Nigro, R.

1999-07-01

276

State-Building in Resource-Rich Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most significant differences between developing countries and today’s advanced states is the fact that many developing\\u000a countries rely heavily on one or several natural resources. That such dependence shapes the state’s ability to tax—its fiscal\\u000a capacity—is commonly argued in the political science and applied development literatures. This paper approaches the issue\\u000a from an economic angle. Our analytical

Anders Ditlev Jensen

2011-01-01

277

Magic state distillation in all prime dimensions using quantum Reed-Muller codes  

E-print Network

We propose families of protocols for magic state distillation -- important components of fault tolerance schemes --- for systems of odd prime dimension. Our protocols utilize quantum Reed-Muller codes with transversal non-Clifford gates. We find that in higher dimensions smaller codes can be used than one might expect based on qubit codes. All our protocols produce magic states at a resource cost that increases only polynomially with the inverse of the final ouput error probability. We give specific details for 3-dimensional systems, where we find that certain magic states can be distilled provided an initial error probability of less than 20.02% or a depolarizing noise rate of less than 31.7%. This is the largest error probability threshold of all known protocols with polynomial resource cost. For a depolarizing noise model we also give distillation thresholds for odd prime dimensions up-to 19.

Campbell, Earl T; Browne, Dan E

2012-01-01

278

State Policy Initiatives for Financing Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alternative financing methods (other than state financing) for developing cost-effective energy efficiency projects are discussed. It is suggested that by properly financing energy efficiency investments, state campuses can generate immediate positive cash savings. The following eight initiatives for maximizing energy savings potential are…

Business Officer, 1984

1984-01-01

279

State-based Modeling of Buildings and Facilities  

E-print Network

to an intelligent monitoring. DIN EN ISO 16484 proposes a method to describe functional requirements in an easy to understand way. We extended its use of state machines to our proposed concept of state based modeling. This proved to be a wholesome approach to easily...

Fisch, M.N.; Pinkernell, C.; Look, M.; Plesser, S.; Rumpe, B.

2011-01-01

280

State of California BOARD OF EQUALIZATION SALES AND USE TAX REGULATIONS Regulation 1596. BUILDINGS AND OTHER PROPERTY AFFIXED TO REALTY.  

E-print Network

property affixed to realty as tangible personal property when lessor has right to remove, see Regulation 1660. (a) BUILDINGS AND MINERALS. The transfer of buildings or minerals or the like affixed to land is taxable as a sale of personal property if, pursuant to the contract or agreement of sale, the buildings or minerals or the like are to be severed by the seller thereof. If, pursuant to the contract or agreement of sale, such buildings or minerals or the like are to be severed by the purchaser thereof, such a transfer is not taxable as a sale of personal property. The gross receipts from the sale of or the storage, use, or other consumption in this state of any used mobilehome the initial retail sale of which qualified for the 60 percent exclusion provided for by Revenue and Taxation Code Section 6012.8 for the period January 1, 1980 to June 30, 1980, inclusive, is exempt from the sales and use tax. Operative July 1, 1980, the gross receipts from the sale of, and the storage, use, or other consumption in this state of any used mobilehome subject to local property taxation is exempt from the sales and use tax. The exemptions for sales of used mobilehomes does not extend to accessories or other items as defined in Regulation 1610 (b) (3) (B) (1) that are not an integral part of the mobilehome at the time of sale. (b) TIMBER. The transfer of timber to be severed is taxable as a sale of personal property, regardless of whether the timber is to be severed by the seller or by the purchaser thereof. (c) FIXTURES, MACHINERY AND EQUIPMENT, AND DRAPERIES AFFIXED TO REAL PROPERTY. The transfer

unknown authors

281

Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Kansas City, Missouri  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of about $145 a year for an average new house. Construction cost increases are estimated at $655. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of close to $100 a year because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

Lucas, Robert G.

2011-09-30

282

Building a numerical relativistic non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics code for astrophysical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Including resistive effects in relativistic magnetized plasmas is a challenging task, that a number of authors have recently tackled employing different methods. From the numerical point of view, the difficulty in including non-ideal terms arises from the fact that, in the limit of very high plasma conductivity (i.e., close to the ideal MHD limit), the system of governing equations becomes stiff, and the standard explicit integrating methods produce instabilities that destroy the numerical solution. To deal with such a difficulty, we have extended the relativistic MHD code MR-GENESIS, to include a number of Implicit Explicit Runge-Kutta (IMEX-RK) numerical methods. To validate the implementation of the IMEX-RK schemes, two standard tests are presented in one and two spatial dimensions, covering different conductivity regimes.

Aranguren, S. Miranda; Aloy, M. A.; Aloy, Carmen.

2014-08-01

283

School Mental Health: The Impact of State and Local Capacity-Building Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a growing number of collaborative partnerships between schools and community-based organizations to expand school mental health (SMH) service capacity in the United States, there have been relatively few systematic initiatives focused on key strategies for large-scale SMH capacity building with state and local education systems. Based on a…

Stephan, Sharon; Paternite, Carl; Grimm, Lindsey; Hurwitz, Laura

2014-01-01

284

Trends in Building Energy Usage in Texas State Agencies  

E-print Network

In late 1983, a cost containment program was initiated out of the governor's office directed at the major state agencies. The Energy Management Group at Texas A&M University provided technical expertise in obtaining agency energy usage and cost...

Murphy, W. E.; Turner, W. D.; O'Neal, D. L.; Seshan, S.

1985-01-01

285

Time-Based Capabilities of Occupants to Escape Fires in Public Buildings: A Review of Code Provisions and Technical Literature. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Available technical literature pertaining to exit facility design and emergency escape provisions of the National Fire Protection Association's "Life Safety Code" (1976 Edition) are reviewed in order to determine the technical support for such provisions. The report focuses on the time-based capabilities of building occupants to effect rapid…

Stahl, Fred I.; And Others

286

VALIDATION OF THE eCALC COMMERCIAL CODE-COMPLIANT SIMULATION VERSUS MEASURED DATA FROM AN OFFICE BUILDING IN A HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE  

E-print Network

This paper compares the results of a calibrated simulation of a case-study building versus simulation using the web-based eCALC code-compliant commercial simulation program (Haberl et al., 2004). Previously, as-built calibrated simulation results...

Cho, S.; Haberl, J.

287

Representation of bidirectional ground motions for design spectra in building codes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2009 NEHRP Provisions modified the definition of horizontal ground motion from the geometric mean of spectral accelerations for two components to the peak response of a single lumped mass oscillator regardless of direction. These maximum-direction (MD) ground motions operate under the assumption that the dynamic properties of the structure (e.g., stiffness, strength) are identical in all directions. This assumption may be true for some in-plan symmetric structures, however, the response of most structures is dominated by modes of vibration along specific axes (e.g., longitudinal and transverse axes in a building), and often the dynamic properties (especially stiffness) along those axes are distinct. In order to achieve structural designs consistent with the collapse risk level given in the NEHRP documents, we argue that design spectra should be compatible with expected levels of ground motion along those principal response axes. The use of MD ground motions effectively assumes that the azimuth of maximum ground motion coincides with the directions of principal structural response. Because this is unlikely, design ground motions have lower probability of occurrence than intended, with significant societal costs. We recommend adjustments to make design ground motions compatible with target risk levels.

Stewart, Jonathan P.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Atkinson, Gail M.; Beker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Campbell, Kenneth W.; Comartin, Craig D.; Idriss, I.M.; Lew, Marshall; Mehrain, Michael; Moehle, Jack P.; Naeim, Farzad; Sabol, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

288

Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Mesa, Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC and the 2003 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of $145 a year for an average new house compared to the 2003 IECC. This energy cost saving decreases to $125 a year for the 2009 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Construction cost increases (per home) for complying with the 2009 IECC are estimated at $1256 relative to the 2003 IECC and $800 for 2006 IECC. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of about $80 a year by complying with the 2009 IECC because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

Lucas, Robert G.

2011-03-31

289

Applications of the seismic hazard model of Italy: from a new building code to the L'Aquila trial against seismologists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003, a large national project fur updating the seismic hazard map and the seismic zoning in Italy started, according to the rules fixed by an Ordinance by Italian Prime Minister. New input elements for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment were compiled: the earthquake catalogue, the seismogenic zonation, the catalogue completeness, a set of new attenuation relationships. The map of expected PGA on rock soil condition with 10% probability of exceedance is the new reference seismic hazard map for Italy (http://zonesismiche.mi.ingv.it). In the following, further 9 probabilities of exceedance and the uniform hazard spectra up to 2 seconds together with the disaggregation of the PGA was also released. A comprehensive seismic hazard model that fully describes the seismic hazard in Italy was then available, accessible by a webGis application (http://esse1-gis.mi.ingv.it/en.php). The detailed information make possible to change the approach for evaluating the proper seismic action for designing: from a zone-dependent approach (in Italy there were 4 seismic zones, each one with a single design spectrum) to a site-dependent approach: the design spectrum is now defined at each site of a grid of about 11000 points covering the whole national territory. The new building code becomes mandatory only after the 6 April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, the first strong event in Italy after the release of the seismic hazard map. The large number of recordings and the values of the experienced accelerations suggested the comparisons between the recorded spectra and spectra defined in the seismic codes Even if such comparisons could be robust only after several consecutive 50-year periods of observation and in a probabilistic approach it is not a single observation that can validate or not the hazard estimate, some of the comparisons that can be undertaken between the observed ground motions and the hazard model used for the seismic code have been performed and have shown that the assumptions and modeling choices made in the Italian hazard study are in line with the observations, by considering different return period, the soil condition at the recording stations and the uncertainties of the model. A further application of Italian seismic hazard model is in the identification of buildings and factories struck by the 2012 Emilia (Italy) earthquakes to be investigated in order to determine if they were still safe or not. The law states that no safety check is needed if the construction experienced a shaking greater than 70% of the design acceleration expected at the site, without abandoning the elastic behavior. The ground motion values are evaluated from the shakemaps available (http://shakemap.rm.ingv.it) and the design accelerations derived from the Building Code, which is based on the reference Italian seismic hazard model. Finally, the national seismic hazard model was one the most debated element during the trial in L'Aquila against the seismologists, experts of Civil Protection Department, sentenced to six years in prison on charges of manslaughter, because, according to the judge, they underestimated the risk in the region, giving a wrong message to the people, before the strong 2009 L'Aquila earthquake.

Meletti, C.

2013-05-01

290

1978 State Abstracts with an Analysis across the States: The State Dissemination Grants Program. Building Capacity for Improvement of Educational Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes NIE's Dissemination Grants Program, documents dissemination activities in 29 state education agencies as of November 1978, and highlights similarities and differences among states participating in the program. It is primarily descriptive rather than evaluative, and reveals that while each state is committed to building

NTS Research Corp., Durham, NC.

291

Experimental demonstration of a graph state quantum error-correction code  

E-print Network

Scalable quantum computing and communication requires the protection of quantum information from the detrimental effects of decoherence and noise. Previous work tackling this problem has relied on the original circuit model for quantum computing. However, recently a family of entangled resources known as graph states has emerged as a versatile alternative for protecting quantum information. Depending on the graph's structure, errors can be detected and corrected in an efficient way using measurement-based techniques. In this article we report an experimental demonstration of error correction using a graph state code. We have used an all-optical setup to encode quantum information into photons representing a four-qubit graph state. We are able to reliably detect errors and correct against qubit loss. The graph we have realized is setup independent, thus it could be employed in other physical settings. Our results show that graph state codes are a promising approach for achieving scalable quantum information processing.

B. A. Bell; D. A. Herrera-Martí; M. S. Tame; D. Markham; W. J. Wadsworth; J. G. Rarity

2014-04-22

292

Militarisation of the youth: Hindering state-building in  

E-print Network

and abuse of political power and resources to gain personal benefits. Contrary to what many scholars by political parties to achieve vested interests has posed a serious challenge to the state security mechanism in Nepali politics, youth mobilisation in coercive activities has militarised the youths and radicalised

Richner, Heinz

293

States Striving to Build Data Systems across Education Levels  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help track whether students are being prepared for further education and work, many states are trying to connect their data systems from preschool through postsecondary education. But a national forum on the topic held June 13, 2006 suggests there's a long way to go. In preparation for the meeting, Peter Ewell, the vice president of the…

Olson, Lynn

2006-01-01

294

Powerful Alignment: Building Consensus around the Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines a sampling of arguments for and against the Common Core State Standards from the period surrounding their adoption. While supporters of the standards have articulated common goals such as economic security, equity, and alignment, opposing voices have failed to coalesce around a unified set of principles or a common language. An…

Doyle, Keridan

2012-01-01

295

Code of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Colorado State University  

E-print Network

1 Code of the Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Colorado State University Adopted and molecular biology have evolved from the application of the principles of organic and physical chemistry to the molecular characterization of biological systems. The current emphasis in all areas of biological sciences

296

Module Title: Solid state and ultrafast lasers Module Code: OPTO6002  

E-print Network

1 Module Title: Solid state and ultrafast lasers Module Code: OPTO6002 Core's about 13 a week over the 12 week semester) Pre-requisites PHYS3005 `lasers' Module Coordinator xxxxxxxx@orc.soton.ac.uk Is the module be subject to external accreditation? No If yes, by which body/bodies? N/A Description Laser

Anderson, Jim

297

Development of DOE-2 Based Simulation Models for the Code-Compliant Commercial Construction Based on the ASHRAE Standard 90.1  

E-print Network

, as the state’s building energy code. The 2000/2001 IECC is a comprehensive energy conservation code that establishes a standard for the insulation levels, glazing, cooling and heating system efficiencies through the use of prescriptive and performance...

Kim, S.; Haberl, J.; Liu, Z.

298

Toward a theory of leadership and state building  

PubMed Central

We present a theory of the state based on political leadership and reputational equilibria. A political leader first needs a reputation for reliably rewarding loyal supporters. Reputational expectations between political leaders and their supporters become the fundamental political laws on which the enforcement of all other constitutional laws may be based. Successful democratic development requires a plentiful supply of leaders who have good reputations for using public funds responsibly to serve the public at large and not just giving jobs to their active supporters. It is argued that decentralized democracy may be the best way to improve the chances for successful democracy. PMID:22198758

Myerson, Roger B.

2011-01-01

299

50 CFR Table 17 to Part 679 - Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report...FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 17 Table 17 to Part 679—Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual...

2010-10-01

300

50 CFR Table 17 to Part 679 - Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report...FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 17 Table 17 to Part 679—Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual...

2012-10-01

301

50 CFR Table 17 to Part 679 - Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report...FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 17 Table 17 to Part 679—Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual...

2013-10-01

302

Scheme for Implementing Quantum Dense Coding by Using GHZ-Like State in Ion-Trap Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimentally feasible scheme for implementing quantum dense coding by using a GHZ-like state is proposed. In ion-trap systems, we demonstrated that the probability of implementing quantum dense coding is 100 %. In addition, our approach is insensitive to both the initial motional state and heating.

Gao, Huo-gui

2015-01-01

303

Flood-resilient waterfront development in New York City: bridging flood insurance, building codes, and flood zoning.  

PubMed

Waterfronts are attractive areas for many-often competing-uses in New York City (NYC) and are seen as multifunctional locations for economic, environmental, and social activities on the interface between land and water. The NYC waterfront plays a crucial role as a first line of flood defense and in managing flood risk and protecting the city from future climate change and sea-level rise. The city of New York has embarked on a climate adaptation program (PlaNYC) outlining the policies needed to anticipate the impacts of climate change. As part of this policy, the Department of City Planning has recently prepared Vision 2020: New York City Comprehensive Waterfront Plan for the over 500 miles of NYC waterfront (NYC-DCP, 2011). An integral part of the vision is to improve resilience to climate change and sea-level rise. This study seeks to provide guidance for advancing the goals of NYC Vision 2020 by assessing how flood insurance, flood zoning, and building code policies can contribute to waterfront development that is more resilient to climate change. PMID:21692807

Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter

2011-06-01

304

DIFFREALWAVE: A parallel real wavepacket code for the quantum mechanical calculation of reactive state-to-state differential cross sections in atom plus diatom collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parallel computer code for the calculation of quantum state-to-state atom–diatom differential reactive cross sections is presented and discussed. The code is based on the real wavepacket approach. The theory underlying the code is discussed and the parallelisation methods used are described. All the input parameters needed by the program are described. Results of test calculations to investigate the scaling

Marlies Hankel; Sean C. Smith; Stephen K. Gray; Gabriel G. Balint-kurti

2008-01-01

305

Cost Containment Through Energy Efficiency in Texas State-Owned Buildings  

E-print Network

Extension Service in fourteen different locations. Over 400 state employees participated in the training. ENGINEERING AUDITS The PUCT, using oil overcharge funds returned to the state, provided energy audits to over 70 state agencies on a request basis... feet. The usage of these buildings varies from very energy intensive operations in state hospitals to very low energy usage it? 3torage facilities. Consumption varies from a high of 512,000 BTUs per sq. ft. to a low of 96,000 BTUs per sq. ft...

Ponder, W. M.; Verdict, M. E.

1985-01-01

306

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567  

E-print Network

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567 Tel 541-737-7600 | Fax 541-737-7914 | osustudent.insurance@oregonstate.edu http: __________________________ An INTO student __________________________ Phone: __________________________ The Insurance charge will be charged

Tullos, Desiree

307

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567  

E-print Network

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567 Tel 541-737-7600 | Fax 541-737-7914 | osustudent.insurance@oregonstate.edu http Credit/Debit Card ADDING DEPENDENTS Family members I would like to cover on my health insurance plan

Tullos, Desiree

308

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567  

E-print Network

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567 Tel 541-737-7600 | Fax 541-737-7914 | osustudent.insurance@oregonstate.edu http: __________________________ __________________________ Phone: __________________________ The Insurance charge will be charged to my Student Account and I agree

Tullos, Desiree

309

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567  

E-print Network

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567 Tel 541-737-7600 | Fax 541-737-7914 | osustudent.insurance@oregonstate.edu http ADDING DEPENDENTS Family members I would like to cover on my health insurance plan: Last name, First name

Tullos, Desiree

310

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567  

E-print Network

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567 Tel 541-737-7600 Fax 541-737-7914 | osustudent.insurance@oregonstate.edu http://studenthealth.oregonstate.edu/ E:\\Insurance\\web content Fall 2013\\Intl Waiver form 2013-2014.2013-7-05docx.doc Last Name First Name

Tullos, Desiree

311

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567  

E-print Network

Insurance Student Health Services Oregon State University, 110 Plageman Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-8567 Tel 541-737-7600 Fax 541-737-7914 | osustudent.insurance@oregonstate.edu http://studenthealth.oregonstate.edu/ F:\\Insurance\\web content Fall 2014\\int_waiver_form_20142015.doc Last Name First Name OSU ID Number

Tullos, Desiree

312

Current state of the art of geothermal heat pumps as applied to buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the current state of the art of geothermal heat pumps as applies to buildings. Geothermal or ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems provide heating, cooling as well as domestic hot water, by the use of the underground or bodies of surface water as heat source or sink. More specifically, a GSHP system comprises a heat pump (usually

Constantine Karytsas

2012-01-01

313

BUILDING STRONGER STATE ENERGY PARTNERSHIPS WITH THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

SciTech Connect

This technical progress report includes an update of the progress during the second year of cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. The report also describes the barriers in conduct of the effort, and our assessment of future progress and activities.

Kate Burke

2002-11-01

314

Building of Equations of State with Numerous Phase Transitions - Application to Bismuth  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an algorithm to build complete equation of state EOS including several solid\\/solid or solid\\/liquid phase transitions. Each phase has its own EOS and independent parameters. The phase diagram is deduced from the thermodynamic equilibrium assumption. Until now, such an approach was used in simple cases and limited to 2 or 3 phases. We have applied it in the

Olivier Heuzé

2006-01-01

315

SINTEF Building and Infrastructure State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating  

E-print Network

SINTEF Building and Infrastructure State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames ­ Research and Infrastructure #12;Project report no 6 Arild Gustavsen1) 2) , Bjørn Petter Jelle1) 3) , Dariush Arasteh4 and Infrastructure 2007 The material in this publication is covered by the provisions of the Norwe- gian Copyright

316

State of the art in lighting simulation for building science: a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the current state of the art in lighting simulation related to building science research. Discussion on historical developments and main modelling approaches is followed by describing lighting simulation within the design process, where it is applied beyond presentation renderings. Works are grouped using the main aspects of a program (input, modelling and output). Lighting simulation currently focuses

Carlos E. Ochoa; Myriam B. C. Aries; Jan L. M. Hensen

2012-01-01

317

State of the art in lighting simulation for building science: a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the current state of the art in lighting simulation related to building science research. Discussion on historical developments and main modelling approaches is followed by describing lighting simulation within the design process, where it is applied beyond presentation renderings. Works are grouped using the main aspects of a program (input, modelling and output). Lighting simulation currently focuses

Carlos E. Ochoa; Myriam B. C. Aries; Jan L. M. Hensen

2011-01-01

318

Using Quasi-EZ-NAND Flash Memory to Build Large-Capacity Solid-State  

E-print Network

Using Quasi-EZ-NAND Flash Memory to Build Large-Capacity Solid-State Drives in Computing Systems impact of technology scaling on NAND flash memory device reliability. Currently, all the ECC and DSP implementation. An EZ-NAND (Error Zero NAND) flash memory design strategy is emerging in the industry, which

Zhang, Tong

319

Lessons Learned From a Healthful Vending Pilot Program in Delaware State Agency Buildings, 2011–2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction Changes in food availability in worksites can result in changes in eating behavior and weight status. Nemours Health and Prevention Services, in conjunction with partners in Delaware, conducted a 6-month pilot program to assess the feasibility and impact of requiring that 75% of the items in vending machines in 3 state agency buildings have healthful items. Methods We collected process evaluation data from October 2011 through April 2012 by taking weekly photographs of all machines to record the number of healthful items available. Outcomes were measured through sales reports designed to enumerate changes in number and type of items sold and overall profit from each building. Results We found challenges in fully implementing the 75% goal. In one of the 3 buildings, all machines were compliant within 7 weeks; in another, full compliance did not occur until week 19. Despite these challenges, the number of items sold in each machine was comparable to numbers from the previous year. Total profits from each building varied across the 3 sites and during the pilot. One building had a 51% increase in profits in January 2012 compared with profits averaged for January 2011 and January 2010. In contrast, monthly profit at another building fluctuated from an increase of 6% to a loss of 30%. Conclusion Overall, our results suggest that collaborative efforts can result in a feasible intervention with little negative influence on profits. PMID:25144678

Lessard, Laura; Trotter, Mary

2014-01-01

320

Licensing applications and requirements of an ideal steady-state fuel-performance code. Final report. [PWR; BWR  

SciTech Connect

Licensing applications and requirements for an ideal steady-state fuel performance code are identified and characterized. Fifteen licensing applications are examined with respect to specific requirements as set forth in the Code of Federal Regulations, Nuclear Regulatory Guidelines and NRC Standard Review Plans. Code input data needs and output data requirements for each application and models necessary to represent the pertinent fuel behavioral phenomena are identified. Finally, an acceptable level of conservatism for each licensing application is established and guidelines for overall code accuracy are established. Overall code accuracy is discussed with respect to fuel temperature, fission gas release and internal rod pressure calculations.

Fiero, I.B.

1983-03-01

321

PEBBLE: a two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics code  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the local implementation of the PEBBLE code to treat the two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics problem. This code is implemented as a module of a computation system used for reactor core history calculations. Given power density data, the geometric description in (RZ), and basic heat removal conditions and thermal properties, the coolant properties, flow conditions, and temperature distributions in the pebble fuel elements are predicted. The calculation is oriented to the continuous fueling, steady state condition with consideration of the effect of the high energy neutron flux exposure and temperature history on the thermal conductivity. The coolant flow conditions are calculated for the same geometry as used in the neutronics calculation, power density and fluence data being used directly, and temperature results are made available for subsequent use.

Vondy, D.R.

1981-09-01

322

Performance of trellis-coded 16-state differentially encoded APSK on Rayleigh fading channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose trellis-coded 16-state differentially encoded amplitude\\/phase shift keying (TC-16DAPSK) for differential detection and the effects of the Doppler frequency and the size of symbol interleaver on the BER performance of TC-16DAPSK on Rayleigh fading channel are considered by computer simulation. It is shown that the proposed TC-16DAPSK can improve the BER performance degraded by Rayleigh fading and that it

Sadataka Hayashi; Iwao Sasase

1995-01-01

323

Disciples of the state : secularization and state building in the former Ottoman World  

E-print Network

Disciples of the State seeks to explain why some former Ottoman states succeeded in effectively secularizing schooling and law and regulating religion upon independence - thereby consolidating state power- whereas others ...

Fabbe, Kristin Elisabeth

2012-01-01

324

SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis  

SciTech Connect

Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.

Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.

1980-08-01

325

Research Report on Feasibility Study of Building a QT Gui Testing Tool, AX Program Code Group Computer Science R&D Project  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project was to determine if a tool could be built to test Qt. In determining the feasibility of building a tool the following requirements needed to be researched: (1) Determine if the underlying Qt signal/slot architecture could be leveraged. (2) Research how much impact implementing such a tool would have on existing code, i.e. how much extra code would need to be inserted to use the tool. (3) Determine with the above information if a tool could be built. With the above steps completed, the information needed to make a decision on building a tool could be made. Armed with this information I felt I could make a more educated decision on the possibility of building a tool. This project was divided into two main steps. The first step was to understand the underlying Qt source code much better. The second step was to build a small prototype that I could use to test ideas. The first step was actually much shorter than I had originally anticipated. Understanding the underlying architecture of Qt only took about two weeks. After studying the architecture of qt and working with the support people at Trolltech, the company that develops Qt, I found a way to test Qt. This project was very successful. I accomplished everything I intended to do. I learned and understood the inner workings of the Qt library enough that I could build a simple tool that could leverage some of the information in Qt to test the GUI. I was also able to find a tool that was commercially available to test Qt GUI's. These two things were the main goals of this project. Therefore I consider it a success. In fact I was able to progress farther with my prototype testing then I had originally planned.

Grover, B T

2003-05-05

326

Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from October 2007 – September 2011 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-07NT43264, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Energy Assurance and Critical Infrastructure, State and Regional Technical Assistance, Regional Initiative, Regional Coordination and Technical Assistance, and International Activities in China. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

Marks, Kate

2011-09-30

327

Construction of a Solid State Research Facility, Building 3150. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct a new facility to house the Materials Synthesis Group (MSG) and the Semiconductor Physics Group (SPG) of the Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The location of the proposed action is Roane County, Tennessee. MSG is involved in the study of crystal growth and the preparation and characterization of advanced materials, such as high-temperature superconductors, while SPG is involved in semiconductor physics research. All MSG and a major pardon of SPG research activities are now conducted in Building 2000, a deteriorating structure constructed in the 1940. The physical deterioration of the roof; the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system; and the plumbing make this building inadequate for supporting research activities. The proposed project is needed to provide laboratory and office space for MSG and SPG and to ensure that research activities can continue without interruption due to deficiencies in the building and its associated utility systems.

Not Available

1993-07-01

328

Enabling Efficient, Responsive, and Resilient Buildings: Collaboration Between the United States and India  

SciTech Connect

The United States and India have among the largest economies in the world, and they continue to work together to address current and future challenges in reliable electricity supply. The acceleration to efficient, grid-responsive, resilient buildings represents a key energy security objective for federal and state agencies in both countries. The weaknesses in the Indian grid system were manifest in 2012, in the country’s worst blackout, which jeopardized the lives of half of India’s 1.2 billion people. While both countries are investing significantly in power sector reform, India, by virtue of its colossal growth rate in commercial energy intensity and commercial floor space, is better placed than the United States to integrate and test state-of-art Smart Grid technologies in its future grid-responsive commercial buildings. This paper presents a roadmap of technical collaboration between the research organizations, and public-private stakeholders in both countries to accelerate the building-to-grid integration through pilot studies in India.

Basu, Chandrayee; Ghatikar, Girish

2013-09-25

329

STATES FISH COMMIS SION BUILDING AT WASHINGTON , D. C. (Ta/INE UNITED STATES FISH COMMISSI ON BUILDING AT WASHINGTON, D. C. (Taken in July, 1897.) EXPERIMENTS IN PHOTOGRAPHY OF LIVE FISHES.  

E-print Network

STATES FISH COMMIS SION BUILDING AT WASHINGTON , D. C. (Ta/INE UNITED STATES FISH, United States Army, Up to the present time very few photographs of living fishes have been repro- duced-subjects are alive and moving about. The walls of the grotto 1. #12;2 BULLETIN OF THE UNl'l'ED STATES FISH COMMISSION

330

Comparative analyisis of energy consumption of selected buildings on morehead state university's main campus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently there is a need for energy efficiency on the main campus of Morehead State University main campus. Evidence shows that there is room for improvement in order to lower the usage and cost efficiency at MSU. The purpose of this study is to propose, that Net Zero technology should be implemented towards the main campus of Morehead State University in the near future. The goal is to come up with a study of comparing selected current traditional buildings with the LEED buildings (Wellness Recreational Center and CHER building). To form this analysis will be applied using SPC software on Energy usage for year by year trends from 2012. In conclusion, Net-Zero construction has steadily increased since then, with the number of completed buildings more than doubling since 2008, according to the latest study. Thanks to advances in structural insulation, energy-efficient appliances, this will help the MSU campus in the near future. As for energy efficiency, to make sure we have plenty of energy in the future, it's up to all of us to use energy wisely. We must all conserve energy and use it efficiently. It's also up to those who will create the new energy technologies of the future..

Brandt, Ronald E.

331

Collaboration Policies The Caltech honor code states that "No member of the Caltech community shall take unfair  

E-print Network

Collaboration Policies The Caltech honor code states that "No member of the Caltech community shall take unfair advantage of any other member of the Caltech community". In academics, the honor code allows for self-proctored take-home exams and collaboration on problem sets. The policies determining

Low, Steven H.

332

Asbestos in State-Owned Buildings: A Survey of State Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The information in this report is derived from responses to a questionnaire sent to contacts in the 50 states in winter 1988. The questionnaire, which uses the requirements of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act of 1986 (AHERA) as a base for comparing state programs, sought information regarding state programs dealing with asbestos in…

Neilander, Dennis K.; Sacarto, Douglas M.

333

Building of Equations of State with Numerous Phase Transitions --- Application to Bismuth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling of shock waves crossing material with several phase transitions requires the knowledge of the equation of state (E.o.S.) of the material and its thermodynamic properties. The phase transitions correspond to volume and entropy jumps and discontinuities of extensive properties of the different phases. Building a complete E.o.S. with numerous crystallographic phase transitions raises many issues. It is generally a

Olivier Heuze

2005-01-01

334

Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from July 2000 - July 2008 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Rebuild America/Energy Smart Schools, Higher Education Initiative, Winter/Summer Fuels Outlook Conferences, Energy Emergency, Clean Energy Integration, Energy Star, and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

David Terry

2008-09-30

335

77 FR 26647 - National Building Safety Month, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...work to implement building safety solutions that strengthen resilience and meet community needs. By designing and implementing state-of-the-art...technology to establish stronger codes and standards for disaster resilience. And moving forward, we must promote research and...

2012-05-04

336

Taos State Office Building, Taos, New Mexico: solar-energy-system performance evaluation, June 1981March 1982  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Taos State Office Building is a single-story New Mexico office building which incorporates an integrated passive solar heating and daylighting system. The system is designed to provide 70% of the heating load. Solar energy enters the building via 11 rows of clerestory windows, south-facing windows, and east and west window scoops. Collected solar energy is stored in 14,080 gallons

1982-01-01

337

Combinatorial Cytokine Code Generates Anti-Viral State in Dendritic Cells  

PubMed Central

The physiological function of the immune system and the response to therapeutic immunomodulators may be sensitive to combinatorial cytokine micro-environments that shape the responses of specific immune cells. Previous work shows that paracrine cytokines released by virus-infected human dendritic cells (DC) can dictate the maturation state of naïve DCs. To understand the effects of paracrine signaling, we systematically studied the effects of combinations cytokines in this complex mixture in generating an anti-viral state. After naïve DCs were exposed to either IFN? or to paracrine signaling released by DCs infected by Newcastle disease virus (NDV), microarray analysis revealed a large number of genes that were differently regulated by the DC-secreted paracrine signaling. In order to identify the cytokine mechanisms involved, we identified 20 cytokines secreted by NDV infected DCs for which the corresponding receptor gene is expressed in naïve DCs. By exposing cells to all combinations of 19 cytokines (leave-one-out studies), we identified five cytokines (IFN?, TNF?, IL-1?, TNFSF15, and IL28) as candidates for regulating DC maturation markers. Subsequent experiments identified IFN?, TNF?, and IL1? as the major contributors to this anti-viral state. This finding was supported by infection studies in vitro, by T-cell activation studies and by in vivo infection studies in mouse. Combination of cytokines can cause response states in DCs that differ from those achieved by the individual cytokines alone. These results suggest that the cytokine microenvironment may act via a combinatorial code to direct the response state of specific immune cells. Further elucidation of this code may provide insight into responses to infection and neoplasia as well as guide the development of combinatorial cytokine immunomodulation for infectious, autoimmune, and immunosurveillance-related diseases. PMID:24616721

Hartmann, Boris M.; Marjanovic, Nada; Nudelman, German; Moran, Thomas M.; Sealfon, Stuart C.

2014-01-01

338

Analysis of Energy Saving Impacts of New Residential Energy Codes for the Gulf Coast  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the Government Accountability Office (GAO), DOE’s Building Energy Codes Program performed an analysis of the energy savings and cost impacts associated with the use of newer and more efficient residential building energy codes in the states of Louisiana and Mississippi.

Lucas, Robert G.

2007-01-01

339

On the Joint Decoding of LDPC Codes and Finite-State Channels via Linear Programming  

E-print Network

In this paper, the linear programming (LP) decoder for binary linear codes, introduced by Feldman, et al. is extended to joint-decoding of binary-input finite-state channels. In particular, we provide a rigorous definition of LP joint-decoding pseudo-codewords (JD-PCWs) that enables evaluation of the pairwise error probability between codewords and JD-PCWs. This leads naturally to a provable upper bound on decoder failure probability. If the channel is a finite-state intersymbol interference channel, then the LP joint decoder also has the maximum-likelihood (ML) certificate property and all integer valued solutions are codewords. In this case, the performance loss relative to ML decoding can be explained completely by fractional valued JD-PCWs.

Kim, Byung-Hak

2010-01-01

340

SAFE: A computer code for the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of LMR fuel elements  

SciTech Connect

SAFE is a computer code developed for both the steady-state and transient thermal analysis of single LMR fuel elements. The code employs a two-dimensional control-volume based finite difference methodology with fully implicit time marching to calculate the temperatures throughout a fuel element and its associated coolant channel for both the steady-state and transient events. The code makes no structural calculations or predictions whatsoever. It does, however, accept as input structural parameters within the fuel such as the distributions of porosity and fuel composition, as well as heat generation, to allow a thermal analysis to be performed on a user-specified fuel structure. The code was developed with ease of use in mind. An interactive input file generator and material property correlations internal to the code are available to expedite analyses using SAFE. This report serves as a complete design description of the code as well as a user`s manual. A sample calculation made with SAFE is included to highlight some of the code`s features. Complete input and output files for the sample problem are provided.

Hayes, S.L.

1993-12-01

341

Family Support: Fostering Leadership and Partnership to Improve Access and Quality. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 14  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) has launched a five-year initiative that will support state efforts to build comprehensive early childhood service systems. This initiative--the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems (SECCS) Initiative--provides planning and implementation grants to the state and territory Maternal and…

Thompson, Lisa; Uyeda, Kimberly

2004-01-01

342

Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures for Above Code (ASHRAE 90.1-2001 and 2007) Small Office Buildings in the City of Arlington  

E-print Network

A&M University System August 25, 2011 (Revised: January 5, 2012) ESL-TR-11-08-05 ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Background ? Reviewed two years of building energy compliance reports from 2008 to 2010 for 11 commercial projects in the CoA. ? Results...A with ? estimated cost of the improvement, ? simple payback calculations, and ? emissions savings. 2 ESL-TR-11-08-05 ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Methodology ? ESL simulation model based on the DOE-2.1e of ASHRAE 90.1- 2001 and 2007 code-compliant, small office...

2011-01-01

343

Statewide Emissions Reduction, Electricity and Demand Savings from the Implementation of Building-Energy-Codes in Texas  

E-print Network

This paper focuses on the estimate of electricity reduction and electric demand savings from the adoption energy codes for single-family residences in Texas, 2002-2009, corresponding increase in cnstruction costs and estimates of the statewide...

Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J.; Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Zilbershtein, G.

2012-01-01

344

76 FR 13101 - Building Energy Codes Program: Presenting and Receiving Comments to DOE Proposed Changes to the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

The U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is seeking input on potential proposed changes to the draft International Green Construction Code (IgCC). The first edition of the IgCC is currently being developed by the International Code Council (ICC) for anticipated publication in 2012. EERE will be holding a public meeting to present and solicit public......

2011-03-10

345

Building and Using Coordinated State Early Care and Education Data Systems: A Framework for State Policymakers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State policymakers are increasingly focused on closing the achievement gap and preparing all students to succeed in school and in life. However, college and career readiness begins long before students enter high school or even a classroom. Differences in children's abilities appear as early as the first year of life, and research has shown that…

Early Childhood Data Collaborative (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

346

3 CFR - Delegation of Functions and Authority Under Sections 315 and 325 of Title 32, United States Code  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Defense By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you: (a) the functions and authority of the...

2012-01-01

347

Illinois State Plan: energy conservation in institutions (Institutional Buildings Grant Program)  

SciTech Connect

This State Plan for the Institutional Buildings Grant Program was written in response to legislative requirements in a portion of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA)(PL 95-619 Title Three) and interpreted in the April 2 and April 17, 1979 Federal Registers. This Plan addresses very narrow April 17, 1979 Federal Register requirements as spelled out in paragraph 455.42 and is meant to show the Institute's strategies and commitments to achieve full implementation of this Energy Grant Program in Illinois.

Thomas, S.K.; Tuma, S.L.; Shum, J.

1979-08-15

348

Building of Equations of State with Numerous Phase Transitions — Application to Bismuth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an algorithm to build complete equation of state EOS including several solid/solid or solid/liquid phase transitions. Each phase has its own EOS and independent parameters. The phase diagram is deduced from the thermodynamic equilibrium assumption. Until now, such an approach was used in simple cases and limited to 2 or 3 phases. We have applied it in the general case to bismuth for which up to 13 phases have been identified. This study shows the great influence of binary mixtures and triple points properties in released isentropes after shock waves.

Heuzé, Olivier

2006-07-01

349

Codes for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This standard provides codes to be used for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States, the Caribbean and other outlying areas. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Midway Islands, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and miscellaneous Pacific Islands. Each code identifies an aquifer or rock-stratigraphic unit and its age designation. The codes provide a standardized base for use by organizations in the storage, retrieval, and exchange of ground-water data; the indexing and inventory of ground-water data and information; the cataloging of ground-water data acquisition activities; and a variety of other applications.

U.S. Geological Survey

1988-01-01

350

Codes for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This standard provides codes to be used for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States, the Caribbean and other outlying areas. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Midway Islands, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and miscellaneous Pacific Islands. Each code identifies an aquifer or rock-stratigraphic unit and its age designation. The codes provide a standardized base for use by organizations in the storage, retrieval, and exchange of ground-water data; the indexing and inventory of ground-water data and information; the cataloging of ground-water data acquisition activities; and a variety of other applications.

U.S. Geological Survey

1985-01-01

351

Building technology project summaries, 1980-1981  

SciTech Connect

The mission of the Center for Building Technology (CBT) is to increase the usefulness, safety, and economy of buildings through the advancement of building technology and its application to the improvement of building practice. CBT's research activities support the building technology programs of Federal, State, and local governments; assist the design professions, building officials, and the research community by developing improved design criteria; and assist manufacturers of building products by developing methods for evaluating innovative materials, components, and systems. CBT provides an objective source of technical information for national consensus standards and model code organizations. Close cooperation with these groups leads to standard practices that meet the needs of the regulatory authorities of State and local governments. Research providing the knowledge for these standard practices is conducted in cooperation with Government, university, and industry laboratories. This report summarizes CBT's research for 1980-1981. Each summary lists the project title, its progress, point of contact within CBT, and sponsor.

Raufaste, N.; Olmert, M.

1981-07-01

352

Local convertibility of the ground state of the perturbed toric code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present analytical and numerical studies of the behavior of the ? -Renyi entropies in the toric code in presence of several types of perturbations aimed at studying the simulability of these perturbations to the parent Hamiltonian using local operations and classical communications (LOCC)—a property called local convertibility. In particular, the derivatives, with respect to the perturbation parameter, present different signs for different values of ? within the topological phase. From the information-theoretic point of view, this means that such ground states cannot be continuously deformed within the topological phase by means of catalyst assisted local operations and classical communications (LOCC). Such LOCC differential convertibility is on the other hand always possible in the trivial disordered phase. The non-LOCC convertibility is remarkable because it can be computed on a system whose size is independent of correlation length. This method can therefore constitute an experimentally feasible witness of topological order.

Santra, Siddhartha; Hamma, Alioscia; Cincio, Lukasz; Subasi, Yigit; Zanardi, Paolo; Amico, Luigi

2014-12-01

353

Prediction of explosive cylinder tests using equations of state from the PANDA code  

SciTech Connect

The PANDA code is used to construct tabular equations of state (EOS) for the detonation products of 24 explosives having CHNO compositions. These EOS, together with a reactive burn model, are used in numerical hydrocode calculations of cylinder tests. The predicted detonation properties and cylinder wall velocities are found to give very good agreement with experimental data. Calculations of flat plate acceleration tests for the HMX-based explosive LX14 are also made and shown to agree well with the measurements. The effects of the reaction zone on both the cylinder and flat plate tests are discussed. For TATB-based explosives, the differences between experiment and theory are consistently larger than for other compositions and may be due to nonideal (finite dimameter) behavior.

Kerley, G.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christian-Frear, T.L. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-09-28

354

Old-Time Origins of Modern Sovereignty: State-Building among the Keweenaw Bay Ojibway, 1832-1854  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines a brief period of Lake Superior Ojibway history in detail. It describes the territorial dimensions of usufructuary rights and tells how one Ojibway community at Keweenaw Bay, William Jondreau's home, reorganized itself as an Anishnabe state in the 1840s and early 1850s. It also argues that this state-building grew out of…

Doherty, Robert

2007-01-01

355

Building Stronger State Partnerships with the US Department of Energy (Energy Assurance)  

SciTech Connect

From 2007 until 2011, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) engaged in a partnership with the National Energy Technology Lab (NETL) to improve State-Federal coordination on electricity policy and energy assurance issues. This project allowed State Public Utility Commissioners and their staffs to engage on the most cutting-edge level in the arenas of energy assurance and electricity policy. Four tasks were outlined in the Statement of Performance Objectives: Task 1 - Training for Commissions on Critical Infrastructure Topics; Task 2 - Analyze and Implement Recommendations on Energy Assurance Issues; Task 3 - Ongoing liaison activities & outreach to build stronger networks between federal agencies and state regulators; and Task 4 - Additional Activities. Although four tasks were prescribed, in practice these tasks were carried out under two major activity areas: the critical infrastructure and energy assurance partnership with the US Department of Energy's Infrastructure Security and Emergency Response office, and the National Council on Electricity Policy, a collaborative which since 1994 has brought together State and Federal policymakers to address the most pressing issues facing the grid from restructuring to smart grid implementation. On Critical Infrastructure protection, this cooperative agreement helped State officials yield several important advances. The lead role on NARUC's side was played by our Committee on Critical Infrastructure Protection. Key lessons learned in this arena include the following: (1) Tabletops and exercises work - They improve the capacity of policymakers and their industry counterparts to face the most challenging energy emergencies, and thereby equip these actors with the capacity to face everything up to that point as well. (2) Information sharing is critical - Connecting people who need information with people who have information is a key success factor. However, exposure of critical infrastructure information to bad actors also creates new vulnerabilities. (3) Tensions exist between the transparency-driven basis of regulatory activity and the information-protection requirements of asset protection. (4) Coordination between states is a key success factor - Because comparatively little federal authority exists over electricity and other energy infrastructure, the interstate nature of these energy grids defy centralized command and control governance. Patchwork responses are a risk when addressed at a state-by-state level. Coordination is the key to ensuring consistent response to shared threats. In Electricity Policy, the National Council on Electricity Policy continued to make important strides forward. Coordinated electricity policy among States remains the best surrogate for an absent national electricity policy. In every area from energy efficiency to clean coal, State policies are driving the country's electricity policy, and regional responses to climate change, infrastructure planning, market operation, and new technology deployment depend on a forum for bringing the States together.

Mike Keogh

2011-09-30

356

FRAPCON-2: A Computer Code for the Calculation of Steady State Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oxide Fuel Rods  

SciTech Connect

FRAPCON-2 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady state response of light Mater reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, deformation, and tai lure histories of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (a) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (b) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (c) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (d) fission gas release, (e} fuel rod internal gas pressure, (f) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (g) cladding oxidation, and (h) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. FRAPCON-2 is programmed for use on the CDC Cyber 175 and 176 computers. The FRAPCON-2 code Is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by either the FRAP-T6 computer code or the thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP4/MOD7 Version 2.

Berna, G. A; Bohn, M. P.; Rausch, W. N.; Williford, R. E.; Lanning, D. D.

1981-01-01

357

MeshVoro: A three-dimensional Voronoi mesh building tool for the TOUGH family of codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few tools exist for creating and visualizing complex three-dimensional simulation meshes, and these have limitations that restrict their application to particular geometries and circumstances. Mesh generation needs to trend toward ever more general applications. To that end, we have developed MeshVoro, a tool that is based on the Voro++ (Chris H. Rycroft, 2009. Chaos 19, 041111) library and is capable of generating complex three-dimensional Voronoi tessellation-based (unstructured) meshes for the solution of problems of flow and transport in subsurface geologic media that are addressed by the TOUGH (Pruess, K., Oldenburg C., Moridis G., 1999. Report LBNL-43134, 582. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA) family of codes. MeshVoro, which includes built-in data visualization routines, is a particularly useful tool because it extends the applicability of the TOUGH family of codes by enabling the scientifically robust and relatively easy discretization of systems with challenging 3D geometries. We describe several applications of MeshVoro. We illustrate the ability of the tool to straightforwardly transform a complex geological grid into a simulation mesh that conforms to the specifications of the TOUGH family of codes. We demonstrate how MeshVoro can describe complex system geometries with a relatively small number of grid blocks, and we construct meshes for geometries that would have been practically intractable with a standard Cartesian grid approach. We also discuss the limitations and appropriate applications of this new technology.

Freeman, C. M.; Boyle, K. L.; Reagan, M.; Johnson, J.; Rycroft, C.; Moridis, G. J.

2014-09-01

358

Green Buildings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Department of Energy's Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development, this Green Buildings site serves as a detailed metapage for environmentally conscious architects, engineers, and builders. As the introduction to the site points out, "The design, construction, and maintenance of buildings has a tremendous impact on our environment and our natural resources." The site offers carefully summarized links to relevant Websites and publications on topics such as building principles, building programs, rating systems, affordable housing, codes/ordinances, educational materials, and more. This site may be of interest to those who want practical applications for protecting the environment.

359

Forging new partnerships to build healthier communities for a healthier state.  

PubMed

Building healthy communities is critical to reducing the rates of chronic diseases impacting millions of North Carolinians. In 2011, North Carolina's overall health status ranking was 32nd in the nation (with 1 being the best). It is well recognized that health is impacted by a variety of individual, social, environmental, and economic factors, which are complex, interrelated, and influenced by a variety of other factors. Creating healthy communities provides options for people to make health-promoting choices. Such communities include transportation alternatives, access to healthy foods and places to be active, opportunities for economic growth and education, and clean air and water. Creating communities that provide these types of options requires the work of different sectors, many of which may not have health as their main mission, such as those that focus on commerce, planning, transportation, and environmental and natural resources. This article outlines the need for healthier communities and highlights the innovative partnerships and work being done by individuals and agencies at the state, local, and national levels to build healthier communities across North Carolina. PMID:23033712

Petersen, Ruth; Hunkins, Julie A; Riegel, Lisa Diaz; Smith, Libby

2012-01-01

360

Building of Equations of State with Numerous Phase Transitions --- Application to Bismuth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modelling of shock waves crossing material with several phase transitions requires the knowledge of the equation of state (E.o.S.) of the material and its thermodynamic properties. The phase transitions correspond to volume and entropy jumps and discontinuities of extensive properties of the different phases. Building a complete E.o.S. with numerous crystallographic phase transitions raises many issues. It is generally a function of volume and temperature although thermodynamic equilibrium is defined for given temperature and pressure. Experimental data are generally available only in the (P,T) plane. Only few experimental data exist about the volume jump and none for the entropy jump. We propose an algorithm to build complete E.o.S. including several solid/solid or solid/liquid phase transitions. Each phase has its own E.o.S. and independent parameters. The phase diagram is calculated from the Gibbs free energy minimum. The phase transition is calculated from the Gibbs free energy equality between two phases which provides the thermodynamic properties of their binary mixture, and volume and entropy jumps. We explain how to determine these jumps in accordance to thermodynamic rules and experimental data. Until now, such an approach was used in simple cases and limited to 2 or 3 phases. We have applied it in the general case to bismuth for which up to 11 phases have been identified. This study show the great influence of binary mixtures and triple points properties in released isentropes after shock waves.

Heuze, Olivier

2005-07-01

361

Office of Student Financial Aid & Scholarships Administration Building, Room 1005  

E-print Network

______________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ City State ZIP Code Telephone Number (include Area Code) B. Family Information: List the people in yourOffice of Student Financial Aid & Scholarships Administration Building, Room 1005 New Orleans, LA 70148-2050 Telephone: (504) 280-6603 FAX: (504) 280-3973 E-MAIL: FINAID@UNO.EDU A Member

Li, X. Rong

362

Building an HIV continuum for inmates: New York State's criminal justice initiative.  

PubMed

The benefits of public health, corrections, and community-based organization (CBO) collaboration to meet HIV prevention needs of inmates are recognized. Each year over 100,000 inmates, most of whom have a history that put them at HIV risk, pass through the New York State (NYS) prison system. The NYS Department of Health AIDS Institute, the NYS Department of Correctional Services, the NYS Division of Parole, and a statewide network of CBOs collaborate to meet HIV prevention and support services needs of inmates and parolees through a continuum of interventions and services. This article describes the evolution of the prevention, supportive services, and transitional planning continuum within the NYS prison system. It identifies other agencies involved, obstacles to service delivery, describes approaches to overcome them, discusses ways to meet capacity building and technical assistance needs of CBOs, identifies challenges remaining, and provides practical advice from actual experience in NYS. PMID:12413199

Klein, Susan J; O'Connell, Daniel A; Devore, Barbara S; Wright, Lester N; Birkhead, Guthrie S

2002-10-01

363

Capacity Building for collecting primary data through Crowdsourcing - An Example of Disaster affected Uttarakhand State (India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uttarakhand State of India suffered a widespread devastation in June 2013 due to floods caused by excessive rain in the upper reaches of the Himalaya, glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) and landslides. Restoration process in this mountainous State calls for scientifically sound planning so that the vulnerabilities and risks to such natural hazards are minimised and developmental processes are sustainable in long run. Towards this, an understanding of the patterns and major controls of damage of the recent disaster is a key requirement which can be achieved only if the primary data on locations and types of damage along with other local site conditions are available. Considering widespread damage, tough nature of terrain and the need for collecting the primary data on damage in shortest possible time, crowdsourcing approach was considered to be the most viable solution. Accordingly, a multiinstitutional initiative called "Map the Neighbourhood in Uttarakhand" (MANU) was conceptualised with the main objective of collecting primary data on damage through participation of local people (mainly students) using state-of-art tools and technologies of data collection and a mechanism to integrate the same with Bhuvan geo-portal (www.bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in) in near real-time. Geospatial analysis of crowd-sourced points with different themes has been carried out subsequently for providing inputs to restoration planning and for future developmental activities. The present paper highlights the capacity building aspect in enabling the data collection process using crowdsourcing technology.

Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.; Raju, P. L. N.; Srivastav, S. K.; Kumar, P.; Mitra, D.; Karnatak, H.; Saran, S.; Pandey, K.; Oberai, K.; Shiva Reddy, K.; Gupta, K.; Swamy, M.; Deshmukh, A.; Dadhwal, V. K.; Bothale, V.; Diwakar, P. G.; Ravikumar, M. V.; Leisely, A.; Arulraj, M.; Kumar, S.; Rao, S. S.; Singh Rawat, R.; Pathak, D. M.; Dutt, V.; Negi, D.; Singh, J.; Shukla, K. K.; Tomar, A.; Ahmed, N.; Singh, B.; Singh, A. K.; Shiva Kumar, R.

2014-11-01

364

Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

2012-11-01

365

Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004  

SciTech Connect

This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.

Richman, Eric E.

2006-09-29

366

Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures for Above Code(ASHRAE 90.1-2001 and 2007) Small Office Buildings in the City of Arlington  

E-print Network

& 10.8 EER to 18 SEER & 12.6 EER) 3.5% 4.1% $796 6.6% $227 $1,023 $12,288 - $18,432 12.0 - 18.0 8 Improved Furnace Eff iciency (from 80% to 90% Et) 2.0% 0.8% $102 0.0% $0 $102 $7,900 - $11,850 77.3 - 115.9 9 Improved Fan Eff iciency (from 55% to 65....8 EER to 18 SEER & 12.6 EER) $12,288 - $18,432 6 CO2 Based Demand-Controlled Ventilation (DCV) $7,367 - $11,051 Note: [ASHRAE 90.1-2001 Code-Compliant Building Description] 1. Total energy savings from heating, cooling, lighting, equipment...

Kim, H.; Do, S.; Kim, K.H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.S.; Lewis, C.

367

Assessment of the Technical Potential for Micro-Cogeneration in Small Commerical Buildings across the United States: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an assessment of the technical potential for micro-cogeneration in small commercial buildings throughout the United States. The cogeneration devices are simulated with the computer program EnergyPlus using models developed by Annex 42, a working group of the International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Community Systems (IEA/ECBCS). Although the Annex 42 models were developed for residential applications, this study applies them to small commercial buildings, assumed to have a total floor area of 500 m2 or less. The potential for micro-cogeneration is examined for the entire existing stock of small U.S. commercial buildings using a bottom-up method based on 1,236 EnergyPlus models.

Griffith, B.

2008-05-01

368

Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.  

PubMed

Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should include mixed mode thermal comfort models, semi-volatile organic compounds, assessment of new chemicals, and permissible exposure levels of many known indoor VOCs and bioaerosols. Plus, the relationship between energy consumption and IAQ, and tenant education on health effects of indoor pollutants and their sources may need more attention in IAQ investigations in green buildings. PMID:25594117

Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

2015-02-23

369

Realization of UML Class and State Machine Models in the C# Code Generation and Execution Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many benefits are expected due to usage of code generation tools. A reliable application should be created effectively based on complex structural and behavioral models. Model driven approach for program development is realized in Framework for eXecutable UML (FXU). The tool transforms UML models into C# source code and supports execution of the application reflecting the behavioral model. The framework

Anna Derezinska; Romuald Pilitowski

2009-01-01

370

Emote aloud during learning with AutoTutor: Applying the Facial Action Coding System to cognitive–affective states during learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to discover the facial action units for affective states that occur during complex learning, this study adopted an emote-aloud procedure in which participants were recorded as they verbalised their affective states while interacting with an intelligent tutoring system (AutoTutor). Participants’ facial expressions were coded by two expert raters using Ekman's Facial Action Coding System and analysed using

Scotty D. Craig; Sidney DMello; Amy Witherspoon; Art Graesser

2008-01-01

371

The Dangerous Mix of Adolescents and Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss and Muscle Building: Legal Strategies for State Action.  

PubMed

Adolescents use dietary supplements marketed for weight loss or muscle building, but these are not recommended by physicians. These products are often ineffective, adulterated, mislabeled, or have unclear dosing recommendations, and consumers have suffered injury and death as a consequence. When Congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, it stripped the Food and Drug Administration of its premarket authority, rendering regulatory controls too weak to adequately protect consumers. State government intervention is thus warranted. This article reviews studies reporting on Americans' use of dietary supplements marketed for weight loss or muscle building, notes the particular dangers these products pose to the youth, and suggests that states can build on their historical enactment of regulatory controls for products with potential health consequences to protect the public and especially young people from unsafe and mislabeled dietary supplements. PMID:25248073

Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Barbosa, Grant; Killian, Caroline; Austin, S Bryn

2014-09-22

372

Disparities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Using TUS in a "non-ATS" state to Build Support for Evidence Based Policy  

Cancer.gov

Disparities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Using TUS in a “non-ATS” state to Build Support for Evidence Based Policy Sally Herndon Malek, MPH Marcus Plescia, MD MPH NC Division of Public Health Don Shopland, PHS Retired Goal: Eliminate Exposure to

373

Traditional, state-of-the-art and future thermal building insulation materials and solutions – Properties, requirements and possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages and disadvantages of the thermal building insulation materials and solutions have been treated. Both traditional, state-of-the-art and possible materials and solutions beyond these have been investigated. Examples of these may be mineral wool, expanded polystyrene, extruded polystyrene, polyurethane, vacuum insulation panels, gas insulation panels, aerogels, and future possibilities like vacuum insulation materials, nano insulation materials and dynamic insulation

Bjørn Petter Jelle

2011-01-01

374

LoanSTAR Monitoring and Analysis Program: Presentation Summary of the State Capitol Complex Building Operation and Maintenance Field Test  

E-print Network

off AHUs during unoccupied hours (la). 2. Turn exhaust fans off during unoccupied hours. 3. Turn lighting off during unoccupied hours. 4. Turn PCs, computer screens, printers, and copying machines off during unoccupied hours. Annual O&M Potential...LoanSTAR Monitoring and Analysis Program Presentation Summary of the State Capitol Complex Building Operation and Maintenance Field Test Presented to the State Purchasing and General Services Commission By the Monitoring Analysis Task E Dr. W. D...

Turner, W. D.; Houcek, J. K.; Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

1993-01-01

375

Building Community Systems for Young Children: Early Childhood Education. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the importance and funding sources of early child care and education (ECE), and the ways in which the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems (SECCS) Initiative improves early childhood outcomes. Section I presents what is known about the importance of ECE, quality and access. Section II describes the current funding…

Bassok, Daphna; Stipek, Deborah; Inkelas, Moira; Kuo, Alice

2005-01-01

376

Comparison of Standard 90.1-2007 and the 2009 IECC with Respect to Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) has been asked by some states and energy code stakeholders to address the comparability of the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code® (IECC) as applied to commercial buildings and ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 (hereinafter referred to as Standard 90.1-07). An assessment of comparability will help states respond to and implement conditions specified in the State Energy Program (SEP) Formula Grants American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Funding Opportunity, Number DE-FOA-0000052, and eliminate the need for the states individually or collectively to perform comparative studies of the 2009 IECC and Standard 90.1-07. The funding opportunity announcement contains the following conditions: (2) The State, or the applicable units of local government that have authority to adopt building codes, will implement the following: (A) A residential building energy code (or codes) that meets or exceeds the most recent International Energy Conservation Code, or achieves equivalent or greater energy savings. (B) A commercial building energy code (or codes) throughout the State that meets or exceeds the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007, or achieves equivalent or greater energy savings . (C) A plan to achieve 90 percent compliance with the above energy codes within eight years. This plan will include active training and enforcement programs and annual measurement of the rate of compliance. With respect to item (B) above, many more states, regardless of the edition date, directly adopt the IECC than Standard 90.1-07. This is predominately because the IECC is a model code and part of a coordinated set of model building codes that state and local government have historically adopted to regulate building design and construction. This report compares the 2009 IECC to Standard 90.1-07 with the intent of helping states address whether the adoption and application of the 2009 IECC for commercial buildings can be considered equivalent to the adoption and application of Standard 90.1-07. Based on this document, states adopting the 2009 IECC, which is the document cited in (A), above, for residential construction, can also determine if they are in compliance with the above provisions for commercial buildings in (B) above and if their code meets or exceeds the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-07.

Conover, David R.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.

2009-12-11

377

How to Build a Time Machine: Interfacing Hydrodynamics, Ionization Calculations and X-ray Spectral Codes for Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thanks to Chandra and XMM-Newton, spatially resolved spectroscopy of SNRsin the X-ray band has become a reality. Several impressive data sets forejecta-dominated SNRs can now be found in the archives, the Cas A VLP justbeing one (albeit probably the most spectacular) example. However, it isoften hard to establish quantitative, unambiguous connections between theX-ray observations of SNRs and the dramatic events involved in a corecollapse or thermonuclear SN explosion. The reason for this is that thevery high quality of the data sets generated by Chandra and XMM for thelikes of Cas A, SNR 292.0+1.8, Tycho, and SN 1006 has surpassed our abilityto analyze them. The core of the problem is in the transient nature of theplasmas in SNRs, which results in anintimate relationship between the structure of the ejecta and AM, the SNRdynamics arising from their interaction, and the ensuing X-rayemission. Thus, the ONLY way to understand the X-ray observations ofejecta-dominated SNRs at all levels, from the spatially integrated spectrato the subarcsecond scales that can be resolved by Chandra, is to couplehydrodynamic simulations to nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) calculationsand X-ray spectral codes. I will review the basic ingredients that enterthis kind of calculations, and what are the prospects for using them tounderstand the X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta in young SNRs. Thisunderstanding (when it is possible), can turn SNRs into veritable timemachines, revealing the secrets of the titanic explosions that generatedthem hundreds of years ago.

Badenes, Carlos

2006-02-01

378

Building Energy Information Systems: State of the Technology and User Case Studies  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this study is energy information systems, broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. At a minimum, an EIS provides hourly whole-building electric data that are web-accessible, with analytical and graphical capabilities. Time series data from meters, sensors, and external data streams are used to perofmr analysis such as baselining, benchmarking, building level anomaly detection, and energy performance tracking.

Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Price, Phillip

2009-10-01

379

Sustainability Assessment of the Robert E. Johnson State Office Building, Final Report, Revised April 2002  

E-print Network

air needed for the print shop. For the lighting system, specially designed light shelves were installed on the south fa?ade of the building to project the daylight into the interior offices. Dimmable ballasts were installed in about 15... operators, as well as the architects and engineers that designed the building. Metering equipment was installed and used to measure the hourly performance of selected aspects of the building. An analysis of the sub-metered data of then 4th floor...

Sylvester, K. E.; Song, S.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

2002-01-01

380

This paper has been downloaded from the Building and Environmental Thermal Systems Research Group at Oklahoma State University (www.hvac.okstate.edu)  

E-print Network

convection, conduction, thermal radiation, solar radiation, and infiltration in a single building zone of inter-zone heat transfer by steady- state convection, steady-state and transient conduction, and inter

381

Beyond the code: Energy, carbon, and cost savings using conventional technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

As states in the U.S. adopt new energy codes, it is important to understand the benefits for each state and its building owners. This paper estimates life-cycle energy savings, carbon emission reduction, and cost-effectiveness of conventional energy efficiency measures in new commercial buildings using an integrated design approach. Results are based on 8208 energy simulations for 12 prototypical buildings in

Joshua Kneifel

2011-01-01

382

g--factors of Yrast States in ^152Gd and Predictions of the Winther-DeBoer Coulex Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The g factors of the 2^+1 and 4^+1 states in ^152Gd have been measured via the Transient Hyperfine Field method in which the recoiling nucleus traversing a ferromagnet foil experiences a large magnetic field. The states were populated by Coulomb excitation with a ^58Ni beam. Since the method relies on knowledge of the population of the states during the transit time of the Gd nuclei through the ferromagnet, the Winther-deBoer Coulomb excitation code (Coulex) has been used to model the feeding, which is then compared with the measured populations. Some versions of Coulex include a factor of i^? (i^? +1) in the definition of the electric (magnetic) multipole matrix elements while others do not. It is therefore important to be aware of whatever convention is adopted in the particular code being used, and modify the code to the desired convention, if necessary. The significance of the phase convention will be discussed in conjunction with the results of the g factor measurement.

Matt, N.; Holden, J.; Kumbartzki, G.; Mayer, R. H.; Satteson, M.; Benczer-Koller, N.; Tanczyn, R.

1996-10-01

383

Application of latent heat thermal energy storage in buildings: State-of-the-art and outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) is becoming more and more attractive for space heating and cooling of buildings. The application of LHTES in buildings has the following advantages: (1) the ability to narrow the gap between the peak and off-peak loads of electricity demand; (2) the ability to save operative fees by shifting the electrical consumption from peak periods

Yinping Zhang; Guobing Zhou; Kunping Lin; Qunli Zhang; Hongfa Di

2007-01-01

384

New! Building Energy Standards Essentials for Plans Examiners & Building Inspectors  

E-print Network

New! Building Energy Standards Essentials for Plans Examiners & Building Inspectors Building energy codes are complex. Plans examiners and building inspectors are expected to understand and enforce energy savings. This new, hands-on course strives to provide plans examiners and building inspectors

385

Building Construction Technology Syllabus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document is a course syllabus for Kirk Garrison's building construction technology class, taught at Portland Community College. The class focuses on interpreting code language, tables, illustrations, and navigating the building codes book. This syllabus includes a course schedule, including concepts to be covered each week. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Garrison, Kirk

386

Build Less Code, Deliver More Science: An Experience Report on Composing Scientific Environments using Component-based and Commodity Software Platforms  

SciTech Connect

Modern scientific software is daunting in its diversity and complexity. From massively parallel simulations running on the world’s largest supercomputers, to visualizations and user support environments that manage ever growing complex data collections, the challenges for software engineers are plentiful. While high performance simulators are necessarily specialized codes to maximize performance on specific supercomputer architectures, we argue the vast majority of supporting infrastructure, data management and analysis tools can leverage commodity open source and component-based technologies. This approach can significantly drive down the effort and costs of building complex, collaborative scientific user environments, as well as increase their reliability and extensibility. In this paper we describe our experiences in creating an initial user environment for scientists involved in modeling the detailed effects of climate change on the environment of selected geographical regions. Our approach composes the user environment using the Velo scientific knowledge management platform and the MeDICi Integration Framework for scientific workflows. These established platforms leverage component-based technologies and extend commodity open source platforms with abstractions and capabilities that make them amenable for broad use in science. Using this approach we were able to deliver an operational user environment capable of running thousands of simulations in a 7 month period, and achieve significant software reuse.

Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan; Lansing, Carina S.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

2013-07-17

387

Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Building Characterization, Indoor Environmental Quality Monitoring and Energy Usage Data from Office Buildings and Classrooms in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Three independent tasks had been performed (Stetzenbach 2008, Stetzenbach 2008b, Stetzenbach 2009) to measure a variety of parameters in normative buildings across the United States. For each of these tasks 10 buildings were selected as normative indoor environments. Task 1 focused on office buildings, Task 13 focused on public schools, and Task 0606 focused on high performance buildings. To perform this task it was necessary to restructure the database for the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) data and the Sound measurement as several issues were identified and resolved prior to and during the transfer of these data sets into SPSS. During overview discussions with the statistician utilized in this task it was determined that because the selection of indoor zones (1-6) was independently selected within each task; zones were not related by location across tasks. Therefore, no comparison would be valid across zones for the 30 buildings so the by location (zone) data were limited to three analysis sets of the buildings within each task. In addition, differences in collection procedures for lighting were used in Task 0606 as compared to Tasks 01 & 13 to improve sample collection. Therefore, these data sets could not be merged and compared so effects by-day data were run separately for Task 0606 and only Task 01 & 13 data were merged. Results of the statistical analysis of the IEQ parameters show statistically significant differences were found among days and zones for all tasks, although no differences were found by-day for Draft Rate data from Task 0606 (p>0.05). Thursday measurements of IEQ parameters were significantly different from Tuesday, and most Wednesday measures for all variables of Tasks 1 & 13. Data for all three days appeared to vary for Operative Temperature, whereas only Tuesday and Thursday differed for Draft Rate 1m. Although no Draft Rate measures within Task 0606 were found to significantly differ by-day, Temperature measurements for Tuesday and Thursday showed variation. Moreover, Wednesday measurements of Relative Humidity within Task 0606 varied significantly from either Tuesday or Thursday. The majority of differences in IEQ measurements by-zone were highly significant (p<0.001), with the exception of Relative Humidity in some buildings. When all task data were combined (30 buildings) neither the airborne culturable fungi nor the airborne non-culturable spore data differed in the concentrations found at any indoor location in terms of day of collection. However, the concentrations of surface-associated fungi varied among the day of collection. Specifically, there was a lower concentration of mold on Tuesday than on Wednesday, for all tasks combined. As expected, variation was found in the concentrations of both airborne culturable fungi and airborne non-culturable fungal spores between indoor zones (1-6) and the outdoor zone (zone 0). No variation was found among the indoor zones of office buildings for Task 1 in the concentrations of airborne culturable fungi. However, airborne non-culturable spores did vary among zones in one building in Task 1 and variation was noted between zones in surface-associated fungi. Due to the lack of multiple lighting measurements for Tasks 13 and 0606, by-day comparisons were only performed for Task 1. No statistical differences were observed in lighting with respect to the day of collection. There was a wide range of variability by-zone among seven of the office buildings. Although few differences were found for the brightest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcBrtst) and the darkest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcDrkst) in Task 1, there was considerable variation for these variables in Task 13 and Task 0606 (p < 0.001). Other variables that differed by-zone in Task 13 include CombCCT and AmbCCT1 for S03, S07, and S08. Additionally, AmbChromX1, CombChromY, and CombChromX varied by-zone for school buildings S02, S04, and S05, respectively. Although all tasks demonstrated significant differences in sound measurements by zone, some of the buil

Linda Stetzenbach; Lauren Nemnich; Davor Novosel

2009-08-31

388

FRAPCON-3: A computer code for the calculation of steady-state, thermal-mechanical behavior of oxide fuel rods for high burnup  

Microsoft Academic Search

FRAPCON-3 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady-state response of light water reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, and deformation of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (1) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (2)

G. A. Berna; G. A. Beyer; K. L. Davis; D. D. Lanning

1997-01-01

389

Environmental issues in planning building energy technologies R D in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has begun studies on the relationship and impact of buildings energy use on the environment, particularly with respect to global climate change, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and indoor air quality. The paper presents an overview of international and US federal activity in global change to set OBT's activities in context. The paper then reviews briefly the contribution of buildings to atmospheric problems through building energy use. OBT's program primarily supports projects with indirect environmental impacts through energy efficiency (e.g., thermally activated heat pumps use natural gas instead of electricity) and the use of renewables in buildings. The paper briefly describes the OBT program and covers an inventory of projects that OBT has funded on environmental/building problems. Analyses have included three kinds of topics: (1) CFC substitutes for refrigeration equipment, (2) incorporating the cost of externalities into utility electricity generation, and (3) indoor air quality. The paper shows how environmental issues are being taken into account in planning the US R D program in building energy technologies. 27 refs.

Farhar, B.C. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (United States)); Abel, F.H. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Nicholls, A.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Millhone, J.P. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Building Technologies)

1991-08-01

390

NASA Glen Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Users Manual, DOS Input. Version 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heat pipe code LERCHP has been revised, corrected, and extended. New features include provisions for pipes with curvature and bends in "G" fields. Heat pipe limits are examined in detail and limit envelopes are shown for some sodium and lithium-filled heat pipes. Refluxing heat pipes and gas-loaded or variable conductance heat pipes were not considered.

Tower, Leonard K.

2000-01-01

391

Spotlight on Speech Codes 2012: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Supreme Court has called America's colleges and universities "vital centers for the Nation's intellectual life," but the reality today is that many of these institutions severely restrict free speech and open debate. Speech codes--policies prohibiting student and faculty speech that would, outside the bounds of campus, be protected by the…

Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2012

2012-01-01

392

FIVE-DIGIT ZIP CODE BOUNDARIES FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Five-Digit ZIP (Zoning Improvement Plan) Code boundary layer (zip5) is derived from the Geographic Data Technology (GDT), Inc. ZIP Boundary and Inventory Files (v. 5.0) and stored in the EPA Spatial Data Library System (ESDLS). This layer contains data for the conterminous U...

393

LDPC-in-SSD: Making Advanced Error Correction Codes Work Effectively in Solid State Drives  

E-print Network

of NAND flash memory continues to increase and its reliability continues to degrade. It is highly desir characterization of NAND flash memory reliability and LDPC code decod- ing. Our study based on intensive ECC alternative can be used in NAND flash memory to retain its reliability to respond the continuous

394

CANADA RUSSIA UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES Building / Launching / Operating first ever high definition,  

E-print Network

Management provided by MacDonald Dettwiler and Associates in Canada #12;5 HOW IT WORKS Cameras Compression Google Earth #12;Medium Res Camera · RALCAM3 ­ existing design · Build-to-print solution for the ISS

395

State-of-the-art of lightning protection system of high-rise building in Jakarta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Situated along equatorial-line region Indonesia is exposed to lightning with relative high isokeraunic level. Hence, high reliable lightning system becomes compulsory for high-rise buildings, which are subject to lightning strike with relative high probability. However, in fact, this is not the case when we realize the quality of lightning protection system installed within most of high-rise building at a glance

D. Darwanto; D. Hamdani

2011-01-01

396

OptaDOS: A tool for obtaining density of states, core-level and optical spectra from electronic structure codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present OptaDOS, a program for calculating core-electron and low-loss electron energy loss spectra (EELS) and optical spectra along with total-, projected- and joint-density of electronic states (DOS) from single-particle eigenenergies and dipole transition coefficients. Energy-loss spectroscopy is an important tool for probing bonding within a material. Interpreting these spectra can be aided by first principles calculations. The spectra are generated from the eigenenergies through integration over the Brillouin zone. An important feature of this code is that this integration is performed using a choice of adaptive or linear extrapolation broadening methods which we show produces higher accuracy spectra than standard fixed-width Gaussian broadening. OptaDOS may be straightforwardly interfaced to any electronic structure code. OptaDOS is freely available under the GNU General Public licence from http://www.optados.org.

Morris, Andrew J.; Nicholls, Rebecca J.; Pickard, Chris J.; Yates, Jonathan R.

2014-05-01

397

Free Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Free Code, a service of Andover.Net, is a large index of Internet-related software tool source code. The tools are written in C/C++, Perl, Java, or Visual Basic, and are free for personal and commercial use. They range from handy Perl CGI scripts to Java-based graphics packages. Each tool in the index is briefly described, characterized by language and operating system, and linked to both the home page for the tool and the source code. The total lack of documentation for the search engine makes useful queries hard to create, but the tools are still easy-to-find. This is a very useful index for anyone building Internet or Web-based applications.

398

Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework  

SciTech Connect

As long-term socioeconomic transformation and energy service expansion show large spatial heterogeneity, advanced understanding of climate impact on building energy use at the sub-national level will offer useful insights into climate policy and regional energy system planning. In this study, we presented a detailed building energy model with a U.S. state-level representation, nested in the GCAM integrated assessment framework. We projected state-level building energy demand and its spatial pattern over the century, considering the impact of climate change based on the estimates of heating and cooling degree days derived from downscaled USGS CASCaDE temperature data. The result indicates that climate change has a large impact on heating and cooling building energy and fuel use at the state level, exhibiting large spatial heterogeneity across states (ranges from -10% to +10%). The sensitivity analysis reveals that the building energy demand is subject to multiple key factors, such as the magnitude of climate change, the choice of climate models, and the growth of population and GDP, and that their relative contributions vary greatly across the space. The scale impact in building energy use modeling highlights the importance of constructing a building energy model with the spatially-explicit representation of socioeconomics, energy system development, and climate change. These findings will help the climate-based policy decision and energy system, especially utility planning related to building sector at the U.S. state and regional level facing the potential climate change.

Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.; Kim, Son H.; Dirks, James A.; Jensen, Erik A.; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.; Schmidt, Laurel C.; Seiple, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

399

40 CFR Appendix Xiii to Part 86 - State Requirements Incorporated by Reference in Part 86 of the Code of Federal Regulations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

The following is an informational list of the California regulatory requirements applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle program (October, 1996) incorporated by reference in part 86 of the Code of Federal Regulations (see § 86.1). California State...

2012-07-01

400

40 CFR Appendix Xiii to Part 86 - State Requirements Incorporated by Reference in Part 86 of the Code of Federal Regulations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

The following is an informational list of the California regulatory requirements applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle program (October, 1996) incorporated by reference in part 86 of the Code of Federal Regulations (see § 86.1). California State...

2011-07-01

401

40 CFR Appendix Xiii to Part 86 - State Requirements Incorporated by Reference in Part 86 of the Code of Federal Regulations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

The following is an informational list of the California regulatory requirements applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle program (October, 1996) incorporated by reference in part 86 of the Code of Federal Regulations (see § 86.1). California State...

2013-07-01

402

40 CFR Appendix Xiii to Part 86 - State Requirements Incorporated by Reference in Part 86 of the Code of Federal Regulations  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

The following is an informational list of the California regulatory requirements applicable to the National Low Emission Vehicle program (October, 1996) incorporated by reference in part 86 of the Code of Federal Regulations (see § 86.1). California State...

2010-07-01

403

Constructing a coding compliance plan.  

PubMed

The government has turned its attention to coding compliance. Do you have an effective program in place? Use the steps in this article to build a coding compliance program that protects your organization. PMID:12108147

Hanna, Joette

2002-01-01

404

Steady-state balance model to calculate the indoor climate of livestock buildings, demonstrated for finishing pigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The indoor climate of livestock buildings is of importance for the well-being and health of animals and their production performance (daily weight gain, milk yield etc). By using a steady-state model for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and the CO2 and odour mass flows, the indoor climate of mechanically ventilated livestock buildings can be calculated. These equations depend on the livestock (number of animals and how they are kept), the insulation of the building and the characteristics of the ventilation system (ventilation rate). Since the model can only be applied to animal houses where the ventilation systems are mechanically controlled (this is the case for a majority of finishing pig units), the calculations were done for an example of a finishing pig unit with 1000 animal places. The model presented used 30 min values of the outdoor parameters temperature and humidity, collected over a 2-year period, as input. The projected environment inside the livestock building was compared with recommended values. The duration of condensation on the inside surfaces was also calculated.

Schauberger, G.; Piringer, M.; Petz, E.

405

Steady-state balance model to calculate the indoor climate of livestock buildings, demonstrated for finishing pigs.  

PubMed

The indoor climate of livestock buildings is of importance for the well-being and health of animals and their production performance (daily weight gain, milk yield etc). By using a steady-state model for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and the CO2 and odour mass flows, the indoor climate of mechanically ventilated livestock buildings can be calculated. These equations depend on the livestock (number of animals and how they are kept), the insulation of the building and the characteristics of the ventilation system (ventilation rate). Since the model can only be applied to animal houses where the ventilation systems are mechanically controlled (this is the case for a majority of finishing pig units), the calculations were done for an example of a finishing pig unit with 1,000 animal places. The model presented used 30 min values of the outdoor parameters temperature and humidity, collected over a 2-year period, as input. The projected environment inside the livestock building was compared with recommended values. The duration of condensation on the inside surfaces was also calculated. PMID:10789916

Schauberger, G; Piringer, M; Petz, E

2000-03-01

406

Differences between the 1992 and 1993 CABO Model Energy Codes  

SciTech Connect

This report is one in a series of documents describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Standards Program. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the program for DOE. The goal of the Program is to develop and encourage the implementation Of Performance standards to achieve the maximum practicable energy efficiency in the design of new buildings. The program approach to meeting the goal is to initiate and manage individual research and standards and guidelines development efforts that are planned and conducted in cooperation with representatives from throughout the buildings community. Projects under way involve practicing architects and engineers, Professional societies and code organizations, industry representatives, and researchers from the private sector and national laboratories. Research results and technical justifications for standards criteria are provided to standards development and model code organizations and to Federal, State, and local jurisdictions as a basis to update their codes and standards. This effort helps to ensure that building standards incorporate the latest research results to achieve maximum energy savings in new buildings, Yet remain responsive to the needs of the affected professions, organizations, and jurisdictions. Our efforts also support the implementation, deployment, and use of energy-efficient codes and standards. This report identifies the differences between the 1992 and 1993 editions of the Council of American Building Officials, (CABO) Model Energy Code (MEC) and briefly highlights the technical and administrative impacts of these changes.

Conover, D.R.; Lucas, R.G.

1995-01-01

407

Appendices of an appraisal for the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings in Colorado. Section C. Burlington  

SciTech Connect

The State Highway Department Building in Burlington has been evaluated in this geothermal energy appraisal. While there is no known geothermal resource at Burlington, a shallow water aquifer - Ogallala Aquifer - does exist beneath Burlington at depths of 200 to 300 feet. One particular water well is reported to be producing water at 59/sup 0/F to 63/sup 0/F at 800 to 1000 gpm. Therefore, the Ogallala is being considered as a source of warm water for the use of water-to-air heat pumps for space heating of the Highway Department Building. The geothermal energy economics are evaluated for two options: (1) a new water well drilled on the site of the Highway Department Building and (2) the purchase of warm water from an existing City of Burlington water well. The latter option is evaluated only for the 12 percent/9 percent (through 1984/through 2000) natural gas price escalation case, whereas the former option is evaluated for both the 15 percent and the 12 percent/9 percent schedules. The results of the economic evaluations generally indicate that heat pumps would not be economically competitive, particularly if the state purchased city water at the current water rates. Fuel price escalation rates greater than 15 percent per year can shift the heat pump shallow well option to a marginal position. The principal institutional/environmental issue to be addressed for the Burlington facility is an existing ordinance which only allows the city to drill water wells within the city.

Meyer, R.T.; Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.

1981-01-01

408

Building condition monitoring  

E-print Network

The building sector of the United States currently consumes over 40% of the United States primary energy supply. Estimates suggest that between 5 and 30% of any building's annual energy consumption is unknowingly wasted ...

Samouhos, Stephen V. (Stephen Vincent), 1982-

2010-01-01

409

Building Public Governing Board Capacity through State-Level Education Programs for College and University Board Members. State Policy Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

State policymakers and the public at large have a vested interest in the successful governance of their higher education system. The citizens who are appointed or elected to serve as trustees and regents of the state's colleges and universities oversee valuable public assets that they hold in trust for the state and current and future…

Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2013

2013-01-01

410

OpenMC: A State-of-the-Art Monte Carlo Code for Research and Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives an overview of OpenMC, an open source Monte Carlo particle transport code recently developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. OpenMC uses continuous-energy cross sections and a constructive solid geometry representation, enabling high-fidelity modeling of nuclear reactors and other systems. Modern, portable input/output file formats are used in OpenMC: XML for input, and HDF5 for output. High performance parallel algorithms in OpenMC have demonstrated near-linear scaling to over 100,000 processors on modern supercomputers. Other topics discussed in this paper include plotting, CMFD acceleration, variance reduction, eigenvalue calculations, and software development processes.

Romano, Paul K.; Horelik, Nicholas E.; Herman, Bryan R.; Nelson, Adam G.; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord

2014-06-01

411

Educational Administration as National Capacity Building: Towards South Korea Becoming a Creative Learning State  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This philosophy paper proposes that a primary purpose of Educational Administration, as a field of study, research and practice in South Korea, becomes national capacity building. It does this by evaluating the current scope of Educational Administration against the need for a new national education policy to help South Korea make the transition…

Macpherson, Reynold; Sun Hyung, Park

2015-01-01

412

Energy Savings Assessment for the Robert E. Johnson State Office Building in Austin, Texas  

E-print Network

and their performance g167g32 Document system through photographs for review by other personnel. To analyze the sustainability of the Robert E. Johnson Building, this study: 1) analyzed the monthly utility bills over 9 months (Reedy, et al, 1995), 2) created a...

Sylvester, K. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Song, S.; Turner, W. D.

2002-01-01

413

MATLAB\\/SIMULINK FOR BUILDING AND HVAC SIMULATION - STATE OF THE ART  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Matlab, a tool for mathematical programming, is actually increasing in a large number of fields. Together with its dynamic simulation toolbox Simulink, originally developed for control and automation applications, it has become a powerful tool that is suitable for a large number of applications. In the field of building and HVAC, the number of users of Matlab\\/Simulink

P. Riederer

414

Developing "BUILDING/ FACILITY ENERGY CONSUMPTION DATA SHEET" for Political Subdivisions, Institutions of Higher Education, and State Agencies, to Satisfy Senate Bill 898 (82nd R) Reporting Requirements  

E-print Network

As mandated by the 82nd R Legislature (2011), Senate Bill 898, Health and Safety Code, Section 388.005, beginning September 1, 2011, each political subdivision, institution of higher education or state agency shall establish a goal to reduce...

Parker, P.; Baltazar, J.; Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Zilbershtein, G.

2012-01-01

415

The HART II International Workshop: An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art in Comprehensive Code Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant advancements in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and their coupling with computational structural dynamics (CSD, or comprehensive codes) for rotorcraft applications have been achieved recently. Despite this, CSD codes with their engineering level of modeling the rotor blade dynamics, the unsteady sectional aerodynamics and the vortical wake are still the workhorse for the majority of applications. This is especially true when a large number of parameter variations is to be performed and their impact on performance, structural loads, vibration and noise is to be judged in an approximate yet reliable and as accurate as possible manner. In this article, the capabilities of such codes are evaluated using the HART II International Workshop database, focusing on a typical descent operating condition which includes strong blade-vortex interactions. A companion article addresses the CFD/CSD coupled approach. Three cases are of interest: the baseline case and two cases with 3/rev higher harmonic blade root pitch control (HHC) with different control phases employed. One setting is for minimum blade-vortex interaction noise radiation and the other one for minimum vibration generation. The challenge is to correctly predict the wake physics-especially for the cases with HHC-and all the dynamics, aerodynamics, modifications of the wake structure and the aero-acoustics coming with it. It is observed that the comprehensive codes used today have a surprisingly good predictive capability when they appropriately account for all of the physics involved. The minimum requirements to obtain these results are outlined. XXXX The HART-II Workshops have resulted in significant improvement in the knowledge of how reliable the most utilized comprehensive codes from industry can predict rotor behavior with higher harmonic controls and blade vortex interactions. Without the collaboration provided via the Workshop series, it would not have been possible to determine the current state of the art, including the strengths and weaknesses of these methodologies. For future work, it is recommended that testing of these rotor blade types include measurement of blade bending and torsion across the entire span to provide a more complete database. It is also recommended that a very detailed and reliable knowledge of the blade structural properties be included, as questions in the appropriate modeling of the blade can render the numerical conclusions less useful. Further, it is suggested that the impact of the fuselage on wake trajectories and hence the BVI locations be further investigated.

vanderWall, Berend G.; Lim, Joon W.; Smith, Marilyn J.; Jung, Sung N.; Bailly, Joelle; Baeder, James D.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

2013-01-01

416

Capacity, mutual information, and coding for finite-state Markov channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Finite-State Markov Channel (FSMC) is a discrete-time varying channel whose variationis determined by a finite-state Markov process. These channels have memory due to theMarkov channel variation. We obtain the FSMC capacity as a function of the conditional channelstate probability. We also show that for i.i.d. channel inputs, this conditional probability convergesweakly, and the channel's mutual information is then a

Andrea J. Goldsmith; Pravin P. Varaiya

1996-01-01

417

Impact of the FY 2005 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild II is used in this study of all 21 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2005 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget on February 2, 2004. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 396,000 jobs and about $5.6 billion in earned income (2003$) by the year 2030.

Scott, Michael J.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hostick, Donna J.

2004-08-31

418

A Survey of High Performance Office Buildings in the United States  

E-print Network

-coupled Systems, Solar Cooling Loads, Daylighting for Energy Efficiency, Non-solar Cooling Loads, Water Heaters, Cooling Systems, Photovoltaics, Heating Loads, Lamp Ballasts, High-performance Windows and Doors, Lighting Controls, HVAC Controls and Zoning... Cooling, Overhangs, T-8 Lamps, Instantaneous Hot-Water Heater, Well-Insulated Thermal Envelope 6 Stein & Taylor (2005) Electric Arts Phase II Building Temperate & Mixed San Francisco, CA Commercial Office 2002 4 350,000 CEC Title 24 Standards DOE-2...

Cho, S.; Haberl, J. S.

2006-01-01

419

Building Knowledge Stocks: The Role of State Higher-Education Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of studies provide evidence that the stock of college-educated labor has fundamental effects on state and local economies through its association with wages, economic growth, personal incomes, and tax revenues. As a result, policymakers in many states try to increase the percentage of the state's population (or workforce) that has a…

Groen, Jeffrey A.

2009-01-01

420

Nonresidential Building Energy Use Disclosure Program  

E-print Network

· ·/ Nonresidential Building Energy Use Disclosure Program California Code of Regulations Title Commission Chapter 4. Energy Conservation Article 9. Nonresidential Building Benchmarking and Disclosure Performance Scores for nonresidential buildings in California. Note: Authority cited: Sections 25213, 25218(e

421

Coding for Electronic Mail  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scheme for coding facsimile messages promises to reduce data transmission requirements to one-tenth current level. Coding scheme paves way for true electronic mail in which handwritten, typed, or printed messages or diagrams sent virtually instantaneously - between buildings or between continents. Scheme, called Universal System for Efficient Electronic Mail (USEEM), uses unsupervised character recognition and adaptive noiseless coding of text. Image quality of resulting delivered messages improved over messages transmitted by conventional coding. Coding scheme compatible with direct-entry electronic mail as well as facsimile reproduction. Text transmitted in this scheme automatically translated to word-processor form.

Rice, R. F.; Lee, J. J.

1986-01-01

422

State-to-state reactive differential cross sections for the H+H2?H2+H reaction on five different potential energy surfaces employing a new quantum wavepacket computer code: DIFFREALWAVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-to-state differential cross sections have been calculated for the hydrogen exchange reaction, H+H2?H2+H, using five different high quality potential energy surfaces with the objective of examining the sensitivity of these detailed cross sections to the underlying potential energy surfaces. The calculations were performed using a new parallel computer code, DIFFREALWAVE. The code is based on the real wavepacket approach of

Marlies Hankel; Sean C. Smith; Robert J. Allan; Stephen K. Gray; Gabriel G. Balint-Kurti

2006-01-01

423

State-to-state reactive differential cross sections for the H+H2-->H2+H reaction on five different potential energy surfaces employing a new quantum wavepacket computer code: DIFFREALWAVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

State-to-state differential cross sections have been calculated for the hydrogen exchange reaction, H+H2-->H2+H, using five different high quality potential energy surfaces with the objective of examining the sensitivity of these detailed cross sections to the underlying potential energy surfaces. The calculations were performed using a new parallel computer code, DIFFREALWAVE. The code is based on the real wavepacket approach of

Marlies Hankel; Sean C. Smith; Robert J. Allan; Stephen K. Gray; Gabriel G. Balint-Kurti

2006-01-01

424

Outcomes After Acute Ischemic Stroke in the United States: Does Residential ZIP Code Matter?  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to analyze the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) on in?hospital outcomes, cost of hospitalization, and resource use after acute ischemic stroke. Methods and Results We used the 2003–2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database for this analysis. All admissions with a principal diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke were identified by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes. SES was assessed by using median household income of the residential ZIP code for each patient. Quartile 1 and quartile 4 reflect the lowest?income and highest?income SES quartile, respectively. During a 9?year period, 775 905 discharges with acute ischemic stroke were analyzed. There was a progressive increase in the incidence of reperfusion on the first admission day across the SES quartiles (P?trend<0.001). In addition, we observed a significant reduction in discharge to nursing facility, across the SES quartiles (P?trend<0.001). Although we did not observe a significant difference in in?hospital mortality across the SES quartiles in the overall cohort (P?trend=0.22), there was a significant trend toward reduced in?hospital mortality across the SES quartiles in younger patients (<75 years) (P?trend<0.001). The mean length of stay in the lowest?income quartile was 5.75 days, which was significantly higher compared with other SES quartiles. Furthermore, the mean adjusted cost of hospitalization among quartiles 2, 3, and 4, compared with quartile 1, was significantly higher by $621, $1238, and $2577, respectively. Compared with the lowest?income quartile, there was a significantly higher use of echocardiography, invasive angiography, and operative procedures, including carotid endarterectomy, in the highest?income quartile. Conclusions Patients from lower?income quartiles had decreased reperfusion on the first admission day, compared with patients from higher?income quartiles. The cost of hospitalization of patients from higher?income quartiles was significantly higher than that of patients from lowest?income quartiles, despite longer hospital stays in the latter group. This might be partially attributable to a lower use of key procedures among patients from lowest?income quartile. PMID:25773298

Agarwal, Shikhar; Menon, Venu; Jaber, Wael A.

2015-01-01

425

International comparison of passive solar simulation codes  

SciTech Connect

Two software-software comparisons of passive solar simulation codes have been conducted by the Passive Solar Applications Group of the Committee on the Challenges to Modern Society. These exercises have involved the simulation of hypothetical Trombe wall and direct gain buildings located in Madison, Wisconsin. The countries that have participated in the exercise include Canada, Denmark, France, and the United States. All results available at the time of writing are discussed in this report.

Wray, W.O.

1980-01-01

426

Toward a virtual building laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In order to achieve in a timely manner the large energy and dollar savings technically possible through improvements in building energy efficiency, it will be necessary to solve the problem of design failure risk. The most economical method of doing this would be to learn to calculate building performance with sufficient detail, accuracy and reliability to avoid design failure. Existing building simulation models (BSM) are a large step in this direction, but are still not capable of this level of modeling. Developments in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques now allow one to construct a road map from present BSM's to a complete building physical model. The most useful first step is a building interior model (BIM) that would allow prediction of local conditions affecting occupant health and comfort. To provide reliable prediction a BIM must incorporate the correct physical boundary conditions on a building interior. Doing so raises a number of specific technical problems and research questions. The solution of these within a context useful for building research and design is not likely to result from other research on CFD, which is directed toward the solution of different types of problems. A six-step plan for incorporating the correct boundary conditions within the context of the model problem of a large atrium has been outlined. A promising strategy for constructing a BIM is the overset grid technique for representing a building space in a CFD calculation. This technique promises to adapt well to building design and allows a step-by-step approach. A state-of-the-art CFD computer code using this technique has been adapted to the problem and can form the departure point for this research.

Klems, J.H.; Finlayson, E.U.; Olsen, T.H.; Banks, D.W.; Pallis, J.M.

1999-03-01

427

Green Construction Codes  

E-print Network

, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 Houston Code Enforcement ? Permits Sold FY11 = 108,301 ? Staff = 381 ? Inspections Performed FY11 = 614,925 ? Construction Valuation FY11 = $1.86 B ? Services ? Plan Review: 11 day ? Inspections: Next day ? Licensing... Participants ? Lights Out Houston ESL-KT-11-11-41 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 Code Adoption in Houston TYPICAL CODE CYCLE - 3 YEAR ? Step 1: Building Official Request to CIC ? Step 2: Construction Industry Council Committees ? AIA...

Blake, S.

2011-01-01

428

State Ethical Codes and Federal Practice: Emerging Conflicts and Suggestions for Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

The standards for resolving putative conflicts between federal laws are not always clear, and neither for that matter is the standard for determining what con- stitutes a federal law capable of superseding effect. The technique of setting federal norms of professional conduct on a decentralized basis by borrowing or incorporating state norms is increasingly trouble- some to the extent that

Stephen B. Burbank

1992-01-01

429

Aspergillus, its sexual states and the new International Code of Nomenclature.  

PubMed

The newly adopted International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN) demands that dimorphic fungi, in particular those with both sexual and asexual names, now bear a single name. Although priority is no longer associated with the mode of reproduction, the ICN requires justification for choosing an asexual name over an existing sexual one. The phylogenetic approach that made dual nomenclature for fungi obsolete can be used to help choose names for large groups of fungi that are best known by asexual names. Here we apply this approach to one of the largest and most diverse asexual genera, the genus Aspergillus. We find that existing sexual names may be given to well supported clades of fungi with distinct phenotypes, which include sexual morphology as well as physiological attributes associated with xerophily, thermophily and mycotoxin production. One group of species important to food production and food safety, Aspergillus subgen. Circumdati, lacks a well supported clade; here we propose that the name Aspergillus be retained for this group. Recognizing that nomenclature has economic and social implications, particularly for old, important genera, we discuss the consequences of various scenarios to implement the new "one name for one fungus" article in the ICN, showing that our approach requires the fewest appeals to the ICN while retaining the name Aspergillus for many of the most economically and socially important species. PMID:24871603

Pitt, John I; Taylor, John W

2014-01-01

430

Getting to Fifty: Moving Towards Low-Energy Commercial Buildings in the United States  

E-print Network

organizations and resources. Attendees included representatives from: ? Government: US Environmental Protection Agency, California Energy Commission, New York State Energy Research & Development Authority ? Design Professional Organizations: American...

Frankel, M.; Hewitt, D.; Egnor, T.

431

FRAPCON-3: A computer code for the calculation of steady-state, thermal-mechanical behavior of oxide fuel rods for high burnup  

SciTech Connect

FRAPCON-3 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady-state response of light water reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, and deformation of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (1) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (2) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (3) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (4) fission gas release, (5) fuel rod internal gas pressure, (6) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (7) cladding oxidation, and (8) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat-transfer correlations. The codes` integral predictions of mechanical behavior have not been assessed against a data base, e.g., cladding strain or failure data. Therefore, it is recommended that the code not be used for analyses of cladding stress or strain. FRAPCON-3 is programmed for use on both mainframe computers and UNIX-based workstations such as DEC 5000 or SUN Sparcstation 10. It is also programmed for personal computers with FORTRAN compiler software and at least 8 to 10 megabytes of random access memory (RAM). The FRAPCON-3 code is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by the FRAPTRAN computer code (formerly named FRAP-T6).

Berna, G.A.; Beyer, G.A.; Davis, K.L.; Lanning, D.D.

1997-12-01

432

University Buildings Landmark Buildings  

E-print Network

Pharmacy S Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering T Politics, International Studies and Philosophy VKEY University Buildings Landmark Buildings The Lanyon Building Roads Footpath Cafe University Accommodation Queen's University Belfast Campus Map School Offices A Biological Sciences B Chemistry

Paxton, Anthony T.

433

Building Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From residential houses to hundred-story skyscrapers, many different technologies come together to make a building safe and comfortable. Building design is a continually changing industry, and new advances are being made possible as research progresses.Sustainable development is gaining popularity worldwide in an effort to minimize environmental impact. The Center for Resourceful Building Technology (1) maintains an online guide that describes building practices that are resource-efficient; some information on the center's research projects is also available. Similar in topic is this report from the National Association of Home Builders Research Center (2). The 70-page document is the final report of an April 2003 conference on green building; it gives day-by-day summaries of presentations and activities in which the conference participants were involved. Office buildings have a number of design issues that need to be considered to make a productive work environment. One such issue is the acoustics in a cubicle workspace. The Canadian Institute for Research in Construction (3) discusses some design factors that can improve privacy even in the very open atmosphere of closely spaced cubicles. In the wake of the 2001 anthrax scare, a research project at Pennsylvania State University has garnered significant attention. This paper (4) introduces immune buildings, which have advanced ventilation and air filtration systems that can mitigate the danger caused by airborne pathogens. Experimental results from the project are also presented. The US Department of Energy High Performance Building Initiative (5) is investigating new technologies to make commercial buildings more comfortable and cost effective. Several interesting technical papers and introductory reports are given on the initiative's homepage, including a technology road map for high performance buildings. This essay from the June 2003 issue of Constructech Magazine (6) highlights a movement toward integrated control systems for all types of buildings. The author notes that having a unified system that automatically manages security, lighting, energy, and several other building operations can save time and money in the long run. Another article, written by a member of the Partnership for Advanced Technology in Housing (7), discusses building materials and practices that can improve residential installation's resistance to major storms and natural disasters. An example of an area that is using these weather resistant designs is in Florida; the article cites the vulnerability of coastal homes to hurricanes and outlines some efforts to build them in a more structurally sound manner. Lastly, the Commercial Modular Construction Magazine (8) is a quarterly publication that centers on permanent and temporary modular building design. The second issue of 2003 has, among other things, a good article that describes the basics and benefits of modular construction.

Leske, Cavin.

434

Generalized serial search code acquisition - The equivalent circular state diagram approach  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A transform-domain method for deriving the generating function of the acquisition process resulting from an arbitrary serial search strategy is presented. The method relies on equivalent circular state diagrams, uses Mason's formula from flow-graph theory, and employs a minimum number of required parameters. The transform-domain approach is briefly described and the concept of equivalent circular state diagrams is introduced and exploited to derive the generating function and resulting mean acquisition time for three particular cases of interest, the continuous/center Z search, the broken/center Z search, and the expanding window search. An optimization of the latter technique is performed whereby the number of partial windows which minimizes the mean acquisition time is determined. The numerical results satisfy certain intuitive predictions and provide useful design guidelines for such systems.

Polydoros, A.; Simon, M. K.

1984-01-01

435

137 Reber Building Home Address Pennsylvania State University 1320A Oak Ridge Ave  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania State University, Propulsion Engineering Research Center Aug 2007­ July 2009 Investigated sooting State University, NucE 309 Analytical Techniques for Nuclear Concepts Fall 2014 Teaching this junior level course, which is an introduction to many of the analytical techniques used in the nuclear

Thole, Karen A.

436

Promoting Positive Parenting Practices through Parenting Education. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 13  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2003, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) released a "Strategic Plan for Early Childhood Health." In recognition of the critical role states play in the development of early childhood initiatives and of the unique contributions that state Title V programs can make to these initiatives, the Bureau operationalized their strategic plan…

Zepeda, Marlene; Varela, Frances; Morales, Alex

2004-01-01

437

Quantum codes over Finite Frobenius Rings  

E-print Network

. We also develop propagation rules to build new codes from existing codes. Non binary codes have been realized as a gray image of linear Z4 code, hence the most natural class of ring that is suitable for coding theory is given by finite Frobenius rings...

Sarma, Anurupa

2012-10-19

438

Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center  

SciTech Connect

Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work. The new green building houses the hospital's Family Medicine Residency Program and Specialty Medical Offices. The residency program has been vital in attracting new, young physicians to this medically underserved area. The new outpatient center will also help to allure needed medical providers to the community. The facility also has areas designated to women's health and community education. The Community Education Conference Room will provide learning opportunities to area residents. Emphasis will be placed on conserving resources and protecting our environment, as well as providing information on healthcare access and preventive medicine. The new Medical Office Building was constructed with numerous energy saving features. The exterior cladding of the building is an innovative, locally-manufactured precast concrete panel system with integral insulation that achieves an R-value in excess of building code requirements. The roof is a 'green roof' covered by native plantings, lessening the impact solar heat gain on the building, and reducing air conditioning requirements. The windows are low-E, tinted, and insulated to reduce cooling requirements in summer and heating requirements in winter. The main entrance has an air lock to prevent unconditioned air from entering the building and impacting interior air temperatures. Since much of the traffic in and out of the office building comes from the adjacent Jackson Park Hospital, a pedestrian bridge connects the two buildings, further decreasing the amount of unconditioned air that enters the office building. The HVAC system has an Energy Efficiency Rating 29% greater than required. No CFC based refrigerants were used in the HVAC system, thus reducing the emission of compounds that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. In addition, interior light fixtures employ the latest energy-efficient lamp and ballast technology. Interior lighting throughout the building is operated by sensors that will automatically turn off lights inside a room when the room is unoccupied. The electrical traction elevators use less energy than typical elevators, and they are made of 95% recycled material. Further, locally manufactured products were used throughout, minimizing the amount of energy required to construct this building. The primary objective was to construct a 30,000 square foot medical office building on the Jackson Park Hospital campus that would comply with newly adopted City of Chicago green building codes focusing on protecting the environment and conserving energy and resources. The energy saving systems demonstrate a state of the-art whole-building approach to energy efficient design and construction. The energy efficiency and green aspects of the building contribute to the community by emphasizing the environmental and economic benefits of conserving resources. The building highlights the integration of Chicago's new green building codes into a poor, inner city neighborhood project and it is designed to attract medical providers and physicians to a medically underserved area.

William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez

2010-03-31

439

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT CAPITOL BUILDING, ROOM 12 DES MOINES, IOWA 50319 Website: www.dom.state.ia.us Phone (515) 281-3322 Fax (515) 242-5897  

E-print Network

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT CAPITOL BUILDING, ROOM 12 DES MOINES, IOWA 50319 Website: www.dom.state.ia.us Phone (515) 281-3322 Fax (515) 242-5897 To see what state government is accomplishing for Iowans, go to www.resultsiowa.org CHESTER J. CULVER, GOVERNOR PATTY JUDGE, LT. GOVERNOR DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT

Daniels, Thomas E.

440

MCNP code  

SciTech Connect

The MCNP code is the major Monte Carlo coupled neutron-photon transport research tool at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and it represents the most extensive Monte Carlo development program in the United States which is available in the public domain. The present code is the direct descendent of the original Monte Carlo work of Fermi, von Neumaum, and Ulam at Los Alamos in the 1940s. Development has continued uninterrupted since that time, and the current version of MCNP (or its predecessors) has always included state-of-the-art methods in the Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport, basic cross section data, geometry capability, variance reduction, and estimation procedures. The authors of the present code have oriented its development toward general user application. The documentation, though extensive, is presented in a clear and simple manner with many examples, illustrations, and sample problems. In addition to providing the desired results, the output listings give a a wealth of detailed information (some optional) concerning each state of the calculation. The code system is continually updated to take advantage of advances in computer hardware and software, including interactive modes of operation, diagnostic interrupts and restarts, and a variety of graphical and video aids.

Cramer, S.N.

1984-01-01

441

Building success : the role of the state in the cultural facility development process  

E-print Network

This thesis investigates the question of what is the current role of the state in the cultural facility development process, and, in light of facility-related warnings that have been made over the years, what role should ...

Choy, Carolyn (Carolyn Anne)

2007-01-01

442

Impact of the FY 2009 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose input-output model called ImSET is used in this study of 14 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2009 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget in February 2008. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2025. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 258,000 jobs and about $3.7 billion in earned income (2007$) by the year 2025.

Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Cort, Katherine A.

2008-06-17

443

Building Hierarchical Models of Avian Distributions for the State of Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To predict the distributions of breeding birds in the state of Georgia, USA, we built hierarchical models consisting of 4 levels of nested mapping units of decreasing area: 90,000 ha, 3,600 ha, 144 ha, and 5.76 ha. We used the Partners in Flight database of point counts to generate presence and absence data at locations across the state of Georgia

Jay E. Howell; James T. Peterson; Michael J. Conroy

2008-01-01

444

Response to comments received from the State of Colorado and the public on the Environmental Assessment for resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this document to respond to comments from the State of Colorado and the public on the draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Resumption of Thermal Stabilization of Plutonium Oxide in Building 707 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The draft EA was provided to the State of Colorado and the public on September 8, 1993, for a comment period of 60 days. The Department`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1021.301) requires that prior to approval of the EA, DOE is to allow the host State and Indian Tribe a period of from 14 to 30 days to review and comment on the EA. The Department established a comment period of 60 days for this EA in response to requests by the public during the first public meeting on July 7, 1993, before preparation of the EA. Other issues raised at the July 7 meeting included the range of alternatives to be considered, the time period for preparation of the EA, and the amount of material to be thermally stabilized. These and other comments made by the public at that meeting were carefully considered in preparation of the EA. In addition to providing the preapproval draft EA to the State of Colorado, DOE distributed the EA to all persons and groups on the RFP public information mailing list and placed the EA and reference documents in the DOE Public Reading Rooms in the RFP area. A public meeting was held on October 6, 1993, to hear public comments on the draft EA. All comments on the draft EA, those received both at the October 6 public meeting and through correspondence, have been reproduced in their entirety in this Response to Comments document. Responses to the commenters` questions and concerns are provided, and changes made to the body of the EA are indicated in the responses. All comments received have been considered in the revision of the EA.

Not Available

1994-02-01

445

A history of the Building Energy Standards Program  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the history of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) work in development of energy standards for commercial and residential construction in the United States. PNL`s standards development efforts are concentrated in the Building Energy Standards Program (the Program), which PNL conducts for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards. The Program has worked with DOE, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), and other building codes and standards organizations to develop, evaluate, and promulgate energy standards in all sectors of the building industry. This report describes the recent history of U.S. code development and PNL`s contributions through the 1980s and early 1990s, up to the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Impacts to standards development resulting from the passage of this act will be described in other reports.

Shankle, D.L.; Merrick, J.A.; Gilbride, T.L.

1994-02-01

446

FRAPCON-2: a computer code for the calculation of steady state thermal-mechanical behavior of oxide fuel rods. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

FRAPCON-2 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady state response of light water reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, deformation, and failure histories of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include: (a) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (b) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (c) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (d) fission gas release, (e) fuel rod internal gas pressure, (f) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (g) cladding oxidation, and (h) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. FRAPCON-2 is programmed for use on the CDC Cyber 175 and 176 computers. The FRAPCON-2 code is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by either the FRAP-T6 computer code or the thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP4/MOD7 Version2.

Berna, G.A.; Bohn, M.P.; Rausch, W.N.; Williford, R.E.; Lanning, D.D.

1981-01-01

447

Simulating the Transverse Ising Model on a Quantum Computer: Error Correction with the Surface Code  

E-print Network

We estimate the resource requirements for the quantum simulation of the ground state energy of the one dimensional quantum transverse Ising model (TIM), based on the surface code implementation of a fault tolerant quantum computer. The surface code approach has one of the highest known tolerable error rates (1%) which makes it currently one of the most practical quantum computing schemes. Compared to results of the same model using the concatenated Steane code, the current results indicate that the simulation time is comparable but the number of physical qubits for the surface code is 2-3 orders of magnitude larger than that of the concatenation code. Considering that the error threshold requirements of the surface code is four orders of magnitude higher than the concatenation code, building a quantum computer with a surface code implementation appears more promising given current physical hardware capabilities.

Hao You; Michael R. Geller; P. C. Stancil

2013-03-29

448

Simulating the transverse Ising model on a quantum computer: Error correction with the surface code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We estimate the resource requirements for the quantum simulation of the ground-state energy of the one-dimensional quantum transverse Ising model based on the surface code implementation of a fault-tolerant quantum computer. The surface code approach has one of the highest known tolerable error rates (˜1%) which makes it currently one of the most practical quantum computing schemes. Compared to results of the same model using the concatenated Steane code, the current results indicate that the simulation time is comparable but the number of physical qubits for the surface code is one to two orders of magnitude larger than that of the concatenation code. Considering that the error threshold requirement of the surface code is four orders of magnitude higher than the concatenation code, building a quantum computer with a surface code implementation appears more promising given current physical hardware capabilities.

You, Hao; Geller, Michael R.; Stancil, P. C.

2013-03-01

449

Building Inspection Technology Syllabus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document is a course syllabus for Debra Anderson's building inspection technology class, taught at Portland Community College. The main goal of the course is to teach students the building inspection review process, code requirements and evaluating the adequacy of structural elements. This syllabus includes a course schedule, including concepts to be covered each week. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Anderson, Debra

450

Solid state phase change materials for thermal energy storage in passive solar heated buildings  

SciTech Connect

A set of solid state phase change materials was evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol, pentaglycerine and neopentyl glycol. Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature within the range from less than 25 deg to 188 deg. Thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, density and volumetric expansion were measured. Computer simulations were used to predict the performance of various Trombe wall designs incorporating solid state phase change materials. Optimum performance was found to be sensitive to the choice of phase change temperatures and to the thermal conductivity of the phase change material. A molecular mechanism of the solid state phase transition is proposed and supported by infrared spectroscopic evidence.

Benson, D.K.; Christensen, C.

1983-11-01

451

Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

452

Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: second floor ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: second floor entrance with cement plaster profiled surround and embedded wood beam end; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

453

Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, brick lintels, brick window sills, decorative metal grilles, scored cement finished brick wall; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

454

6. West side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. West side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

455

3. East side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. East side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

456

4. South side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking north ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. South side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

457

9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

458

5. North side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. North side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

459

Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: fouroverfour doublehung ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: four-over-four double-hung wood sash window with concrete sill; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

460

Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: iron latticed ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: iron latticed gate dungeon entrance, granite base; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

461

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: fixed fiveoverfive ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: fixed five-over-five wood windows with five-light hoppers with concrete sills; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

462

The Wayne State University Planetarium, located on the lower level of the historic Old Main building,  

E-print Network

The Wayne State University Planetarium, located on the lower level of the historic Old Main ages have explored the universe in our planetarium and have been inspired by the beauty and vastness Comprehensive Astronomy Education aligned with Michigan Science Standards Instructional shows for WSU students

Baskaran, Mark

463

Building Software Development Capacity to Advance the State of Educational Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational technologists may advance the state of the field by increasing capacity to develop software tools and instructional applications. Presently, few academic programs in educational technology require even a single computer programming course. Further, the educational technologists who develop software generally work independently or in…

Luterbach, Kenneth J.

2013-01-01

464

Building the Implicit BSW Curriculum at a Large Southern State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Council on Social Work Education's Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) stresses the importance of the implicit curriculum in shaping a school's culture. This timely article describes how the implicit BSW curriculum was developed at a large Southern state university using three Web-based projects: (1) a glossary of terms for…

Holosko, Michael; Skinner, Jeffrey; MacCaughelty, Chelsea; Stahl, Kate Morrissey

2010-01-01

465

Solar collector related research and development in the United States for heating and cooling of buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some of the research funded by the Research and Development Branch of the Heating and Cooling Division of Solar Energy of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration is described. Specifically, collector and collector materials research is reported on during FY-1977. The R and D Branch has funded research in open and closed cycle liquid heating flat plate collectors,

1978-01-01

466

Solar collector related research and development in the United States for heating and cooling of buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes some of the research funded by the Research and Development Branch of the Heating and Cooling Division of Solar Energy of the United States Energy Reseach and Development Administration. Specifically, this paper deals with collector and collector materials research reported on during FY-1977. The R&D Branch has funded research in open and closed cycle liquid heating flat

R. K. Collier

1980-01-01

467

Brownfields to School Sites: How Can the State Facilitate Cleanup To Build Essential Schools?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents background information and testimony concerning the cleanup of potentially contaminated vacant or underutilized property for use as future school sites in low-income and minority communities. Various proposals are offered that would allow the state, where necessary, to facilitate the cleanup of these "brownfields" to create…

California State Legislature, Sacramento. Select Committee on Environmental Justice.

468

The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security.  

PubMed

As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces. PMID:24080620

Verhoeven, Harry

2013-11-13

469

Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China’s policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The first chapter of this report introduces the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type and energy service. The second chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, and they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to LEED), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings. In the third chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components. This chapter examines insulation in walls and roofs; efficient windows and doors; heating, air conditioning and controls; and lighting. These markets have seen significant growth because of the strength of the construction sector but also the specific policies that require and promote efficient building components. At the same time, as requirements have become more stringent, there has been fierce competition, and quality has at time suffered, which in turn has created additional challenges. Next we examine existing buildings in chapter four. China has many Soviet-style, inefficient buildings built before stringent requirements for efficiency were more widely enforced. As a result, there are several specific market opportunities related to retrofits. These fall into two or three categories. First, China now has a code for retrofitting residential buildings in the north. Local governments have targets of the number of buildings they must retrofit each year, and they help finance the changes. The requirements focus on insulation, windows, and heat distribution. Second, the Chinese government recently decided to increase the scale of its retrofits of government and state-owned buildings. It hopes to achieve large scale changes through energy service contracts, which creates an opportunity for energy service companies. Third, there is also a small but growing trend to apply energy service contracts to large commercial and residential buildings. This report assesses the impacts of China’s policies on building energy efficiency. By examining the existing literature and interviewing stakeholders from the public, academic, and private sectors, the report seeks to offer an in-depth insights of the opportunities and barriers for major market segments related to building energy efficiency. The report also discusses trends in building energy use, policies promoting building energy efficiency, and energy performance contracting for public building retrofits.

Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Shi, Qing

2014-03-20

470

Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003  

EIA Publications

The Energy Information Administration conducts the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to collect information on energy-related building characteristics and types and amounts of energy consumed in commercial buildings in the United States.

2008-01-01

471

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting a Commercial Building Energy Standard in South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The state of South Dakota is considering adopting a commercial building energy standard. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to South Dakota residents from requiring compliance with the most recent edition of the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. These standards were developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The quantitative benefits and costs of adopting a commercial building energy code are modeled by comparing the characteristics of assumed current building practices with the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Standard, 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in this analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using results from a detailed building simulation tool (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics [BLAST] model) combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

2005-03-04

472

Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures for Above Code (ASHRAE 90.1-2001 and 2007) Restaurant Buildings in the City of Arlington  

E-print Network

ASHRAE 2007 Building Envelope Area a) DOE Reference FSR Building (1) b) EPLUS file, Deru et al. 2011 c) College Station Restaurant Survey Orientation No reference Aspect Ratio College Station Restaurant Survey Floor to Floor Height Figure 2.6, Zhang et al... (2010) Floor to Ceiling Height Figure 2.6, Zhang et al (2010) a) Zhang et al. (2010) b) College Station Restaurant Survey College Station Restaurant Survey R-15 c.i. R-20 c.i. ASHRAE 90.1 2001 Table 5.5-3, ASHRAE 90.1 2007 Roof Exterior Material Solar...

2011-01-01

473

Quantum convolutional stabilizer codes  

E-print Network

of the state of the other blocks. The code is decoded by ¯rst measuring the error syndromes of the en- coded blocks, and then applying a necessary unitary transformation to the corresponding erroneous qubits. The unitary transformations are independent... of the ones applied to the other blocks. Since there is only a ¯nite number of error syndromes and hence only a ¯nite number of recovery operations per block, decoding a quantum block code requires only ¯nite number of operations. Besides block codes...

Chinthamani, Neelima

2004-09-30

474

Building hierarchical models of avian distributions for the State of Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To predict the distributions of breeding birds in the state of Georgia, USA, we built hierarchical models consisting of 4 levels of nested mapping units of decreasing area: 90,000 ha, 3,600 ha, 144 ha, and 5.76 ha. We used the Partners in Flight database of point counts to generate presence and absence data at locations across the state of Georgia for 9 avian species: Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), brownheaded nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor), yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyxus americanus), white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus), and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). At each location, we estimated hierarchical-level-specific habitat measurements using the Georgia GAP Analysis18 class land cover and other Geographic Information System sources. We created candidate, species-specific occupancy models based on previously reported relationships, and fit these using Markov chain Monte Carlo procedures implemented in OpenBugs. We then created a confidence model set for each species based on Akaike's Information Criterion. We found hierarchical habitat relationships for all species. Three-fold cross-validation estimates of model accuracy indicated an average overall correct classification rate of 60.5%. Comparisons with existing Georgia GAP Analysis models indicated that our models were more accurate overall. Our results provide guidance to wildlife scientists and managers seeking predict avian occurrence as a function of local and landscape-level habitat attributes.

Howell, J.E.; Peterson, J.T.; Conroy, M.J.

2008-01-01

475

State of the heart: building science to improve women's cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular disease is the No. 1 killer of women in the United States, and marked disparities in cardiovascular health exist between women and men and among groups of women. Coronary heart disease is underdiagnosed, undertreated, and under-researched in women. Women with suspected heart disease are less likely than men to receive indicated diagnostic tests and procedures; sex-based biases in treatment of myocardial infarction persist; and women continue to be underrepresented in cardiovascular research. An accumulating body of literature points to 3 major explanations: sex-based physiology, provider bias, and psychosocial influences. Women's acute and prodromal signs and symptoms of myocardial infarction have been described, yet women have difficulty recognizing and acting on these indications. Primary and secondary prevention of heart disease in women is imperative; although the science is lacking in several areas, existing evidence on diet, hormone therapy, aspirin, physical activity and obesity, and diabetes can serve as the basis for interventions. Potentially, large impacts could be made on women's morbidity and mortality if current scientific knowledge were implemented. The state of the science of women and heart disease is reviewed, with a focus on those areas with the greatest potential to address the needs of women's cardiovascular status. Key gaps in the science and remaining questions are presented as a research agenda for the coming decade. PMID:17053263

Rosenfeld, Anne G

2006-11-01

476

Accessible buildings Moderately accessible buildings*  

E-print Network

with the Office of Physical Plant (OPP), the Affirmative Action Office, and the Office for Disability Services the chair of the University Access Committee at the Affirmative Action Office, 328 Boucke Building, by phone want to share. Affirmative Action Office 814-863-0471 The Pennsylvania State University is committed

Lee, Dongwon

477

Pursuant to California Government Code section 8548.2, each state agency shall post this notice at its state office(s) in locations where employee notices are maintained. In compliance with California Labor Code section 1102.8, if you have information reg  

E-print Network

Labor Code section 1102.8, if you have information regarding possible violations of state or federal not accepted via e-mail WHAT TO REPORT Improper acts by a state agency or employee, such as: · Violation agencies. · General public, keeping identities confidential. WHISTLEBLOWERS ARE PROTECTED The Whistleblower

Jacobs, Lucia

478

Comparison of ASHRAE Standard 90.1, 189.1 and IECC Codes for Large Office Building in Texas), Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University.  

E-print Network

Six energy codes were compared in terms of site and source energy consumption. This comparison includes ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2007, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2010, IECC 2009, IECC 2012 and ASHRAE...

Mukhopadhyay, J.; Baltazar, J.C.; Kim,H.; Haberl, J.

2011-01-01

479

Building Needs for the Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Listed in the document are specific building needs for the handicapped. It is explained that the detailed survey forms can be used to determine building accessibility for a wide range of handicapping conditions. Survey information includes the specific building need (e.g. 12 foot wide parking space) and the letter code for affected function. Space…

Windham Southeast Supervisory Union, Brattleboro, VT.

480

Achievable Steps Toward Building a National Health Information Infrastructure in the United States  

PubMed Central

Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need to reflect carefully on which approaches are likely to work on a large enough scale to have the intended beneficial national impacts and which are better left to smaller projects within the boundaries of health care organizations. This report provides a primer for use by informatics professionals as they explain aspects of that dividing line to policy makers and to health care leaders and front-line providers. It then identifies short-term, intermediate, and long-term steps that might be taken by the NHII initiative. PMID:15561783

Stead, William W.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kolodner, Robert M.

2005-01-01

481

Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

1996-01-01

482

Eight-state trellis-coded optical modulation with signal constellations of four-dimensional M-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation.  

PubMed

We apply the eight-state trellis-coded modulation (TCM) using signal constellations of four-dimensional M-ary quadrature-amplitude modulation (4D-MQAM) to optical communication systems for the first time to our knowledge. In the TCM scheme, the free distance of the trellis diagram is equal to the minimum distance between constellation points in partitioned subsets, which enlarges the coding gain effectively. In fact, its asymptotic power efficiency is 3-dB larger than that of the set-partitioned 4D-MQAM (SP-4D-MQAM) format, while their spectral efficiencies are the same. Such theoretical predictions are confirmed through computer simulations on eight-state TCM with constellations of 4D-4QAM (i.e., 4D quadrature phase-shift keying: 4D-QPSK) and 4D-16QAM. In particular, eight-state TCM with 4D-QPSK constellations is practically important because of its simple encoder structure, relatively low computational cost, and high coding gain against dual-polarization QPSK (DP-QPSK) and SP-4D-QPSK. Through measurements of its bit-error rate (BER) performance, we confirm that the coding gain against DP-QPSK is about 3 dB at BER=10-3. PMID:25836886

Ishimura, Shota; Kikuchi, Kazuro

2015-03-01

483

University Buildings Landmark Buildings  

E-print Network

's University Belfast Campus Map The Lanyon Building The Students' Union The David Keir Building School Offices and Sonic Arts Q Nursing and Midwifery R Pharmacy S Planning, Architecture and Civil Engineering T Politics Accommodation) 5 Harty Room, School of Music 26 Health Sciences Building 3 Human Resources 11 Information

Paxton, Anthony T.

484

ClinicalCodes: An Online Clinical Codes Repository to Improve the Validity and Reproducibility of Research Using Electronic Medical Records  

PubMed Central

Lists of clinical codes are the foundation for research undertaken using electronic medical records (EMRs). If clinical code lists are not available, reviewers are unable to determine the validity of research, full study replication is impossible, researchers are unable to make effective comparisons between studies, and the construction of new code lists is subject to much duplication of effort. Despite this, the publication of clinical codes is rarely if ever a requirement for obtaining grants, validating protocols, or publishing research. In a representative sample of 450 EMR primary research articles indexed on PubMed, we found that only 19 (5.1%) were accompanied by a full set of published clinical codes and 32 (8.6%) stated that code lists were available on request. To help address these problems, we have built an online repository where researchers using EMRs can upload and download lists of clinical codes. The repository will enable clinical researchers to better validate EMR studies, build on previous code lists and compare disease definitions across studies. It will also assist health informaticians in replicating database studies, tracking changes in disease definitions or clinical coding practice through time and sharing clinical code information across platforms and data sources as research objects. PMID:24941260

Springate, David A.; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Ashcroft, Darren M.; Olier, Ivan; Parisi, Rosa; Chamapiwa, Edmore; Reeves, David

2014-01-01

485

Efficient, transparent, and comprehensive runtime code manipulation  

E-print Network

This thesis addresses the challenges of building a software system for general-purpose runtime code manipulation. Modern applications, with dynamically-loaded modules and dynamically-generated code, are assembled at runtime. ...

Bruening, Derek L. (Derek Lane), 1976-

2004-01-01

486

Coordinating across scales: Building a regional marsh bird monitoring program from national and state Initiatives  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Salt marsh breeding bird populations (rails, bitterns, sparrows, etc.) in eastern North America are high conservation priorities in need of site specific and regional monitoring designed to detect population changes over time. The present status and trends of these species are unknown but anecdotal evidence of declines in many of the species has raised conservation concerns. Most of these species are listed as conservation priorities on comprehensive wildlife plans throughout the eastern U.S. National Wildlife Refuges, National Park Service units, and other wildlife conservation areas provide important salt marsh habitat. To meet management needs for these areas, and to assist regional conservation planning, survey designs are being developed to estimate abundance and population trends for these breeding bird species. The primary purpose of this project is to develop a hierarchical sampling frame for salt marsh birds in Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 30 that will provide the ability to estimate species population abundances on 1) specific sites (i.e. National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges), 2) within states or regions, and 3) within BCR 30. The entire breeding range of Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed and Coastal Plain Swamp sparrows are within BCR 30, providing an opportunity to detect population trends within the entire breeding ranges of two priority species.

Shriver, G.W.; Sauer, J.R.

2008-01-01

487

Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States  

PubMed Central

Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S.Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography. PMID:21387006

Merrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.

2011-01-01

488

Breastfeeding peer counselors in the United States: helping to build a culture and tradition of breastfeeding.  

PubMed

Traditionally, women have relied upon the wisdom and experience of other women to learn about mothering and breastfeeding. In the United States, however, this once-standard mother-to-mother interaction was almost nonexistent by the mid-20th century. Recent advances in the understanding of the benefits of breastfeeding for maternal and child health have led most professional organizations to advocate breastfeeding as the norm of infant feeding. Promotional breastfeeding efforts over the past 3 decades include strategies to strengthen support for breastfeeding in the health care system and in the community. Breastfeeding peer counseling represents a model of mother-to-mother support which emerged in the 1980s as a community-based resource to provide mothers with the support and assistance needed to establish and maintain breastfeeding in the early weeks and months postpartum. This article describes the role, training, and effectiveness of breastfeeding peer counselors and discusses ways that mothers and peer counselors might benefit from the connection and relationship that develops between the breastfeeding mother and her peer counselor. An exemplar of a breastfeeding peer counseling program is presented. PMID:17984001

Rossman, Beverly

2007-01-01

489

The Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum --Building a world-class museum at MSU On June 1, 2007, Michigan State University announced that a  

E-print Network

The Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum -- Building a world-class museum at MSU On June 1, 2007, Michigan State University announced that a new world-class art museum will be built on campus. The Eli visit www.rcah.msu.edu The Residential College in the Arts and Humanities (RCAH) The Eli Broad College

490

Global-market building as state building: China’s entry into the WTO and market reforms of China’s tobacco industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes how China’s increasing engagement in the global market induced significant institution-building in China’s\\u000a tobacco industry and enabled a power shift from the local authorities to the central authority in controlling this market.\\u000a During this process of “getting onto the international track,” the central government reorganized the industrial tobacco system\\u000a and broke up the “monopolies” set up by

Junmin Wang

2009-01-01

491

Energy Efficiency of the 2000 International Energy Conservation Code in West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

The West Virginia State Building Code contains two options for energy efficiency requirements in one- and two-family dwellings. One is the International Code Council?s (ICC) 2000 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) (ICC 1999a,b) (87-4-4.1.6). The second is an exception (replacement) for Chapter 11 of the ICC International Residential Code (IRC) (87-4-4.1.7). The West Virginia Energy Efficiency Program, West Virginia Development Office, has asked the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to compare the energy use resulting from the application of the 2000 IECC code and the IRC code, as amended by West Virginia. The Department's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) compared the energy use from compliance with the 2000 IECC to the exception to Chapter 11 of the IRC known as the ''Alternate Energy Code''.

Lucas, Robert G.

2004-11-30

492

2. Overview of Buildings 2015, 2133 and 2009, with Building ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Overview of Buildings 2015, 2133 and 2009, with Building 1001 (administration building) in background, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Texas State Highway 202, 4.8 miles east of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & U.S. State Highway 181, Beeville, Bee County, TX

493

Cost-Effecitive Energy Efficiency Measure for Above 2003 and 2009 IECC Code-Compliant Residential and Commercial Buildings in the City of Arlington  

E-print Network

-Compliant House with Natural Gas Heating for CoA CoA Residential Project, p.iv July 2011 Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University Figure 2. Individual and Combined Energy Efficiency Measures for 2003 IECC Code-Compliant House with Heat Pump... for Tarrant County where the CoA is located and the Fort Worth TMY2 weather file (Figure 5). Two options based on the choice of heating fuel type were considered: (a) natural gas (gas-fired furnace for space heating, and gas water heater for domestic water...

Kim, H.; Do, S.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.; Lewis, C.