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1

State building energy codes status  

SciTech Connect

This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

NONE

1996-09-01

2

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

2009-04-30

3

75 FR 54131 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to model \\8\\ a two-story, single-family house...oriented north, south, east, and west. Heating with...2\\ floor area, two-story Natural gas furnace...distributed to the north, east, south, and west building...high-rise (greater than three stories) multifamily...

2010-09-03

4

76 FR 42688 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ft2 floor area, two-story. Crawl space foundation...oriented north, south, east, and west. Heating...2\\ floor area, two-story. Natural gas furnace...distributed to the north, east, south, and west building...high-rise (greater than three stories) multifamily...

2011-07-19

5

41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements...85 Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements...in fire protection? Federally owned buildings are generally exempt from State...

2013-01-01

6

Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

2005-09-15

7

Evaluation of building-code descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this program is to demonstrate an equivalency methodology related to the implementation of energy performance standards for new residential and commercial buildings. State and local building code data is used to determine if there is equivalency between the Design Energy Consumption (DEC) of buildings designed under the code and the Design Energy Budget (DEB) levels proposed by

Kroner

1980-01-01

8

Evaluation of state-of-the-art parametric building wake models using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes, and development of building wake, plume rise, and dispersion models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The close location of most DOE non-reactor nuclear facilities to site boundaries and the potential for having receptors in the proximity of such facilities makes it extremely important to accurately address the impact of plume rise and building wake effects on the consequences to such individuals. Unfortunately, there is no current single computer code or model that adequately address the consequences to receptors postulated to be located within the building wake of such facilities. Existing state-of-the-art models have relied on over- simplistic plume rise and parametric wake models that were developed based on very limited amount of data or assumptions, thus potentially leading to large errors in calculations. Building wake and plume rise models implemented in existing consequence computer codes have been identified and evaluated. These models come from an extensive literature review of dispersion, transport, and consequence modeling of airborne radioactive material releases that extends over 25 years. This dissertation focuses on the evaluation of existing state-of-the-art parametric building wake dispersion models by the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes, developing potential improvements to such models, and comparing the results of such improvements to those generated by CFD models and models implemented in state- of-the-art computer codes. This dissertation also presents new dispersion models and a new analytical parametric model to deal with transient releases that decay or transform during transport.

Restrepo, Louis Fernando

9

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

2009-04-15

10

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

2009-04-15

11

Seminar on building codes and standards  

SciTech Connect

A seminar was conducted for state building code officials and state energy officials to discuss the following: status of the states regulatory activities for energy conservation standards for buildings; the development, administration, and enforcement processes for energy conservation standards affecting new construction; lighting and thermal standards for existing buildings; status of the development and implementation of the Title III Program, Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS); and current status of the State Energy Conservation Program. The welcoming address was given by John Wenning and the keynote address was delivered by John Millhone. Four papers presented were: Building Energy Performance Standards Development, James Binkley; Lighting Standards in Existing Buildings, Dorothy Cronheim; Implementation of BEPS, Archie Twitchell; Sanctions for Building Energy Performance Standards, Sue Sicherman.

Not Available

1980-01-01

12

Oregon Building Code Compliance Study.  

SciTech Connect

Compliance with Chapter 53 of the Oregon Building Code was studied through an examination of eight building department jurisdictions. The purpose of the study was to determine the 1983-1984 levels of residential compliance with Oregon's Energy Code (Chapter 53). Additionally, the study compares 1983-1984 compliance levels with 1980 compliance levels, analyzes factors which impact compliance, and makes recommendations for increasing levels of compliance. Eight jurisdictions were selected for the study. Through inspections of 129 completed homes and 30 partially completed homes, the level of code compliance was found to have increased since 1980 in many areas, including the application of attic and exterior wall insulation. Items in which little or no improvement was seen since a similar study in 1980 include application of underfloor insulation and the application of insulation around windows. Building officials, inspectors and plans examiners were interviewed. They identified underfloor insulation (32%), verifying the amount of attic blow-in insulation (62%) and vapor barriers (24%) as major problem areas in enforcing Chapter 53. Greatest compliance can be found in dampers, flat attics, cathedral ceilings, and exterior walls. The most poorly enforced element of the code is the posting of signs indicating the level of insulation and the type of ventilation system.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration. Office of Conservation.

1985-06-01

13

United States Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every six years, the Office of the Law Revision Counsel, US House of Representatives, publishes the United States Code, the "codification of the general and permanent laws of the United States." The first seven titles of the 2000 code have been made available this month at GPO Access. The code can be browsed and searched, and search results include citations plus links to the full text of the legislation.

2001-01-01

14

A Retrospective Analysis of Commercial Building Energy Codes: 1990 – 2008  

SciTech Connect

Building Energy Codes Program's efforts are designed to result in increased stringency in national model energy codes, more rapid and broader adoption by states and localities of updated codes, and increased compliance and enforcement. Report estimates the historical impact of Building Energy Codes Program in terms of energy savings achieved that are based upon various editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 (ASHRAE Standard 90.1).

Belzer, David B.; McDonald, Sean C.; Halverson, Mark A.

2010-10-01

15

Office of Codes and Standards resource book. Section 1, Building energy codes and standards  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide: A discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stakeholders in the building energy codes and standards arena. The Resource Book is considered an evolving document and will be updated occasionally. Users are requested to submit additional data (e.g., more current, widely accepted, and/or documented data) and suggested changes to the address listed below. Please provide sources for all data provided.

Hattrup, M.P.

1995-01-01

16

The Peruvian Building Code for Earthen Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every time a strong earthquake occurs in areas where earthen buildings are common, there is widespread damage, economic losses, and death caused by the col- lapse of earthen houses. In some cases, as in Peru, the academic and professional communities have reacted against this dreadful situation by conducting research to find adequate seismic reinforcement alternatives for earthen buildings, and the

Julio Vargas Neumann; Marcial Blondet; Nicola Tarque

17

1995 building energy codes and standards workshops: Summary and documentation  

SciTech Connect

During the spring of 1995, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted four two-day Regional Building Energy Codes and Standards workshops across the US. Workshops were held in Chicago, Denver, Rhode Island, and Atlanta. The workshops were designed to benefit state-level officials including staff of building code commissions, energy offices, public utility commissions, and others involved with adopting/updating, implementing, and enforcing building energy codes in their states. The workshops provided an opportunity for state and other officials to learn more about residential and commercial building energy codes and standards, the role of the US Department of Energy and the Building Standards and Guidelines Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS), Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEM), training issues, and other topics related to the development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement of building energy codes. Participants heard success stories, got tips on enforcement training, and received technical support materials. In addition to receiving information on the above topics, workshop participants had an opportunity to provide input on code adoption issues, building industry training issues, building design issues, and exemplary programs across the US. This paper documents the workshop planning, findings, and follow-up processes.

Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.

1996-02-01

18

Topic Brief 4: Above-Code Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) requires a plan for achieving compliance with building energy codes in at least 90% of the new and renovated residential and commercial building space. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) is developing procedures and tools for measuring compliance as required in this legislation. This is the fourth topic brief, to be posted on the BECP website, responding to feedback received on these procedures.

Connell, Linda M.

2009-10-07

19

Cost and code study of underground buildings  

SciTech Connect

Various regulatory and financial implications for earth-sheltered houses and buildings are discussed. Earth-sheltered houses are covered in the most detail including discussions of building-code restrictions, HUD Minimum Property Standards, legal aspects, zoning restrictions, taxation, insurance, and home financing. Examples of the initial-cost elements in earth-sheltered houses together with projected life-cycle costs are given and compared to more-conventional energy-conserving houses. For larger-scale underground buildings, further information is given on building code, fire protection, and insurance provisions. Initial-cost information for five large underground buildings is presented together with energy-use information where available.

Sterling, R.L.

1981-01-01

20

Cost and code study of underground buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various regulatory and financial implications for earth-sheltered houses and buildings are discussed. Earth-sheltered houses are covered in the most detail including discussions of building-code restrictions, HUD Minimum Property Standards, legal aspects, zoning restrictions, taxation, insurance, and home financing. Examples of the initial-cost elements in earth-sheltered houses together with projected life-cycle costs are given and compared to more-conventional energy-conserving houses. For

1981-01-01

21

A Study of Automatic Fire Suppression Systems in the Model Building Codes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three national model building codes, i.e., Basic Building Code, Uniform Building Code, and Standard Building Code, were examined for current code provisions relative to automatic fire extinguishing systems. The study sought to find the rationale for those...

1982-01-01

22

The Capitalization of Building Codes in House Prices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some research shows that homes built under tougher building codes perform better in hurricanes. While houses built after the\\u000a implementation of the stronger building codes could be presumed to be “safer”, no study has measured the extent to which stricter\\u000a building codes are capitalized into improved property. This study measures the capitalization of stricter building codes into\\u000a house prices. In

Randy E. Dumm; G. Stacy Sirmans; Greg Smersh

2011-01-01

23

wind load provisions and member design properties. A thorough understanding of the interaction between wind loads and material properties is important in the design process. There are varying wind load provisions in local, state and model building codes currently  

Microsoft Academic Search

used in the United States. Most of these provisions are based on wind engineering research conducted over the last 50 years. Proposals to change current code provisions are the result of interpretations of new state-of-the-art wind engineering research. The wind load provisions of the national load standard ASCE 7-98 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures include general wind

Bradford K. Douglas

24

An Analysis of Statewide Adoption Rates of Building Energy Code by Local Jurisdictions  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to generally inform the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program of the local, effective energy code adoption rate for a sample set of 21 states, some which have adopted statewide codes and some that have not. Information related to the residential energy code adoption process and status at the local jurisdiction was examined for each of the states. Energy code status information was gathered for approximately 2,800 jurisdictions, which effectively covered approximately 80 percent of the new residential building construction in the 21 states included in the study.

Cort, Katherine A.; Butner, Ryan S.

2012-12-31

25

Statewide Savings Projections from the Adoption of Commercial Building Energy Codes in Illinois  

SciTech Connect

ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. A number of jurisdictions in the state of Illinois are considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as their commercial building energy code. This report builds on the results of a previous study, "Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions," to estimate the total potential impact of adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as a statewide commercial building code in terms of Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) savings, total primary energy savings, and pollution emissions reductions.

Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.

2002-09-30

26

Development of a Building Energy Code for New Buildings in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thailand has adopted an act for promotion of energy conservation since 1992. The law mandates issuance of ministerial regulations for energy conservation in large commercial buildings and creates an energy conservation promotion fund. A building energy code was developed and implemented on new and existing large buildings as a part of a set of bye-laws of the act. The code

Surapong Chirarattananon; Pattana Rakwamsuk; Vu Duc Hien; Juntakan Taweekun; Vichuda Mettanant

27

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

2013-06-01

28

Probabilistic coding of quantum states  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the properties of probabilistic coding of two qubits to one qutrit and generalize the scheme to higher dimensions. We show that the protocol preserves the entanglement between the qubits to be encoded and the environment and can also be applied to mixed states. We present a protocol that enables encoding of n qudits to one qudit of dimension smaller than the Hilbert space of the original system and then allows probabilistic but error-free decoding of any subset of k qudits. We give a formula for the probability of successful decoding.

Grudka, Andrzej; Wojcik, Antoni; Czechlewski, Mikolaj [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)

2006-07-15

29

Building energy codes and standards: A compliment to demand-side management programs  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory has conducted a study to assist the DOE in understanding the processes by which energy codes have been adopted, upgraded and implemented at the state level. This understanding will be critical to DOE's efforts to shape policies, programs and otherwise effectively support the acceptance and diffusion of the new energy standards in all states. This study presents a comparison of the processes by which energy codes for commercial buildings were adopted and implemented in New Mexico and Arizona. The purposes of the project were to contrast the building energy code adoption process of similar states, identify successful approaches, identify problems and barriers, and recommend strategies for facilitating adoption. Building energy codes attempt to achieve the same goals as those of demand-side management (DSM) programs. Both improve and encourage energy efficiency, reduce load growth uncertainty, reduce damages to the environment, and support continued economic growth.

Thurman, A.G.; Callaway, J.W.; Shankle, D.L.

1991-04-01

30

Building Codes, Energy, and the Environment How Model Building Codes Affect Sustanability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The building construction industry consumes a large share of the (often virgin) building materials produced. Most building energy and energy- related expenditures are applied to privately owned properties. Attempts to minimize building energy expenditures...

B. M. Deal D. F. Fournier

2001-01-01

31

Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka  

SciTech Connect

1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

2000-09-30

32

Residential building code compliance: Implications for evaluating the performance of utility residential new construction programs  

SciTech Connect

Knowing how well builders comply with (or exceed) energy-related building codes is critical for completing a sound evaluation of utility residential new construction programs and for determining the actual cost-effectiveness of these programs. Obtaining credit from utility regulators for additional energy savings from code compliance in participant houses as a result of the utility program is one of the key options available for utilities for improving the cost-effectiveness of these programs. In this paper, the authors examine residential building energy code compliance and specific code violations in three states (California, Oregon and Washington). They then compare residential building energy code compliance for program participants and nonparticipants as well as estimates of the energy savings impacts from noncompliance. The authors also point out some of the methodological limitations of these studies which limit the ability to generalize from these studies.

Vine, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-05-01

33

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in Iowa  

SciTech Connect

The state of Iowa is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

2002-09-07

34

Building Secure Networked Systems with Code Attestation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attestation is a promising approach for building secure systems. The recent development of a Trusted Platform Module (TPM) by the Trusted Computing Group (TCG) that is starting to be deployed in common laptop and desktop platforms is fueling research in attestation mechanisms. In this talk, we will present approaches on how to build secure systems with advanced TPM architectures. In particular, we have designed an approach for fine-grained attestation that enables the design of efficient secure distributed systems, and other network protocols.We demonstrate this approach by designing a secure routing protocol.

Perrig, Adrian

35

7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Voluntary National Model Building Codes E Exhibit E to Subpart...1924âVoluntary National Model Building Codes The following documents address the health and safety aspects of buildings and related structures and are...

2013-01-01

36

Adoption, implementation, and enforcement of commercial building energy codes in Arizona and New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to review the state and local code adoption process that was undertaken in New Mexico and Arizona in response to previous standards issued by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). This project attempted to identify the factors that lead to greater compliance and/or more stringent standards, as well as the problems and barriers that state and local municipalities, architects and engineers and others involved in the adoption, implementation, and enforcement of building energy codes encounter. Information for the project was gathered primarily through a series of interviews with state officials, city building officials, architects and engineers, builders, and staff from utilities in New Mexico and Arizona. The interviews from New Mexico revealed that mandatory statewide energy codes are well established; however, the current energy and building climate in New Mexico may make it difficult to adopt the more stringent standards currently being advocated by ASHRAE and the Department of Energy (DOE). Arizona, only has state guidelines for new buildings and these guidelines are not mandatory. For a variety of reasons Arizona is unlikely to adopt a building energy code. Several lessons can be learned from this study. It will be important for DOE and ASHRAE to conduct a substantial information campaign on their new standards. Users of the standards must become aware of them and then be provided appropriate implementation tools and training. In addition, simplified processes for determining compliance to support the new standards must also be developed.

Shankle, D.L.; Callaway, J.W.; Thurman, A.G.

1991-08-01

37

Understanding Energy Code Acceptance within the Alaska Building Community  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the technical assistance provided to the Alaska Home Financing Corporation on behalf of PNNL regarding the assessment of attitudes toward energy codes within the building community in Alaska. It includes a summary of the existing situation and specific assistance requested by AHFC, the results of a questionnaire designed for builders surveyed in a suburban area of Anchorage, interviews with a lender, a building official, and a research specialist, and recommendations for future action by AHFC.

Mapes, Terry S.

2012-02-14

38

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.

Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

2004-04-30

39

Enforcing Building Energy Codes in China: Progress and Comparative Lessons  

SciTech Connect

From 1995 to 2005, building energy use in China increased more rapidly than the world average. China has been adding 0.4 to 1.6 billion square meters of floor space annually , making it the world’s largest market for new construction. In fact, by 2020, China is expected to comprise half of all new construction. In response to this, China has begun to make important steps towards achieving building energy efficiency, including the implementation of building energy standards that requires new buildings to be 65% more efficient than buildings from the early 1980s. Making progress on reducing building energy use requires both a comprehensive code and a robust enforcement system. The latter – the enforcement system – is a particularly critical component for assuring that a building code has an effect. China has dramatically enhanced its enforcement system in the past two years, with more detailed requirements for ensuring enforcement and new penalties for non-compliance. We believe that the U.S. and other developed countries could benefit from learning about the multiple checks and the documentation required in China. Similarly, some of the more user-friendly enforcement approaches developed in the U.S. and elsewhere may be useful for China as it strives to improve enforcement in rural and smaller communities. In this article, we provide context to China’s building codes enforcement system by comparing it to the U.S. Among some of the enforcement mechanisms we look at are testing and rating procedures, compliance software, and training and public information.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Halverson, Mark A.; Delgado, Alison

2010-08-15

40

Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Options for Compliance  

SciTech Connect

As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, use of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including envelope, mechanical and lighting, have been pressed to the end of reasonable limits. Research has been conducted to determine the mechanism for implementing this requirement (Kaufman 2011). Kaufmann et al. determined that the most appropriate way to structure an on-site renewable requirement for commercial buildings is to define the requirement in terms of an installed power density per unit of roof area. This provides a mechanism that is suitable for the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on future buildings to offset electricity and reduce the total building energy load. Kaufmann et al. suggested that an appropriate maximum for the requirement in the commercial sector would be 4 W/ft{sup 2} of roof area or 0.5 W/ft{sup 2} of conditioned floor area. As with all code requirements, there must be an alternative compliance path for buildings that may not reasonably meet the renewables requirement. This might include conditions like shading (which makes rooftop PV arrays less effective), unusual architecture, undesirable roof pitch, unsuitable building orientation, or other issues. In the short term, alternative compliance paths including high performance mechanical equipment, dramatic envelope changes, or controls changes may be feasible. These options may be less expensive than many renewable systems, which will require careful balance of energy measures when setting the code requirement levels. As the stringency of the code continues to increase however, efficiency trade-offs will be maximized, requiring alternative compliance options to be focused solely on renewable electricity trade-offs or equivalent programs. One alternate compliance path includes purchase of Renewable Energy Credits (RECs). Each REC represents a specified amount of renewable electricity production and provides an offset of environmental externalities associated with non-renewable electricity production. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible issues with RECs and comparable alternative compliance options. Existing codes have been examined to determine energy equivalence between the energy generation requirement and the RECs alternative over the life of the building. The price equivalence of the requirement and the alternative are determined to consider the economic drivers for a market decision. This research includes case studies that review how the few existing codes have incorporated RECs and some of the issues inherent with REC markets. Section 1 of the report reviews compliance options including RECs, green energy purchase programs, shared solar agreements and leases, and other options. Section 2 provides detailed case studies on codes that include RECs and community based alternative compliance methods. The methods the existing code requirements structure alternative compliance options like RECs are the focus of the case studies. Section 3 explores the possible structure of the renewable energy generation requirement in the context of energy and price equivalence. The price of RECs have shown high variation by market and over time which makes it critical to for code language to be updated frequently for a renewable energy generation requirement or the requirement will not remain price-equivalent over time. Section 4 of the report provides a maximum case estimate for impact to the PV market and the REC market based on the Kaufmann et al. proposed requirement levels. If all new buildings in the commercial sector complied with the requirement to install rooftop PV arrays, nearly 4,700 MW of solar would be installed in 2012, a major increase from EIA estimates of 640 MW of solar generation capacity installed in 2009. The residential sector could contribute roughly an additional 2,300 MW based on the same code requirement levels of 4 W/ft{sup 2} of r

Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.

2011-09-30

41

Adoption, implementation and enforcement of commercial building energy codes in New Mexico and Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering ways to encourage states to adopt energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial buildings in the private sector. Such standards are now mandatory for federal buildings, and for private buildings in 34 states; in the remaining 16 states, the standards serve as guidelines for voluntary compliance. In this study for DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assessed the process by which energy codes for commercial buildings were adopted and implemented in Arizona and New Mexico. Information was gathered primarily through a series of interviews with state officials, city building officials, architects and engineers, builders, and staff from utilities in the two states. Until other state processes are studied, the extent of the similarities and dissimilarities to the situation in New Mexico and Arizona are unknown. A more extensive study may show that at least some elements of the two state's experience have been paralleled in other parts of the country. General strategies to encourage the adoption of energy codes, assist implementation, and support enforcement were developed based on the research from Arizona and New Mexico and are presented in this report. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Callaway, J W; Thurman, A G; Shankle, D L

1991-07-01

42

Comparison of energy conservation building codes of Iran, Turkey, Germany, China, ISO 9164 and EN 832  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the energy efficiency of buildings via compliance to regulation in Iran, Code No. 19 was devised in 1991. The code lacks high level aims and objectives, addressing the characteristics of Iranian buildings. As a consequence, the code has been revised and is not completely implemented in practice, and still remains inefficient. As with any energy coding system, this

Rima Fayaz; Behrouz M. Kari

2009-01-01

43

Energy Code Compliance in a Detailed Commercial Building Sample: The Effects of Missing Data  

SciTech Connect

Most commercial buildings in the U.S. are required by State or local jurisdiction to meet energy standards. The enforcement of these standards is not well known and building practice without them on a national scale is also little understood. To provide an understanding of these issues, a database has been developed at PNNL that includes detailed energy related building characteristics of 162 commercial buildings from across the country. For this analysis, the COMcheck? compliance software (developed at PNNL) was used to assess compliance with energy codes among these buildings. Data from the database for each building provided the program input with percentage energy compliance to the ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 energy as the output. During the data input process it was discovered that some essential data for showing compliance of the building envelope was missed and defaults had to be developed to provide complete compliance information. This need for defaults for some data inputs raised the question of what the effect on documenting compliance could be due to missing data. To help answer this question a data collection effort was completed to assess potential differences. Using the program Dodge View, as much of the missing envelope data as possible was collected from the building plans and the database input was again run through COMcheck?. The outputs of both compliance runs were compared to see if the missing data would have adversely affected the results. Both of these results provided a percentage compliance of each building in the envelope and lighting categories, showing by how large a percentage each building either met or fell short of the ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-1999 energy code. The results of the compliance runs showed that 57.7 % of the buildings met or exceeded envelope requirements with defaults and that 68 % met or exceeded envelope requirements with the actual data. Also, 53.6 % of the buildings met or surpassed the lighting requirements in both cases. The dataset of 162 buildings is not large enough to accurately apply theses findings to all commercial buildings across the U.S., but it does provide a rough idea of what to generally expect. This database also has other uses such as characterization of commercial buildings by each specific data point and in splitting up the total of 162 buildings into smaller subsets to characterize such groups as large (>5000 sq ft) or small (<5000 sq ft) commercial buildings.

Biyani, Rahul K.; Richman, Eric E.

2003-09-30

44

Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the requirements of the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code® (IECC) on residential buildings on a state-by-state basis with a separate, stand-alone chapter for each state. A summary of the requirements of the code is given for each state. The 2009 IECC is then compared to the current state code for most states or typical current construction practice for the states that do not have a residential energy efficiency code. This is the final version of a draft report by the same name that was previously cleared for release (ERICA # PNNL-18545).

Lucas, Robert G.; Cole, Pamala C.

2009-10-01

45

Bridge Building by the State University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A public university cannot survive without taxpayer support, but it cannot become great without a considerable degree of autonomy and freedom. The University of Kentucky's attempts to build bridges between itself and the general public are described, including student conduct code and student/faculty membership on the board of trustees.…

Singletary, Otis A.

1979-01-01

46

A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS…

American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

47

Building code compliance and enforcement: The experience of San Francisco's residential energy conservation ordinance and California's building standards for new construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) technical assistance to the Sustainable City Project, compliance and enforcement activities related to local and state building codes for existing and new construction were evaluated in two case studies. The analysis of the City of San Francisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance (RECO) showed that a limited, prescriptive energy conservation ordinance for existing residential

Vine

1990-01-01

48

Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis  

SciTech Connect

As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

2011-09-30

49

Performance-based building codes: a call for injury prevention indicators that bridge health and building sectors.  

PubMed

The international introduction of performance-based building codes calls for a re-examination of indicators used to monitor their implementation. Indicators used in the building sector have a business orientation, target the life cycle of buildings, and guide asset management. In contrast, indicators used in the health sector focus on injury prevention, have a behavioural orientation, lack specificity with respect to features of the built environment, and do not take into account patterns of building use or building longevity. Suggestions for metrics that bridge the building and health sectors are discussed. The need for integrated surveillance systems in health and building sectors is outlined. It is time to reconsider commonly used epidemiological indicators in the field of injury prevention and determine their utility to address the accountability requirements of performance-based codes. PMID:18836051

Edwards, N

2008-10-01

50

Building code compliance and enforcement: The experience of San Francisco's residential energy conservation ordinance and California's building standards for new construction  

SciTech Connect

As part of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) technical assistance to the Sustainable City Project, compliance and enforcement activities related to local and state building codes for existing and new construction were evaluated in two case studies. The analysis of the City of San Francisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance (RECO) showed that a limited, prescriptive energy conservation ordinance for existing residential construction can be enforced relatively easily with little administrative costs, and that compliance with such ordinances can be quite high. Compliance with the code was facilitated by extensive publicity, an informed public concerned with the cost of energy and knowledgeable about energy efficiency, the threat of punishment (Order of Abatement), the use of private inspectors, and training workshops for City and private inspectors. The analysis of California's Title 24 Standards for new residential and commercial construction showed that enforcement of this type of code for many climate zones is more complex and requires extensive administrative support for education and training of inspectors, architects, engineers, and builders. Under this code, prescriptive and performance approaches for compliance are permitted, resulting in the demand for alternative methods of enforcement: technical assistance, plan review, field inspection, and computer analysis. In contrast to existing to construction, building design and new materials and construction practices are of critical importance in new construction, creating a need for extensive technical assistance and extensive interaction between enforcement personnel and the building community. Compliance problems associated with building design and installation did occur in both residential and nonresidential buildings. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

Vine, E.

1990-11-01

51

Abestos in Buildings: The State Role.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The widespread use of asbestos for several decades in building construction has created major public health concerns for state governments. If asbestos is not thoroughly bound in cement, plaster, resin or some other stable material, it will flake and powder, releasing countless microscopic fibers into the air. Asbestos fibers penetrate deep into…

Neilander, Dennis K.; Sacarto, Douglas M.

1988-01-01

52

Interior gas-pipig systems: building-codes analysis. Topical report, December 1983December 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the United States there are over 14,000 local jurisdictions that can issue permits for natural gas installations, each potentially having its own version of a fuel code. Enforcement and interpretation of these codes is left to the local piping inspector. There has been a move toward unifying the United States code situation with the use of national model codes.

D. Luebs; J. Liebl; R. Torbin

1987-01-01

53

Perfect teleportation and superdense coding with W states  

SciTech Connect

True tripartite entanglement of the state of a system of three qubits can be classified on the basis of stochastic local operations and classical communications. Such states can be classified into two categories: GHZ states and W states. It is known that GHZ states can be used for teleportation and superdense coding, but the prototype W state cannot be. However, we show that there is a class of W states that can be used for perfect teleportation and superdense coding.

Agrawal, Pankaj; Pati, Arun [Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar-751005, Orissa (India)

2006-12-15

54

2. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Collection California ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Collection California Section Photo of Thompson & West Engraving of 1880 COMBINED FRONTAGE OF THE THREE BUILDINGS - Big Four Building, 220-226 K Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

55

Federal, state and utility roles in reducing new building greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect

This paper will explore the role of implementation of building energy codes and standards in reducing US greenhouse gas emissions. It will discuss the role of utilities in supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency in improving the efficiency of new buildings. The paper will summarize Federal policies and programs that improve code compliance and increase overall greenhouse gas emission reductions. Finally, the paper will discuss the role of code compliance and the energy and greenhouse gas emission reductions that have been realized from various Federal, State and utility programs that enhance compliance.

Johnson, J.A.; Shankle, D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Boulin, J. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1995-03-01

56

Impacts of Standard 90.1-2007 for Commercial Buildings at State Level  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the requirements of Standard 90.1-2007 on commercial buildings on a state-by-state basis with a separate, stand-alone chapter for each state. Standard 90.1-2007 is compared to the current state code for most states. This is the final version of the draft previously cleared and assigned ERICA # PNNL-18544, titled "Commercial Nationwide Report."

Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Gowri, Krishnan

2009-10-12

57

Perfect teleportation and superdense coding with W states  

Microsoft Academic Search

True tripartite entanglement of the state of a system of three qubits can be classified on the basis of stochastic local operations and classical communications. Such states can be classified into two categories: GHZ states and W states. It is known that GHZ states can be used for teleportation and superdense coding, but the prototype W state cannot be. However,

Pankaj Agrawal; Arun Pati

2006-01-01

58

Committee proposed residential building standards  

SciTech Connect

The texts of two California Administrative Codes are presented. They are the Title 20, Chapter 2 (California Energy Commission), Subchapter 4 (Conservation), Article 1 (Energy Building Regulations) and Title 24 (State Building Standards Code), Part 2 (State Building Code), Chapter 53 (Energy Conservation in New Building Construction). (MCW)

Not Available

1981-01-01

59

Building energy codes as a tool for energy efficiency: Examining implementation in Kentucky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kentucky adopted the 2009 IECC residential energy code in 2011 and is developing a plan for achieving 90 percent compliance with the code. This report examines recommendations for energy code implementation from various expert sources and then compares them to Kentucky's current and planned future procedures for energy code adoption, implementation, and enforcement. It seeks to answer the question: To what extent is Kentucky following expert recommendations as it moves toward adopting and planning for implementation and enforcement of the IECC 2009? The report concludes with recommendations to the Kentucky Board of Housing, Buildings, and Construction for increasing residential energy code compliance and suggestions for exploring increased utility investments in energy efficiency.

Zwicker, Brittany L.

60

76 FR 56413 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...suggestions considered relevant to the topic are welcome. DATES: Written comments...nature of ongoing stakeholder debates on the topic. Because residential energy codes lagged...savings. DOE seeks public input on this...

2011-09-13

61

Revision of seismic design codes corresponding to building damages in the ``5.12'' Wenchuan earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of buildings were seriously damaged or collapsed in the “5.12” Wenchuan earthquake. Based on field surveys and studies of damage to different types of buildings, seismic design codes have been updated. This paper briefly summarizes some of the major revisions that have been incorporated into the “Standard for classification of seismic protection of building constructions GB50223-2008” and “Code for Seismic Design of Buildings GB50011-2001.” The definition of seismic fortification class for buildings has been revisited, and as a result, the seismic classifications for schools, hospitals and other buildings that hold large populations such as evacuation shelters and information centers have been upgraded in the GB50223-2008 Code. The main aspects of the revised GB50011-2001 code include: (a) modification of the seismic intensity specified for the Provinces of Sichuan, Shanxi and Gansu; (b) basic conceptual design for retaining walls and building foundations in mountainous areas; (c) regularity of building configuration; (d) integration of masonry structures and pre-cast RC floors; (e) requirements for calculating and detailing stair shafts; and (f) limiting the use of single-bay RC frame structures. Some significant examples of damage in the epicenter areas are provided as a reference in the discussion on the consequences of collapse, the importance of duplicate structural systems, and the integration of RC and masonry structures.

Wang, Yayong

2010-06-01

62

A regulation evaluation system: a decision support system for the Building Code of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building regulations have historically been developed and drafted relying on groups of experts and their particular perceptions of what was an acceptable level of risk and what costs can be afforded by the community for improved health, safety or amenity. New technology, particularly in the areas of building design and material sciences, and the development of performance-based standards and codes

Paul Williams

1995-01-01

63

Revision of seismic design codes corresponding to building damages in the “5.12” Wenchuan earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of buildings were seriously damaged or collapsed in the “5.12” Wenchuan earthquake. Based on field surveys\\u000a and studies of damage to different types of buildings, seismic design codes have been updated. This paper briefly summarizes\\u000a some of the major revisions that have been incorporated into the “Standard for classification of seismic protection of building\\u000a constructions GB50223-2008” and

Yayong Wang

2010-01-01

64

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Michigan  

SciTech Connect

The state of Michigan is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

2002-09-30

65

Present state of the SOURCES computer code  

SciTech Connect

In various stages of development for over two decades, the SOURCES computer code continues to calculate neutron production rates and spectra from four types of problems: homogeneous media, two-region interfaces, three-region interfaces and that of a monoenergetic alpha particle beam incident on a slab of target material. Graduate work at the University of Missouri - Rolla, in addition to user feedback from a tutorial course, provided the impetus for a variety of code improvements. Recently upgraded to version 4B, initial modifications to SOURCES focused on updates to the 'tape5' decay data library. Shortly thereafter, efforts focused on development of a graphical user interface for the code. This paper documents the Los Alamos SOURCES Tape1 Creator and Library Link (LASTCALL) and describes additional library modifications in more detail. Minor improvements and planned enhancements are discussed.

Shores, E. F. (Erik F.)

2002-01-01

66

Cost-effectiveness of residential building energy codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes research covering the costs and thermal performance of energy saving insulation standards in new residential buildings. The results of this research demonstrate that the cost-effectiveness of energy saving standards can be accurately predicted. The computer models used to simulate energy use have been found accurate for the estimation of space heat savings and the costs for insulation

1989-01-01

67

Child Care Services and the NYS Uniform Fire Prevention and Building Code: A Building Code Examination of Child Day Care Services Which Are Regulated by the NYS Department of Social Services with Particular Attention to Day Care Centers and the Role of the Local Authority Having Jurisdiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course manual details the Uniform Fire Prevention and Building Code of New York State and how it affects child care services, particularly day care centers. The sections of the manual, each detailing a part of the code, are: (1) Introduction, Scope, Registration, and Definitions and Facilities Regulated by the New York Department of Social…

New York State Div. of Code Enforcement and Administration, Albany.

68

1. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Collection Photo ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Collection Photo from Cerinda Evans' Biography of Huntington, Vol. I Rephoto, 1962 VIEW OF THE HUNTINGTON & HOPKINS STORE - 1861 - 1877 - Big Four Building, 220-226 K Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

69

10. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1893. Courtesy of Trenton Free Public Library. 2-6 East State Street is to the right of the image, with the sign for a dentist prominent on the corner. The mass of wires entering the fourth floor window suggests the location of the Western Union Telegraph Office in the building. - 2-6 East State Street (Commercial Building), 2-6 East State Street, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

70

Energy codes and the Recovery Act: Guidance for states addressing 90% compliance requirements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided state financial support aimed at stimulating the national economy while creating efficiency gains through the implementation of modern building energy codes. These requirements call for compliance with targeted energy codes, including a plan to demonstrate a 90% compliance rate by 2017. In support of these requirements, the Federal Government has published a recommended methodology for states to reference as they work to demonstrate compliance with new energy codes. Unfortunately, the path to meeting this goal remains unclear and many questions still exist at the state and stakeholder levels. The present study examines compliance issues faced within U.S. states to enable effective policy decisions, with a primary goal to provide states with guidance and options to address energy code compliance requirements. A descriptive statistical analysis of survey responses gathered in code enforcement jurisdictions provides a baseline of local practices and current implementation issues. State challenges and subsequent recommendations are analyzed through recent case studies, and considered against expectations of the Federal methodology. Findings culminate in a set of recommendations with consideration for unique background scenarios and barriers observed in the study. The resulting guidance can be considered by states as they install policies and take action in addressing Recovery Act requirements.

Williams, Jeremiah Lee

71

Finite-State Modulation Codes for Data Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract-This paper provides a self-contained exposition of,k modulation code design methods based upon the state splitting algorithm. The techniques are applied to the design of several codes of interest in digital data recording.,7 I. 1NTRODUCTION,0 000000

Brian H. Marcus; Paul H. Siegel; Jack K. Wolf

1992-01-01

72

The Tension Between Governance and State-Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we probe the tension between governance and state-building. Governance stresses diversification, reflexive\\u000a rationality, heterarchic interaction, negotiation and coordination, whereas state-building emphasizes centralization, procedural\\u000a rationality, hierarchic order, control and regulation. Despite the conflict resulting from the differences between their respective\\u000a essences, there is some blending between the two. On the one hand, the process of state-building is simultaneous

Jianxing Yu; Ziying He

2011-01-01

73

Verification of RESRAD-build computer code, version 3.1.  

SciTech Connect

RESRAD-BUILD is a computer model for analyzing the radiological doses resulting from the remediation and occupancy of buildings contaminated with radioactive material. It is part of a family of codes that includes RESRAD, RESRAD-CHEM, RESRAD-RECYCLE, RESRAD-BASELINE, and RESRAD-ECORISK. The RESRAD-BUILD models were developed and codified by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); version 1.5 of the code and the user's manual were publicly released in 1994. The original version of the code was written for the Microsoft DOS operating system. However, subsequent versions of the code were written for the Microsoft Windows operating system. The purpose of the present verification task (which includes validation as defined in the standard) is to provide an independent review of the latest version of RESRAD-BUILD under the guidance provided by ANSI/ANS-10.4 for verification and validation of existing computer programs. This approach consists of a posteriori V&V review which takes advantage of available program development products as well as user experience. The purpose, as specified in ANSI/ANS-10.4, is to determine whether the program produces valid responses when used to analyze problems within a specific domain of applications, and to document the level of verification. The culmination of these efforts is the production of this formal Verification Report. The first step in performing the verification of an existing program was the preparation of a Verification Review Plan. The review plan consisted of identifying: Reason(s) why a posteriori verification is to be performed; Scope and objectives for the level of verification selected; Development products to be used for the review; Availability and use of user experience; and Actions to be taken to supplement missing or unavailable development products. The purpose, scope and objectives for the level of verification selected are described in this section of the Verification Report. The development products that were used for the review and any actions that were taken when these items were missing are documented in Section 5 of this report. The availability and use of user experience were limited to extensive experience in performing RESRAD-BUILD calculations by the verification project manager and by participation in the RESRAD-BUILD workshop offered by the code developers on May 11, 2001. The level of a posteriori verification that was implemented is defined in Sections 2 through 4 of this report. In general, a rigorous verification review plan addresses program requirements, design, coding, documentation, test coverage, and evaluation of test results. The scope of the RESRAD-BUILD verification is to focus primarily on program requirements, documentation, testing and evaluation. Detailed program design and source code review would be warranted only in those cases when the evaluation of test results and user experience revealed possible problems in these areas. The verification tasks were conducted in three parts and were applied to version 3.1 of the RESRAD-BUILD code and the final version of the user.s manual, issued in November 2001 (Yu et al. 2001). These parts include the verification of the deterministic models used in RESRAD-BUILD (Section 2), the verification of the uncertainty analysis model included in RESRAD-BUILD (Section 3), and recommendations for improvement of the RESRAD-BUILD user interface, including evaluations of the user's manual, code design, and calculation methodology (Section 4). Any verification issues that were identified were promptly communicated to the RESRAD-BUILD development team, in particular those that arose from the database and parameter verification tasks. This allowed the developers to start implementing necessary database or coding changes well before this final report was issued.

NONE

2003-06-02

74

Evaluation of the seismic performance of a code-conforming reinforced-concrete frame building—from seismic hazard to collapse safety and economic losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A state-of-the-art seismic performance assessment is illustrated through application to a reinforced- concrete moment-frame building designed per current (2003) building code provisions. Performance is quantified in terms of economic losses and collapse safety. The assessment includes site-specific seismic hazard analyses, nonlinear dynamic structural response simulations to collapse, damage analyses, and loss estimation. When selecting ground motion records for nonlinear

Christine A. Goulet; B. Haselton; Judith Mitrani-Reiser; James L. Beck; Gregory G. Deierlein; Keith A. Porter; Jonathan P. Stewart

2007-01-01

75

Nonlinear quasisteady state benchmark of global gyrokinetic codes  

SciTech Connect

Two global gyrokinetic codes are benchmarked against each other by comparing simulation results in the case of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence, in the adiabatic electron response limit. The two codes are the Eulerian code GENE and the Lagrangian particle-in-cell code ORB5 which solve the gyrokinetic equations. Linear results are presented, including growth rates, real frequencies, and mode structure comparisons. Nonlinear simulations without sources are carried out with particular attention to considering the same initial conditions, showing identical linear phase and first nonlinear burst. Very good agreement is also achieved between simulations obtained using a Krook-type heat source, which enables to reach a quasisteady state and thus to compare the heat diffusivity traces over a statistically meaningful time interval. For these nonlinear results, the radial zonal flow structure and shearing rate profile are also discussed. The very detailed comparisons presented may serve as reference for benchmarking other gyrokinetic simulation codes, in particular those which consider global geometry.

Lapillonne, X.; McMillan, B. F.; Brunner, S.; Villard, L. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Goerler, T.; Dannert, T.; Jenko, F.; Merz, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching D-85748 (Germany)

2010-11-15

76

Deterministic dense coding and faithful teleportation with multipartite graph states  

SciTech Connect

We propose schemes to perform the deterministic dense coding and faithful teleportation with multipartite graph states. We also find the sufficient and necessary condition of a viable graph state for the proposed schemes. That is, for the associated graph, the reduced adjacency matrix of the Tanner-type subgraph between senders and receivers should be invertible.

Huang, C.-Y.; Yu, I-C.; Lin, F.-L. [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Hsu, L.-Y. [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung-li 32023, Taiwan (China)

2009-05-15

77

Rewards for passive solar design in the Building Code of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Building Code of Australia (BCA) 5 star benchmark substantially rewards passive solar design and makes it difficult for non-passive solar designs to be approved in Perth. This study shows that winter heating loads are substantially reduced in passive solar designed houses, but external wall material is not a significant factor. On the other hand, a reduction of summertime air

Neville Peterkin

2009-01-01

78

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE WITH TAILINGS ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. COLLAPSED ADIT APPROXIMATELY 25 YARDS UPHILL TO THE LEFT OF FAR BUILDING. TIP TOP AND ONTARIO ARE LOCATED OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

79

5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED WEST. VISIBLE THROUGH WINDOW OPENING IS 'GRIZZLEY' IN ID-31-D-6 AND ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF BUILDING IS THE BED SPRINGS IN ID-31-D-9. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

80

Establishment of an energy reporting system in Illinois State buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Department of Business and Economic Development, Division of Energy, has initiated this ''Consolidated Building Energy Reporting System,'' (CBER), in support of Governor James R. Thompson's February 10, 1977, memorandum on energy conservation in State facilities. This system is intended to assist State building managers in reducing facility energy consumption by making available to them past and present energy usage

Tuma

1978-01-01

81

8. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic view of the building: 'Warren Street from State Street' ca. 1890. Courtesy of the Trenton Free Public Library. This shows the building before the True American's renovations of 1893. It is the three-story buildings, flanked by lower ones in the middle of the block. At the time of the photograph, the brick exterior was painted a light color and dark-colored louvered shutters flanked all the upper story windows. - 14 North Warren Street (Commercial Building), True American Building, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

82

Building a Cosmological Hydrodynamic Code: Consistency Condition, Moving Mesh Gravity, and SLH-P 3M  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building a self-gravitating hydrodynamic code as a combination of a hydrodynamic solver and a gravity solver is discussed. We show that straightforward combining of those two solvers generally leads to a code that does not conserve energy locally, and instead a special gravitational consistency condition ought to be satisfied. A particular example of combining softened Lagrangian hydrodynamics (SLH) with a P3 M gravity solver is used to demonstrate the effect of the gravitational consistency condition for a self-gravitating hydrodynamic code. The need to supplement the SLH method with the P3M gravity solver arose because the moving mesh gravity solver, used in conjunction with the SLH method previously, was found to produce inaccurate results. We also show that most existing cosmological hydrodynamic codes implicitly satisfy the gravitational consistency condition.

Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Bertschinger, Edmund

1996-10-01

83

Effect of URM infills on seismic vulnerability of Indian code designed RC frame buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unreinforced Masonry (URM) is the most common partitioning material in framed buildings in India and many other countries. Although it is well-known that under lateral loading the behavior and modes of failure of the frame buildings change significantly due to infill-frame interaction, the general design practice is to treat infills as nonstructural elements and their stiffness, strength and interaction with the frame is often ignored, primarily because of difficulties in simulation and lack of modeling guidelines in design codes. The Indian Standard, like many other national codes, does not provide explicit insight into the anticipated performance and associated vulnerability of infilled frames. This paper presents an analytical study on the seismic performance and fragility analysis of Indian code-designed RC frame buildings with and without URM infills. Infills are modeled as diagonal struts as per ASCE 41 guidelines and various modes of failure are considered. HAZUS methodology along with nonlinear static analysis is used to compare the seismic vulnerability of bare and infilled frames. The comparative study suggests that URM infills result in a significant increase in the seismic vulnerability of RC frames and their effect needs to be properly incorporated in design codes.

Haldar, Putul; Singh, Yogendra; Paul, D. K.

2012-03-01

84

Error states and synchronization recovery for variable length codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient technique for obtaining a variable length code (VLC) resistant to synchronization loss due to channel errors is proposed. Bit errors in the channel lead to incorrect decoding of a VLC and result in error states for continuous codewords. In this paper first a precise value is found for assessing the ability of a VLC to recover synchronization from

Yasuhiro Takishima; Masahiro Wada; Hitomi Murakami

1994-01-01

85

Building for School and Community. III: United States. OECD Programme on Educational Building.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Programme on Educational Building (PEB) has sponsored the analysis of projects in various countries that associate school buildings with community facilities. The texts brought together in this volume concern the United States. A paper prepared by the Office of Education provides information on the historical and administrative background of…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

86

Feedbacks from Focus Group Meeting on Training and Implementation of Building Energy Codes in China  

SciTech Connect

A focus group meeting is a very effective quality research approach to collect information on a specific project. Through focus group meetings at both Changchun and Ningbo in August 2010, the project team gained a more complete understandings of key stakeholders (such as their education level), their training needs and expectations, key factors influencing their decision making, and incurred implementation difficulties. In addition, the meeting helped the project team (especially PNNL) improve its understanding of the implementation status of building energy codes in other regions (such as small cities and counties neighboring to urban areas, small townships and rural areas distant from urban areas). The collected feedbacks will serve as important input not only for better design of training materials and the development of an on-line training website, but also for development of follow-up projects to promote building energy codes in China.

Shui, Bin; Lin , Haiyan; Song, Bo; Halverson, Mark A.; Evans, Meredydd; Zhu, Xiaojiao

2011-01-01

87

Aseismic design of building service systems: The state-of-the-art  

Microsoft Academic Search

A search for information was conducted to define the state-of-the-art of aseismic design of building service systems and to identify areas of needed research. The study focused primarily on service systems essential to the continuous operation of hospital facilities in post-earthquake periods. A review of the literature pertaining to seismic performance of nonstructural systems is presented. An evaluation of code

C. W. C. Yancey; A. A. Camacho

1978-01-01

88

Thermal storage system flops at Illinois State office building  

SciTech Connect

A thermal storage and electric resistive heating system in the new State of Illinois building in Chicago has used about 65% more electricity in its first year of operation than building designers originally predicted, according to state government sources. The state proposes to spend about $2 million to fine tune the system this year. Total first year electricity usage for the all-electric, 1.15 million square foot building was expected to be 18.7 million kilowatt hours (kWh). But according to recent energy bills, actual usage for the first year of operation, ending in December, was 31 million kWh, a usage overrun that has cost the state of Illinois an extra $500,000. Some industry sources blame the thermal storage system and the electric heat system, which were untried when proposed in 1980, for much of the overrun, while others blame the building design.

Ponczak, G.

1986-02-03

89

2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original in New Jersey State ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original in New Jersey State Library, Prior to 1930 EXTERIOR - REAR BEFORE RESTORATION - Trent House, 15 Market Street (changed from 539 South Warren Street), Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

90

7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original in New Jersey State ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original in New Jersey State Library, Prior to 1930 INTERIOR - FIREPLACE - FIRST FLOOR - Trent House, 15 Market Street (changed from 539 South Warren Street), Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

91

4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original in New Jersey State ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original in New Jersey State Library, Prior to 1930 INTERIOR - STAIR DETAIL #1 - Trent House, 15 Market Street (changed from 539 South Warren Street), Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

92

1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original in New Jersey State ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Original in New Jersey State Library, Prior to 1930 EXTERIOR - FRONT BEFORE RESTORATION - Trent House, 15 Market Street (changed from 539 South Warren Street), Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

93

Establishment of an Energy Reporting System in Illinois State Buildings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This system is intended to assist state building managers in reducing facility energy consumption by making available to them past and present energy usage at their facility in a single computer printout summary in response to their energy data submittals...

S. L. Tuma

1977-01-01

94

4. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Sacramento, California ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Sacramento, California Photo Taken: 1860 Re-photo: March 1940 EAST FRONT - CENTRAL SECTION - Custom House, Custom House Plaza, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

95

8. Historic American Buildings Survey Illinois State Historical Library, Photographer ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic American Buildings Survey Illinois State Historical Library, Photographer SECOND FLOOR HALL LOOKING SOUTH INTO STUDY - David Davis Mansion, Monroe & Davis Streets, Bloomington, McLean County, IL

96

Building Code Compliance and Enforcement: The Experience of SanFrancisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinanace and California'sBuildign Standards for New Construction  

SciTech Connect

As part of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) technical assistance to the Sustainable City Project, compliance and enforcement activities related to local and state building codes for existing and new construction were evaluated in two case studies. The analysis of the City of San Francisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance (RECO) showed that a limited, prescriptive energy conservation ordinance for existing residential construction can be enforced relatively easily with little administrative costs, and that compliance with such ordinances can be quite high. Compliance with the code was facilitated by extensive publicity, an informed public concerned with the cost of energy and knowledgeable about energy efficiency, the threat of punishment (Order of Abatement), the use of private inspectors, and training workshops for City and private inspectors. The analysis of California's Title 24 Standards for new residential and commercial construction showed that enforcement of this type of code for many climate zones is more complex and requires extensive administrative support for education and training of inspectors, architects, engineers, and builders. Under this code, prescriptive and performance approaches for compliance are permitted, resulting in the demand for alternative methods of enforcement: technical assistance, plan review, field inspection, and computer analysis. In contrast to existing construction, building design and new materials and construction practices are of critical importance in new construction, creating a need for extensive technical assistance and extensive interaction between enforcement personnel and the building community. Compliance problems associated with building design and installation did occur in both residential and nonresidential buildings. Because statewide codes are enforced by local officials, these problems may increase over time as energy standards change and become more complex and as other standards (eg, health and safety codes) remain a higher priority. The California Energy Commission realizes that code enforcement by itself is insufficient and expects that additional educational and technical assistance efforts (eg, manuals, training programs, and toll-free telephone lines) will ameliorate these problems.

Vine, E.

1990-11-01

97

Building a New Role: States and School Facilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents articles that explore the changing role of the states in addressing the nation's need to build and modernize its public schools. The article, "Doling Out Facilities Aid Proves Tricky," explains how some states have learned that securing funds is only one part of helping districts pay for construction. "Some States Help…

Sandham, Jessica L.; Richard, Alan; Johnston, Robert C.

98

National Design and State Building in Sub-Saharan Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the political geography of state building in contemporary sub-Saharan Africa. The absence of interstate war has produced a unique situation for contemporary state builders in Africa—they have inherited states with relatively fixed borders encapsulating a variety of environmental and geographic conditions, compounded by varying distributions of population densities. The author examines the effects of a variety of

Cameron G. Thies

2009-01-01

99

Building America's Schools: State Efforts To Address School Facility Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides summaries of each state's activities to address their the shortage of school buildings by supporting school construction. It reveals that 11 state subsidize, reimburse, or match local funding for construction projects; 10 states have an established formula for determining the amount of stat funding each school district…

National Governors' Association, Washington, DC.

100

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.

Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

2004-09-30

101

22 CFR 9b.5 - Temporary Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Temporary Department of State press building passes. 9b.5 Section 9b.5 Foreign...GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.5 Temporary Department of State press building passes. A media correspondent or...

2013-04-01

102

22 CFR 9b.4 - Department of State building press pass for technical crews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Department of State building press pass for technical crews. 9b.4 Section 9b...GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.4 Department of State building press pass for technical crews. Department of...

2013-04-01

103

US Department of Energy Office of Codes and Standards resource book  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide a discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stockholders in the building energy codes and standards arena.

NONE

1996-01-01

104

The dynamics of group codes: State spaces, trellis diagrams, and canonical encoders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group code C over a group G is a set of sequences of group elements that itself forms a group under a component-wise group operation. A group code has a well-defined state space ?k at each time k. Each code sequence passes through a well-defined state sequence. The set of all state sequences is also a group code, the

G. David Forney Jr.; Mitchell D. Trott

1993-01-01

105

What`s new in codes and standards Office of Building Technologies (OBT) - building standards and guidelines  

SciTech Connect

Technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness are key to designing and constructing buildings that are more comfortable than today`s buildings yet require less than one-third as much energy. However, several market barriers prevent architects and builders from doing so. Those who design and construct buildings - often not the same as those who own and operate the buildings - tend to focus on first cost rather than operating costs. Building operating costs are often hidden and passed on to others. Information on the feasibility, cost, and benefits of improving building energy efficiency is often not available.

NONE

1995-09-01

106

Completeness of cause of injury coding in healthcare administrative databases in the United States, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the completeness of external cause of injury coding (E-coding) within healthcare administrative databases in the United States and to identify factors that contribute to variations in E-code reporting across states.Design: Cross sectional analysis of the 2001 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), including 33 State Inpatient Databases (SID), a Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), and nine State Emergency

J H Coben; C A Steiner; M Barrett; C T Merrill; D Adamson

2006-01-01

107

22 CFR 9b.8 - Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of Department of State press building passes. 9b.8 Section 9b.8 Foreign...GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.8 Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes. (a) Department of State...

2013-04-01

108

22 CFR 9b.8 - Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Department of State press building passes. 9b.8 Section 9b.8 Foreign...GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.8 Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes. (a) Department of State...

2010-04-01

109

22 CFR 9b.8 - Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Department of State press building passes. 9b.8 Section 9b.8 Foreign...GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.8 Term and renewal of Department of State press building passes. (a) Department of State...

2009-04-01

110

Buildings for the 21st Century, Winter 2002. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Newsletter  

SciTech Connect

The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The winter issue contains information on energy efficient health care design, solid state lighting, Brookhaven National Laboratory, school design guidelines, E-News, Energy Star, DOE energy awards, and upcoming events and meetings.

Not Available

2002-02-01

111

Mouse immunoglobulin coding sequences for the heavy-chain variable region arose as repeats of the two short building blocks.  

PubMed Central

The coding sequence for the 97-amino-acid-residue-long immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable (VH) regions of the mouse apparently arose as repeats of the two short building blocks. Three of the recognizable copies of the one 21-base-long prototype sequence A-C-T-G-G-A-T-A-T-G-A-C-C-T-G-G-A-G-T-G-G are invariably found to occupy the fixed positions within the 5' half of each VH coding sequence. Interestingly, the first and third copies specify the relatively invariant regions represented by the 7th to 13th and 41st to 47th amino acid residues (the first and second framework regions), whereas the second copy specifies the first hypervariable region (31st to 35th amino acid residues). These copies maintain at least 57.2% (12 out of 21) base sequence homology to the above-noted prototype building block. Base sequences of the other 14- to 15-base-long prototype building block differ from each other by as much as 60% between individual VHS. Yet one of its copies invariably occupies the terminal region of each VH coding sequence, thus specifying the very invariant third framework region. Other copies occupy unfixed positions in the VH and its attendant hydrophobic leader coding sequence as well as in adjacent noncoding sequences. The homology thus revealed between the VH coding sequence and its adjacent noncoding sequences suggests their concordant evolution. Images

Ohno, S; Kato, K; Hozumi, T; Matsunaga, T

1982-01-01

112

The tobacco industry's code of advertising in the United States: myth and reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major American tobacco companies developed and agreed to abide by the Cigarette Advertising Code in 1964. The stated aims of the code were to prohibit advertising directed at young people, to prohibit advertising that used fraudulent health claims, and to assure compliance with the code's provisions through the establishment of an administrative arm and enforcement mechanism to prescreen and

J. W. Richards; J. B. Tye; P. M. Fischer

1996-01-01

113

New residential construction compliance: Evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code program  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code Program (WSECP). In 1990, the Washington State Legislature passed a residential energy efficiency code to be effective July 1, 1992. Bonneville supported passage and implementation of the code to ensure that new residences in the State of Washington were as energy efficient as economically feasible. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) is conducting the WSECP for Bonneville to support code implementation. This support takes several forms, including providing training to code enforcement officials, technical support both in the field and through telephone ``hot lines,`` and computerized tools to review house plans for code compliance. WSEO began implementing the WSECP in 1992, prior to the effective date of the new code. This first phase of the WSECP was the subject of an earlier process evaluation conducted by PNL. From that evaluation PNL found that most new homes being built immediately after the code went into effect were ``grand-fathered`` under the old code. The training program for the new code was in place and sessions were being attended by the jurisdictions but it was too early to determine if the training was effective in improving code compliance and easing the transition to the new energy code. That is the subject of this evaluation.

Warwick, W.M.; Lee, A.D.; Sandahl, L.J.; Durfee, D.L.; Richman, E.E.

1993-07-01

114

Forty-Percent Savings and Beyond: Recent Advances in Code Implementation and Development of SuperEfficient Buildings in Russia and Its Neighbors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan, and Ukraine continue to make important advances in implementation of energy codes, market transformation, and design innovation in the building sector. Since 2003 Kazakhstan and other CIS1 countries have been explicitly following Russia's lead in moving to adopt and implement energy-saving building codes. This paper begins by summarizing new developments, including passage and

Yurij A. Matrosov; Cliff Majersik

115

CMAD: A Self-consistent Parallel Code to Simulate the Electron Cloud Build-up and Instabilities  

SciTech Connect

We present the features of CMAD, a newly developed self-consistent code which simulates both the electron cloud build-up and related beam instabilities. By means of parallel (Message Passing Interface - MPI) computation, the code tracks the beam in an existing (MAD-type) lattice and continuously resolves the interaction between the beam and the cloud at each element location, with different cloud distributions at each magnet location. The goal of CMAD is to simulate single- and coupled-bunch instability, allowing tune shift, dynamic aperture and frequency map analysis and the determination of the secondary electron yield instability threshold. The code is in its phase of development and benchmarking with existing codes. Preliminary results on benchmarking are presented in this paper.

Pivi, M.T.F.; /SLAC

2007-11-07

116

Secure Mobile Code Computing Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile code systems are technologies that allow applications to move their codes, and possibly the corresponding state, among the nodes of a wide area network. The code mobility is a flexible and powerful mechanism that can be exploited to build distributed applications in an internet scale. However, these new technologies capabilities come with inherent security hazards, both for the machines

KHALED E. A. NEGM; WAEL ADI; FAHEY ABD AL-WAHAB

117

Teleportation of entangled states and dense coding using a multiparticle quantum channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of protocols for teleportation and dense coding tasks with the use of a N particle quantum channel, presented by entangled states of the GHZ class, is introduced, when N>2. Using a found representation for the multiparticle entangled states of the GHZ class, it has shown, that for dense coding schemes enhancement of the classical capacity of the channel

V. N. Gorbachev; A. I. Trubilko; A. I. Zhiliba; E. S. Yakovleva

2000-01-01

118

Impact of the Level of State Tax Code Progressivity on Children's Health Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This research study examines the impact of the level of state tax code progressivity on selected children's health outcomes. Specifically, it examines the degree to which a state's tax code ranking along the progressive-regressive continuum relates to percentage of low birthweight babies, infant and child mortality rates, and percentage of…

Granruth, Laura Brierton; Shields, Joseph J.

2011-01-01

119

Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)  

SciTech Connect

In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and fire safety. A related issue is the degree to which new standards are adopted and enforced. In the U.S., standards are developed using a consensus process, and local government agencies are free to implement these standards or to ignore them. For example, some U.S. states are still using 2003 versions of the building efficiency standards. There is also a great variation in the degree to which the locally adopted standards are enforced in different U.S. cities and states. With a more central process in China, these issues are different, but possible impacts of variable enforcement efficacy may also exist. Therefore, current building codes in China will be compared to the current state of building fire-safety and energy-efficiency codes in the U.S. and areas for possible improvements in both countries will be explored. In particular, the focus of the applications in China will be on green buildings. The terminology of 'green buildings' has different meanings to different audiences. The U.S. research is interested in both new, green buildings, and on retrofitting existing inefficient buildings. An initial effort will be made to clarify the scope of the pertinent wall insulation systems for these applications.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Biswas, Kaushik [ORNL; Song, Bo [China Academy of Building Research; Zhang, Sisi [China Academy of Building Research

2012-08-01

120

Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 m×7.80 m = 127.90 m2 with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is much higher than the requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code while the selected ground conditions represent the same characteristics. The main reason is that the ordinate of the horizontal elastic response spectrum for Eurocode 8 is increased by the soil factor. In TEC'07 force-based linear assessment, the seismic demands at cross-sections are to be checked with residual moment capacities; however, the chord rotations of primary ductile elements must be checked for Eurocode safety verifications. On the other hand, the demand curvatures from linear methods of analysis of Eurocode 8 together with TEC'07 are almost similar.

Toprak, A. Emre; Gülay, F. Gülten; Ruge, Peter

2008-07-01

121

Buildings for the 21st Century, Winter 2000 Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Newsletter  

SciTech Connect

A quarterly update published by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs on new policies and procedures; upcoming events, highlighted research and success stories, and new partnership projects within the buildings programs at DOE/EERE and its contracting laboratories.

NREL

2000-02-24

122

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assesment for Bulgaria as a Basis for a new National Building Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The territory of Bulgaria represents a typical example of high seismic risk area in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. Bulgaria contains important industrial areas that face considerable earthquake risk. Moreover, the seismicity of the neighboring countries, like Greece, Turkey, former Yugoslavia and Romania (especially Vrancea-Romania intermediate earthquakes involving the non-crustal lithosphere), influences the seismic hazard in Bulgaria. Seismic hazard maps proposed as part of a new building code for Bulgaria based on the recommendations in EUROCODE 8 are presented in the study. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) carries out integration over the total expected seismicity during a given exposure period to provide the estimate of a strong-motion parameter of interest with a specified confidence level. The basic approach used for the creation of ground motion maps combines via GIS, source-geometry, earthquake occurrence model, the strength of the earthquake sources, and the appropriate attenuation relations. In the study seismic hazard maps for Bulgaria are presented in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) in agreement with EC8. As recommended in EC8, the maps are calculated for a 475 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 50 years) for the design earthquake and for a 95 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 10 years) for weaker earthquakes with higher frequency of occurrence. The PSHA was performed, using the Bulgarian version of computer code EQRISK. For the sensitivity analysis on the characterization of the seismicity in the seismic sources a PSHA for 500 randomly chosen models was run. The results suggested that uncertainties in seismic characteristics have relatively small effect on the final seismic hazard. A procedure called disaggregation has been applied to examine the spatial and magnitude dependence of PSHA results. The aim is to determine the magnitudes and distances that contribute to the calculated exceedance frequencies at a given return period and at a structural period of engineering interest. The hazard for 27 cities on the territory of Bulgaria for a 475 years return period and at PGA is partitioned into selected magnitude-distance bins.

Solakov, D.; Simeonova, S.; Christoskov, L.; Trifonova, P.; Aleksandrova, I.

2012-04-01

123

A New Probabilistic Seismic Hazard for mainland Spain. Main differences with the Building Code Hazard Map  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for mainland Spain that takes into account recent new results in seismicity, seismic zoning and strong ground attenuation no considered in the previous PSHAs studies published is presented. Those new input data has been obtained by us as a three steep project carried out in order to get a new hazard map for mainland Spain. We have used a new earthquake catalogue obtained for the area in which the earthquakes are given in moment magnitude through specific deduced relationships for our territory based on intensity data, Mezcua et al. (2004). Beside that, we also include a new seismogenetic zoning based in the recent partial zoning studies performed by different authors. Finally we have developed a new strong ground motion relationship for the area, Mezcua et al. (2008). With this new data a logic tree process has been defined to quantify the epistemic uncertainty related with those parts of the process. Finally, after a weighting scheme a mean hazard map for PGA on rock type condition for 10 % exceendence probability in 50 years is presented. In order to investigate main differences with the official hazard map from the Building Code we performed from one side the map of differences and also a map of impact expressed in % of the values obtained in relation with the presented in the official map. Main differences are in both directions: an overestimation (0.04g) of the official hazard map in those areas corresponding with the greatest PGA values corresponding to the south and southeastern part of the country due to the use of local attenuation relations and an underestimation for the rest of the country with a maximum of the order of 0.06g close to the maximum of the map in southern Spain.

Mezcua, J.; Rueda, J.; Garcia Blanco, R.

2009-05-01

124

Iraq: The contradictions of exogenous state-building in historical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares Britain's failed attempt at building a stable, liberal state in Iraq from 1914 to 1932 with the USA's struggle to stabilise the country after regime change in April 2003. It sets out a template for endogenous state-building based on the evolution of the European state system. It then compares this to exogenous extra-European state-building after both World

Toby Dodge

2006-01-01

125

Code de Bonne Pratique des Travaux de Peinturage (Batiment et Genie Civil): Subjectiles, Systemes et Travaux de Peinture (Code of Practice for Paintwork (Building and Civil Engineering): Substrates, Systems and Paintwork).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Summary: Code of practice for paintwork (building and civil engineering); Substrates, systems and paintwork; Definition of several concepts related to paintwork; The functions of paint; Constituent materials of paint and associated products; their propert...

1985-01-01

126

Error-Correcting Codes for Semiconductor Memory Applications: A State-of-the-Art Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of error-correcting codes for computer semiconductor memory applications. The construction of four classes of error-correcting codes appropriate for semiconductor memory designs is described, and for each class of codes the number of check bits required for commonly used data lengths is provided. The implementation aspects of error correction and error detection are also discussed,

Chin-long Chen

1984-01-01

127

Nodal kinetics model upgrade in the Penn State coupled TRAC\\/NEM codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pennsylvania State University currently maintains and does development and verification work for its own versions of the coupled three-dimensional kinetics\\/thermal-hydraulics codes TRAC-PF1\\/NEM and TRAC-BF1\\/NEM. The subject of this paper is nodal model enhancements in the above mentioned codes. Because of the numerous validation studies that have been performed on almost every aspect of these codes, this upgrade is done

Tara M. Beam; Kostadin N. Ivanov; Anthony J. Baratta; Herbert Finnemann

1999-01-01

128

Strategy for implementing stabilizer-based codes on solid-state qubits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a method for implementing stabilizer-based codes with encoding schemes of the operator quantum error correction paradigm, e.g., the “standard” five-qubit and CSS codes, on solid-state qubits with Ising or XY-type interactions. Using pulse sequences, we show how to dynamically generate the effective dynamics of the stabilizer Hamiltonian, the sum of an appropriate set of stabilizer operators for a given code. Within this approach, the encoded states (ground states of the stabilizer Hamiltonian) can be prepared without measurements and preserved against both the time evolution governed by the original qubit Hamiltonian, and errors caused by local sources.

Tanamoto, Tetsufumi; Stojanovi?, Vladimir M.; Bruder, Christoph; Becker, Daniel

2013-05-01

129

75 FR 17644 - Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home Facilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...diem for providing nursing home care to eligible...NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. This change...they are submitted in response to...toll-free number.) In addition, during...State for providing nursing home care to eligible...NFPA 101, Life Safety Code (2006 edition...incorporated by reference in accordance...

2010-04-07

130

76 FR 11339 - Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home Facilities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...INFORMATION: In a document published in the Federal Register...for providing nursing home care to eligible...NFPA 101, Life Safety Code (2009 edition...PER DIEM FOR NURSING HOME CARE OF VETERANS IN STATE HOMES 0...NFPA 101, Life Safety Code (2006...

2011-03-02

131

Determination for the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code, Residential Buildings – Technical Support Document  

SciTech Connect

Provides a technical analysis showing that the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code contains improvements in energy efficiency compared to its predecessor, the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code. DOE is required by law to issue "determinations" of whether or not new editions of the IECC improve energy efficiency.

Lucas, Robert G.

2009-09-26

132

Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Utah  

SciTech Connect

The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current Utah code, the 2006 IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of $168 to $188 for an average new house in Utah at recent fuel prices.

Cole, Pamala C.; Lucas, Robert G.

2009-05-01

133

Product code optimization for determinate state LDPC decoding in robust image transmission.  

PubMed

We propose a novel scheme for error-resilient image transmission. The proposed scheme employs a product coder consisting of low-density parity check (LDPC) codes and Reed-Solomon codes in order to deal effectively with bit errors. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is based on the exploitation of determinate symbols in Tanner graph decoding of LDPC codes and a novel product code optimization technique based on error estimation. Experimental evaluation demonstrates the superiority of the proposed system in comparison to recent state-of-the-art techniques for image transmission. PMID:16900669

Thomos, Nikolaos; Boulgouris, Nikolaos V; Strintzis, Michael G

2006-08-01

134

Comparison of the Supplement to the 2004 IECC to the Current New York Energy Conservation Code - Residential Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The New York State Department of State requested the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to prepare a report consisting of two components. The first component is an analysis comparing the effects on energy usage as a result of implementation of the 2004 Supplement to the IECC with the current New York code. The second component is an engineering analysis to determine whether additional costs of compliance with the proposal would be equal to or less than the present value of anticipated energy savings over a 10-year period. Under DOE's direction, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed the requested assessment of the potential code upgrade.

Lucas, Robert G.

2004-09-01

135

MES Code: Chemical-Equilibrium Detonation-Product States of Condensed Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MES code calculates states of the reaction products of detonation in gaseous or condensed explosives under the assumption of thermal and chemical equilibrium. The products may consist of any number of gaseous species and one solid species. The conditi...

W. Fickett

1976-01-01

136

State Primary and General Election Laws. Title 29, Revised Code of Washington.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report incorporates all statutory amendments to Title 29 of the Revised Code of Washington. The following aspects to state primary and general election laws are included: Registration of voters; Times for holding elections and primaries; Ballots; Voti...

1978-01-01

137

Teleportation of entangled states and dense coding using a multiparticle quantum channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of protocols for teleportation and dense coding tasks with the use of a\\u000aN particle quantum channel, presented by entangled states of the GHZ class, is\\u000aintroduced, when N>2. Using a found representation for the multiparticle\\u000aentangled states of the GHZ class, it has shown, that for dense coding schemes\\u000aenhancement of the classical capacity of the channel

V. N. Gorbachev; A. I. Trubilko; A. I. Zhiliba; E. S. Yakovleva

2000-01-01

138

Buildings for the 21st Century, Summer 2001. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Newsletter  

SciTech Connect

The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The summer issue includes information on technology roadmap initiatives, new energy computer simulation software, an educational CD with energy lessons for teachers, a CD with energy-saving tips, a study on the efficiency of clothes washers, a loan program in New York, and a calendar of meetings and conferences.

Burgert, S.

2001-07-11

139

DOE building energy performance standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficiency is a new factor in building codes, which have historically stressed health and safety, and are now required to include energy performance standards for new residential and commercial buildings. Changes in the laws that mandate Federal and state agencies to devise and implement building performance standards are reviewed and summarized. Weaknesses in the standards and points of disagreement

Savitz

1979-01-01

140

New building technologies and building energy standards in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Some new and emerging technologies that may affect building energy consumption are reviewed in this paper. We also describe a brief impact analysis that evaluates the sensitivity of a simulation model to changes in broad categories of building equipment and materials. The analysis results permit direct comparisons of the effect of changes in energy efficiency to these building components. Potential barriers to the use of some new building products are also discussed. The barriers, inherent in the current building energy standards, result partly from the structure of the standards and the procedures used to determine building compliance with those standards. We propose several methods for overcoming these barriers and encouraging the accommodation of new technologies within the standards. 21 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

O`Neill, P.J.; Jarnagin, R.E.; Schliesing, J.S.

1991-11-01

141

Solid state lighting in buildings: status and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been considerable press coverage about the promise of Solid State Lighting (SSL). Despite this or perhaps because of the coverage, it can be difficult to separate hype from reality and set expectations for the near to medium term. The short answer is there are good SSL products on the market now and some poor ones. The good ones are getting better, more common, and more affordable. This paper will cover the basics of the key components that make up a luminaire which are LEDs (light emitting diode), power supply, optics, and thermo/mechanical subsystems. Each component will be reviewed with highlights as to what is important. These subsystems will then be considered as a system. Several methodologies for designing both spot and area luminaires will be discussed focusing on non-residential buildings. The topic of SSL lifetime will be discussed. Finally, trends will be explored to provide an understanding of the kinds of improvements one can expect and the timeframe over which they may occur.

Paolini, Steven

2010-08-01

142

4. EMPIRE STATE MINE TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE/BIN, COLLAPSED BUILDING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. EMPIRE STATE MINE TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE/BIN, COLLAPSED BUILDING FROM BELOW. CAMERA POINTED NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

143

Detecting State Coding Conflicts in STG Unfoldings Using SAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behaviour of asynchronous circuits is often de- scribed by Signal Transition Graphs (STGs), which are Petri nets whose transitions are interpreted as rising and falling edges of signals. One of the crucial prob- lems in the synthesis of such circuits is that of identify- ing whether an STG satisfies the Complete State Cod- ing (CSC) requirement, e.g., by using

Victor Khomenko; Maciej Koutny; Alexandre Yakovlev

2003-01-01

144

Comparison of various NLTE codes in computing the charge-state populations of an argon plasma  

SciTech Connect

A comparison among nine computer codes shows surprisingly large differences where it had been believed that the theroy was well understood. Each code treats an argon plasma, optically thin and with no external photon flux; temperatures vary around 1 keV and ion densities vary from 6 x 10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ to 6 x 10/sup 21/ cm/sup -3/. At these conditions most ions have three or fewer bound electrons. The calculated populations of 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-electron ions differ from code to code by typical factors of 2, in some cases by factors greater than 300. These differences depend as sensitively on how may Rydberg states a code allows as they do on variations among computed collision rates. 29 refs., 23 figs.

Stone, S.R.; Weisheit, J.C.

1984-11-01

145

Perfect teleportation, quantum-state sharing, and superdense coding through a genuinely entangled five-qubit state  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the usefulness of a recently introduced five-qubit state by Brown [I. D. K. Brown, S. Stepney, A. Sudbery, and S. L. Braunstein, J. Phys. A 38, 1119 (2005)] for quantum teleportation, quantum-state sharing, and superdense coding. It is shown that this state can be utilized for perfect teleportation of arbitrary single and two-qubit systems. We devise various schemes

Sreraman Muralidharan; Prasanta K. Panigrahi

2008-01-01

146

Building Peace in Fragile StatesBuilding Trust is Essential for Effective Public–Private Partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, the private sector is playing a greater role in supporting peace building efforts in conflict and post-conflict\\u000a areas by providing critical expertise, know-how, and capital. However, reports of the corrupt practices of both governments\\u000a and businesses have plagued international peace building efforts, deepening the distrust of stricken communities. Businesses\\u000a are perceived as being selfish and indifferent to the impact

Igor Abramov

2009-01-01

147

How to build an appropriate information ethics code for enterprises in Chinese cultural society  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information ethics codes play a vital role in clarifying the responsibilities of MIS (management information systems) professionals and providing them with a point of reference when dealing with ethical issues. In view of the important 21st Century role played by China, particularly Mainland China, which represents a hugely significant market to all global enterprises, it is hoped that this study

Christina Ling-hsing Chang

148

Building Bridges: A Comprehensive System for Healthy Development and School Readiness. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is designed to support the planning and implementation of the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems (SECCS) Initiative. It addresses a set of principles that these agencies can use to advance their planning process, reach out to new partners, develop collaborative strategies, and build a…

Halfon, Neal; Uyeda, Kimberly; Inkelas, Moira; Rice, Thomas

2004-01-01

149

Implementing building energy codes in Hong Kong: energy savings, environmental impacts and cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant proportion of the total energy produced in Hong Kong is consumed by the building stocks, which account for nearly half of the total energy consumption. Due to expanding economy and substantial improvement in living standards over the past decade, the demand of electricity generation has remarkably increased. This rising trend of energy use will inevitably lead to increasing

Andy T. Chan; Victor C. H. Yeung

2005-01-01

150

Efficient context-dependent model building based on clustering posterior distributions for non-coding sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many recent studies that relax the assumption of independent evolution of sites have done so at the expense of a drastic increase in the number of substitution parameters. While additional parameters cannot be avoided to model context-dependent evolution, a large increase in model dimensionality is only justified when accompanied with careful model-building strategies that guard against overfitting. An increased

Guy Baele; Yves Van de Peer; Stijn Vansteelandt

2009-01-01

151

Development of a Compressible Flow Analysis Code with a Generalized Equation of State  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes outline and numerical results of a three-dimensional compressible flow analysis code, MIFS. MIFS is a\\u000a multi-block BFC general-purpose code that can solve flows in complicated geometries. The complicated flow field is divided\\u000a into small blocks that have rather simpler geometries and are easy to generate structured boundary-fitted-coordinate system\\u000a grids. It employs a generalized equation of state so

H. Terasaka; S. Obayashi; N. Yamazaki

152

Genralized Serial Search Code Acquisition: The Equivalent Circular State Diagram Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple circular state-diagram method has been recently proposed [1], [2] for the modeling, analysis, and optimization of straight serial search code acquisition in spread-spectrum systems. Herein, the approach is generalized to arbitrary serial strategies, such as theZ-search expanding window search, etc., and arbitrary a priori probability distributions for the code phase uncertainty. The basic idea is the construction of

ANDREAS POLYDOROS; MARVIN K. SIMON

1984-01-01

153

Accuracy of external cause of injury codes reported in Washington State hospital discharge records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—To evaluate the accuracy of external cause of injury codes (E codes) reported in computerized hospital discharge records.Methods—All civilian hospitals in Washington State submit computerized data for each hospital discharge to a file maintained by the Department of Health. In 1996, 32 hospitals accounted for 80% of the injury related discharges in this file; from these hospitals, we sampled 1260

M LeMier; P Cummings; T A West

2001-01-01

154

Accuracy of external cause of injury codes reported in Washington State hospital discharge records  

PubMed Central

Objective—To evaluate the accuracy of external cause of injury codes (E codes) reported in computerized hospital discharge records. Methods—All civilian hospitals in Washington State submit computerized data for each hospital discharge to a file maintained by the Department of Health. In 1996, 32 hospitals accounted for 80% of the injury related discharges in this file; from these hospitals, we sampled 1260 computerized records for injured patients in a stratified, but random, manner. An expert coder then visited the 32 study hospitals, reviewed the medical records that corresponded to each computerized record, and assigned an E code for that hospitalization. The computerized E code information was compared with codes provided by the expert reviewer. Results—The incidence of hospitalization for injury based upon computerized hospital discharge data was very similar to that based upon chart review: incidence rate ratio 1.0 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.02). Computerized hospital discharge data correctly ranked injuries in regard to both mechanism and intent. Overall agreement on coding was 87% for mechanism of injury, 95% for intent of injury, and 66% for the complete E code. The sensitivity of computerized hospital discharge data for identification of falls, motor vehicle traffic injuries, poisonings, and firearm injuries was 91% or better. The predictive value positive of coding for these four categories of injury ranged from 88% for motor vehicle traffic injuries to 94% for poisonings. The amount of agreement for intent coding ranged from 84% for firearm injuries to 99% for falls. Agreement on coding of the complete E code ranged from 57% for firearm injuries to 72% for poisonings. Conclusions—Computerized hospital discharge data can be used with confidence to determine how many injuries are treated in a hospital setting and the relative magnitude of various categories of injury. E codes reported in hospital discharge data are a reliable source of information on the mechanism and intent of injury, the two types of information most often used for injury related analyses and priority setting. The detail codes (complete E codes) reported in hospital discharge codes are less reliable and must be used with caution.

LeMier, M; Cummings, P; West, T

2001-01-01

155

Method of state code matrixes in the realization of optical switching using Perfect Shuffle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the Left Perfect Shuffle (LPS) optical communication network constructed by cascade multi-stage LPS interconnection, using Looping algorithm, any arbitrary sequence of the input signals can be realized. However, instead of obtaining the simultaneous state codes of the same level node switches through mathematical analytical expressions directly, only routing tags of each channel can be obtained through mathematical analytical expressions so as to draw out topological chart of the network to obtain the state codes implied in the chart. Thus, the states of the switches cannot be directly programmed and controlled by computer in practical application. In this paper, based on the Looping algorithm, a method of stage code matrixes is presented to resolve this problem. By using the method, the simultaneous state codes of the same level’s four node switches can be directly obtained, which is convenient for the computer to provide controlled signals needed to finish the permutation for each node switch. The method of stage code matrixes provides further theoretical basis for the realization of optical switching by integration of Perfect Shuffle and high-speed optical switches.

Huang, Haixuan; Xu, Ping; Yang, Jing; Gong, Xiangdong; Wan, Lili; Wang, Kai; Zheng, Yeyong; Han, Xuan

2009-11-01

156

An adaptive coded aperture imager: building, testing and trialing a super-resolving terrestrial demonstrator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasingly important requirement for day and night, wide field of view imaging and tracking for both imaging and sensing applications. Applications include military, security and remote sensing. We describe the development of a proof of concept demonstrator of an adaptive coded-aperture imager operating in the mid-wave infrared to address these requirements. This consists of a coded-aperture mask, a set of optics and a 4k x 4k focal plane array (FPA). This system can produce images with a resolution better than that achieved by the detector pixel itself (i.e. superresolution) by combining multiple frames of data recorded with different coded-aperture mask patterns. This superresolution capability has been demonstrated both in the laboratory and in imaging of real-world scenes, the highest resolution achieved being ½ the FPA pixel pitch. The resolution for this configuration is currently limited by vibration and theoretically ¼ pixel pitch should be possible. Comparisons have been made between conventional and ACAI solutions to these requirements and show significant advantages in size, weight and cost for the ACAI approach.

Slinger, Christopher W.; Bennett, Charlotte R.; Dyer, Gavin; Gilholm, Kevin; Gordon, Neil; Huckridge, David; McNie, Mark; Penney, Richard W.; Proudler, Ian K.; Rice, Kevin; Ridley, Kevin D.; Russell, Lee; de Villiers, Geoffrey D.; Watson, Philip J.

2011-09-01

157

Washington State Department of Transportation energy efficiency guidelines for small buildings  

SciTech Connect

This document provides energy efficiency guidelines for the construction and remodel of small buildings owned by the Washington State Department of Transportation (DOT). For the purpose of these guidelines {open_quotes}small buildings{close_quotes} are defined as those under 25,000 square feet. However, many of the guidelines can also be used for larger buildings. DOT is responsible for 641 buildings totaling 2.2 million square feet and consuming approximately $1,087,500 dollars in energy costs each year. Building types covered by these guidelines are small offices, shop buildings, and heated and unheated storage. These building types can be expected to vary greatly in both the distribution and magnitude of energy use.

NONE

1995-03-01

158

A MULTIDIMENSIONAL RELATIVISTIC HYDRODYNAMIC CODE WITH A GENERAL EQUATION OF STATE  

SciTech Connect

The ideal gas equation of state with a constant adiabatic index, although commonly used in relativistic hydrodynamics, is a poor approximation for most relativistic astrophysical flows. Here we propose a new general equation of state for a multi-component relativistic gas which is consistent with the Synge equation of state for a relativistic perfect gas and is suitable for numerical (special) relativistic hydrodynamics. We also present a multidimensional relativistic hydrodynamic code incorporating the proposed general equation of state, based on the HLL scheme, which does not make use of a full characteristic decomposition of the relativistic hydrodynamic equations. The accuracy and robustness of this code is demonstrated in multidimensional calculations through several highly relativistic test problems taking into account nonvanishing tangential velocities. Results from three-dimensional simulations of relativistic jets show that the morphology and dynamics of the relativistic jets are significantly influenced by the different equation of state and by different compositions of relativistic perfect gases. Our new numerical code, combined with our proposed equation of state, is very efficient and robust, and unlike previous codes, it gives very accurate results for thermodynamic variables in relativistic astrophysical flows.

Choi, Eunwoo [Department of Astronomy and Atmospheric Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Wiita, Paul J., E-mail: echoi@knu.ac.k [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4106, Atlanta, GA 30302-4106 (United States)

2010-11-15

159

Equation of state, occupation probabilities and conductivities in the average atom Purgatorio code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on recent developments with the Purgatorio code, a new implementation of Liberman's Inferno model. This fully relativistic average atom code uses phase shift tracking and an efficient refinement scheme to provide an accurate description of continuum states. The resulting equations of state accurately represent the atomic shell-related features which are absent in Thomas-Fermi-based approaches. We discuss various representations of the exchange potential and some of the ambiguities in the choice of the effective charge Z? in average atom models, both of which affect predictions of electrical conductivities and radiative properties.

Sterne, P. A.; Hansen, S. B.; Wilson, B. G.; Isaacs, W. A.

2007-05-01

160

Equation of State, Occupation Probabilities and Conductivities in the Average Atom Purgatorio Code  

SciTech Connect

We report on recent developments with the Purgatorio code, a new implementation of Liberman's Inferno model. This fully relativistic average atom code uses phase shift tracking and an efficient refinement scheme to provide an accurate description of continuum states. The resulting equations of state accurately represent the atomic shell-related features which are absent in Thomas-Fermi-based approaches. We discuss various representations of the exchange potential and some of the ambiguities in the choice of the effective charge Z* in average atom models, both of which affect predictions of electrical conductivities and radiative properties.

Sterne, P

2006-12-22

161

International Code Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Code Council is �a membership association dedicated to building safety and fire prevention, develops the codes used to construct residential and commercial buildings, including homes and schools. Most U.S. cities, counties and states that adopt codes choose the International Codes developed by the International Code Council.� Although some sections of the site are reserved for members only (which requires a fee), there is a remarkable amount of material available to non-members. Available on the website are details about codes development, how to acquire an opinion on a code from multiple sources and how to reach a building code liaison for your locality. Under the �Certification and Testing� tab, users can find sample certification exam questions as well as outlines. The site also provides links to various periodicals, ICC meetings and also includes an event calendar to see dates for industry conferences and upcoming trade shows.

2006-12-04

162

Can you build an iPhone app without writing a single line of code?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the last ESIP summer meeting, a study was conducted to explore different commercial tools now available that allow one to create a mobile app without writing a single line of code. The proposed research comprised of two components. First, systematically evaluate different tools to create mobile apps along the dimensions of features and price. Second, create an iPhone app prototype for the ESIP community using some of these tools. The initial assessment classified the currently available tools to create mobile app tools into two categories. The tools that fall under the first category require no programming, but the content for the mobile apps are fed to it either via a web site RSS feed or entered manually. Consequently, these tools only support limited user interactivity. These tools follow the business model of website hosting services. This business model offers a set of templates to the end users with limited customization features to create their content in order to publish to websites. The second category of tools requires programming, but the code can be written in popular languages such as Javascript (compatible with most mobile platforms) rather than mobile app specific languages. For the second component of the study, two ESIP iPhone app prototypes were created. The first prototype required no programming and used the AppMakr tool. Objective C was used to create the second iPhone prototype from scratch and the source code for this prototype is available on the ESIP website. The study concluded that existing tools do make it easy to create a simple mobile app especially if one already has a well designed website. The associated costs are adequate but not cheap. However, if the mobile app has requirements that require interactivity and specialized customization then one needs to work with a mobile app developer.

Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.

2011-12-01

163

State variable integration in SOA Energy Management System for building air-conditioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancement of Energy Management Systems (EMSs) for building facilities is becoming more important for sustainable development. The Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) will be a powerful approach for these systems. Distributed type building air-conditioners, which are dominant in Japan, have many distributed raw state variables required by an EMS. This makes it difficult to apply the SOA to those EMSs. We

Chuzo Ninagawa; Tomotaka Sato

2010-01-01

164

22 CFR 9b.7 - Procedures for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. 9b.7 Section 9b.7 Foreign...GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.7 Procedures for denial...non-renewal of Department of State press building passes. (a) If the Director of the...

2013-04-01

165

Building FASD State Systems Proceedings. Arlington, Virginia, May 18-20, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Center for Excellence convened the 'Building FASD State Systems' meeting in Arlington, Virginia,May 18-20, 2003. This was the first meeting of i...

2003-01-01

166

Building FASD State Systems Proceedings, Kissimmee, Florida, May 5-6, 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) Center for Excellence convened the second Building FASD State Systems (BFSS) meeting in Kissimmee,Florida,May 5-6, 2004. The meeting was an upda...

2004-01-01

167

State Energy Office Data Management: The Preliminary Energy Audit of the Institutional Buildings Grants Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews state energy office (SEO) activities related to data collection, verification, and analysis for the preliminary energy audit portion of the Institutional Buildings Grant Program (IBGP). A preliminary energy audit (PEA), a collection of...

J. L. Blue P. B. Zuschneid J. H. Carney E. Hirst

1980-01-01

168

State Building and Democratization in Sub-Saharan AfricaForwards, Backwards, or Together?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across sub-Saharan Africa, new democracies emerge only in the context of relatively effective states. Using aggregate indicators of democracy and governance plus new public opinion data, the authors show which aspects of state building are most important. The scope of state infrastructure and the delivery of welfare services have little impact on democratization. But the establishment of a rule of

Michael Bratton; Eric C. C. Chang

2006-01-01

169

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions  

SciTech Connect

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for energy efficienty design and construction of new commercial buildings. This report assesses the benefits and costs of adopting this standard as the building energy code in Illinois. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using BLAST combined with a Life-Cycle Cost approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.; Friedrich, Michele

2002-05-01

170

Mitigating the Risk to Primitive Accumulation: State-building and the Logging Boom in Solomon Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, various forms of inter\\/transnational state-building have become increasingly common as a way of managing the perceived risk posed by dysfunctional governance in so-called fragile states to Western security. In Solomon Islands, the Australian government has led a robust and expansive regional intervention, designed to build the capacity of the Solomon Islands government and bureaucracy to provide more

Shahar Hameiri

2012-01-01

171

Building Stone of the United States: The NIST Test Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report explains how the NIST test wall was constructed to study the performance and durability of various building stones under uniform climatic conditions. It was built by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 1948 and is currently located at their facility in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Users may read and see pictures of the wall's physical features, its orientation, and search among descriptions and pictures of the various types of stone which are incorporated into the wall.

Raz, Jaime; Stutzman, Paul

172

User's manual for PANDA II: A computer code for calculating equations of state.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PANDA is an interactive computer code that is used to compute equations of state (EOS) for many classes of materials over a wide range of densities and temperatures. The first step in the development of a general EOS model is to determine the EOS for a on...

G. I. Kerley

1991-01-01

173

California State Library: Processing Center Design and Specifications. Volume III, Coding Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of the report on the California State Library Processing Center design and specifications, this volume is a coding manual for the conversion of catalog card data to a machine-readable form. The form is compatible with the national MARC system, while at the same time it contains provisions for problems peculiar to the local situation. This…

Sherman, Don; Shoffner, Ralph M.

174

Imperfect jamming state information generators for coded FH\\/MFSK under partial-band noise jamming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three imperfect jamming state information (JSI) generators for coded, memoryless, noncoherent, frequency-hopped M-ary frequency-shift-keying (FH\\/MFSK) systems under partial-band noise jamming (PBNJ) are introduced. These are then compared with respect to the bit-energy-to-jamming-noise power spectral density ratio (E b\\/NJ) required to achieve cutoff rates

Hyuck M. Kwon

1989-01-01

175

Spotlight on Speech Codes 2007: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Last year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducted its first-ever comprehensive study of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities, "Spotlight on Speech Codes 2006: The State of Free Speech on our Nation's Campuses." In light of the essentiality of free expression to a truly liberal education, its…

Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2007

2007-01-01

176

Aerospace design optimization using a steady state real-coded genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the advantages of using a real coded genetic algorithm (GA) for aerospace engineering design applications. The GA developed for this study runs steady state, meaning that after every function evaluation the worst performer is determined and that worst performer is then thrown out and replaced by a new member that has been evaluated. The new member is

John D. Dyer; Roy J. Hartfield; Gerry V. Dozier; John E. Burkhalter

177

Pronouncements and Denunciations: An Analysis of State Press Association Ethics Codes from the 1920s.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how four situational concerns (the rise of press agents, the fallout from World War I propaganda, sensationalism's resurgence, and editorial independence) contributed to a noticeable decline of the public's trust in the press. Shows how, as a result, 12 state press association ethics codes from the 1920s consistently emphasized the…

Cronin, Mary M.; McPherson, James B.

1995-01-01

178

Using Microsoft Excel as a pre-processor for CODE V optimization of air spaces when building camera lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When building high-performance camera lenses, it is often preferable to tailor element-to-element air spaces instead of tightening the fabrication tolerances sufficiently so that random assembly is possible. A tailored air space solution is usually unique for each serial number camera lens and results in nearly nominal performance. When these air spaces are computed based on measured radii, thickness, and refractive indices, this can put a strain on the design engineering department to deal with all the data in a timely fashion. Excel† may be used by the assembly technician as a preprocessor tool to facilitate data entry and organization, and to perform the optimization using CODE V‡ (or equivalent) without any training or experience in using lens design software. This makes it unnecessary to involve design engineering for each lens serial number, sometimes waiting in their work queue. In addition, Excel can be programmed to run CODE V in such a way that discrete shim thicknesses result. This makes it possible for each tailored air space solution to be achieved using a finite number of shims that differ in thickness by a reasonable amount. It is generally not necessary to tailor the air spaces in each lens to the micron level to achieve nearly nominal performance.

Stephenson, Dave

2013-09-01

179

Do Merit-Aid Programs Help States Build Skilled Workforces?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major developments in financing undergraduate education in the United States in the past 20 years has been the introduction of broad-based merit-aid programs by state governments. The typical program waives tuition and fees at public colleges and universities for state residents who have attained a respectable grade-point average…

Groen, Jeffrey A.

2011-01-01

180

Weighting strategy in the state space problem for DS-CDMA code acquisition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a formulation of state-space problem of which solution is directed by redundant reasoning control method for semi-heuristic and lightweight DS-CDMA code acquisition. The reasoning of the state-space problem provides us with the way to find a K bit synchronized sequence among K dephased sequences with less calculation cost compared with serial search and matched filter. In this process,

Ruo Ando; Yoshiyasu Takefuji

181

COOLOD-N2: A computer code, for the analyses of steady-state thermal-hydraulics in research reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The COOLOD-N2 code provides a capability for the analyses of the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of research reactors. This code is revised version of the COOLOD-N code, and is applicable not only for research reactors in which plate-type fuel is adopted,...

M. Kaminaga

1994-01-01

182

Representation of bidirectional ground motions for design spectra in building codes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2009 NEHRP Provisions modified the definition of horizontal ground motion from the geometric mean of spectral accelerations for two components to the peak response of a single lumped mass oscillator regardless of direction. These maximum-direction (MD) ground motions operate under the assumption that the dynamic properties of the structure (e.g., stiffness, strength) are identical in all directions. This assumption may be true for some in-plan symmetric structures, however, the response of most structures is dominated by modes of vibration along specific axes (e.g., longitudinal and transverse axes in a building), and often the dynamic properties (especially stiffness) along those axes are distinct. In order to achieve structural designs consistent with the collapse risk level given in the NEHRP documents, we argue that design spectra should be compatible with expected levels of ground motion along those principal response axes. The use of MD ground motions effectively assumes that the azimuth of maximum ground motion coincides with the directions of principal structural response. Because this is unlikely, design ground motions have lower probability of occurrence than intended, with significant societal costs. We recommend adjustments to make design ground motions compatible with target risk levels.

Stewart, Jonathan P.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Atkinson, Gail M.; Beker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Campbell, Kenneth W.; Comartin, Craig D.; Idriss, I. M.; Lew, Marshall; Mehrain, Michael; Moehle, Jack P.; Naeim, Farzad; Sabol, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

183

78 FR 6811 - Country Code Top-Level Domain (ccTLD) for the United States; Policies and Requirements; Comments...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...130124072-3072-01] RIN 0660-XC005 Country Code Top-Level Domain (ccTLD) for the United States...the contract for the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the United States...the creation and maintenance of a second level domain within the usTLD (kids.us)...

2013-01-31

184

50 CFR Table 17 to Part 679 - Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report...FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 17 Table 17 to Part 679âProcess Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual...

2012-10-01

185

50 CFR Table 17 to Part 679 - Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR)  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report...FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 17 Table 17 to Part 679âProcess Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual...

2011-10-01

186

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-125-2125, State of Colorado, Office of the State Public Defender, Petroleum building, Denver, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a request from the State of Colorado, Office of the State Public Defender (SIC-9222), an investigation was made of indoor air quality at the office in the Petroleum Building, Denver, Colorado. The building was built in 1957 and consisted of 14 stories plus a penthouse in downtown Denver. Ventilation in the building consisted of a central heating,

McCammon

1991-01-01

187

Side Effects of Regime Building in Jordan: The State and the Nation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both the September 1970 Jordanian ‘civil war’ and the signing of the Jordanian National Charter in 1991 mark critical junctures in the processes of state, regime, and nation building in the kingdom. The subduing of the fedayeen in 1970–71 eliminated the final significant challenger to the sovereignty of the Jordanian state. The National Charter brought historic opposition groups together to

Russell Lucas

2008-01-01

188

Sport, Nationalism and the Building of the Modern Chinese Nation State (1912–49)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article will examine the relationship between sport, Chinese nationalism and the building of the Republic. It will highlight the role of sport in constructing the modern Chinese nation state in a historical and political context. The Republic of China Era (1912–49) saw the transformation of the modern Chinese nation state from its infancy to maturity. Sport played an important

Lu Zhouxiang

2011-01-01

189

Winning Bodies and Souls: State Building and the Necessity of Nationalism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis argues the obvious, but still widely neglected point that for successful state building to occur in the post-Cold War era, nationalism remains a necessary but not sufficient condition for the emergence of a stable modern nation-state. National...

J. M. Adams

2008-01-01

190

Do Sports Build Character. A Study of the Intramural Sports Program of the United States Air Force Academy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the premise that 'sports build character.' Educational institutions in the United States have used sports participation to build character for over 100 years, but verification of whether sport is an effective tool to accomplish charact...

D. C. Gould

2000-01-01

191

Successfully Demonstrating an Integrated Roofing and BIPV Solution for an Historic Building Renovation at the United States Air Force Academy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

United States Air Force Academy, Vandenberg Hall, Integrated Roofing and Building-Integrated Photovoltaic System (BIPV) Solution for an Historic Building Renovation. Vandenberg Hall is Six Stories High + Basement, Quarter of a Mile Long, and the Window Wa...

C. Simpson F. Wellers J. G. Luna V. Rossi

2011-01-01

192

Magic-State Distillation in All Prime Dimensions Using Quantum Reed-Muller Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose families of protocols for magic-state distillation—important components of fault-tolerance schemes—for systems of odd prime dimension. Our protocols utilize quantum Reed-Muller codes with transversal non-Clifford gates. We find that, in higher dimensions, small and effective codes can be used that have no direct analogue in qubit (two-dimensional) systems. We present several concrete protocols, including schemes for three-dimensional (qutrit) and five-dimensional (ququint) systems. The five-dimensional protocol is, by many measures, the best magic-state-distillation scheme yet discovered. It excels both in terms of error threshold with respect to depolarizing noise (36.3%) and the efficiency measure known as yield, where, for a large region of parameters, it outperforms its qubit counterpart by many orders of magnitude.

Campbell, Earl T.; Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E.

2012-10-01

193

Mencius: Building Efficient Replicated State Machine for WANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a protocol for general state machine repli- cation - a method that provides strong consistency - that has high performance in a wide-area network. In particu- lar, our protocol Mencius has high throughput under high client load and low latency under low client load even un- der changing wide-area network environment and client load. We develop our protocol

Yanhua Mao; Flavio Paiva Junqueira; Keith Marzullo

2008-01-01

194

Dense Coding via Local Measurement with Extended GHZ-Type State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two schemes for dense coding via local measurement with an extended GHZ-type state are investigated. In this protocol, the supervisor (Cliff) can control the channel and the average amount of information transmitted from the sender (Alice) to the receiver (Bob) by adjusting the local measurement angle ?. It is shown that the results for the average amounts of information are unique from the different two schemes.

Yi, Xiao-jie; Wang, Jian-min

2013-03-01

195

Flood-resilient waterfront development in New York City: bridging flood insurance, building codes, and flood zoning.  

PubMed

Waterfronts are attractive areas for many-often competing-uses in New York City (NYC) and are seen as multifunctional locations for economic, environmental, and social activities on the interface between land and water. The NYC waterfront plays a crucial role as a first line of flood defense and in managing flood risk and protecting the city from future climate change and sea-level rise. The city of New York has embarked on a climate adaptation program (PlaNYC) outlining the policies needed to anticipate the impacts of climate change. As part of this policy, the Department of City Planning has recently prepared Vision 2020: New York City Comprehensive Waterfront Plan for the over 500 miles of NYC waterfront (NYC-DCP, 2011). An integral part of the vision is to improve resilience to climate change and sea-level rise. This study seeks to provide guidance for advancing the goals of NYC Vision 2020 by assessing how flood insurance, flood zoning, and building code policies can contribute to waterfront development that is more resilient to climate change. PMID:21692807

Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter

2011-06-01

196

Buy versus build: a survey of state policies  

SciTech Connect

Integrated resource planning has reemerged as the primary means through which new generation will be developed in much of the U.S. Where this is the case, regulators will need to address the manner and extent to which independent power producers are allowed to compete to supply a utility's incremental resource needs. This article reports the results of a survey of state policies with respect to competitive procurement. (author)

Basheda, Gregory; Schumacher, Adam

2008-11-15

197

Steady state ventilation regimes in multiple room buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ventilation of connected chambers offers a rich variety of flow behaviors. A two-chamber model is considered in which only one of the chambers is thermally forced yet both may communicate with the external environment. If the plume source has a finite volume flux, either chamber may become blocked i.e. completely filled with contaminated fluid. Hence, a steady, naturally ventilated regime is possible only for certain non-dimensional combinations of the effective vent area and the source volume and buoyancy fluxes. Steady state conditions are derived in a manner analogous to Linden, Lane-Serff & Smeed (1990) and Woods, Caulfield & Phillips (2003). Unfortunately, these conditions cannot specify the buoyant layer depth in the unforced room for which the transient evolution toward steady state must also be considered. Results from this analysis (performed in the limiting case of a plume source with zero volume flux) suggest that at steady state, the buoyant layer depth in the unforced chamber may be either larger or smaller than that of the forced chamber.

Flynn, Morris; Caulfield, Colm-Cille

2004-11-01

198

Feasibility study for improved steady-state initialization algorithms for the RELAP5 computer code  

SciTech Connect

A design for a new steady-state initialization method is presented that represents an improvement over the current method used in RELAP5. Current initialization methods for RELAP5 solve the transient fluidflow balance equations simulating a transient to achieve steady-state conditions. Because the transient solution is used, the initial conditions may change from the desired values requiring the use of controllers and long transient running times to obtain steady-state conditions for system problems. The new initialization method allows the user to fix thermal-hydraulic values in volumes and junctions where the conditions are best known and have the code compute the initial conditions in other areas of the system. The steady-state balance equations and solution methods are presented. The constitutive, component, and specialpurpose models are reviewed with respect to modifications required for the new steady-state initialization method. The requirements for user input are defined and the feasibility of the method is demonstrated with a testbed code by initializing some simple channel problems. The initialization of the sample problems using, the old and the new methods are compared.

Paulsen, M.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Katsma, K.R. (Computer Simulation and Analysis, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

1993-04-01

199

Building the Capacity of States to Ensure Inclusion of Rural Communities in State and Local Primary Violence Prevention Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities face unique challenges associated with ensuring that they are equal partners in capacity-building and prevention planning processes at the state and local level despite barriers that can inhibit participation. By their nature, rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities and…

Cook-Craig, Patricia G.; Lane, Karen G.; Siebold, Wendi L.

2010-01-01

200

Toward a theory of leadership and state building.  

PubMed

We present a theory of the state based on political leadership and reputational equilibria. A political leader first needs a reputation for reliably rewarding loyal supporters. Reputational expectations between political leaders and their supporters become the fundamental political laws on which the enforcement of all other constitutional laws may be based. Successful democratic development requires a plentiful supply of leaders who have good reputations for using public funds responsibly to serve the public at large and not just giving jobs to their active supporters. It is argued that decentralized democracy may be the best way to improve the chances for successful democracy. PMID:22198758

Myerson, Roger B

2011-12-22

201

Toward a theory of leadership and state building  

PubMed Central

We present a theory of the state based on political leadership and reputational equilibria. A political leader first needs a reputation for reliably rewarding loyal supporters. Reputational expectations between political leaders and their supporters become the fundamental political laws on which the enforcement of all other constitutional laws may be based. Successful democratic development requires a plentiful supply of leaders who have good reputations for using public funds responsibly to serve the public at large and not just giving jobs to their active supporters. It is argued that decentralized democracy may be the best way to improve the chances for successful democracy.

Myerson, Roger B.

2011-01-01

202

National trends and coding patterns in fall-related mortality among the elderly in the United States.  

PubMed

Because good information on deaths caused by a fall would be important for prevention policies, we analyzed the influence of coding differences on variability in state-level fall death rates in the elderly. We examined state differences in the number of cause of death codes on death certificates, death certifiers, completeness of E-coding, and indicators of specificity of coding. We found that state-specific fall mortality rates ranged from 13.9 to 140.4 in people aged 65 years and above. States employing a coroner to investigate injury deaths had 14 per cent fewer recorded fall deaths than those where a medical examiner conducted the investigations. Each unit increase in the median number of cause of death codes was associated with a 10 per cent increase in the number of falls. For each 1 per cent increase in the use of unspecified codes for the underlying cause of death, the number of falls dropped by 2 per cent. Current fall mortality data do not appear to identify all instances of falls. Variability in unintentional fall-related death rates among states may be partly explained by death certification coding practices. Standardization of coding and training for documentation of fall events and death certificate reporting could help uncover the actual fall mortality burden in the elderly. PMID:22358121

Maresh, Jordan; Guse, Clare; Layde, Peter

2012-02-23

203

Appendices of an appraisal for the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings in Colorado. Section E. Glenwood Springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State Highway Department Buildings in Glenwood Springs have been evaluated in this appraisal for the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings. Glenwood Springs is the location of surface hot springs and has been assessed by various parties for several geothermal applications. The Glenwood Highway Department Buildings consist of an office building and a maintenance garage. These two building140

R. T. Meyer; B. A. Coe; J. D. Dick

1981-01-01

204

Development of LIFE4-CN: a Combined Code for Steady-State and Transient Analyses of Advanced LMFBR Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The methodology used to develop the LMFBR carbide/nitride fuels code, LIFE4-CN, is described in detail along with some subtleties encountered in code development. Fuel primary and steady-state thermal creep have been used as an example to illustrate the n...

Y. Y. Liu S. Zawadzki M. C. Billone U. P. Nayak T. Roth

1979-01-01

205

Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Strategic Plan  

SciTech Connect

This strategic plan is in direct response to the call by a broad array of interested parties, for the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) to reduce fragmentation and increase focus. This plan outlines goals for saving energy, three key strategies to accomplish these goals, and a commitment to improving how they do business.

Brandegee

1999-01-28

206

State of the art in lighting simulation for building science: a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the current state of the art in lighting simulation related to building science research. Discussion on historical developments and main modelling approaches is followed by describing lighting simulation within the design process, where it is applied beyond presentation renderings. Works are grouped using the main aspects of a program (input, modelling and output). Lighting simulation currently focuses

Carlos E. Ochoa; Myriam B. C. Aries; Jan L. M. Hensen

2012-01-01

207

State of the art in lighting simulation for building science: a literature review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the current state of the art in lighting simulation related to building science research. Discussion on historical developments and main modelling approaches is followed by describing lighting simulation within the design process, where it is applied beyond presentation renderings. Works are grouped using the main aspects of a program (input, modelling and output). Lighting simulation currently focuses

Carlos E. Ochoa; Myriam B. C. Aries; Jan L. M. Hensen

2011-01-01

208

BUILDING STRONGER STATE ENERGY PARTNERSHIPS WITH THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

SciTech Connect

This technical progress report includes an update of the progress during the second year of cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. The report also describes the barriers in conduct of the effort, and our assessment of future progress and activities.

Kate Burke

2002-11-01

209

Oil and state-building in post-Soviet Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation investigates the state-building trajectories of Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan against a backdrop of oil-led development in the post-Soviet period. Specifically, it seeks to document and explain the counterintuitive divergence in the development of state capacity in these two cases---countries whose wide range of historical and structural similarities would seem to favor convergence in their economic and political evolutions. Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan not only share the political, social and economic legacies of Soviet rule, but a geological inheritance of extremely large hydrocarbon reserves. Extensive in-country interviews as well as an analysis of relevant macroeconomic indicators, however, reveal a gap in the two countries' developmental potential---defined as state capacity across a set of important state and market institutions necessary for long-term economic development. Ultimately, I conclude that Kazakhstan's evolution appears "more developmental" relative to Azerbaijan's, in terms of the development of state capacity necessary for long-term development. This dissertation proceeds from the assumption that a country's developmental potential depends on the combination of state capacity and political will. The divergence in the development of state capacity in Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan, I argue, results from differences in key socio-political factors that underlie the state-building projects of each country, in particular the configuration of groups across society and state structures, and the nature of the regime. These "independent variables" not only affect the evolution of state institutions, but also condition the relationship between the state and the growing oil sector in each country. The goal of this project is to (1) demonstrate the emerging divergence in Kazakhstan's and Azerbaijan's state-building trajectories; and (2) to link this divergence to differences in the independent variable. My argument unfolds in two parts. First, an examination of the oil sector reveals both the effects of oil-led development on state-building, as well as the role of the independent variables in both oil sector and state development. Oil thus simultaneously both "causes" changes in state capacity, and "reflects" the socio-political phenomena common to both realms. Secondly, an in-depth comparison of Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan across three developmentally-critical institutional sites exposes the linkages between state capacity and developmental potential.

Hoffman, David Isao

210

Oil and state-building in post-Soviet Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation investigates the state-building trajectories of Azerbaijan and Kazakhstan against a backdrop of oil-led development in the post-Soviet period. Specifically, it seeks to document and explain the counterintuitive divergence in the development of state capacity in these two cases---countries whose wide range of historical and structural similarities would seem to favor convergence in their economic and political evolutions. Azerbaijan

David Isao Hoffman

2000-01-01

211

Research Report on Feasibility Study of Building a QT Gui Testing Tool, AX Program Code Group Computer Science R&D Project  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project was to determine if a tool could be built to test Qt. In determining the feasibility of building a tool the following requirements needed to be researched: (1) Determine if the underlying Qt signal/slot architecture could be leveraged. (2) Research how much impact implementing such a tool would have on existing code, i.e. how much extra code would need to be inserted to use the tool. (3) Determine with the above information if a tool could be built. With the above steps completed, the information needed to make a decision on building a tool could be made. Armed with this information I felt I could make a more educated decision on the possibility of building a tool. This project was divided into two main steps. The first step was to understand the underlying Qt source code much better. The second step was to build a small prototype that I could use to test ideas. The first step was actually much shorter than I had originally anticipated. Understanding the underlying architecture of Qt only took about two weeks. After studying the architecture of qt and working with the support people at Trolltech, the company that develops Qt, I found a way to test Qt. This project was very successful. I accomplished everything I intended to do. I learned and understood the inner workings of the Qt library enough that I could build a simple tool that could leverage some of the information in Qt to test the GUI. I was also able to find a tool that was commercially available to test Qt GUI's. These two things were the main goals of this project. Therefore I consider it a success. In fact I was able to progress farther with my prototype testing then I had originally planned.

Grover, B T

2003-05-05

212

Moisture entrapment in buildings with EIFS and stucco facades in the State of Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the state of Florida, explosive population increases have promoted monumental efforts by the building industry to keep up with the demand for public facilities such as schools, hospitals and multiple story housing (condominiums). The onslaught has brought with it various industry-related problems, one of which is interior building permeation more commonly known as moisture intrusion. External Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS) and stucco veneer buildings are cost efficient and follow the guidelines for ever shortening construction timeframes; which is part of the reason for failures found through thermographic analysis. This combined with the underlying structural building components and their differential thermal expansion known as the Coefficient of Expansion loan themselves to the problematic conditions observed in numerous projects throughout the southeast. Hurricanes, severe thunderstorms, heavy humidity and other forms of atmospheric conditions found in the southeast (and more so in Florida), accelerate the aging process of the two aforementioned systems. These, combined with the factors described above have brought the investigation of the two systems to the forefront of countless building owners. This paper presents thermographic examples of case studies performed within the state of Florida and is presented raise concerned awareness over the extent of damage that can occur when EIFS and stucco systems fail.

Barker, Kathryn M.; Knettel, Michael G.

1999-03-01

213

Occupant interaction with Washington State ventilation and indoor air quality code mandated whole house ventilation systems: Telephone survey results -- Washington State University energy program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Washington State Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code (VIAQ) has required the installation of whole house ventilation systems in all new homes since July 1991. A variety of systems are allowed by the VIAQ. In May 1998, a survey was conducted to explore occupant interaction with the code mandated systems. The survey is part of a research project designed

J. Devine; R. Kunkle; M. Lubliner

1999-01-01

214

Joint Decoding of LDPC Codes and Finite-State Channels Via Linear-Programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the joint-decoding (JD) problem for finite-state channels (FSCs) and low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. In the first part, the linear-programming (LP) decoder for binary linear codes is extended to JD of binary-input FSCs. In particular, we provide a rigorous definition of LP joint-decoding pseudo-codewords (JD-PCWs) that enables evaluation of the pairwise error probability between codewords and JD-PCWs in AWGN. This leads naturally to a provable upper bound on decoder failure probability. If the channel is a finite-state intersymbol interference channel, then the joint LP decoder also has the maximum-likelihood (ML) certificate property and all integer-valued solutions are codewords. In this case, the performance loss relative to ML decoding can be explained completely by fractional-valued JD-PCWs. After deriving these results, we discovered some elements were equivalent to earlier work by Flanagan on LP receivers. In the second part, we develop an efficient iterative solver for the joint LP decoder discussed in the first part. In particular, we extend the approach of iterative approximate LP decoding, proposed by Vontobel and Koetter and analyzed by Burshtein, to this problem. By taking advantage of the dual-domain structure of the JD-LP, we obtain a convergent iterative algorithm for joint LP decoding whose structure is similar to BCJR-based turbo equalization (TE). The result is a joint iterative decoder whose per-iteration complexity is similar to that of TE but whose performance is similar to that of joint LP decoding. The main advantage of this decoder is that it appears to provide the predictability of joint LP decoding and superior performance with the computational complexity of TE. One expected application is coding for magnetic storage where the required block-error rate is extremely low and system performance is difficult to verify by simulation.

Kim, Byung-Hak; Pfister, Henry D.

2011-12-01

215

State Building in the Niger Basin in the Common Era and Beyond, 1000–Mid 1800s: The Case of Yorubaland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notwithstanding its destructive aspects, historical sociologists have severally used their work to establish that warfare has its constructive side especially in the realm of state building. Through their work, the literature in the sub-specialty is continuously updated with narratives and accounts of war making and state building in Europe and parts of Asia during the early modern era. Such narratives

EC Ejiogu

2011-01-01

216

Energy Efficiency of the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code in West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

This report estimate the energy savings, economic impacts, and pollution reduction from adopting the 2003 International Code Council’s 2003 International Energy Conservation Code (as the mandatory residential energy efficiency code in the state of West Virginia. The state currently allows a less stringent replacement option. This report addresses the impacts for low-rise residential buildings only.

Lucas, Robert G.

2006-12-01

217

Standardized Reporting Using Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (CODES).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

While CODES projects have expanded to 25 states, there is no standardized reporting the outcome measures that are available with linked data. This paper describes the authors' efforts to build a standard format for reporting these outcomes. This format is...

K. S. Finison

2000-01-01

218

Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from October 2007 – September 2011 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-07NT43264, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Energy Assurance and Critical Infrastructure, State and Regional Technical Assistance, Regional Initiative, Regional Coordination and Technical Assistance, and International Activities in China. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

Marks, Kate

2011-09-30

219

A Tutorial on Building Markov State Models with MSMBuilder and Coarse-Graining Them with BACE.  

PubMed

Markov state models (MSMs) are a powerful means of (1) making sense of molecular simulations, (2) making a quantitative connection between simulation and experiment, and (3) driving efficient simulations. A Markov model can be thought of as a map of the conformational space a molecule explores. Instead of having towns and cities connected with roads labeled with speed limits, a Markov model has conformational states and probabilities of transitioning between pairs of these states. This tutorial describes how to build Markov models and a few of the basic analyses that can be performed with the MSMBuilder software package. PMID:24061920

Bowman, Gregory R

2014-01-01

220

Proposed 1980 residential building standards: proposed regulations. Report No. 19  

SciTech Connect

The text of the California Administrative Code, Title 24, Part 6, Article 3 is presented. The Proposed Energy Conservation Standards for New Residential Buildings delineates scope (new buildings; mixed occupancy; additions, alterations, and repairs to existing buildings; construction of residential buildings by state agencies); interpretations; compliance requirements; energy performance standards; mandatory features and devices; enforcement by the Commission; exemptions; locally adopted energy standards; building standards definitions; appliance efficiency standards; and definitions. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-09-01

221

Construction of a Solid State Research Facility, Building 3150. Environmental Assessment  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct a new facility to house the Materials Synthesis Group (MSG) and the Semiconductor Physics Group (SPG) of the Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The location of the proposed action is Roane County, Tennessee. MSG is involved in the study of crystal growth and the preparation and characterization of advanced materials, such as high-temperature superconductors, while SPG is involved in semiconductor physics research. All MSG and a major pardon of SPG research activities are now conducted in Building 2000, a deteriorating structure constructed in the 1940. The physical deterioration of the roof; the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system; and the plumbing make this building inadequate for supporting research activities. The proposed project is needed to provide laboratory and office space for MSG and SPG and to ensure that research activities can continue without interruption due to deficiencies in the building and its associated utility systems.

Not Available

1993-07-01

222

Asbestos in State-Owned Buildings: A Survey of State Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The information in this report is derived from responses to a questionnaire sent to contacts in the 50 states in winter 1988. The questionnaire, which uses the requirements of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act of 1986 (AHERA) as a base for comparing state programs, sought information regarding state programs dealing with asbestos in…

Neilander, Dennis K.; Sacarto, Douglas M.

223

Profiles of Airborne Fungi in Buildings and Outdoor Environments in the United States  

PubMed Central

We examined 12,026 fungal air samples (9,619 indoor samples and 2,407 outdoor samples) from 1,717 buildings located across the United States; these samples were collected during indoor air quality investigations performed from 1996 to 1998. For all buildings, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected with an Andersen N6 sampler. The culturable airborne fungal concentrations in indoor air were lower than those in outdoor air. The fungal levels were highest in the fall and summer and lowest in the winter and spring. Geographically, the highest fungal levels were found in the Southwest, Far West, and Southeast. The most common culturable airborne fungi, both indoors and outdoors and in all seasons and regions, were Cladosporium, Penicillium, nonsporulating fungi, and Aspergillus. Stachybotrys chartarum was identified in the indoor air in 6% of the buildings studied and in the outdoor air of 1% of the buildings studied. This study provides industrial hygienists, allergists, and other public health practitioners with comparative information on common culturable airborne fungi in the United States. This is the largest study of airborne indoor and outdoor fungal species and concentrations conducted with a standardized protocol to date.

Shelton, Brian G.; Kirkland, Kimberly H.; Flanders, W. Dana; Morris, George K.

2002-01-01

224

Case study of modifications to a wood ``I'' beam framed floor-ceiling assembly which did not meet minimum International Building Code (IBC) impact insulation class (IIC) or sound transmission class (STC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A direct comparison, using three identical floor-ceiling assemblies, which did not meet minimum building codes standards for impact insulation class as built. Each floor-ceiling assembly received different corrective measures in an effort to correct the deficiency. All corrective measures were limited to the bottom side of the assembly, since hardwood flooring was installed as the finished floor. All the floor-ceiling assemblies consisted of light weight 16-in. deep ``I'' beam structural framing members (joist) spaced at 24 in. center to center supporting 3/4 in.-t & g plywood with 1-1/2 in. light weight gypsum concrete covered with 1/2-in. plywood and finished with hardwood flooring. Using tired old industry standard methods, products, and systems the best impact insulation class increase was twelve points which still did not meet minimum building code standards. By installing the state of the art products, using the proper methods available today under the floor-ceiling assembly the field impact insulation class was increased 28 points to a field impact insulation class of 60 without acoustical mat on the top side of the assembly. By design the field sound transmission class was also improved (40 to 55 STC) due to product selection, installations procedures, and design.

Gernhart, Elzo F.

2005-09-01

225

FORCE2: A state-of-the-art two-phase code for hydrodynamic calculations  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional computer code for two-phase flow named FORCE2 has been developed by Babcock and Wilcox (B & W) in close collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). FORCE2 is capable of both transient as well as steady-state simulations. This Cartesian coordinates computer program is a finite control volume, industrial grade and quality embodiment of the pilot-scale FLUFIX/MOD2 code and contains features such as three-dimensional blockages, volume and surface porosities to account for various obstructions in the flow field, and distributed resistance modeling to account for pressure drops caused by baffles, distributor plates and large tube banks. Recently computed results demonstrated the significance of and necessity for three-dimensional models of hydrodynamics and erosion. This paper describes the process whereby ANL`s pilot-scale FLUFIX/MOD2 models and numerics were implemented into FORCE2. A description of the quality control to assess the accuracy of the new code and the validation using some of the measured data from Illinois Institute of Technology (UT) and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) are given. It is envisioned that one day, FORCE2 with additional modules such as radiation heat transfer, combustion kinetics and multi-solids together with user-friendly pre- and post-processor software and tailored for massively parallel multiprocessor shared memory computational platforms will be used by industry and researchers to assist in reducing and/or eliminating the environmental and economic barriers which limit full consideration of coal, shale and biomass as energy sources, to retain energy security, and to remediate waste and ecological problems.

Ding, Jianmin; Lyczkowski, R.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Burge, S.W. [Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center

1993-02-01

226

FORCE2: A state-of-the-art two-phase code for hydrodynamic calculations  

SciTech Connect

A three-dimensional computer code for two-phase flow named FORCE2 has been developed by Babcock and Wilcox (B W) in close collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). FORCE2 is capable of both transient as well as steady-state simulations. This Cartesian coordinates computer program is a finite control volume, industrial grade and quality embodiment of the pilot-scale FLUFIX/MOD2 code and contains features such as three-dimensional blockages, volume and surface porosities to account for various obstructions in the flow field, and distributed resistance modeling to account for pressure drops caused by baffles, distributor plates and large tube banks. Recently computed results demonstrated the significance of and necessity for three-dimensional models of hydrodynamics and erosion. This paper describes the process whereby ANL's pilot-scale FLUFIX/MOD2 models and numerics were implemented into FORCE2. A description of the quality control to assess the accuracy of the new code and the validation using some of the measured data from Illinois Institute of Technology (UT) and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) are given. It is envisioned that one day, FORCE2 with additional modules such as radiation heat transfer, combustion kinetics and multi-solids together with user-friendly pre- and post-processor software and tailored for massively parallel multiprocessor shared memory computational platforms will be used by industry and researchers to assist in reducing and/or eliminating the environmental and economic barriers which limit full consideration of coal, shale and biomass as energy sources, to retain energy security, and to remediate waste and ecological problems.

Ding, Jianmin; Lyczkowski, R.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Burge, S.W. (Babcock and Wilcox Co., Alliance, OH (United States). Research Center)

1993-02-01

227

The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption and intensity, over and above the variation associated with the contextual factors. This study also had implications in program implementation theory, and revealed that resource availability, stringency and adherence had significant impacts on program outcomes. Using seven classification tables, this study categorized and matched the predictors of electricity consumption and intensity with the specific energy sectors in which they demonstrated significance. Project developers, energy advocates, policy makers, program administrators, building occupants and other stakeholders could use study findings in conjunction with other empirical findings, to make informed decisions regarding the adoption, continuation or discontinuation of energy programs, while taking contextual factors into consideration. The adoption and efficient implementation of the most significant programs could reduce U.S. electricity consumption, and in the long term, probably reduce U.S. energy waste, environmental degradation, energy imports, energy prices, and demands for expanding energy generation and distribution infrastructure.

Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

228

Appendices of an appraisal for the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings in Colorado. Section D. Durango  

SciTech Connect

Four state-owned building complexes ahve been evaluated within the city of Durango: The State Fish Hatchery, Fort Lewis College, new State Highway Department Building near the Bodo Industrial Park, and the National Guard Building. Three of the state facilities in Durango are evaluated for geothermal systems on thea ssumption of taking geothermal water from a trunk-line originating at the area northof Durango: State Fish Hatchery, Fort Lewis College and new State Highway Department Building. The National Guard Building is evaluated on the basis of a water-to-air heat pump, with warm water derived from a hypothetical shallow aquifer immediately below the building site. Two geothermal options were separately evaluated for Fort Lewis College: a central heat exchanger system for delivery of 145/sup 0/F heating water to the campus buildings and a central heat pump system for boosting the heating water to 200/sup 0/F prior to delivery to the buildings; both systems require the installation of a distribution piping network for the entire campus area. Retrofit engineering for the State Fish Hatchery provides for the installation of a small scale central distribution piping system to the several buildings, a central heat excanger coupled to the geothermal trunk line, and the use of various fan coil and unit heaters for space heating. An option is provided for discharge-mixing the geothermal water into the fish ponds and runs in order to raise the hatchery water temperature a couple degrees for increasing fish production and yield. The heating system for the new State Highway Department Building is redesigned to replace the natural-gas-fired forced-air furnaces with a heat exchanger, hot water fan coils and unit heaters.

Meyer, R.T.; Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.

1981-01-01

229

Prediction of explosive cylinder tests using equations of state from the PANDA code  

SciTech Connect

The PANDA code is used to construct tabular equations of state (EOS) for the detonation products of 24 explosives having CHNO compositions. These EOS, together with a reactive burn model, are used in numerical hydrocode calculations of cylinder tests. The predicted detonation properties and cylinder wall velocities are found to give very good agreement with experimental data. Calculations of flat plate acceleration tests for the HMX-based explosive LX14 are also made and shown to agree well with the measurements. The effects of the reaction zone on both the cylinder and flat plate tests are discussed. For TATB-based explosives, the differences between experiment and theory are consistently larger than for other compositions and may be due to nonideal (finite dimameter) behavior.

Kerley, G.I. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Christian-Frear, T.L. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-09-28

230

Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from July 2000 - July 2008 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Rebuild America/Energy Smart Schools, Higher Education Initiative, Winter/Summer Fuels Outlook Conferences, Energy Emergency, Clean Energy Integration, Energy Star, and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

David Terry

2008-09-30

231

Examining the Use of ICD-9 Diagnosis Codes for Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases in New York State  

PubMed Central

Purpose To use International Classification of Disease Codes (ICD-9) codes to investigate primary immune deficiency (PID) in New York State. Methods We investigated the diagnosis of Primary Immune Deficiency (PID) in New York State (NYS) using the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) database, a comprehensive data reporting system that collects ICD-9 codes for each patient hospitalized in NYS. Results From 2000–2004 there were 13,539,358 hospitalizations for 4,777,295 patients; of these, 2,361 patients (0.05 %) were diagnosed with one or more of the ICD-9 codes for PID. Antibody defects were the most common diagnoses made. The PID population had significantly more Caucasians, and fewer African American or Hispanic subjects compared to the general population. Subjects with PID codes were younger, had longer hospitalizations, were less likely to have Medicare and more likely to have Medicaid or Blue Cross insurance. Most hospitalizations were due to respiratory and infectious diseases. Most patients resided in the most populous counties, Kings, New York and Queens, but the distribution of home zip codes was not proportional to county populations. Conclusions These data provide useful information on incidence and complications of selected PID diagnoses in one large state.

Resnick, Elena S.; Bhatt, Priyanka; Sidi, Peter; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

2013-01-01

232

AmericaÂs ÂSecond City proposes United States tallest building  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As the birthplace of the skyscraper, it seems almost fitting that plans were announced this week heralding a proposed 115-story skyscraper on ChicagoÂs lakefront. The team behind the project includes Christopher Carley, a local developer, and the renowned ÂstarchitectÂ, Santiago Calatrava. Renderings of the proposed skyscraper (which would be the tallest in the United States) indicate that the slender structure would rise close to 2000 feet in the air and that its total square footage would be a very modest 920,000 square feet. The building, which would be called the Fordham Spire, faces an uphill battle, in no small part due to the fact that similarly proposed projects in Chicago have faced massive financing challenges. In a recent interview, Carley indicated that the presence of Calatrava would be of great assistance in securing monies for the project, and that he would like to get started as soon as possible. Carley may face another obstacle in the form of residents in the other tony highrises in the area, many of whom have expressed strong resistance to previous projects in their neighborhood. Of course, other skeptics have emerged, including Donald Trump (who is also building one of his signature buildings in Chicago). Trump noted that, ÂIn this climate, I would not want to build that building. Nor would I want to live in that building.ÂThe first link leads to a comprehensive news story on the proposed skyscraper from this TuesdayÂs _Chicago Sun-Times_, complete with a few choice photographic renderings of the yet-to-be built structure. The second link will take users to a CNN piece about the shimmering structure from this WednesdayÂs online edition. The third link will take interested parties to a commentary piece on the nature of ChicagoÂs Âsuperlatives," offered by Mary Schmich of the _Chicago Tribune_. The fourth link leads to an editorial from the Tribune on the whole concept of skyscrapers and such tall buildings, and closes by saying that, ÂWhat ultimately constitutes Chicago or any city is the spaces between those buildingsÂ. The fifth link leads to the official website for Santiago Calatrava. Here visitors may learn about his previous works and his overall design philosophy as expressed through his various commissions. The sixth and final link leads to the homepage of the Trump Chicago complex, which is currently under construction along the Chicago River.

233

State energy office data management: the preliminary energy audit of the institutional buildings grants program  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews state energy office (SEO) activities related to data collection, verification, and analysis for the preliminary energy audit portion of the Institutional Buildings Grant Program (IBGP). A preliminary energy audit (PEA), a collection of basic data on the characteristics of buildings and their energy use, was performed. Individual building energy use data were collected in the PEA program for thousands of institutions in each state. Such detailed data are potentially valuable in a number of ways: program management, program evaluation, policy analysis, and energy model development. However, such data must be consistently collected, carefully verified, and fully documented to fill these needs. Our examination of the SEO data management processes for the PEA showed problems in all these areas. Many SEOs lacked the time and staff to design a form adequately. This, in turn, influenced the clarity of and simplicity of the questionnaire, the ease of question interpretation, and, finally, the quality of responses. Confusion over the meaning of the federal regulations compounded these problems. Once the PEA data were collected, SEOs encountered problems in storing, verifying, and analyzing the data. Almost half the states did not computerize their PEA data and instead attempted manual control of a data set containing hundreds of thousands of data elements. Data verification and analysis in these states have been limited. Even among those SEOs with computerized data files, the computer and staff time necessary for adequate verification and analysis of the PEA data has rarely been available. Cross-comparison among states was facilitated by development of a procedure to rank PEA processes. It appears that the most important determinant of a good PEA process is the presence of a highly motivated, well-trained staff.

Blue, J.L.; Zuschneid, P.B.; Carney, J.H.; Hirst, E.

1980-10-01

234

Equation of State, Occupation Probabilities and Conductivities in the Average Atom Purgatorio Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report on recent developments with the Purgatorio code, a new implementation of Liberman's Inferno model. This fully relativistic average atom code uses phase shift tracking and an ecient renement scheme to provide an accurate description of continuum ...

P. A. Sterne S. B. Hansen B. G. Wilson W. A. Isaacs

2007-01-01

235

Living with Non-recognition: State and Nation-building in South Caucasian Quasi-states  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissolution of the Soviet Union led to the establishment of several non-recognised statelets, three of which—Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno-Karabakh—are located in the South Caucasus. This article sets aside the question of whether these quasi-states ought to be internationally recognised, and focuses on whether they exist as functioning state entities. To what extent are the authorities in these would-be

Pål Kolstø; Helge Blakkisrud

2008-01-01

236

Energy conservation standards: Promoting energy efficient new non-residential buildings in the United States  

SciTech Connect

In the past fifteen years, a number of energy conservation standards for the design of new non-residential buildings have been promulgated in the United States. These vary in their approach from component level prescription of minimum efficiencies or levels of insulation to whole-building energy goals. Over the past five years, the US Department of Energy (USDOE), the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), and the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) of North America have been cooperatively developing the next generation of energy conservation standards for the United States. This paper describes those efforts and provides a comparison of the anticipated benefits (energy savings) resulting from recently adopted standards (the US Department of Energy Non-Residential Standards, and ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90. 1P). A series of annual energy simulations of various types of non-residential buildings was performed to assess the impacts of the requirements of the standards. The results of these simulations (using the DOE-2.1C hourly energy simulation program) are presented and discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs.

Crawley, D.B.

1989-08-01

237

Do Corporate Codes of Ethics Reflect National Character? Evidence from Europe and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the usage and contents of corporate codes of ethics. The results from a sample of 600 large European companies are contrasted with findings reported for similar U.S. firms. The comparison reveals that significantly fewer European than U.S. firms adopted codes of ethics. In Europe, the large majority of codes have been introduced only very recently and there

Catherine C. Langlois; Bodo B. Schlegelmilch

1990-01-01

238

User's manual for PANDA II: A computer code for calculating equations of state  

SciTech Connect

PANDA is an interactive computer code that is used to compute equations of state (EOS) for many classes of materials over a wide range of densities and temperatures. The first step in the development of a general EOS model is to determine the EOS for a one- component system, consisting of a single solid or fluid phase and a single chemical species. The results of several such calculations can then be combined to construct EOS for multiphase and multicomponent systems. For one-component solids and fluids, PANDA offers a variety of options for modeling various contributions to the EOS: the zero Kelvin isotherm, lattice vibrations, fluid degrees of freedom, thermal electronic excitation and ionization, and molecular vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. Two options are available for computing EOS for multicomponent systems from separate EOS for the individual species and phases. The phase transition model is used for a system of immiscible phases, each having the same chemical composition. In the mixture model, the components can be either miscible or immiscible and can have different chemical compositions; mixtures cab be either inert or reactive. PANDA provides over 50 commands that are used to define the EOS models, to make calculations and compare the models to experimental data, and to generate and maintain tabular EOS libraries for use in hydrocodes and other applications. Versions of the code available for the Cray (UNICOS and CTSS), SUN (UNIX), and VAX(VMS) machines, and a small version is available for personal computers (DOS). This report describes the EOS models, use of the commands, and several sample problems. 92 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

Kerley, G.I.

1991-07-18

239

77 FR 26647 - National Building Safety Month, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...work to implement building safety solutions that strengthen resilience and meet community needs. By designing and implementing state-of-the-art...technology to establish stronger codes and standards for disaster resilience. And moving forward, we must promote research and...

2012-05-04

240

Sensitivity and specificity of traumatic brain injury diagnosis codes in United States Department of Veterans Affairs administrative data.  

PubMed

Objective: To examine the validity of using International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnosis codes from United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) data to describe prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) among military veterans. Methods: VA clinicians complete a standardized TBI evaluation to determine whether veterans' deployment exposures resulted in TBI. Clinician-confirmed cases and non-cases of TBI were used as recorded on the evaluation as the criterion standard against which to evaluate three series of TBI-related ICD diagnosis codes in national VA datasets. Focusing on codes used within VA, measures of validity were calculated and correlates of discordance examined, including patient characteristics, region and time. Secondarily, it was examined whether TBI codes can differentiate mild from more severe TBI cases. Results: Of 49?962 veterans with completed TBI evaluations, 29?534 (59%) received clinician-confirmed TBI diagnoses. Sensitivity of the VA series of codes was 70%, specificity was 82% and concordance was 75%. Concordance varied by region, but not by patient characteristics or time. Codes were not useful for distinguishing mild TBI. Conclusion: Estimates of TBI prevalence in military veterans are important for national programme development and resource distribution. Estimates derived from ICD diagnosis codes in administrative data should take potential misclassification into account. PMID:23514276

Carlson, Kathleen F; Barnes, Joan E; Hagel, Emily M; Taylor, Brent C; Cifu, David X; Sayer, Nina A

2013-03-20

241

FRAPCON-2: A Computer Code for the Calculation of Steady State Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oxide Fuel Rods  

SciTech Connect

FRAPCON-2 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady state response of light Mater reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, deformation, and tai lure histories of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (a) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (b) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (c) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (d) fission gas release, (e} fuel rod internal gas pressure, (f) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (g) cladding oxidation, and (h) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. FRAPCON-2 is programmed for use on the CDC Cyber 175 and 176 computers. The FRAPCON-2 code Is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by either the FRAP-T6 computer code or the thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP4/MOD7 Version 2.

Berna, G. A; Bohn, M. P.; Rausch, W. N.; Williford, R. E.; Lanning, D. D.

1981-01-01

242

The State of the State: Building a Better Future for Kansas Kids.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This special Kids Count report compares the current well-being of Kansas children to that of children in other states. The statistical portrait is based on a composite rank and 10 indicators of child well-being: (1) percent low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) teen death rate by accident, homicide, and…

Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

243

Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster: Amendments to the Fire Protection and Life Safety Provisions of the New York City Building Code by Local Laws Adopted While World Trade Center 1, 2, and 7 Were in Use. NIST NCSTAR 1-1G.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was prepared to support the analysis of building and fire codes and practices of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) World Trade Center (WTC) Investigation. This report supports the objective of documenting the requiremen...

J. C. Razza R. A. Grill

2005-01-01

244

Illinois State Plan: energy conservation in institutions (Institutional Buildings Grant Program)  

SciTech Connect

This State Plan for the Institutional Buildings Grant Program was written in response to legislative requirements in a portion of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA)(PL 95-619 Title Three) and interpreted in the April 2 and April 17, 1979 Federal Registers. This Plan addresses very narrow April 17, 1979 Federal Register requirements as spelled out in paragraph 455.42 and is meant to show the Institute's strategies and commitments to achieve full implementation of this Energy Grant Program in Illinois.

Thomas, S.K.; Tuma, S.L.; Shum, J.

1979-08-15

245

Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

2012-11-01

246

Common Violations of the United States Code in Economic Crime Investigations. The Fraud, Waste and Abuse Monster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This pamphlet was prepared to serve as a deskbook reference for use by USACIDC (U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command) special agents, many of whom have had little exposure to the United States Code. It is designed primarily to aid agents who are in th...

1983-01-01

247

Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004  

SciTech Connect

This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.

Richman, Eric E.

2006-09-29

248

COOLOD-N: a computer code, for the analyses of steady-state thermal-hydraulics in plate-type research reactors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The COOLOD-N code provides a capability for the analysis of the steady-state thermal-hydraulics of research reactors in which plate-type fuel is employed. This code is revised version of the COOLOD code, and is applicable not only to a forced convection c...

M. Kaminaga

1990-01-01

249

Beyond Creole Nationalism? Language Policies, Education and the Challenge of State Building in Post-conflict Southern Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper seeks to go beyond a focus on the role of elites in low-capacity states to consider the interaction of language policies and mass responses to these policies in southern Sudan. It reviews processes of elite formation in southern Sudan, the impact of the civil war and the current challenges facing state building there. In common with many post-colonial

Rob Kevlihan

2007-01-01

250

Old-Time Origins of Modern Sovereignty: State-Building among the Keweenaw Bay Ojibway, 1832-1854  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines a brief period of Lake Superior Ojibway history in detail. It describes the territorial dimensions of usufructuary rights and tells how one Ojibway community at Keweenaw Bay, William Jondreau's home, reorganized itself as an Anishnabe state in the 1840s and early 1850s. It also argues that this state-building grew out of…

Doherty, Robert

2007-01-01

251

Assessment of the state of conservation of buildings through roof mapping using very high spatial resolution images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of the state of conservation of buildings is extremely important in urban rehabilitation. In the case of historical towns or city centres, the pathological characterization using traditional methods is a laborious and time consuming procedure. This study aims to show that Very High Spatial Resolution (VHSR) multispectral images can be used to obtain information regarding the state of

Luísa Gonçalves; Cidália C. Fonte; Eduardo N. B. S. Júlio; Mario Caetano

2009-01-01

252

Building Stronger State Partnerships with the US Department of Energy (Energy Assurance)  

SciTech Connect

From 2007 until 2011, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) engaged in a partnership with the National Energy Technology Lab (NETL) to improve State-Federal coordination on electricity policy and energy assurance issues. This project allowed State Public Utility Commissioners and their staffs to engage on the most cutting-edge level in the arenas of energy assurance and electricity policy. Four tasks were outlined in the Statement of Performance Objectives: Task 1 - Training for Commissions on Critical Infrastructure Topics; Task 2 - Analyze and Implement Recommendations on Energy Assurance Issues; Task 3 - Ongoing liaison activities & outreach to build stronger networks between federal agencies and state regulators; and Task 4 - Additional Activities. Although four tasks were prescribed, in practice these tasks were carried out under two major activity areas: the critical infrastructure and energy assurance partnership with the US Department of Energy's Infrastructure Security and Emergency Response office, and the National Council on Electricity Policy, a collaborative which since 1994 has brought together State and Federal policymakers to address the most pressing issues facing the grid from restructuring to smart grid implementation. On Critical Infrastructure protection, this cooperative agreement helped State officials yield several important advances. The lead role on NARUC's side was played by our Committee on Critical Infrastructure Protection. Key lessons learned in this arena include the following: (1) Tabletops and exercises work - They improve the capacity of policymakers and their industry counterparts to face the most challenging energy emergencies, and thereby equip these actors with the capacity to face everything up to that point as well. (2) Information sharing is critical - Connecting people who need information with people who have information is a key success factor. However, exposure of critical infrastructure information to bad actors also creates new vulnerabilities. (3) Tensions exist between the transparency-driven basis of regulatory activity and the information-protection requirements of asset protection. (4) Coordination between states is a key success factor - Because comparatively little federal authority exists over electricity and other energy infrastructure, the interstate nature of these energy grids defy centralized command and control governance. Patchwork responses are a risk when addressed at a state-by-state level. Coordination is the key to ensuring consistent response to shared threats. In Electricity Policy, the National Council on Electricity Policy continued to make important strides forward. Coordinated electricity policy among States remains the best surrogate for an absent national electricity policy. In every area from energy efficiency to clean coal, State policies are driving the country's electricity policy, and regional responses to climate change, infrastructure planning, market operation, and new technology deployment depend on a forum for bringing the States together.

Mike Keogh

2011-09-30

253

Improved 8- and 16State Space-Time Codes for 4PSK with Two Transmit Antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

New space-time codes for 4PSK constellations,designed via a modified determinant criterion, send 2b\\/s\\/Hzand show improved performance in quasistatic flat fading.Keywords--- Diversity methods, Fading channels, Trelliscoded modulation.I.

D. Mihai Ionescu; K. Kiran Mukkavilli; Zhiyuan Yan

2003-01-01

254

Assessment of Impacts from Updating Iowa's Residential Energy Code to Comply with the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code  

SciTech Connect

The state of Iowa currently requires that new buildings comply with the Council of American Building Officials? (CABO) 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (CABO 1992). CABO has been transformed into the International Code Council (ICC) and the MEC has been renamed the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The most recent edition of the code is the 2003 IECC (ICC 2003). Iowa?s Department of Natural Resources requested that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compare the 1992 MEC with the 2003 IECC to estimate impacts from updating Iowa?s residential energy code to comply with the new code. Under DOE's direction, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed an assessment of the impacts from this potential code upgrade, including impacts on construction and energy consumption costs. This report is an update to a similar report completed by PNNL in 2002 (Lucas 2002) that compared the 1992 MEC to the 2000 IECC.

Lucas, Robert G.

2003-10-31

255

What`s new in codes and standards - Office of Building Technologies (OBT): Appliance and lighting standards  

SciTech Connect

US homeowners spend $110 billion each year to power such home appliances as refrigerators, freezers, water heaters, furnaces, air conditioners, and lights. These uses account for about 70% of all the primary energy consumed in homes. During its typical 10-15-year lifetime, the appliance`s operating costs may exceed its initial purchase price several times over. Nevertheless, many consumers do not consider energy efficiency when making purchases. And manufacturers are reluctant to invest in more efficient technology that may not be accepted in the highly competitive marketplace. Recognizing the great potential for energy savings, many states began prescribing minimum energy efficiencies for appliances. Anticipating the burden of complying with differing state standards, manufacturers supported developing federal standards that would preempt state standards.

NONE

1995-09-01

256

Cooling energy savings potential of reflective roofs for residential and commercial buildings in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We make quantitative estimates of the impact of roof reflectivity on cooling and heating energy use for buildings in the US. Prototypical buildings are simulated with reflective (light in color) and absorptive (dark in color) roofs. Differences of annual cooling and heating energy use and peak electricity demand between dark and light roofs yield the savings. The DOE-2 building energy

H Akbari; S Konopacki; M Pomerantz

1999-01-01

257

Design and evaluation criteria for energy conservation in new buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document is a set of design and evaluation criteria for energy conservation in most types of new buildings. The National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards (NCSBCS) requested that the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) develop such a document with the intent that it could serve as a basis for a national standard developed through the voluntary

Heldenbrand

1976-01-01

258

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-125-2125, State of Colorado, Office of the State Public Defender, Petroleum building, Denver, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

In response to a request from the State of Colorado, Office of the State Public Defender (SIC-9222), an investigation was made of indoor air quality at the office in the Petroleum Building, Denver, Colorado. The building was built in 1957 and consisted of 14 stories plus a penthouse in downtown Denver. Ventilation in the building consisted of a central heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system which supplied air to the perimeter offices on the lower 14 floors, a separate HVAC system for the penthouse, the core system which had air handling units located on each floor, and fan coil units located in the outside offices. Windows in the building could also be opened. Renovations had been underway in the building and workers complained about itchy eyes and stuffy/runny nose. Temperature and humidity measurements were consistent throughout the building, ranging from 74 to 77 degrees-F and 20 to 22% relative humidity. Carbon-monoxide (630080) levels were less than 1 part per million. The author concludes that no airborne contaminant was identified which would constitute a health hazard. The core ventilation system needed to be balanced, and the fan coil units required extensive cleaning. The author recommends specific measures to improve the indoor air quality and to reduce the noise levels near some of the air diffusers.

McCammon, C.S.

1991-07-01

259

How to Build a Time Machine: Interfacing Hydrodynamics, Ionization Calculations and X-ray Spectral Codes for Supernova Remnants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thanks to Chandra and XMM-Newton, spatially resolved spectroscopy of SNRsin the X-ray band has become a reality. Several impressive data sets forejecta-dominated SNRs can now be found in the archives, the Cas A VLP justbeing one (albeit probably the most spectacular) example. However, it isoften hard to establish quantitative, unambiguous connections between theX-ray observations of SNRs and the dramatic events involved in a corecollapse or thermonuclear SN explosion. The reason for this is that thevery high quality of the data sets generated by Chandra and XMM for thelikes of Cas A, SNR 292.0+1.8, Tycho, and SN 1006 has surpassed our abilityto analyze them. The core of the problem is in the transient nature of theplasmas in SNRs, which results in anintimate relationship between the structure of the ejecta and AM, the SNRdynamics arising from their interaction, and the ensuing X-rayemission. Thus, the ONLY way to understand the X-ray observations ofejecta-dominated SNRs at all levels, from the spatially integrated spectrato the subarcsecond scales that can be resolved by Chandra, is to couplehydrodynamic simulations to nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) calculationsand X-ray spectral codes. I will review the basic ingredients that enterthis kind of calculations, and what are the prospects for using them tounderstand the X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta in young SNRs. Thisunderstanding (when it is possible), can turn SNRs into veritable timemachines, revealing the secrets of the titanic explosions that generatedthem hundreds of years ago.

Badenes, Carlos

2006-02-01

260

Pediatric Influenza-Associated Deaths in New York State: Death Certificate Coding and Comparison to Laboratory-Confirmed Deaths  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated deaths in children is used to monitor the severity of influenza at the population level and to inform influenza prevention and control policies. The goal of this study was to better estimate pediatric influenza mortality in New York state (NYS). Methods. Death certificate data were requested for all passively reported deaths and any pneumonia and influenza (P&I) coded pediatric deaths occurring between October 2004 and April 2010, excluding New York City (NYC) residents. A matching algorithm and capture-recapture analysis were used to estimate the total number of influenza-associated deaths among NYS children. Results. Thirty-four laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported and 67 death certificates had a P&I coded death; 16 deaths matched. No laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated death had a pneumonia code and no pneumonia coded deaths had laboratory evidence of influenza infection in their medical record. The capture-recapture analysis estimated between 38 and 126 influenza-associated pediatric deaths occurred in NYS during the study period. Conclusion. Passive surveillance for influenza-associated deaths continues to be the gold standard methodology for characterizing influenza mortality in children. Review of death certificates can complement but not replace passive reporting, by providing better estimates and detecting any missed laboratory-confirmed deaths.

Hoefer, Dina; Cherry, Bryan; Kacica, Marilyn; McClamroch, Kristi; Kilby, Kimberly

2012-01-01

261

Comparison of Codes and Neutronics Data Used in the United States and Russia for the TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Safety Assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TOPAZ-2 reactor system is a heterogeneous epithermal system fueled with highly-enriched fuel based on uranium oxide, cooled by a sodium-potassium liquid metal (NaK), using a zirconium hydride moderator, with 37 thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) built into the core. The core is surrounded by a radial beryllium reflector which contains rotating regulating drums with moderating segments. An important problem is the guaranteeing of nuclear safety upon the accidental falling of the TOPAZ-2 reactor into water, which leads to the growth of the reactivity of the reactor. It has turned out that it is necessary to use the Monte-Carlo method for the conduct of neutronics calculations of such a complex reactor. In the United States (U.S.) and Russia, different codes based on the Monte-Carlo method are used for calculations - the MCNP code in the U.S., and the MCU-2 code in Russia. The goal of this work is the comparison of the codes and neutronics data used in the U.S. and Russia for the basis of the TOPAZ-2 nuclear safety. With this goal, a joint computer model benchmark of the TOPAZ-2 reactor was developed and the calculations of a series of variants, differing by the presence and absence of water in the reactor cavities and behind the radial reflector, in the position of the regulating drums, in the presence of the radial reflector, etc. were done independently by specialists in both the U.S. and Russia. Along with the reactor calculations, calculations were also done of the nuclei of the core using the MCNP code (U.S.) and the MCU-2 code (Russia). The work done allowed one to obtain results comparing the MCNP code to the MCU-2 code which gave somewhat different results both for the absolute values of Keff and for reactivity effects. In the future it remains to conduct a detailed analysis of the reasons for the discrepancies. For this it is necessary to exchange neutronics data used for TOPAZ-2 reactor calculations in the U.S. and Russia.

Glushkov, Y. S.; Ponomarov-Stepnoy, N. N.; Kompaniets, G. V.; Gomin, Y. A.; Mayorov, L. V.; Lobyntsev, V. A.; Polyakov, D. N.; Sapir, Joe; Pelowitz, Denise; Streetman, J. Robert

1994-07-01

262

FIVE-DIGIT ZIP CODE BOUNDARIES FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Five-Digit ZIP (Zoning Improvement Plan) Code boundary layer (zip5) is derived from the Geographic Data Technology (GDT), Inc. ZIP Boundary and Inventory Files (v. 5.0) and stored in the EPA Spatial Data Library System (ESDLS). This layer contains data for the conterminous U...

263

Warren-Alquist State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Act, Public Resources Code Section 25000 et seq  

SciTech Connect

The text of Division 15 (cited as the Warren-Alquist State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Act) of the Public Resources Code for the State of California is presented. All amendments incorporated to the Act through 1981 are included. The twelve chapters comprising the Act are: Title and General Provisions; Definitions; State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission; Planning and Forecasting; Petroleum Supply and Pricing; Motor Vehicle Fuel Conservation; Energy Resource Conservation; Energy Conservation Assistance; Petroleum Resources Management; Energy Conservation in Transportation; Energy Systems; Power Facility and Site Characteristics; Research and Development; Residue Conversion; Coal Gasification; Clean Coal; Energy Shortage Contingency Planning; Refined Petroleum Products Allocation; State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Special Account; Enforcement and Judicial Review; Insulation Standards; Gas Appliances; and Solar Shade Control.

Not Available

1982-01-01

264

Differences between the 1993 and 1995 CABO Model Energy Codes  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 requires the US DOE to determine if changes to the Council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) (CABO 1993), published in the 1995 edition of the MEC (CABO 1995), will improve energy efficiency in residential buildings. The DOE, the states, and others have expressed an interest in the differences between the 1993 and 1995 editions of the MEC. This report describes each change to the 1993 MEC, and its impact. Referenced publications are also listed along with discrepancies between code changes approved in the 1994 and 1995 code-change cycles and what actually appears in the 1995 MEC.

Conover, D.R.; Lucas, R.G.

1995-10-01

265

A computer code, NATCON, for the analyses of steady-state thermal-hydraulics and safety margins in plate-type research reactors cooled by natural convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NATCON code provides a capability for the analysis of the thermal-hydraulics of plate-type research reactors cooled by natural convection. The code includes steady-state estimates of what are often considered safety margins. These estimates may include power peaking factors, hot channel factor components, and laminar flow entrance effects. A listing of the code and a description of the input are

R. S. Smith; W. L. Woodruff

1988-01-01

266

FRAPCON-3: A computer code for the calculation of steady-state, thermal-mechanical behavior of oxide fuel rods for high burnup  

Microsoft Academic Search

FRAPCON-3 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady-state response of light water reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, and deformation of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (1) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (2)

G. A. Berna; G. A. Beyer; K. L. Davis; D. D. Lanning

1997-01-01

267

Research and Innovation in the Building Regulatory Process: Proceedings of the 5th Annual NBS\\/NCSBCS Joint Conference. Technical Seminar on Solar Energy Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topics in solar energy and energy conservation are addressed. These proceedings include: (1) energy programs in the state of Colorado; (2) building energy performance standards concepts (3) state energy audits; (4) energy and building systems services; (5) solar energy and building codes.

S. A. Berry

1981-01-01

268

Building a System...To Be among the Best: The Washington State Master Plan for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report presents Washington State's Master Plan for building a higher education system that addresses change in four fundamental elements: accessing education in urban areas; developing a new higher education funding process; evaluating institutional performance; and strengthening admissions standards. The Master Plan recommends the following:…

Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

269

Appendices of an appraisal for the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings in Colorado. Section C. Burlington  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State Highway Department Building in Burlington has been evaluated in this geothermal energy appraisal. While there is no known geothermal resource at Burlington, a shallow water aquifer - Ogallala Aquifer - does exist beneath Burlington at depths of 200 to 300 feet. One particular water well is reported to be producing water at 59°F to 63°F at 800 to

R. T. Meyer; B. A. Coe; J. D. Dick

1981-01-01

270

Building a System...To Be among the Best: The Washington State Master Plan for Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report presents Washington State's Master Plan for building a higher education system that addresses change in four fundamental elements: accessing education in urban areas; developing a new higher education funding process; evaluating institutional performance; and strengthening admissions standards. The Master Plan recommends the…

Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

271

Scripting the nation: sport, mega-events, foreign policy and state-building in post-apartheid South Africa1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arising from the growing commercial and broader importance of sport, politics around the hosting and bidding for major sport events have become key elements of state engagements in the contemporary era. This essay explores the role of sport mega-events in the processes of foreign policy-making and state-building in post-apartheid South Africa. A key argument is that such events have become

Scarlett Cornelissen

2008-01-01

272

78 FR 37571 - Certain Opaque Polymers; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United States Code  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...No. 337-TA-883] Certain Opaque Polymers; Institution of Investigation Pursuant...States after importation of certain opaque polymers by reason of infringement of certain...States after importation of certain opaque polymers that infringe one or more of claims...

2013-06-21

273

Building Community Systems for Young Children: Early Childhood Education. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 11  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examines the importance and funding sources of early child care and education (ECE), and the ways in which the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems (SECCS) Initiative improves early childhood outcomes. Section I presents what is known about the importance of ECE, quality and access. Section II describes the current funding…

Bassok, Daphna; Stipek, Deborah; Inkelas, Moira; Kuo, Alice

2005-01-01

274

Macroscopically distinct quantum-superposition states as a bosonic code for amplitude damping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how macroscopically distinct quantum superposition states (Schrödinger cat states) may be used as logical qubit encodings for the correction of spontaneous emission errors. Spontaneous emission causes a bit flip error, which is easily corrected by a standard error correction circuit. The method works arbitrarily well as the distance between the amplitudes of the superposed coherent states increases.

P. T. Cochrane; G. J. Milburn; W. J. Munro

1999-01-01

275

FRAPCON-3: A Computer Code for the Calculation of Steady-State, Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oxide Fuel Rods for High Burnup.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

FRAPCON-3 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady-state response of light water reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, and deformation of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel ro...

G. A. Berna C. E. Beyer K. L. Davis D. D. Lanning

1997-01-01

276

Macroscopically distinct quantum-superposition states as a bosonic code for amplitude damping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how macroscopically distinct quantum superposition states\\u000a(Schroedinger cat states) may be used as logical qubit encodings for the\\u000acorrection of spontaneous emission errors. Spontaneous emission causes a bit\\u000aflip error which is easily corrected by a standard error correction circuit.\\u000aThe method works arbitrarily well as the distance between the amplitudes of the\\u000asuperposed coherent states increases.

P. T. Cochrane; G. J. Milburn; W. J. Munro

1999-01-01

277

Weather-Resistive Barriers; Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Fact Sheet  

SciTech Connect

Weather-resistive barriers are a part of exterior wall systems that protect building materials from exterior water penetration. They perform like a protective shell for buildings, yet allow water vapor to escape. This fact sheet covers types and costs of weather-resistive barriers, when and how to use them, installation, details for windows and doors, and properties of weather-resistive barriers.

Southface Energy Institute

2000-11-07

278

Building Energy Information Systems: State of the Technology and User Case Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this study is energy information systems, broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. At a minimum, an EIS provides hourly whole-building electric data that are web-accessible, with analytical and graphical capabilities. Time series data from meters, sensors, and external data streams are used

Jessica Granderson; Mary Ann Piette; Girish Ghatikar; Phillip Price

2009-01-01

279

Principles of effective team building interventions in sport: A direct services approach at Penn State University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team building is an ongoing, multifaceted process where group members learn how to work together for a common goal, and share pertinent information regarding the quality of team functioning for the purpose of establishing more effective ways of operating. This article describes a “hands on” approach to conducting team building interventions in sport. Drawing on reserurh from organizational development and

David Yukelson

1997-01-01

280

Application of latent heat thermal energy storage in buildings: State-of-the-art and outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) is becoming more and more attractive for space heating and cooling of buildings. The application of LHTES in buildings has the following advantages: (1) the ability to narrow the gap between the peak and off-peak loads of electricity demand; (2) the ability to save operative fees by shifting the electrical consumption from peak periods

Yinping Zhang; Guobing Zhou; Kunping Lin; Qunli Zhang; Hongfa Di

2007-01-01

281

Evolutionary Tile Coding: An Automated State Abstraction Algorithm for Reinforcement Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms have the ability to learn optimal policies for control problems by exploring a domain's state space. Unfortunately, for most problems the size of the state space is too great for RL technologies to fully explore in o...

R. Wright S. Lin

2012-01-01

282

Gaussian matrix-product states for coding in bosonic communication channels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels with memory has recently attracted much interest. Here, we investigate a method to prepare the multimode entangled input symbol states for encoding classical information into these channels. In particular, we study the usefulness of a Gaussian matrix-product state (GMPS) as an input symbol state, which can be sequentially generated although it remains heavily entangled for an arbitrary number of modes. We show that the GMPS can achieve more than 99.9% of the Gaussian capacity for Gaussian bosonic memory channels with a Markovian or non-Markovian correlated noise model in a large range of noise correlation strengths. Furthermore, we present a noise class for which the GMPS is the exact optimal input symbol state of the corresponding channel. Since GMPS are ground states of particular quadratic Hamiltonians, our results suggest a possible link between the theory of quantum communication channels and quantum many-body physics.

Schäfer, Joachim; Karpov, Evgueni; Cerf, Nicolas J.

2012-01-01

283

Comparison of Standard 90.1-2007 and the 2009 IECC with Respect to Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) has been asked by some states and energy code stakeholders to address the comparability of the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code® (IECC) as applied to commercial buildings and ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 (hereinafter referred to as Standard 90.1-07). An assessment of comparability will help states respond to and implement conditions specified in the State Energy Program (SEP) Formula Grants American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Funding Opportunity, Number DE-FOA-0000052, and eliminate the need for the states individually or collectively to perform comparative studies of the 2009 IECC and Standard 90.1-07. The funding opportunity announcement contains the following conditions: (2) The State, or the applicable units of local government that have authority to adopt building codes, will implement the following: (A) A residential building energy code (or codes) that meets or exceeds the most recent International Energy Conservation Code, or achieves equivalent or greater energy savings. (B) A commercial building energy code (or codes) throughout the State that meets or exceeds the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007, or achieves equivalent or greater energy savings . (C) A plan to achieve 90 percent compliance with the above energy codes within eight years. This plan will include active training and enforcement programs and annual measurement of the rate of compliance. With respect to item (B) above, many more states, regardless of the edition date, directly adopt the IECC than Standard 90.1-07. This is predominately because the IECC is a model code and part of a coordinated set of model building codes that state and local government have historically adopted to regulate building design and construction. This report compares the 2009 IECC to Standard 90.1-07 with the intent of helping states address whether the adoption and application of the 2009 IECC for commercial buildings can be considered equivalent to the adoption and application of Standard 90.1-07. Based on this document, states adopting the 2009 IECC, which is the document cited in (A), above, for residential construction, can also determine if they are in compliance with the above provisions for commercial buildings in (B) above and if their code meets or exceeds the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-07.

Conover, David R.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.

2009-12-11

284

Environmental issues in planning building energy technologies R D in the United States  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has begun studies on the relationship and impact of buildings energy use on the environment, particularly with respect to global climate change, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and indoor air quality. The paper presents an overview of international and US federal activity in global change to set OBT's activities in context. The paper then reviews briefly the contribution of buildings to atmospheric problems through building energy use. OBT's program primarily supports projects with indirect environmental impacts through energy efficiency (e.g., thermally activated heat pumps use natural gas instead of electricity) and the use of renewables in buildings. The paper briefly describes the OBT program and covers an inventory of projects that OBT has funded on environmental/building problems. Analyses have included three kinds of topics: (1) CFC substitutes for refrigeration equipment, (2) incorporating the cost of externalities into utility electricity generation, and (3) indoor air quality. The paper shows how environmental issues are being taken into account in planning the US R D program in building energy technologies. 27 refs.

Farhar, B.C. (Solar Energy Research Inst., Golden, CO (United States)); Abel, F.H. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)); Nicholls, A.K. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Millhone, J.P. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Conservation and Renewable Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Building Technologies)

1991-08-01

285

Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for

Mariateresa Guadagnuolo; Giuseppe Faella

2008-01-01

286

Verifying Finite-State Safety Properties on Millions of Lines of Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a context-sensitive, flow-sensitive, field-sensitive, and intraprocedurally path-sensitive static analysis capable of verifying finite-state safety properties of very large systems. Unusually for finite- state property verifiers, our system analyzes functions separately, and it is this feature that enables scalability. We evaluate an implementation of our analysis by trying to verify the absence of unchecked, untrusted pointer dereferences in the

Suhabe Bugrara; Alex Aiken

287

Terrorism and Africa: A Study of Agenda Building in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agenda-building model was examined for the question of Africa and terrorism. A path analysis compared real-world events (deaths and attacks attributed to terrorism), presidential emphasis, media coverage, and foreign aid for 20 African nations. Results show a clear agenda-building trend—when nations were emphasized with a terrorism frame. Presidential emphasis of nations’ involvement in terrorism influenced media coverage and the

Wayne Wanta; Yusuf Kalyango

2007-01-01

288

Between Regional Spaces and Spaces of Regionalism: Cross-border Region Building in the Spanish ‘State of the Autonomies’  

Microsoft Academic Search

García-Álvarez J. and Trillo-Santamaría J.-M. Between regional spaces and spaces of regionalism: cross-border region building in the Spanish ‘State of the Autonomies’, Regional Studies. The intense development of cross-border cooperation in the European Union in the last two decades offers a privileged laboratory to reflect upon the changing nature of regions and processes of regional construction in the context of

Jacobo García-álvarez; Juan-Manuel Trillo-Santamaría

2011-01-01

289

A Non-Critical String (Liouville) Approach to Brain Microtubules:. State Vector Reduction, Memory Coding and Capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microtubule (MT) networks, subneural paracrystalline cytoskeletal structures, seem to play a fundamental role in the neurons. We cast here the complicated MT dynamics in the form of a (1+1)-dimensional noncritical string theory, thus enabling us to provide a consistent quantum treatment of MTs, including enviromental friction effects. We suggest, thus, that the MTs are the microsites, in the brain, for the emergence of stable, macroscopic quantum coherent states, identifiable with the preconscious states. Quantum space-time effects, as described by noncritical string theory, trigger then an organized collapse of the coherent states down to a specific or conscious state. The whole process we estimate to take { O}(1 sec), in excellent agreement with a plethora of experimental/observational findings. The microscopic arrow of time, endemic in noncritical string theory, and apparent here in the self-collapse process, provides a satisfactory and simple resolution to the age-old problem of how the, central to our feelings of awareness, sensation of the progression of time is generated. In addition, the complete integrability of the stringy model for MT we advocate in this work proves sufficient in providing a satisfactory solution to memory coding and capacity. Such features might turn out to be important for a model of the brain as a quantum computer.

Mavromatos, N. E.; Nanopoulos, D. V.

290

A non-critical string (Liouville) approach to brain microtubules: State vector reduction, memory coding and capacity  

SciTech Connect

Microtubule (MT) networks, subneural paracrystalline cytoskeletal structures, seem to play a fundamental role in the neurons. The authors cast here the complicated MT dynamics in the form of a (1 + 1)-dimensional noncritical string theory, thus enabling them to provide a consistent quantum treatment of MTs, including environmental friction effects. They suggest, thus, that the MTs are the microsites, in the brain, for the emergence of stable, macroscopic quantum coherent states, identifiable with the preconscious states. Quantum space-time effects, as described by noncritical string theory, trigger than an organized collapse of the coherent states down to a specific or conscious state. The whole process they estimate to take {Omicron}(1 sec), in excellent agreement with a plethora of experimental/observational findings. The microscopic arrow of time, endemic in noncritical string theory, and apparent here in the self-collapse process, provides a satisfactory and simple resolution to the age-old problem of how the, central to one`s feelings of awareness, sensation of the progression of time is generated. In addition, the complete integrability of the stringy model for MT the authors advocate in this work proves sufficient in providing a satisfactory solution to memory coding and capacity. Such features might turn out to be important for a model of the brain as a quantum computer.

Mavromatos, N.E. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Nanopoulos, D.V. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)]|[Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States)

1997-03-20

291

Diffusion of photons with arbitrary state of polarization: the Monte Carlo code MCSHAPE  

Microsoft Academic Search

When X-rays penetrate in the matter, they interact with the atoms, producing secondary radiation that carries important information about the composition of the target. The polarization state is one of the properties of the incoming photons which changes as a consequence of the number and the type of the undergone interaction. Therefore, to study properly the atomic properties of a

J. E Fernandez; V. G Molinari; M Bastiano; V Scot

2004-01-01

292

Joint Source-Channel Coding over a Fading Multiple Access Channel with Partial Channel State Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the problem of transmis- sion of correlated sources over a fast fading multiple access channel (MAC) with partial channel state information available at both the encoders and the decoder. We provide sufficient conditions for transmission with given distortions. Next these conditions are specialized to a Gaussian MAC (GMAC). We provide the optimal power allocation strategy

R Rajesh; Vinod Sharma

2009-01-01

293

Assessment of Impacts from Updating North Dakota’s Residential Energy Code to Comply with the 2000 International Energy Conservation Code  

SciTech Connect

The current North Dakota state energy code is the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) (CABO 1993). Local jurisdictions can choose to adopt this code. CABO has been transformed into the International Code Council (ICC) and the MEC has been renamed the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The most recent edition of the code is the 2003 IECC (ICC 2003). North Dakota's Department of Community Services requested that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compare the 1993 MEC with the 2000 IECC to estimate impacts from updating North Dakota's residential energy code to comply with the new code. Under DOE's direction, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed an assessment of the impacts from this potential code upgrade, including impacts on construction and energy consumption costs.

Lucas, Robert G.

2004-05-01

294

Steady-state balance model to calculate the indoor climate of livestock buildings, demonstrated for finishing pigs.  

PubMed

The indoor climate of livestock buildings is of importance for the well-being and health of animals and their production performance (daily weight gain, milk yield etc). By using a steady-state model for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and the CO2 and odour mass flows, the indoor climate of mechanically ventilated livestock buildings can be calculated. These equations depend on the livestock (number of animals and how they are kept), the insulation of the building and the characteristics of the ventilation system (ventilation rate). Since the model can only be applied to animal houses where the ventilation systems are mechanically controlled (this is the case for a majority of finishing pig units), the calculations were done for an example of a finishing pig unit with 1,000 animal places. The model presented used 30 min values of the outdoor parameters temperature and humidity, collected over a 2-year period, as input. The projected environment inside the livestock building was compared with recommended values. The duration of condensation on the inside surfaces was also calculated. PMID:10789916

Schauberger, G; Piringer, M; Petz, E

2000-03-01

295

FRAPCON-3: A computer code for the calculation of steady-state, thermal-mechanical behavior of oxide fuel rods for high burnup  

SciTech Connect

FRAPCON-3 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady-state response of light water reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, and deformation of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (1) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (2) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (3) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (4) fission gas release, (5) fuel rod internal gas pressure, (6) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (7) cladding oxidation, and (8) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat-transfer correlations. The codes` integral predictions of mechanical behavior have not been assessed against a data base, e.g., cladding strain or failure data. Therefore, it is recommended that the code not be used for analyses of cladding stress or strain. FRAPCON-3 is programmed for use on both mainframe computers and UNIX-based workstations such as DEC 5000 or SUN Sparcstation 10. It is also programmed for personal computers with FORTRAN compiler software and at least 8 to 10 megabytes of random access memory (RAM). The FRAPCON-3 code is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by the FRAPTRAN computer code (formerly named FRAP-T6).

Berna, G.A.; Beyer, G.A.; Davis, K.L.; Lanning, D.D.

1997-12-01

296

Telephone Area Code  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... for representing the telephone area code for the United States, Canada, and ... of a verifiable area code list extremely tedious and time consuming. -. -. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/formssubmissionrequirements

297

Appendices of an appraisal for the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings in Colorado. Section C. Burlington  

SciTech Connect

The State Highway Department Building in Burlington has been evaluated in this geothermal energy appraisal. While there is no known geothermal resource at Burlington, a shallow water aquifer - Ogallala Aquifer - does exist beneath Burlington at depths of 200 to 300 feet. One particular water well is reported to be producing water at 59/sup 0/F to 63/sup 0/F at 800 to 1000 gpm. Therefore, the Ogallala is being considered as a source of warm water for the use of water-to-air heat pumps for space heating of the Highway Department Building. The geothermal energy economics are evaluated for two options: (1) a new water well drilled on the site of the Highway Department Building and (2) the purchase of warm water from an existing City of Burlington water well. The latter option is evaluated only for the 12 percent/9 percent (through 1984/through 2000) natural gas price escalation case, whereas the former option is evaluated for both the 15 percent and the 12 percent/9 percent schedules. The results of the economic evaluations generally indicate that heat pumps would not be economically competitive, particularly if the state purchased city water at the current water rates. Fuel price escalation rates greater than 15 percent per year can shift the heat pump shallow well option to a marginal position. The principal institutional/environmental issue to be addressed for the Burlington facility is an existing ordinance which only allows the city to drill water wells within the city.

Meyer, R.T.; Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.

1981-01-01

298

Building an IT community at Louisiana State University: collaboration and partnership strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004\\/2005, Information Technology Services, LSU's central IT department had, at best, a tenuous relationship with the 150+ department IT professional staff on campus. Meager attempts had been made to notify campus IT staff of outages and policy changes, but no major headway had been made in devoting focused energy on building rapport and a focused customer relationship with these

Karen Sirman

2009-01-01

299

Government roles in implementing building information modelling systems : Comparison between Hong Kong and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Building information modelling (BIM) is a paradigm shift in the architectural, engineering and construction industries which transforms processes to achieve greater efficiency and effectiveness. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the implementation of BIM in Hong Kong and the USA and recommend strategies for BIM implementation in Hong Kong. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A literature review of BIM

Andy K. D. Wong; Francis K. W. Wong; Abid Nadeem

2011-01-01

300

Information Communication Technology, State building, and Globalization in the 21st Century: Regional Frameworks for Emerging State Assistance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S.-led effort to form transnational institutions and processes contributes to the decreasing relevance of the nation-state in relation to what has become known as globalization. Globalization has modified the essential role of the nation-state towar...

J. Y. Reese

2008-01-01

301

Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

2007-01-01

302

Previous Editions of Codes  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Food Code, 1993 Recommendations of the United States Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, National Technical Information ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

303

United Nations Seminar of Experts on Building Codes and Regulations in Developing Countries, Held at Taellberg and Stockholm (Sweden) on March 17-24, 1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Seminar sought to explore ways in which governments and the international community, especially UNCHS, might build upon the recommendations adopted by HABITAT: the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements. Thus, effort concentrated on examining ...

1980-01-01

304

Building health promotion capacity in developing countries: strategies from 60 years of experience in the United States.  

PubMed

The Galway Consensus Conference articulated key definitions, principles, values, and core domains of practice as the foundation for the diffusion of health promotion across the globe. The conference occurred in the context of an urgent need for large numbers of trained health workers in developing countries, which face multiple severe threats to the health of their people. In this article, the authors draw on the experience acquired by the health promotion profession in the United States to illustrate what might be done to build health promotion capacity in developing countries. They examine the profession's experience in the areas of accreditation and certification, research and publications, advocating for the profession, and advocating for public health policy. Finally, the authors direct a challenge to the profession in the United States to extend a hand to developing countries to assist them in expanding their capacity to prepare health promotion professionals and deliver health promotion services. PMID:19447941

Howze, Elizabeth H; Auld, M Elaine; Woodhouse, Lynn D; Gershick, Jessica; Livingood, William C

2009-05-15

305

Building a Multicontextual Model of Latino College Enrollment: Student, School, and State-Level Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Latinos' college enrollment rates, particularly in four-year institutions, have not kept pace with their population growth in the United States. Using three-level hierarchical generalized linear modeling, this study analyzes data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS) to examine the influence of high school and state contexts, in addition…

Nunez, Anne-Marie; Kim, Dongbin

2012-01-01

306

Education First: Building America's Future. The Fifth Annual State of American Education Speech, Seattle, Washington.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Public education in the United States faces many challenges. Ways in which districts are meeting these challenges are discussed in this State of American Education speech given by U.S. Secretary of Education Richard W. Riley. After providing an overview of American education, with mention of reading scores, drug use, the Hispanic dropout rate,…

Riley, Richard W.

307

Governance without Government in Somalia: Spoilers, State Building, and the Politics of Coping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zones of state failure are assumed to be anarchic. In reality, communities facing the absence of an effective state authority forge systems of governance to provide modest levels of security and rule of law. Nowhere is this phenomenon more evident than in Somalia, where an array of local and regional governance arrangements have emerged since the 1991 collapse of the

Ken Menkhaus

2007-01-01

308

Promoting Positive Parenting Practices through Parenting Education. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 13  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2003, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) released a "Strategic Plan for Early Childhood Health." In recognition of the critical role states play in the development of early childhood initiatives and of the unique contributions that state Title V programs can make to these initiatives, the Bureau operationalized their strategic plan…

Zepeda, Marlene; Varela, Frances; Morales, Alex

2004-01-01

309

Racing with the World: How States Can Build a 21st Century Workforce.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a primer on the multifaceted issues that state legislators are likely to confront under the rubric of human resource development. Chapter 1 proposes a philosophy: enabling every citizen to become a productive member of the 21st century economy is in a state's best interest both socially and fiscally. Chapter 2 focuses on the premium…

Liddell, Scott A.

310

Building a New Storyline for Florida's Domestic Security to Provide Future Resiliency for the State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immediately after the 9/11 event, the state of Florida drafted one of the Nation's first comprehensive counterterrorism strategies to aid in the protection of the state's visitors and citizens. The strategy has had several modifications over the years, bu...

D. D. Pape

2008-01-01

311

Results Accountability for a State Early Childhood Comprehensive System: A Planning Guide for Improving the Well Being of Young Children and Their Families. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series. Number 4  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau has launched a five-year initiative that will support state efforts to build comprehensive early childhood service systems. This initiative--the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Initiative (SECCS)--provides two year planning grants followed by three year implementation grants to the 50 state

Friedman, Mark

2004-01-01

312

Impact of the FY 2009 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose input-output model called ImSET is used in this study of 14 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2009 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget in February 2008. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2025. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 258,000 jobs and about $3.7 billion in earned income (2007$) by the year 2025.

Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Cort, Katherine A.

2008-06-17

313

Construction of a Solid State Research Facility, Building 3150. Environmental Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct a new facility to house the Materials Synthesis Group (MSG) and the Semiconductor Physics Group (SPG) of the Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The location of the proposed acti...

1993-01-01

314

Building a Multicontextual Model of Latino College Enrollment: Student, School, and State-Level Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

: Latinos’ college enrollment rates, particularly in four-year institutions, have not kept pace with their population growth in the United States. Using three-level hierarchical generalized linear modeling, this study analyzes data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS) to examine the influence of high school and state contexts, in addition to student characteristics, on Latino students’ enrollment in four-year institutions. Results

Dongbin Kim; Anne-Marie Nuñez

2012-01-01

315

Building a Multicontextual Model of Latino College Enrollment: Student, School, and State-Level Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latinos’ college enrollment rates, particularly in four-year institutions, have not kept pace with their population growth in the United States. Using three-level hierarchical generalized linear modeling, this study analyzes data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS) to examine the influence of high school and state contexts, in addition to student characteristics, on Latino students’ enrollment in four-year institutions. Results suggest

Dongbin Kim; Anne-Marie Nuñez

2012-01-01

316

Toward a virtual building laboratory  

SciTech Connect

In order to achieve in a timely manner the large energy and dollar savings technically possible through improvements in building energy efficiency, it will be necessary to solve the problem of design failure risk. The most economical method of doing this would be to learn to calculate building performance with sufficient detail, accuracy and reliability to avoid design failure. Existing building simulation models (BSM) are a large step in this direction, but are still not capable of this level of modeling. Developments in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques now allow one to construct a road map from present BSM's to a complete building physical model. The most useful first step is a building interior model (BIM) that would allow prediction of local conditions affecting occupant health and comfort. To provide reliable prediction a BIM must incorporate the correct physical boundary conditions on a building interior. Doing so raises a number of specific technical problems and research questions. The solution of these within a context useful for building research and design is not likely to result from other research on CFD, which is directed toward the solution of different types of problems. A six-step plan for incorporating the correct boundary conditions within the context of the model problem of a large atrium has been outlined. A promising strategy for constructing a BIM is the overset grid technique for representing a building space in a CFD calculation. This technique promises to adapt well to building design and allows a step-by-step approach. A state-of-the-art CFD computer code using this technique has been adapted to the problem and can form the departure point for this research.

Klems, J.H.; Finlayson, E.U.; Olsen, T.H.; Banks, D.W.; Pallis, J.M.

1999-03-01

317

Energy conservation code assessment. Final report. Volume II. Qualitative analyses  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a study to recommend cost-effective changes to the New Mexico State Energy Conservation Code for New Building Construction. The specific objectives of this report are to identify and to recommend likely changes to the Energy Code. This is done through a qualitative analysis of a variety of codes and standards in place throughout the United States (and elsewhere). This report has 2 main parts. The first part is a qualitative analysis of the thermal and lighting standards in various codes and standards. The impacts of climate, building types, and economics are considered. Aspects examined include: policy areas; compliance procedures; formats; and, conservation measures. The second part identifies likely changes to the New Mexico Energy Code. Both stringency and format changes are considered. A number of increases in stringency are identified that are expected to be cost effective. Possible changes in the energy code format are identified that will permit compliance to be simpler and more flexible. Such format changes are not radical departures from, but rather extensions to, the current code format. The need to tailor features to the specific requirements of New Mexico is examined, as well as other issues of using the provisions in New Mexico. 42 refs.

Scheuch, K.E.

1985-05-01

318

Response to comments received from the State of Colorado and the public on the Environmental Assessment for resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this document to respond to comments from the State of Colorado and the public on the draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Resumption of Thermal Stabilization of Plutonium Oxide in Building 707 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The draft EA was provided to the State of Colorado and the public on September 8, 1993, for a comment period of 60 days. The Department`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1021.301) requires that prior to approval of the EA, DOE is to allow the host State and Indian Tribe a period of from 14 to 30 days to review and comment on the EA. The Department established a comment period of 60 days for this EA in response to requests by the public during the first public meeting on July 7, 1993, before preparation of the EA. Other issues raised at the July 7 meeting included the range of alternatives to be considered, the time period for preparation of the EA, and the amount of material to be thermally stabilized. These and other comments made by the public at that meeting were carefully considered in preparation of the EA. In addition to providing the preapproval draft EA to the State of Colorado, DOE distributed the EA to all persons and groups on the RFP public information mailing list and placed the EA and reference documents in the DOE Public Reading Rooms in the RFP area. A public meeting was held on October 6, 1993, to hear public comments on the draft EA. All comments on the draft EA, those received both at the October 6 public meeting and through correspondence, have been reproduced in their entirety in this Response to Comments document. Responses to the commenters` questions and concerns are provided, and changes made to the body of the EA are indicated in the responses. All comments received have been considered in the revision of the EA.

Not Available

1994-02-01

319

Building Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From residential houses to hundred-story skyscrapers, many different technologies come together to make a building safe and comfortable. Building design is a continually changing industry, and new advances are being made possible as research progresses.Sustainable development is gaining popularity worldwide in an effort to minimize environmental impact. The Center for Resourceful Building Technology (1) maintains an online guide that describes building practices that are resource-efficient; some information on the center's research projects is also available. Similar in topic is this report from the National Association of Home Builders Research Center (2). The 70-page document is the final report of an April 2003 conference on green building; it gives day-by-day summaries of presentations and activities in which the conference participants were involved. Office buildings have a number of design issues that need to be considered to make a productive work environment. One such issue is the acoustics in a cubicle workspace. The Canadian Institute for Research in Construction (3) discusses some design factors that can improve privacy even in the very open atmosphere of closely spaced cubicles. In the wake of the 2001 anthrax scare, a research project at Pennsylvania State University has garnered significant attention. This paper (4) introduces immune buildings, which have advanced ventilation and air filtration systems that can mitigate the danger caused by airborne pathogens. Experimental results from the project are also presented. The US Department of Energy High Performance Building Initiative (5) is investigating new technologies to make commercial buildings more comfortable and cost effective. Several interesting technical papers and introductory reports are given on the initiative's homepage, including a technology road map for high performance buildings. This essay from the June 2003 issue of Constructech Magazine (6) highlights a movement toward integrated control systems for all types of buildings. The author notes that having a unified system that automatically manages security, lighting, energy, and several other building operations can save time and money in the long run. Another article, written by a member of the Partnership for Advanced Technology in Housing (7), discusses building materials and practices that can improve residential installation's resistance to major storms and natural disasters. An example of an area that is using these weather resistant designs is in Florida; the article cites the vulnerability of coastal homes to hurricanes and outlines some efforts to build them in a more structurally sound manner. Lastly, the Commercial Modular Construction Magazine (8) is a quarterly publication that centers on permanent and temporary modular building design. The second issue of 2003 has, among other things, a good article that describes the basics and benefits of modular construction.

Leske, Cavin.

320

A new bioreactor adapts to materials state and builds a growth model for vascular tissue engineering.  

PubMed

Bioreactors are a promising enabling technology for vascular tissue engineering. Beyond their value for the scale-up and manufacturing of tissue-engineered blood vessels, bioreactors represent a potential path toward the understanding of the regeneration process of tissues in vitro, toward the development of mathematical models for growth and remodeling in tissue engineering, and toward the study of pathological conditions. To achieve these promises, bioreactors must overcome the paradigm of a black box for the growth of tissues and become a tool for the study of growth in tissue engineering. An advanced control strategy was developed to study and maximize growth in bioreactors. The aim of this paper is to validate experimentally the ability of this controller to build knowledge during the culture of a tissue-engineered blood vessel. During the experiments, the controller proposed linear regression models, therefore making hypotheses on the parameters that influence growth; then, it chose experiments to refine these models, therefore verifying these hypotheses. These results show that tissue maturation in bioreactors can become more efficient by acquiring information about the process, and by dynamically adapting culture conditions according to this information input. PMID:22187974

Couet, Frédéric; Mantovani, Diego

2011-12-21

321

Leading the Learning from Above: Articulating State School Restructuring Legislation to Districts and School Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper explores educator reactions to Oregon's House Bill 3565, officially the "Oregon Educational Act for the 21st Century," and describes how and why reactions differ among individuals and schools. The act differs from those enacted by other states in that it mandates changes that are not incremental and focuses on the restructuring of…

Goldman, Paul; Conley, David T.

322

Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic

Matthew S. Merrifield; Ellen Hines; Xiaohang Liu; Michael W. Beck; Simon Thrush

2011-01-01

323

Building democracy’ through foreign aid: The limitations of United States political conditionalities, 1992–96  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the record of the United States government in promoting democratic reform through the manipulation of development aid flows between 1992 and 1996. The first section reviews the origins of the policy of political conditionality and the subsequent changes in the US Agency for International Development. The next section evaluates the policy's execution by considering trends in the

Steven W. Hook

1998-01-01

324

Parental authority, legal practice, and state building in early modern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Set within the contexts of legal culture and the growth of the absolutist state, this study of early modern Burgundy reveals a more complex picture of family authority than has previously been acknowledged by historians. Implicitly, family disorder threatened the basis of political authority in early modern France. While the father was idealized, families and government officials wrestled with instances

Christopher Richard Corley

2001-01-01

325

State and Local Mitigation Planning How-to Guide. Getting Started: Building Support for Mitigation Planning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This first guide in the State and Local Mitigation Planning How-to series discusses the activities and issues involved in initiating a hazard mitigation planning process. The topics covered here are presented within the context of the beginning phase of t...

2002-01-01

326

Achievable Steps Toward Building a National Health Information Infrastructure in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need

WIlliam W Stead; Brian J Kelly; Robert M Kolodner; M S Sridhar

2005-01-01

327

Viewpoint Paper: Achievable Steps Toward Building a National Health Information Infrastructure in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need

William W. Stead; Brian J. Kelly; Robert M. Kolodner

2005-01-01

328

Building the Implicit BSW Curriculum at a Large Southern State University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Council on Social Work Education's Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards (EPAS) stresses the importance of the implicit curriculum in shaping a school's culture. This timely article describes how the implicit BSW curriculum was developed at a large Southern state university using three Web-based projects: (1) a glossary of terms for…

Holosko, Michael; Skinner, Jeffrey; MacCaughelty, Chelsea; Stahl, Kate Morrissey

2010-01-01

329

Review of Equation of State Models, Chemical Equilibrium Calculations and CERV Code Requirements for SHS Detonation Modelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report has summarized the current CERV capabilities and limitations and has identified possible models that could be added to the code for condensed and gaseous phase modelling. Particular attention has been given in the discussion to the implementat...

P. Thibault

2009-01-01

330

Further Development of the LMFBR Accident Analysis Codes HOPE and KADIS: Automatic Data Transfer, New Equation of State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To provide suitable tools for the analysis of hypothetical unprotected transient overpower accidents in LMFBR, the codes HOPE and KADIS were further developed. HOPE analyses the initiating phase of a reactivity ramp accident in an irradiated core, KADIS i...

E. A. Fischer G. Arnecke

1978-01-01

331

The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security.  

PubMed

As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces. PMID:24080620

Verhoeven, Harry

2013-09-30

332

Building Community Resilience: What Can the United States Learn From Experiences in Other Countries?  

PubMed

Objectives:  Community resilience (CR) is emerging as a major public policy priority within disaster management and is one of two key pillars of the December 2009 US National Health Security Strategy. However, there is no clear agreement on what key elements constitute CR. We examined exemplary practices from international disaster management to validate the elements of CR, as suggested by Homeland Security Presidential Directive 21 (HSPD-21), to potentially identify new elements and to identify practices that could be emulated or adapted to help build CR. Methods:  We extracted detailed information relevant to CR from unpublished case studies we had developed previously, describing exemplary practices from international natural disasters occurring between 1985 and 2005. We then mapped specific practices against the five elements of CR suggested by HSPD-21. Results:  We identified 49 relevant exemplary practices from 11 natural disasters in 10 countries (earthquakes in Mexico, India, and Iran; volcanic eruption in Philippines; hurricanes in Honduras and Cuba; floods in Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Mozambique; tsunami in Indian Ocean countries; and typhoon in Vietnam). Of these, 35 mapped well against the five elements of CR: community education, community empowerment, practice, social networks, and familiarity with local services; 15 additional practices were related to physical security and economic security. The five HSPD-21 CR elements and two additional ones we identified were closely related to one another; social networks were especially important to CR. Conclusions:  While each disaster is unique, the elements of CR appear to be broadly applicable across countries and disaster settings. Our descriptive study provides retrospective empirical evidence that helps validate, and adds to, the elements of CR suggested by HSPD-21. It also generates hypotheses about factors contributing to CR that can be tested in future analytic or experimental research. PMID:22547118

Moore, Melinda; Chandra, Anita; Feeney, Kevin C

2012-04-30

333

Counter-narcotics policies in Tajikistan and their impact on state building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1990s, Tajikistan has become a key hub along international opiates-trafficking routes. Tajik security agencies lack the equipment and the skills to effectively counter drug-smuggling networks. Funding from external donors has partially contributed to the renovation and modernization of these agencies. Since the late 1990s both the United States and the European Union have been providing assistance to

Filippo De Danieli

2011-01-01

334

Patterns of state building in the Arabian Gulf: Kuwait and Qatar  

SciTech Connect

In the past few decades Kuwait and Qatar have experienced a radial but apparently smoothly transition from protectorate poverty to petroleum prosperity. Rapid economic and social changes have been accompanied by remarkable political continuity at the apex of their systems. This thesis examines this apparent continuity in ruling regimes. Oil revenues, it argues, preserved continuity only at the very apex of the political system. This continuity was accompanied by the breakdown of the historical ruling coalition binding the amirs and the trading families and its replacement by a new, but ultimately precarious, set of coalitions: first, between the amir and the national population, through social services and direct transfers; second, between the amir and the ruling family, whose political role expanded. These changes were the result of oil: by freeing rulers from the need to extract resources from the population, oil freed them from their historical economic hence political dependence on the merchants, the group which had historically pressed its claims most effectively on the state. Instead a tacit deal developed between the amirs and the trading families: a trade of wealth for formal power. Finally, the thesis argues that these new arrangements are only transitional adaptations. Distributive policies designed to ensure domestic peace have inadvertantly created relatively large and complex state administrations, or distributive states.

Crystal, J.

1986-01-01

335

National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) (2007-2011): Report of the Secretary of Transportation to the United States Congress, Pursuant to Section 47103 of Title 49, United States Code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) for 2007 to 2011 is submitted to Congress in accordance with Section 47103 of Title 49 of the United States Code. A national airport plan has been prepared at regular intervals since the mid-1940's w...

2006-01-01

336

Putting chronic disease on the map: building GIS capacity in state and local health departments.  

PubMed

Techniques based on geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely adopted and applied in the fields of infectious disease and environmental epidemiology; their use in chronic disease programs is relatively new. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention is collaborating with the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors and the University of Michigan to provide health departments with capacity to integrate GIS into daily operations, which support priorities for surveillance and prevention of chronic diseases. So far, 19 state and 7 local health departments participated in this project. On the basis of these participants' experiences, we describe our training strategy and identify high-impact GIS skills that can be mastered and applied over a short time in support of chronic disease surveillance. We also describe the web-based resources in the Chronic Disease GIS Exchange that were produced on the basis of this training and are available to anyone interested in GIS and chronic disease (www.cdc.gov/DHDSP/maps/GISX). GIS offers diverse sets of tools that promise increased productivity for chronic disease staff of state and local health departments. PMID:23786907

Miranda, Marie Lynn; Casper, Michele; Tootoo, Joshua; Schieb, Linda

2013-06-20

337

Steady-state thermal-hydraulic analysis of the Moroccan TRIGA MARK II reactor by using PARET\\/ANL and COOLOD-N2 codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The COOLOD\\/N2 and PARET\\/ANL codes were used for a steady-state thermal-hydraulic and safety analysis of the 2MW TRIGA MARK II reactor located at the Nuclear Studies Center of Maâmora (CENM), Morocco. In order to validate our PARET\\/ANL and COOLOD-N2 models, the fuel center temperature as function of core power was calculated and compared with the corresponding experimental values. The comparison

Y. Boulaich; B. Nacir; T. El Bardouni; M. Zoubair; B. El Bakkari; O. Merroun; C. El Younoussi; A. Htet; H. Boukhal; E. Chakir

2011-01-01

338

57. BUILDING NO. 1071, ORDNANCE FACILITY (CRYSTALLIZATION BUILDING), LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

57. BUILDING NO. 1071, ORDNANCE FACILITY (CRYSTALLIZATION BUILDING), LOOKING AT SOUTHEAST SIDE. NOTE ESCAPE CHUTES PROJECTING FROM SIDES OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

339

4. South side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking north ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. South side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

340

3. East side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking west ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. East side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

341

6. West side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. West side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

342

9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

343

5. North side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. North side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

344

26. BUILDING NO. 527, LOOKING EAST ALONG NORTHWEST ELEVATION. BUILDINGS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

26. BUILDING NO. 527, LOOKING EAST ALONG NORTHWEST ELEVATION. BUILDINGS NO. 533, AND NO. 534 (SOLVENT RECOVERY BUILDINGS) IN FAR LEFT BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

345

Does public\\/private status affect the level of earnings management in code-law contexts outside the United States? A study based on the Spanish case  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the difference in earnings quality between public and private firms in Spain. We go beyond the income-increasing incentives on which the United States debate has been exclusively based and build on previous Belgian results by considering institutional differences and differences in the type of blockholder and by proposing a new income-smoothing methodology.No significant differences are found for

Laura Arnedo; Fermín Lizarraga; Santiago Sánchez

2007-01-01

346

Building construction regulations and the fuel cell: Roadblocks and/or opportunities to technology transfer  

SciTech Connect

A significant amount of effort is underway to develop new technologies for the buildings sector. To be implemented in buildings, however, new technologies must meet a host of codes and standards, many of which vary from state to state. Technology development efforts frequently neglect an analysis of codes and standards until late in the development phase (typically just prior to commercialization) or even worse, not until after commercialization. Because of the time lag in either making necessary technology modifications to meet codes or updating codes to accommodate the new technology, such neglect often results in significant delays in new technology implementation. Under new circumstances, codes and standards can encourage the use of certain technologies, enhancing their market performance. Analysis of codes and standards should be undertaken as early as possible in the technology development phase, preferably in parallel to technology development so that requirements to meet codes and standards can be integrated into the technology as it is developed, and so that required codes and standards modifications can be initiated and perhaps finalized in anticipation of new technologies. Several codes and standards considerations must be assessed before fuel cells can be widely employed in the US buildings sector.

Conovere, D.R.; Kinzey, B.R.

1994-08-01

347

Energy Efficiency of the 2000 International Energy Conservation Code in West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

The West Virginia State Building Code contains two options for energy efficiency requirements in one- and two-family dwellings. One is the International Code Council?s (ICC) 2000 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) (ICC 1999a,b) (87-4-4.1.6). The second is an exception (replacement) for Chapter 11 of the ICC International Residential Code (IRC) (87-4-4.1.7). The West Virginia Energy Efficiency Program, West Virginia Development Office, has asked the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to compare the energy use resulting from the application of the 2000 IECC code and the IRC code, as amended by West Virginia. The Department's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) compared the energy use from compliance with the 2000 IECC to the exception to Chapter 11 of the IRC known as the ''Alternate Energy Code''.

Lucas, Robert G.

2004-11-30

348

Building regional threat-based networks for estuaries in the Western United States.  

PubMed

Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S. Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography. PMID:21387006

Merrifield, Matthew S; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W

2011-02-28

349

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting a Commercial Building Energy Standard in South Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The state of South Dakota is considering adopting a commercial building energy standard. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to South Dakota residents from requiring compliance with the most recent edition of the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. These standards were developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The quantitative benefits and costs of adopting a commercial building energy code are modeled by comparing the characteristics of assumed current building practices with the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Standard, 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in this analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using results from a detailed building simulation tool (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics [BLAST] model) combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

2005-03-04

350

A ROM-friendly secure code update mechanism for WSNs using a stateful-verifier tau-time signature scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several mechanisms have been proposed to efficiently authenticate multicast of finite data streams as needed for code image updates in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). They involve either a public-key digital signature or loose time synchronization between the sender and the receivers. What usually does not get any attention is the program memory (ROM) occupied by these mechanisms which do not

Osman Ugus; Dirk Westhoff; Jens-matthias Bohli

2009-01-01

351

Code Approaches to Seismic Design of Masonry-Infilled?Reinforced?Concrete Frames: A State-of-the-Art Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Masonry infill MI walls are remarkable in increasing the initial stiffness of reinforced concrete RC frames, and being the stiffer component, attract most of the lateral seismic shear forces on buildings, thereby reducing the demand on the RC frame members. However, behavior of MI is difficult to predict because of significant variations in material properties and because of failure modes

Hemant B. Kaushik; Durgesh C. Rai; Sudhir K. Jain

2006-01-01

352

State Requirements for Educational Facilities, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This updated, two-volume document provides guidance for those involved in the educational facilities procurement process, and includes recent legislative changes affecting the state of Florida's building code. The first volume is organized by the sequence of steps required in the facilities procurement process and presents state requirements for…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

353

Global-market building as state building: China’s entry into the WTO and market reforms of China’s tobacco industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyzes how China’s increasing engagement in the global market induced significant institution-building in China’s\\u000a tobacco industry and enabled a power shift from the local authorities to the central authority in controlling this market.\\u000a During this process of “getting onto the international track,” the central government reorganized the industrial tobacco system\\u000a and broke up the “monopolies” set up by

Junmin Wang

2009-01-01

354

Creativity Fostering Behaviour as an Index of Productivity and Capacity Building among Lecturers in Selected Universities in Ogun and Oyo States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for creative thinking and behaviour is more acute in our contemporary society than before. Therefore, this study tried to investigate creativity fostering behaviour as an index of productivity and capacity building among lecturers in selected universities in Ogun and Oyo States. To achieve this, multi-stage sampling technique was…

Olawale, Sunday G.; Adeniyi, Emmanuel O.; Olubela, OpeOluwa I.

2010-01-01

355

Modeling of existing and rehabilitated RC buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many existing buildings which have been designed according to earlier codes. In these codes, either design for seismic loads was not a requirement or design was for lower levels of seismic forces. One of the major challenges that faces structural engineers is to determine the seismic capacity of an existing building and to rehabilitate these buildings to upgrade

Maged A. Youssef

2000-01-01

356

Analysis of the impacts of energy conservation codes in new single-family homes  

SciTech Connect

Within the 50 states some form of federal code or standard for energy conservation in new building construction is typically incorporated into state and local codes. Two of these codes, the Model Energy Code (MEC) and the proposed ASHRAE standard 90.2P are of special importance to the residential data base developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) because they influence thermal requirements and have either been recently updated or will be revised in 1992. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of these two thermal codes on the energy performance and energy consumption of prototypical new single-family buildings. Base case buildings, with characteristics typical of current building practices, are modified to meet the thermal envelope standards and are simulated with the DOE-2.1D building energy simulation program. In addition, we also model the effects of appliance and heating and cooling equipment efficiencies promulgated under the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) of 1987 and of the NAECA Amendments of 1988. We compare heating and cooling loads and energy use for the prototypical house for several cases: the base case, with 1980s vintage thermal envelope and appliance and equipment efficiencies; with ASHRAE 90 thermal requirements; with Model Energy Code thermal requirements; with NAECA appliance and HVAC efficiencies; and with combinations of the ASHRAE 90 Standard or Model Energy Code and the NAECA appliance and equipment efficiency improvements. The results provide a glimpse of how these standards will affect future end-use energy consumption in new single-family buildings.

Ritschard, R.L.; Hanford, J.W.; Sezgen, A.O.

1992-12-01

357

A Better Handoff for Code Officials  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Building Energy Codes Program has partnered with ICC to release the new Building Energy Codes Resource Guide: Code Officials Edition. We created this binder of practical materials for a simple reason: code officials are busy learning and enforcing several codes at once for the diverse buildings across their jurisdictions. This doesn’t leave much time to search www.energycodes.gov, www.iccsafe.org, or the range of other helpful web-based resources for the latest energy codes tools, support, and information. So, we decided to bring the most relevant materials to code officials in a way that works best with their daily routine, and point to where they can find even more. Like a coach’s game plan, the Resource Guide is an "energy playbook" for code officials.

Conover, David R.; Yerkes, Sara

2010-09-24

358

Period Formulas for Moment-Resisting Frame Buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most seismic codes specify empirical formulas to estimate the fundamental vibration period of buildings. Evaluated first in this paper are the formulas specified in present U.S. codes using the available data on the fundamental period of buildings \\

Rakesh K. Goel; Anil K. Chopra

1997-01-01

359

A comparison of IBC with 1997 UBC for modal response spectrum analysis in standard-occupancy buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a comparison of the seismic forces generated from a Modal Response Spectrum Analysis (MRSA) by applying the provisions of two building codes, the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC) and the 2000-2009 International Building Code (IBC), to the most common ordinary residential buildings of standard occupancy. Considering IBC as the state of the art benchmark code, the primary concern is the safety of buildings designed using the UBC as compared to those designed using the IBC. A sample of four buildings with different layouts and heights was used for this comparison. Each of these buildings was assumed to be located at four different geographical sample locations arbitrarily selected to represent various earthquake zones on a seismic map of the USA, and was subjected to code-compliant response spectrum analyses for all sample locations and for five different soil types at each location. Response spectrum analysis was performed using the ETABS software package. For all the cases investigated, the UBC was found to be significantly more conservative than the IBC. The UBC design response spectra have higher spectral accelerations, and as a result, the response spectrum analysis provided a much higher base shear and moment in the structural members as compared to the IBC. The conclusion is that ordinary office and residential buildings designed using UBC 1997 are considered to be overdesigned, and therefore they are quite safe even according to the IBC provisions.

Nahhas, Tariq M.

2011-03-01

360

49 CFR 578.6 - Civil penalties for violations of specified provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sections is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty...section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty for...Chapter 305 is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of...

2012-10-01

361

Solar buildings. Overview: The Solar Buildings Program  

SciTech Connect

Buildings account for more than one third of the energy used in the United States each year, consuming vast amounts of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil. Given this level of consumption, the buildings sector is rife with opportunity for alternative energy technologies. The US Department of Energy`s Solar Buildings Program was established to take advantage of this opportunity. The Solar Buildings Program is engaged in research, development, and deployment on solar thermal technologies, which use solar energy to produce heat. The Program focuses on technologies that have the potential to produce economically competitive energy for the buildings sector.

Not Available

1998-04-01

362

Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements.

Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe

2008-07-01

363

Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings  

SciTech Connect

Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements.

Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Cultura del Progetto, Seconda Universita di Napoli Abbazia di S. Lorenzo ad Septimum, 81031, Aversa (Italy)

2008-07-08

364

Metal Building Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the last two decades, metal building systems have become an important part of the building construction industry. Today, almost 50% of the low-rise non-residential buildings under 150,000 square feet constructed in the United States, are metal buil...

K. E. Mikula

1988-01-01

365

NOBAI: a web server for character coding of geometrical and statistical features in RNA structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Numeration of Objects in Biology: Alignment Inferences (NOBAI) web server provides a web interface to the applications in the NOBAI software package. This software codes topological and ther- modynamic information related to the secondary structure of RNA molecules as multi-state phyloge- netic characters, builds character matrices directly in NEXUS format and provides sequence randomiza- tion options. The web server

Vegeir Knudsen; Gustavo Caetano-anollés

2008-01-01

366

Evolving genetic code  

PubMed Central

In 1985, we reported that a bacterium, Mycoplasma capricolum, used a deviant genetic code, namely UGA, a “universal” stop codon, was read as tryptophan. This finding, together with the deviant nuclear genetic codes in not a few organisms and a number of mitochondria, shows that the genetic code is not universal, and is in a state of evolution. To account for the changes in codon meanings, we proposed the codon capture theory stating that all the code changes are non-disruptive without accompanied changes of amino acid sequences of proteins. Supporting evidence for the theory is presented in this review. A possible evolutionary process from the ancient to the present-day genetic code is also discussed.

OHAMA, Takeshi; INAGAKI, Yuji; BESSHO, Yoshitaka; OSAWA, Syozo

2008-01-01

367

Alabama's Education Coalition Focuses on Supporting the State's Math, Science and Technology Initiative and on Building Distance Learning Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alabama Math Science Technology Educational Coalition (AMSTEC) was formed as a non-profit after a 1998 NASA Linking Leaders program brought in education and corporate leaders to address systemic education reform in Alabama public schools. AMSTEC was instrumental in the creation of the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI), a K-12 program designed using data from national and international research and local teacher survey. In the face of dwindling government support in a state ranked last in education funding, AMSTEC believes that its best hope for improved STEM education lies in strengthening its community/industry partnerships and building upon the Department of Education's newly created AMSTI program. NASA's GLOBE program is the primary earth science education component being integrated into AMSTI. AMSTI is structured to provide teachers with (1) the materials, equipment, technology and supplies necessary to deliver high quality, inquiry-based instruction; (2) professional development linked directly to the educational resources with the intent of strengthening content knowledge, instructional strategies, and use of assessment tools; and (3) on-site support and mentoring throughout the year in the interest of achieving these goals. Roles for community partners to support these objectives far exceed that of mere funding - especially in the area of mentoring and professional development. Currently, AMSTEC consists of 100+ members including classroom teachers and district officers, education department representatives from higher educational institutions, policy makers and administrators, and government and industry representatives. AMSTEC remains partially tied to NASA fiscally and is administratively housed by the National Space Science and Technology Center's Earth System Science Center. AMSTEC's partnership emphasis is focused on increasing corporate and industry participation to support the implementation of AMSTI and its hub-site-based program. Future foci for AMSTEC are development and implementation of distance learning programs across Alabama's K-12 public schools.

Denson, R. L.

2003-12-01

368

State Regulations and the ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice: Oil and Water for the Substance Abuse Counselor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews state regulations responsible for determining the minimum qualifications for counselors, clinical supervisors, or client assessors in the substance abuse treatment field. Few of the 34 states surveyed required treatment outcome studies or referenced licensed professional counselors. Discusses implications new counselors may face when their…

West, Paul L.; Mustaine, Beverly L.; Wyrick, Barry

1999-01-01

369

Code Green.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)|

McMinn, John

2002-01-01

370

Modernizing Kentucky's Uniform Commercial Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1958 Kentucky became the third state to enact the Uniform Commercial Code promulgated by the American Law Institute and the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws. The General Assembly stated that this legislation was intended to modernize, clarify and simplify the law of commercial transactions. Enactment of the Code also evidenced the legislature's intent to make Kentucky

Harold R. Weinberg; Louise Everett Graham; Thomas J. Stipanowich

1985-01-01

371

Building thermography and energy performance directive of buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy Performance of Buildings Directive came in to the force in Europe couple of years ago and it had an immediate effect on Building Codes in Europe. Finland have changed its building codes since 2007 - the insulation requirements have been tightened and the requirements have been specified. The biggest change is energy efficient calculations and determination of energy efficiency and energy label for buildings. This has caused a boom of new service providers (thermography services, air-tightness measurements and other services like new calculation tools). Thermography is used in verification in performance of buildings. In this presentation some examples of building thermography in walk-through energy audits combined with the results of energy efficiency calculations are presented - also some special problems in buildings of specific use (e.g. an art museum) and use of thermography to solve them.

Kauppinen, Timo; Siikanen, Sami

2012-05-01

372

Warren-Alquist State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Act, Public Resources Code Section 25000 et seq  

SciTech Connect

The text of the Act is presented, and all amendments to the Act through 1979 are included. The 12 chapters are: Title and General Provisions; Definitions; State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission; Planning and Forecasting; Energy Resources Conservation; Power Facility and Site Certification; Research and Development; Energy Shortage Contingency Planning; State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Accounts; Enforcement and Judicial Review; Gas Appliances; and Solar Shade Control.

Not Available

1979-12-01

373

Application of FEMA methodology to RC shear wall buildings governed by flexure  

Microsoft Academic Search

New performance evaluation techniques have recently been developed as part of the SAC Joint Venture. FEMA 355F describes a new state-of-the-art method for the performance prediction of steel moment-frame buildings excited by earthquake ground motions. The goal of this study was to apply the performance based evaluation framework to the RC shear wall buildings designed under current codes and standards

Taewan Kim; Douglas A. Foutch

2007-01-01

374

Survey of Solar Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This survey brings together information concerning the growing number of buildings utilizing solar energy and is designed to facilitate the comparison of specific characteristics of the buildings. The 66 U.S. entries are divided into five regions, arranged by state, and roughly by date within each state. Seven entries are from other countries. A…

Gray, Robert; Baker, Steven

375

Survey of Solar Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This survey brings together information concerning the growing number of buildings utilizing solar energy and is designed to facilitate the comparison of specific characteristics of the buildings. The 66 U.S. entries are divided into five regions, arranged by state, and roughly by date within each state. Seven entries are from other countries. A…

Gray, Robert; Baker, Steven

376

13. BUILDING NO. 824, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT NORTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. BUILDING NO. 824, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT NORTHEAST CORNER. BUILDING NO. 823, GENERAL ORDINANCE MAGAZINE, VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND. BUILDING NO. 824-A TO RIGHT OF BUILDING NO. 824. - Picatinny Arsenal, 800 Area, Complete Rounds-Melt Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

377

62. BUILDING NO. 1301, ORDNANCE FACILITY (MORTAR POWDER BUILDING), LOOKING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

62. BUILDING NO. 1301, ORDNANCE FACILITY (MORTAR POWDER BUILDING), LOOKING AT NORTHWEST FACADE. ACCESS TO ROOF ALLOWS MAINTENANCE OF VENTILATION EQUIPMENT WHICH IS PLACED OUTSIDE BUILDING TO MINIMIZE EXPLOSION HAZARD. NO. 2 VISIBLE ON WALL OF BUILDING STANDS FOR EXPLOSION HAZARD WITH FRAGMENTATION. - Picatinny Arsenal, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

378

Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

Not Available

1994-04-29

379

Warren-Alquist State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Act, Public Resources Code Section 25000 et seq  

SciTech Connect

Chapters under Section 25000 include: Title and General Provision; Definitions; State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission; Planning and Forecasting; Petroleum Supply and Pricing (new); Motor Vehicle Fuel Conservation (new); Energy Resources Conservation; Energy Conservation Assistance; Petroleum Resources Management; Energy Conservation in Transportation; Energy Systems; Power Facility and Site Certification; Research and Development; Residue Conversion; Coal Gasification; Clean Coal; Energy Shortage Contingency Planning; Refined Petroleum Products Allocation (new); State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Special Account; Enforcement and Judicial Review; Insulation Standards; Gas Appliances; and Solar Shade Control. (MCW)

Not Available

1981-01-01

380

ADVANCES IN ENERGY CODES IN RUSSIA AND KAZAKHSTAN. HARMONIZATION OF CODES WITH EUROPEAN STANDARDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A ten-year struggle in Russia over a new generation of building energy codes has recently culminated in the passage of a sweeping new federal energy code. This federal code employs the approaches and locks in the energy-performance targets of innovative regional codes adopted since the late 1990s, based on a model code developed by the author of this paper.

Yuri Matrosov Cand; David B. Goldstein

381

Character coding  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Character coding has been called the bete noire of phylogenetic analysis. As you may have seen from class, the definition of "character" is squishy and varies between authors. Although there isn't agreement on exactly what a character is, it is possible to predict how certain character definitions and coding strategies affect phylogenetic analysis. This activity focuses on character coding, specifically about how different coding strategies can affect analysis. In this exercise we will try to look at different coding strategies by considering the simple shapes below. (1) What is a character, and what qualities do characters have? (2) Given the 'morphology' depicted above, what features vary? (3) Given the variation you identified, come up with as many character codings as you can; i.e., different ways that this variation can be coded into characters. (4) For each of the coding strategies you come up with in question 3, identify its assumptions, limitations, and strengths. (5) Identify your preferred coding strategy and defend your choice. Students asked to define what a character is and to discuss what they 'require', and then to come up with an exhaustive list of coding strategies for the sample morphology. They are then asked to list assumptions/limitations of each strategy.

Wilson, Jeff

382

A Guide to Building Commissioning  

SciTech Connect

Commissioning is the process of verifying that a building's heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems perform correctly and efficiently. Without commissioning, system and equipment problems can result in higher than necessary utility bills and unexpected and costly equipment repairs. This report reviews the benefits of commissioning, why it is a requirement for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification, and why building codes are gradually adopting commissioning activities into code.

Baechler, Michael C.

2011-09-01

383

Ethical Climate Theory, Whistle-blowing, and the Code of Silence in Police Agencies in the State of Georgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the findings from a study that investigates the relationship between ethical climates and police whistle-blowing\\u000a on five forms of misconduct in the State of Georgia. The results indicate that a friendship or team climate generally explains\\u000a willingness to blow the whistle, but not the actual frequency of blowing the whistle. Instead, supervisory status, a control\\u000a variable investigated

Gary R. Rothwell; J. Norman Baldwin

2007-01-01

384

Nascap-2k Spacecraft Charging Code Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nascap-2k is a modern spacecraft charging code, replacing the older codes NASA Charging Analyzer Program for GEosynchronous Orbit (NASCAP\\/GEO), NASA Charging Analyzer Program for Low-Earth Orbit (NASCAP\\/LEO), Potentials Of Large objects in the Auroral Region (POLAR), and Dynamic Plasma Analysis Code (DynaPAC). The code builds on the physical principles, mathematical algorithms, and user experience developed over three decades of spacecraft

Myron J. Mandell; Victoria A. Davis; David L. Cooke; Adrian T. Wheelock; C. J. Roth

2006-01-01

385

Acción Mutua (Shared Action): a multipronged approach to delivering capacity-building assistance to agencies serving Latino communities in the United States.  

PubMed

Culturally appropriate, theory-based capacity-building assistance can serve a vital role in helping HIV prevention providers remain up-to-date, effective, and responsive to those they serve. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), AIDS Project Los Angeles, in collaboration with San Francisco State University's César E. Chávez Institute, conducted full-day site visits and qualitative interviews in 2005 with mid-level management staff of CDC-funded community-based organizations delivering HIV prevention services to Latino communities in the western region of the United States. We found that agencies we visited (1) had not yet adapted the evidence-based interventions they were using at the time of our visit and (2) requested technical assistance and training in the areas of program development, evaluation, group facilitation techniques, consumer recruitment, client retention, intervention adaptation, and materials development. Findings from this needs assessment were used to inform our seven-pronged approach to delivering capacity-building assistance entitled "Acción Mutua" (Shared Action). The approach emphasizes strategic partnerships, stakeholder involvement, organizational self-assessment, culturally appropriate materials development, interactive training, tailored onsite technical assistance, and professional networking opportunities. This article describes our approach in detail, the assessment process we used to develop it, and its implications for capacity-building practice. PMID:17159465

Ayala, George; Chión, Miguel; Díaz, Rafael M; Heckert, Andrea L; Nuño, Monica; del Pino, Homero E; Rodríguez, Claudia; Schroeder, Kurt; Smith, Terry

2007-01-01

386

Solar Workbook. A Step by Step Procedure for Assessing Solar Opportunities in Existing Buildings in New York State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Determining the feasibility of modifying existing buildings to take advantage of solar energy requires a formal technical study. This workbook is designed to help the reader perform a preliminary analysis to decide whether investing in such a formal study would be beneficial. The book guides the user through an exploration of the general…

New York State Energy Office, Albany.

387

Solar Workbook. A Step by Step Procedure for Assessing Solar Opportunities in Existing Buildings in New York State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determining the feasibility of modifying existing buildings to take advantage of solar energy requires a formal technical study. This workbook is designed to help the reader perform a preliminary analysis to decide whether investing in such a formal study would be beneficial. The book guides the user through an exploration of the general…

New York State Energy Office, Albany.

388

The Application of the Tanzimat Reforms in Bulgaria: State Building in the Ottoman Empire (1839-1878)  

Microsoft Academic Search

relations in the 19th century Ottoman Empire) and previous administrative practices, both of which defined the state-society interactions in Bulgaria. The state and society linkages that were shaped by this conjunction explain the failure of reforms in Bulgaria. Although the Ottomans succeeded in creating the basic structures of a central state and modern bureaucracy, they also created local state structures

Yonca Koksal

389

Energy efficient building design  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

Not Available

1992-03-01

390

Quantum codes and macroscopic superpositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that encoding the state of a quantum computer (or other quantum information-processing device) for error correction has the effect of making its operating states macroscopically indistinguishable; all the more, the more ``stable'' the code is, that is, the more errors it can correct in each pass. It is also shown that for nondegenerate codes the expectation values

Julio Gea-Banacloche

2000-01-01

391

51. BUILDING NO. 533, SOLVENT RECOVERY BUILDING, LOOKING WEST AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

51. BUILDING NO. 533, SOLVENT RECOVERY BUILDING, LOOKING WEST AT SOUTHEAST (REAR) ELEVATION. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

392

56. Photocopy of Photograph, BUILDING NO. 534, SOLVENT RECOVERY BUILDING, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

56. Photocopy of Photograph, BUILDING NO. 534, SOLVENT RECOVERY BUILDING, DETAIL VIEW OF SPARK PROOF EXTERIOR ELECTRICAL SWITCHES IN SOUTHEAST ELEVATION. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

393

50. BUILDING NO. 533, SOLVENT RECOVERY BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

50. BUILDING NO. 533, SOLVENT RECOVERY BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST AT NORTHWEST ELEVATION. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

394

Computer code abstract: NESTLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

NESTLE is a few-group neutron diffusion equation solver utilizing the nodal expansion method (NEM) for eigenvalue, adjoint, and fixed-source steady-state and transient problems. The NESTLE code solve the eigenvalue (criticality), eigenvalue adjoint, external fixed-source steady-state, and external fixed-source or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search

P. J. Turinsky; R. M. K. Al-Chalabi; P. Engrand; H. N. Sarsour; F. X. Faure; W. Guo

1995-01-01

395

Adequate Facilities for All: Reforming New York State's System for Providing Building Aid to School Districts and for Meeting Schools' Urgent Capital Needs. Part II. [Sound Basic Education Task Force Proposal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In recent years, court mandates in education adequacy cases have resulted in substantial increases in state-level support for local building needs in a number of states. The Court of Appeals' decision in "CFE v. State of New York" has made clear that extensive facilities deficiencies in New York City constitute a major constitutional violation…

Campaign for Fiscal Equity, Inc., 2004

2004-01-01

396

DNA codes  

SciTech Connect

We have begun to characterize a variety of codes, motivated by potential implementation as (quaternary) DNA n-sequences, with letters denoted A, C The first codes we studied are the most reminiscent of conventional group codes. For these codes, Hamming similarity was generalized so that the score for matched letters takes more than one value, depending upon which letters are matched [2]. These codes consist of n-sequences satisfying an upper bound on the similarities, summed over the letter positions, of distinct codewords. We chose similarity 2 for matches of letters A and T and 3 for matches of the letters C and G, providing a rough approximation to double-strand bond energies in DNA. An inherent novelty of DNA codes is 'reverse complementation'. The latter may be defined, as follows, not only for alphabets of size four, but, more generally, for any even-size alphabet. All that is required is a matching of the letters of the alphabet: a partition into pairs. Then, the reverse complement of a codeword is obtained by reversing the order of its letters and replacing each letter by its match. For DNA, the matching is AT/CG because these are the Watson-Crick bonding pairs. Reversal arises because two DNA sequences form a double strand with opposite relative orientations. Thus, as will be described in detail, because in vitro decoding involves the formation of double-stranded DNA from two codewords, it is reasonable to assume - for universal applicability - that the reverse complement of any codeword is also a codeword. In particular, self-reverse complementary codewords are expressly forbidden in reverse-complement codes. Thus, an appropriate distance between all pairs of codewords must, when large, effectively prohibit binding between the respective codewords: to form a double strand. Only reverse-complement pairs of codewords should be able to bind. For most applications, a DNA code is to be bi-partitioned, such that the reverse-complementary pairs are separated across the two blocks. For the foregoing reasons, these two blocks of codewords suffice as the hooks and loops of a digital Velcro. We began our investigations of such codes by constructing quaternary BCH reverse-complement codes, using cyclic codes and conventional Hamming distance [4]. We also obtained upper and lower bounds on the rate of reverse-complement codes with a metric function based on the foregoing similarities [3]. For most applications involving DNA, however, the reverse-complementary analogue of codes based on the insertion-deletion distance is more advantageous. This distance equals the codeword length minus the longest length of a common (not necessarily contiguous) subsequence. (The 'aligned' codes described above may be used under special experimental conditions), The advantage arises because, under the assumption that DNA is very flexible, the sharing of sufficiently long subsequences between codewords would be tantamount to the ability of one of their reverse complements to form a double strand with the other codeword. Thus far, using the random coding method, we have derived an asymptotic lower bound on the rate of reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes, as a function of the insertion-deletion distance fraction and of the alphabet size [1]. For the quaternary DNA alphabet of primary importance, this lower bound yields an asymptotically positive rate if the insertion-deletion-distance fraction does not exceed the threshold {approx} 0.19. Extensions of the Varsamov-Tenengol'ts construction of insertion-deletion codes [5] for reverse-complement insertion-deletion codes will be described. Experiments have been performed involving some of our DNA codes.

Torney, D. C. (David C.)

2001-01-01

397

NGFM - A Three-Dimensional Steady-State Multigroup Diffusion Theory Code in Rectangular Geometry, Based on Nodal Green's Function Method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Nodal Green's Function Method and the code, based on this method, developed by R. Lawrence and J. Dorning for solving the 3-dimensional multigroup diffusion equations in rectangular geometry, are described. Some improvements of the code are presented....

M. Manolova

1983-01-01

398

Model-building codes for membrane proteins.  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a novel approach to modeling the transmembrane spanning helical bundles of integral membrane proteins using only a sparse set of distance constraints, such as those derived from MS3-D, dipolar-EPR and FRET experiments. Algorithms have been written for searching the conformational space of membrane protein folds matching the set of distance constraints, which provides initial structures for local conformational searches. Local conformation search is achieved by optimizing these candidates against a custom penalty function that incorporates both measures derived from statistical analysis of solved membrane protein structures and distance constraints obtained from experiments. This results in refined helical bundles to which the interhelical loops and amino acid side-chains are added. Using a set of only 27 distance constraints extracted from the literature, our methods successfully recover the structure of dark-adapted rhodopsin to within 3.2 {angstrom} of the crystal structure.

Shirley, David Noyes; Hunt, Thomas W.; Brown, W. Michael; Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Slepoy, Alexander; Sale, Kenneth L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Young, Malin M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

2005-01-01

399

Using Social Network Theory to Influence the Development of State and Local Primary Prevention Capacity-Building Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article examines the role that social network theory and social network analysis has played in assessing and developing effective primary prevention networks across a southeastern state. In 2004 the state began an effort to develop a strategic plan for the primary prevention of violence working with local communities across the state. The…

Cook-Craig, Patricia G.

2010-01-01

400

Using Social Network Theory to Influence the Development of State and Local Primary Prevention Capacity-Building Teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role that social network theory and social network analysis has played in assessing and developing effective primary prevention networks across a southeastern state. In 2004 the state began an effort to develop a strategic plan for the primary prevention of violence working with local communities across the state. The process included an analysis of how family

Patricia G. Cook-Craig

2010-01-01

401

Poll Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you a pollster? Would you like to be one? PollCode makes all of this quite simple. With this handy application, visitors can type in a poll question and up to 30 possible answers. Visitors can customize the poll with their own colors, font, and settings. After visitors have completed their poll, they can use the HTML code provided here to share their poll with others via social media networks and the like. This version of Poll Code is compatible with all operating systems. [KMG

2013-05-09

402

Energy conservation program guide for commercial buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following topics are discussed: the definition of the commercial building category, the purpose of the conservation program guide, energy conservation in existing buildings, energy conservation in new buildings, goals of the state energy conservation programs, and reports. (MHR)

de Latour

1975-01-01

403

Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park

William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez

2010-01-01

404

Federal and state regulatory requirements for the D&D of the Alpha-4 Building, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of Building 9201-4 (Alpha-4) at the Oak Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, The Alpha-4 Building was used from 1953--1962 to house a column exchange (Colex) process for lithium isotope separation. This process involved electrochemical and solvent extraction processes that required substantial quantities of mercury. Presently there is no law or regulation mandating decommissioning at DOE facilites or setting de minimis or ``below regulatory concern`` (BRC) radioactivity levels to guide decommissioning activities at DOE facilities. However, DOE Order 5820.2A, Chap. V (Decommissioning of Radioactively Contaminated Facilities), requires that the regulatory status of each project be identified and that technical engineering planning must assure D&D compliance with all environmental regulations during cleanup activities. To assist in the performance of this requirement, this paper gives a brief overview of potential federal and state regulatory requirements related to D&D activities at Alpha-4. Compliance with other federal, state, and local regulations not addressed here may be required, depending on site characterization, actual D&D activities, and wastes generated.

Etnier, E.L.; Houlberg, L.M.; Bock, R.E.

1994-03-04

405

The Connections among Immigration, Nation Building, and Adult Education English as a Second Language Instruction in the United States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since its inception at the turn of the last century, adult education English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the United States has been entwined with immigration processes and ideas of the nation. In spite of current uncertainty about the overhauling of federal immigration policy, increasingly anti-immigrant laws in states such as…

Ullman, Char

2010-01-01

406

Modeling of existing and rehabilitated reinforced concrete buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many existing buildings which have been designed according to earlier codes. In these codes, either design for seismic loads was not a requirement or design was for lower levels of seismic forces. One of the major challenges that faces structural engineers is to determine the seismic capacity of an existing building and to rehabilitate these buildings to upgrade

Maged A. Youssef

1999-01-01

407

Audit of energy usage in commercial buildings lighting systems (Massachusetts). Data file  

SciTech Connect

The data on this tape was collected by the Massachusetts State Building Code Commission through a regulatory process designed to save energy in commercial buildings. This regulation sought energy efficiency in lighting systems by establishing a watts per square foot building budget and by requiring the submittal of an audit summarizing the lighting system through the delineation of six broad categories of space usages based on lighting needs. The SBCC received 9299 audits which were computerized - entering square footage and connected load figures for all applicable categories and distinguishing by sequence number, municipality, building use, and building type (existing, new construction, addition or renovation). The data base has been used to report compliance with this regulation and for statistical analysis. A report based upon the results of the statistical analysis is available through the Comm. of Mass. State Building Code Commission, 1 Ashburton Place, Room 1305, Boston, MA. The title of the report is: Energy usage in lighting practices: A report on the power used in commercial buildings in Massachusetts.

Fleming, L.A.; DeVeaux, J.

1980-12-01

408

POLARIZED OPTICAL ORTHOGONAL CODE FOR OPTICAL CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESSSYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—In this paper a Polarized Optical Orthogonal Code (Polarized-OOC) is proposed by exploiting the polarization property of the fiber and the chip’s polarization state. The polarized-OOC code is generated using the concept of Mark Position Difference (MPD) set. Polarized-OOC code cardinality is shown to be two times that of the conventional OOC which reflects an increase in the number of

Naser G. Tarhuni; Mohammed Elmusrati; T. Korhonen

2006-01-01

409

Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant Progress Report: Building a Sustainable Substance Abuse Prevention System, State of Hawai'i, 2006-2010  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 2006, the Hawai'i State Department of Health (DOH) received the Strategic Prevention Framework State Incentive Grant (SPF-SIG) from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) to establish a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable substance abuse prevention infrastructure in Hawai'i. The SPF-SIG Project is funded…

Yuan, S.; Lai, M.C.; Heusel, K.

2011-01-01

410

Building Bridges to Healthy Kids and Better Students: School-Based Outreach and Enrollment for the State Children's Health Insurance Program and Medicaid. A View from the States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Since its creation in 1997, the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) has provided low-income children the access to health care they desperately need. Recognizing the important role health insurance plays in assuring that children come to school healthy and ready to learn, the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSCO) gathered…

Martella, Jana

411

Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC)is a state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model that can be used to simulate aquatic systems in one, two, and three dimensions. It has evolved over the past two decades to become one of the most widely used and technically defensible hydrodyn...

412

Radiation exposure inside reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki.  

PubMed

In this study, the radiation doses to occupants of two reinforced concrete buildings at Nagasaki, who survived the immediate effects of the nuclear weapon detonation, are determined using state-of-the-art radiation transport techniques. The radiation doses at all locations in the buildings are calculated using the Three-Dimensional Oak Ridge Discrete Ordinates Radiation Transport Code which was constructed especially for this task. This code represents a new and unique capability that has been previously reported. This study resulted in case-by-case lists of doses to occupants and an uncertainty analysis. These data have been used in a companion study as the basis for determining a new value of the dose producing a 50% risk of fatality. PMID:1399637

Rhoades, W A; Childs, R L; Ingersoll, D T

1992-11-01

413

A state-of-the-art review of the reactor lower head models employed in three representative U.S. severe accident codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

MELCOR, SCDAP\\/RELAP5, MAAP4 are three representative U.S. computer codes that are being most widely used for the integral analysis of core melt accident progression and the resultant lower head response expected at the reactor lower plenum such as the accident that took place in the TMI-2: the first two are NRC codes and the last one is an industrial code.

Kwang-II Ahn; Dong-Ha Kim

2003-01-01

414

Buildings Technology Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Buildings Technology Center is a "research facility devoted to the development of technologies that improve the energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of residential and commercial buildings." The state-of-the-art research and development facility houses about 50 staff and 10-20 guest researchers. The website describes the center's facilities, research capabilities, and research programs. Another section describes some of the tools for buildings that the center has developed, such as a heat pump design model, building envelope web-based calculators, and a computer program designed to determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for single-family homes. Publications on topics such as envelope systems, appliance and equipment efficiency, Desiccant-related research and other research on building design and performance are posted online. An easy-to-browse database of success stories provides specifications, rendered and line drawings, and other facts about the Center's building technologies.

415

Buildings Technology Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Buildings Technology Center is a "research facility devoted to the development of technologies that improve the energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of residential and commercial buildings." The state-of-the-art research and development facility houses about 50 staff and 10-20 guest researchers. The website describes the center's facilities, research capabilities, and research programs. Another section describes some of the tools for buildings that the center has developed, such as a heat pump design model, building envelope web-based calculators, and a computer program designed to determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for single-family homes. Publications on topics such as envelope systems, appliance and equipment efficiency, Desiccant-related research and other research on building design and performance are posted online. An easy-to-browse database of success stories provides specifications, rendered and line drawings, and other facts about the Center's building technologies.

2006-01-12

416

22 CFR 9b.6 - Grounds for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...one year unless there are material changes in meeting the qualifications.) or, (b) Poses a risk of harm to the personal safety of Department of State or other Governmental personnel or to Government property; or (c) Engages or...

2013-04-01

417

45. BUILDING NO. 462, CHEMISTRY LAB (FORMERLY TRACER LOADING BUILDING), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. BUILDING NO. 462, CHEMISTRY LAB (FORMERLY TRACER LOADING BUILDING), VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT WEST SIDE. BUILDING NO. 462-B, GENERAL PURPOSE MAGAZINE, AT LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

418

An algebraic approach to network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take a new look at the issue of network capacity. It is shown that network coding is an essential ingredient in achieving the capacity of a network. Building on recent work by Li et al., who examined the network capacity of multicast networks, we extend the network coding framework to arbitrary networks and robust networking. For networks which are

Ralf Koetter; Muriel Médard

2003-01-01

419

Making sense of the model energy code  

SciTech Connect

Newly accessible thanks to user-friendly software, the Model Energy Code can help builders both design houses that qualify for federal financing and market their houses` energy efficiency. This article discusses the newly enacted federal code. Topics include the following: what does the MEC require; common questions about the MEC; MEC compliance materials; building it right; climate specific code; making MEC work: lessons from Michigan. 3 figs., 1 tab.

Turchen, S.; Conner, C.

1996-03-01

420

Evaluation of Torsional Provisions in Seismic Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of plan asymmetry on the earthquake response of code-designed, one-story systems are identified with the objective of evaluating how well these effects are represented by torsional provisions in building codes. The earthquake-induced deformations and ductility demands on resisting elements of asymmetric-plan systems, designed according to several different codes, are compared with their values if the system plan were

Anil K. Chopra; Rakesh K. Goel

1991-01-01

421

Long Phrases in Torah Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Torah code hypothesis states that the Torah (the first five books of the Hebrew Bible) contains within it letter sequences (codes) that were created intentionally, as a form of communication to human beings, the intended receivers. We test a long phrase aspect of the hypothesis, by first proposing a method for estimating the probability that letter sequences can be

Art Levitt; Nachum Bombach; Harold Gans; Robert Haralick; Leib Schwartzman; Chaim Stal

422

Response Spectrum Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a parametric study on reinforced concrete (RC) structural walls and moment resisting frames building representative of structural types using response spectrum method is carried out. Here, the design spectra recommended by Indian Standard Code [1] and two other well known codes (Uniform Building Code, Euro Code 8) have been considered for comparison. The main objective of this study is to investigate the differences caused by the use of different codes in the dynamic analysis of multistoried RC building. Three different floor plans that are symmetric (SB), monosymmetric (MB), and unsymmetric (UB) with torsional irregularity are taken as sample buildings. To evaluate the seismic response of the buildings, elastic analysis was performed by using response spectrum method using the computer program SAP2000. Periods, base shears, lateral displacement and interstory drift, torque located at code defined ground type are comparatively presented. It is observed from the comparative study that the base shear using IS code is higher in all the three buildings, when compared to that of with other codes.

Chandak, N. R.

2012-05-01

423

Investigating the performance and energy saving potential of Chinese commercial building benchmark models for the hot humid and severe cold climate regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for energy in China is growing at an alarming rate. Buildings have become a significant component of the energy-demand mix accounting for nearly one-quarter of the country's total primary energy consumption. This study compares the building code standards for office and hotel buildings in the hot humid and severe cold climate regions of China and the United States. Benchmark office and hotel building models have been developed for Guangzhou and Harbin, China that meets China's minimum national and regional building energy codes with the integration of common design and construction practices for each region. These models are compared to the ASHRAE standard based US reference building models for Houston, Texas and Duluth, Minnesota which have similar climate conditions. The research further uses a building energy optimization tool to optimize the Chinese benchmarks using existing US products to identify the primary areas for potential energy savings. In the case of the Harbin models, an economic analysis has also been performed to determine the economic feasibility of alternative building designs. The most significant energy-saving options are then presented as recommendations for potential improvements to current China building energy codes.

Herrmann, Lesley Anne

424

A general-purpose finite-difference code for solving steady-state three-dimensional fluid-flow and heat transfer problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general purpose FORTRAN code is described for the computations of three dimensional steady heat transfer and fluid flow in rectangular geometries. The code is designed to handle combined conduction convection problems within domains comprising of both solid and fluid regions. This is accomplished through the use of the harmonic mean formulation for evaluating interface diffusivities. A control volume formulation

Larry O. Haukenes; Sanjeev B. Sathe; Yogendra Joshi; Matthew D. Kelleher

1991-01-01

425

9. BUILDING NO. 620B, FRICTION PENDULUM BUILDING. 29FOOT DROP TOWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

9. BUILDING NO. 620-B, FRICTION PENDULUM BUILDING. 29-FOOT DROP TOWER SITS BEHIND BLAST SHIELD IN FRONT OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, 600 Area, Test Areas District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

426

Code Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Should a crisis hit the University of Montana, students sitting in classrooms will get immediate emergency information, even if their mobile phones are turned off and they aren't online. Classrooms, dorms, and other buildings are now outfitted with LED message boards--a sort of wall-mounted electronic pager--that use widely understood colors of…

Lapin, Lisa

2009-01-01

427

Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center  

SciTech Connect

Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago�s recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work.

William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez

2010-03-01

428

Relevance of cross-section analysis in correct diagnosis of the state of conservation of building materials as evidenced by spectroscopic imaging.  

PubMed

In the present work the need to use cross-section analysis as a routine procedure to characterize physiochemical damage on building materials was evaluated using a combination of spectroscopic imaging techniques based on Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). First, samples for cross-section analysis required special preparation to avoid the loss of soluble and weakly anchored compounds and thereby ensure the representativeness of the analysis. To this end, samples were dry drilled and fractured with a single blow rather than cut to avoid friction. Cross-section analysis allowed surface deposition (crusts and patinas) to be differentiated from penetrating pollution and the affected depth to be determined. Elemental and molecular distributions were obtained to establish the origin of the compounds/elements found. Moreover, establishing the depth reached by the pollutant, which depends on the material porosity, can help to determine the physicochemical form of the pollutant. Finally, SEM-EDX images allowed surface and internal cracks, as well as the causes of these physical stresses, to be identified. As a result, surface analysis alone was shown to lead to incomplete or even incorrect conclusions that can be avoided by using cross-section analysis as a routine procedure when assessing the state of conservation of building materials. PMID:23992558

Prieto-Taboada, Nagore; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Olazabal, María Ángeles; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

2013-10-01

429

Family Support: Fostering Leadership and Partnerships to Improve Access. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series. Number 14  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This policy brief discusses the critical role of family support and how family support programs can help to improve care for young children. It presents an overview of what family support entails, information about financing family support services, and strategies to enhance family support through the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems…

Thompson, Lisa; Uyeda, Kimberly; Wright, Janel; Halfon, Neal

2005-01-01

430

Building Food Secure Communities In The Southeastern United States: A Case Study Of “Local Food For Local Power”  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local Food for Local Power was a project of the Southern Sustainable Agriculture Working Group (SSAWG 2009) that sought to strengthen the food security advocacy of communities, increase sustainable and local agricultural practices and engage community organizations in creating food system changes. Focused on the southeastern United States, SSAWG has been a supporter of small farmers and a proponent of

Christopher Adams

2010-01-01

431

Building Early Childhood Facilities: What States Can Do to Create Supply and Promote Quality. Preschool Policy Brief. Issue 14  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The early care and education field continues its decades-long expansion, experiencing a new phase of educationally oriented growth. Most states now fund preschool programs and enrollment continues to rise. Yet the field remains fragmented and insufficiently resourced. It lacks the institutional frameworks necessary to address basic challenges to…

Sussman, Carl

2007-01-01

432

Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program: radiological survey of the Building Site 421, United States, Watertown Arsenel, Watertown, MA. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report contains the results of surveys of the current radiological condition of the Building Site 421, United States Arsenal Watertown, Watertown, Massachusetts. Findings of this survey indicate there are four spots involving an area of less than 6000 cm/sup 2/ of identifiable low-level residual radioactivity on the concrete pad which is all that remains of Building Site 421. The largest spot is approximately 5000 cm/sup 2/. The other three spots are 100 cm/sup 2/ or less. The beta-gamma readings at these spots are 8.4 x 10/sup 2/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/, 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/, 2.2 x 10/sup 5/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/ and 8.5 x 10/sup 4/ dis/min-100 cm/sup 2/. No alpha contamination was found at these locations. Gamma spectral analysis of a chip of contaminated concrete from one of the spots indicates that the contaminant is natural uranium. This contamination is fixed in the concrete and does not present an internal or external exposure hazard under present conditions. A hypothetical hazard analysis under a conservative set of assumed conditions indicates minimal internal hazard. The highest End Window contact reading was 0.09 mR/h. None of the other three spots indicated an elevated direct reading with the End Window Detector. Radon daughter concentrations were determined at three locations on the Building 421 pad. These were 0.00013 WL, 0.00011 WL and 0.00009 WL. According to the Surgeon General's Guidelines found in 10 CFR 712, radon daughter concentrations below 0.03 WL do not require remedial action in structures other than private dwellings and schools. Soil samples taken about the site indicate no elevated levels above the natural background levels in the soil. A gamma spectral analysis of a water sample obtained from the storm sewer line near the Building 421 pad indicates no elevated radioactivity in the sample. It was therefore felt that no contamination is present in this sewer.

Not Available

1980-02-01

433

Quantitative comparison of passive solar simulation codes  

SciTech Connect

Several members of the Systems Simulation and Economic Analysis (SS/EA) Working Group have participated in a software-software comparison of passive solar simulation codes. The problems selected and defined by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for analysis include both a vented and an unvented Trombe wall and a direct gain building. The individuals, organizations, and associated computer models involved in this exercise are Byron Wynn, Colorado State University (CSU) (FREHEAT); Larry Palmiter, National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) (SUNCAT); Bill Beckman, the University of Wisconsin (WIS) (TRNSYS); Bill Wray, LASL (PASOLE, SUNSPOT); and John Moore, LASL (DOE-2). Each of these organizations submitted simulation results to LASL, where a comparative analysis was conducted. Excellent agreement was achieved on annual auxiliary heat loads, but several detailed heat fluxes within the structures showed significant scatter, as did both the ventilation and auxiliary cooling.

Wray, W.O.

1980-01-01

434

The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

2010-12-01

435

Perceived Deficiencies and the Policing of the Building Regulations: An Australian Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY It is now over a decade since the Building Regulations administered in Victoria Australia by the Building Commission were changed by the Building Act 1995 and the Building Regulations 1994 (Building Commission, 2006). Along with other developed countries Australia replaced a prescriptive based system by a performance based regulations system (Zillante and Wilkinson, 2006) embodied in the Building Code

Sara WILKINSON

436

2401-W Waste storage building closure plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the performance standards met and closure activities conducted to achieve clean closure of the 2401-W Waste Storage Building (2401-W) (Figure I). In August 1998, after the last waste container was removed from 2401-W, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) notified Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in writing that the 2401-W would no longer receive waste and would be closed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit (98-EAP-475). Pursuant to this notification, closure activities were conducted, as described in this plan, in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and completed on February 9, 1999. Ecology witnessed the closure activities. Consistent with clean closure, no postclosure activities will be necessary. Because 2401-W is a portion of the Central Waste Complex (CWC), these closure activities become the basis for removing this building from the CWC TSD unit boundary. The 2401-W is a pre-engineered steel building with a sealed concrete floor and a 15.2-centimeter concrete curb around the perimeter of the floor. This building operated from April 1988 until August 1998 storing non-liquid containerized mixed waste. All waste storage occurred indoors. No potential existed for 2401-W operations to have impacted soil. A review of operating records and interviews with cognizant operations personnel indicated that no waste spills occurred in this building (Appendix A). After all waste containers were removed, a radiation survey of the 2401-W floor for radiological release of the building was performed December 17, 1998, which identified no radiological contamination (Appendix B).

LUKE, S.M.

1999-07-15

437

Building Bingo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this on site "field trip" activity (located on pages 6-9 of PDF), learners get hands-on experience identifying building materials by playing "Building Bingo". To play, teams of learners locate interior and exterior building materials at their site, use the Natural Materials chart to complete the Building Materials Facts label, and cross off the boxes on their Bingo cards. This lesson guide includes suggestions/tips and game hand-outs.

Wiberg, Leanne; History, National M.

2000-01-01

438

Utility residential new construction programs: Going beyond the code. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) Project  

SciTech Connect

Based on an evaluation of 10 residential new construction programs, primarily sponsored by investor-owned utilities in the United States, we find that many of these programs are in dire straits and are in danger of being discontinued because current inclusion of only direct program effects leads to the conclusion that they are not cost-effective. We believe that the cost-effectiveness of residential new construction programs can be improved by: (1) promoting technologies and advanced building design practices that significantly exceed state and federal standards; (2) reducing program marketing costs and developing more effective marketing strategies; (3) recognizing the role of these programs in increasing compliance with existing state building codes; and (4) allowing utilities to obtain an ``energy-savings credit`` from utility regulators for program spillover (market transformation) impacts. Utilities can also leverage their resources in seizing these opportunities by forming strong and trusting partnerships with the building community and with local and state government.

Vine, E.

1995-08-01

439

Building an \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Java is a popular development platform for mo- bile code systems. It ensures application porta- bility and mobility for a variety of systems, while providing strong security features. The interme- diate code (byte code) allows the virtual machine to verify statically (during the loading phase) that the program is well-behaved. This is done by a software security module called the

Damien Deville; Gilles Grimaud

2002-01-01

440

Conservation Division regulations establishing energy-conservation standards for new nonresidential buildings  

SciTech Connect

The text of the energy conservation standards for new nonresidential buildings (Article 2) of the California Administrative code, Title 24, Part 6, is given. After specifying the general provisions of the code, codes on energy budgets, nondepletable energy sources, the building envelope, HVAC systems, HVAC equipment, service water heating, electrical distribution systems, and lighting codes are detailed. (MCW)

Not Available

1980-02-01

441

Healthy Buildings?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

Grubb, Deborah

442

10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy...

2013-01-01

443

Using bioprocess stoichiometry to build a plant-wide mass balance based steady-state WWTP model.  

PubMed

Steady-state models are useful for design of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) because they allow reactor sizes and interconnecting flows to be simply determined from explicit equations in terms of unit operation performance criteria. Once the overall WWTP scheme is established and the main system defining parameters of the individual unit operations estimated, dynamic models can be applied to the connected unit operations to refine their design and evaluate their performance under dynamic flow and load conditions. To model anaerobic digestion (AD) within plant-wide WWTP models, not only COD and nitrogen (N) but also carbon (C) fluxes entering the AD need to be defined. Current plant-wide models, like benchmark simulation model No 2 (BSM2), impose a C flux at the AD influent. In this paper, the COD and N mass balance steady-state models of activated sludge (AS) organics degradation, nitrification and denitrification (ND) and anaerobic (AD) and aerobic (AerD) digestion of wastewater sludge are extended and linked with bioprocess transformation stoichiometry to form C, H, O, N, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and charge mass balance based models so that also C (and H and O) can be tracked through the whole WWTP. By assigning a stoichiometric composition (x, y, z and a in C(x)H(y)O(z)N(a)) to each of the five main influent wastewater organic fractions and ammonia, these, and the products generated from them via the biological processes, are tracked through the WWTP. The model is applied to two theoretical case study WWTPs treating the same raw wastewater (WW) to the same final sludge residual biodegradable COD. It is demonstrated that much useful information can be generated with the relatively simple steady-state models to aid WWTP layout design and track the different products exiting the WWTP via the solid, liquid and gas streams, such as aerobic versus anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge, N loads in recycle streams, methane production for energy recovery and green house gas (CO(2), CH(4)) generation. To reduce trial and error usage of WWTP simulation software, it is recommended that they are extended to include pre-processors based on mass balance steady-state models to assist with WWTP layout design, unit operation selection, reactor sizing, option evaluation and comparison and wastewater characterization before dynamic simulation. PMID:19345392

Ekama, G A

2009-02-25

444

Assessment of Building Energy-Saving Policies and Programs in China During the 11th Five Year Plan  

SciTech Connect

China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target to reduce the energy intensity per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). In the building sector, the primary energy-saving target allocated during the 11 FYP period is 100 Mtce. Savings are expected to be achieved through the strengthening of enforcement of building energy efficiency codes, existing building retrofits and heat supply system reform, followed by energy management of government office buildings and large scale public buildings, adoption of renewable energy sources. To date, China has reported that it achieved the half of the 20% intensity reduction target by the end of 2008, however, little has been made clear on the status and the impact of the building programs. There has also been lack of description on methodology for calculating the savings and baseline definition, and no total savings that have been officially reported to date. This paper intends to provide both quantitative and qualitative assessment of the key policies and programs in building sector that China has instituted in its quest to fulfill the national goal. Overall, this paper concludes that the largest improvement for building energy efficiency were achieved in new buildings; the program to improve the energy management in government and large scale public buildings are in line with the target; however the progress in the area of existing building retrofits, particularly heating supply system reform lags behind the stated goal by a large amount.

Zhou, Nan; Mcneil, Michael; Levine, Mark

2011-03-01

445

States and Tribes: Building New Traditions. A Broad Examination of the Condition of State-Tribal Relations and Opportunities for Mutually Beneficial Cooperation as the 21st Century Approaches, from a State Legislative Policy Perspective.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report summarizes efforts of the Task Force on State-Tribal Relations of the National Conference of State Legislatures to bring together state legislators, Native American leaders, and other parties interested in seeking new approaches to state-tribal relations. The report incorporates the results of a national survey of state-tribal…

Reed, James B., Ed.; Zelio, Judy A., Ed.

446

Building structures  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A building structure offset uses hexagon structures assembled in an offset layering architecture to construct walls, floors and roofs. Hexagon building structures include interior panels adhered to both sides of a foam core. The structures also include radial cutouts the corners for offset layering assembly with another structure. Peg retainers selectively secure the hexagon building structures together. Fastening holes provide fastener locations for screwing or bolting through the layers of the hexagon structures. The holes align with an offset layer of hexagons when assembled in the axial direction. Conduit holes are selectively located depending on the fastening technique selected. The system includes five derivatives of hexagon building structures and a header, providing square, triangular, and curved geometries when assembled. Since hexagon buildings are built from hexagon building structures without customization, hexagon buildings can be rebuilt, modified, or recycled using the same materials.

Zornes; David A. (Redmond, WA)

2003-10-14

447

An enhanced reconstruction algorithm for unidirectional Distributed Video Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is an emerging video coding technology that utilizes the distributed source coding principles to build very low cost video encoders, yet with remarkable error resilience. In the common DVC framework, the reconstruction function plays a vital role that has a direct impact on the output video quality. In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed for

W. A. R. J. Weerakkody; W. A. C. Fernando; A. M. Kondoz

2008-01-01

448

Codes of split type  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Generalizing a way to construct Golay codes, codes of split type are defined. A lot of interesting codes, for example, extremal codes of length n ? 40 such as Golay codes and binary doubly even self-dual codes [48, 24, 12], [72, 36, w] with w ? 12, are represented as codes of split type.

Kimizuka, Maro; Sasaki, Ryuji

449

Building technology roadmaps  

SciTech Connect

DOE's Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is facilitating an industry-led initiative to develop a series of technology roadmaps that identify key goals and strategies for different areas of the building and equipment industry. This roadmapping initiative is a fundamental component of the BTS strategic plan and will help to align government resources with the high-priority needs identified by industry.

NONE

1999-01-27

450

Image subband coding using arithmetic coded trellis coded quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for encoding memoryless sources using trellis coded quantization (TCQ) with uniform thresholds. The trellis symbols are entropy-coded using arithmetic coding. The performance of the arithmetic coded uniform threshold TCQ, for encoding the family of generalized Gaussian densities, is compared with uniform threshold quantization (UTQ) and the Shannon lower bound (SLB). At high rates, the method performs

Rajan L. Joshi; Valerie J. Crump; Thomas R. Fischer

1995-01-01

451

FDA 1999 Food Code - Previous Editions  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Code, 1993 Recommendations of the United States Public Health Service, Food and Drug Administration, National Technical Information Service ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/retailfoodprotection

452

13 CFR 121.201 - What size standards has SBA identified by North American Industry Classification System codes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... $7.0541350Building Inspection Services...0541410Interior Design Services $7.0...NAICS code 238990âBuilding and Property Specialty...activity and classified as Building and Property Specialty...feasibility studies, remedial design,...

2013-01-01

453

Practical concerns for refrigerant management in buildings  

SciTech Connect

The new laws that regulate the HVAC industry are sometimes confusing and carry heavy fines for non-compliance. The guidelines set forth in ASHRAE Standard 15-1992, Safety Code for Mechanical Refrigeration, may not show up in local codes for quite some time, which leaves the question of diligence in the hands of the building owner. In the case of equipment retrofit, city permits may not be acquired and whether Standard 15 is being met by contractors and owners is a matter of choice. Standard 15 involves refrigeration room ventilation, doors and passageways, long and short-term refrigerant monitoring, pressure-relief piping, alarms, self-contained breathing apparatus requirements, etc. In terms of being practical with liability, nothing short of strict compliance with Standard 15 will provide protection. Once beyond chiller room safety, EPA compliance, namely Rule 608 (National Emissions Reduction Program) of Title VI Clean Air Act of 1990, requires minimal record keeping when CFC and HCFC refrigerants are present. The EPA suggests the following measures as a means of getting started with a practical approach to managing refrigerant in buildings: (1) designate a facility refrigerant manager; (2) conduct an inventory of equipment and refrigerants; and (3) develop a refrigerant management plan. The plan should combine these actions: maintaining existing equipment; retrofitting equipment to alternative refrigerants; and replacing oil or inefficient equipment. Lastly, when making decisions about replacement refrigerants, keep in mind that the United States could be moving toward mandated limits on greenhouse gas emissions.

Wylie, D. (ASW Engineering, Tustin, CA (United States))

1994-01-01

454

In vitro evaluation of dissolution behavior for a colon-specific drug delivery system (CODES ™ ) in multi-pH media using United States Pharmacopeia apparatus II and III  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States Pharmacopeia dissolution apparatus II (paddle) and III (reciprocating cylinder) coupled with automatic sampling\\u000a devices and software were used to develop a testing procedure for acquiring release profiles of colon-specific drug delivery\\u000a system (CODES™) drug formulations in multi-pH media using acetaminophen (APAP) as a model drug. System suitability was examined. Several\\u000a important instrument parameters and formulation variables were evaluated.

Jinhe Li; Libo Yang; Sheila M. Ferguson; Tom J. Hudson; Shunsuke Watanabe; Masataka Katsuma; Joseph A. Fix

2002-01-01

455

Performance Analysis and Constituent Code Design for Space-Time Turbo Coded Modulation over Fading Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in space-time coding and array processing have lead to substantial improvements in broadband wireless access systems. A design method for constituent recursive space-time trellis codes (Rec-STTrCs) and parallel concatenated space-time turbo coded modulation (STTuCM) was introduced recently as a new framework for building low complexity, large equivalent constraint-length STTrCs. In this paper, STTuCM is analyzed in terms of

Djordje Tujkovic; Ian Oppermann

2003-01-01

456

Intelligent buildings  

SciTech Connect

The use and development of integrated sensor based systems in building design could turn the concept of an intelligent building from dream to reality over the next few years. To the user, an intelligent building offers economic and efficient environmental systems - heating, lighting and air conditioning; increased safety - with fire and security monitoring; improved business potential - with integrated data communication systems. To the manufacturer, intelligent buildings offer a lucrative market, particularly if they are able to exploit both the commercial and consumer markets. This book provides architects, building developers, system suppliers, engineers and academic researchers with an overview of the intelligent building market. The book brings together previously published papers as well as new material and examines the economics of sensor based systems. It explores the latest technological development and discusses the problems and the pitfalls. Emphasis is placed on practical case study material, covering a broad range of end users.

McClelland, S.

1989-01-01

457

Provenance of granites used to build the Santa Maria de Valdeiglesias Monastery, Pelayos de la Presa (Madrid, Spain), and conservation state of the monumental complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of the Cistercian Monastery began at 1180, in an initial Late Romanesque style in which the Church was erected; later on, in 1258, the church underwent a severe fire, only the apse stood standing. The church was reconstructed at the end of the 13th century in Mudejar style. Gothic style was used later on, in the 16th century, for the reconstruction of the funerary chapel, and Renaissance style for the Plateresque door in between the church and the sacristy. At the end of the 16th century, the main door to access the church was built in Baroque style. In 1836, the Ecclesiastical Confiscations resulted on transfer the Monastery into particular owners. This fact favoured its abandon and ruin state until 1979, when architect Mariano Garcia Benito purchased the property and started the conservation and consolidation of the complex, beginning with the Bell Tower. Natural stone materials used in the Monastery are igneous (granite) and metamorphic rocks (gneiss and schist), and artificial stone materials are bricks and mortars, both joint and rendering ones. Granite is the most abundant material used in the complex, with a structural/reinforcing role in elements such as lintels, jambs, buttresses, or bottom areas of the walls with greater sizes and better dimensioned. Some pillars are granite built, from the large ashlars of the sacristy, to the rubble-work of the Mozarab chapel. Two types of monzogranite can be differentiated in relation to distinct constructive stages: the coarse texture monzogranite is used in the first building stages, while the fine texture monzogranite was employed mainly from 17th century on. Petrophysical characteristics of these granites are different but show a good quality to be used in construction. Nevertheless, the abandon and partial ruin of the complex, the devastating fire events (the second one in 1743) leaded to the decay acceleration of the monumental complex, being nowadays the church in ruin, with no roofs and walls in the risk of collapse, leaving the wall fillings exposed to the environment, speeding up the deterioration of the monumental complex. The Monastery construction was supplied of the natural stone closest to it, the monzogranite that outcrops in the surroundings of the monastic complex, with main differences based on its grain-size. The Monastery settles in a coarse grain-size monzogranite area, material that was used in its first building stages. Provenance quarries are scarce hundreds meters far from the building, and a little bit further, in the San Esteban hill, we can find the fine grain size area. In both areas, marks of the extractive processes can be found. The geological provenance of the Monastery building materials has been for first time located with the importance it may have for restoration purposes.

Fort, R.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Vazquez-Calvo, C.; Perez-Monserrat, E. M.; Varas-Muriel, M. J.; Lopez-Arce, P.

2012-04-01

458

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2011-09-01

459

ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs  

SciTech Connect

In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

D.K. Morton

2012-09-01

460

A Model Penal Code for the State of California. A Study and Recommendation by the Staff of the Assembly Committee on Criminal Justice, 1975-1976.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the draft of the Penal Code the goals are: (1) The use of clear language in order that the public will have fair warning of the conduct proscribed by the criminal law, and so that judges, juries and others charged with administering the system will be ...

J. Dixon J. Knox K. L. Maddy B. Nestande

1976-01-01

461

Earthquake design practice for buildings  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book are: The lessons from earthquake damage; Ground motion; The calculation of structural response; Isolation and energy absorbers; Conceptual design; Design codes and lateral force design; Reinforced concrete design; Structural steelwork design; Foundations; Masonry; Non-structural elements; Non-building structures: a guide; and Appendix - computer programs.

Key, D.E.

1988-01-01

462

Code-carrying theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Code-Carrying Theory (CCT) is an alternative to the Proof-Carrying Code (PCC) approach to secure delivery of code. With PCC, code is accompanied by assertions and a proof of correctness or of other required properties. The code consumer does not accept delivery unless it first succeeds in generating theorems, called verification conditions, from the code and assertions and checking that the

Aytekin Vargun; David R. Musser

2008-01-01

463

Energy Simulations of Commercial Buildings for DOE’s Standards Development Projects  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been mandated by the U.S. Congress to promulgate energy conservation standards for certain commercial and industrial equipment [Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42 United States Code 6311 et seq. (EPCA)], in particular specific classes of commercial space conditioning and service water heating equipment. In support of the DOE rulemakings that help establish these standards, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted energy simulation analysis to develop energy consumption characteristics and energy load profiles for commercial buildings. DOE uses life-cycle cost effectiveness as a key criterion in establishing energy conservation standards. In the U.S., however, electrical energy costs for commercial buildings can vary by time of day or year, and peak electrical demand can play a significant role in determining the total cost of energy for a commercial building. Hence, it is important to understand not only total electrical energy consumption but also building electric load profiles during the year.

Somasundaram, Sriram; Winiarski, David W.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jarnagin, Ronald E.

2006-01-01

464

Highlighting High Performance: National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Thermal Test Facility, Golden, Colorado. Office of Building Technology State and Community Programs (BTS) Brochure  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Thermal Test Facility in Golden, Colorado, was designed using a whole-building approach--looking at the way the building's systems worked together most efficiently. Researchers monitor the performance of the 11,000-square-foot building, which boasts an energy cost savings of 63% for heating, cooling, and lighting. The basic plan of the building can be adapted to many needs, including retail and warehouse space. The Thermal Test Facility contains office and laboratory space; research focuses on the development of energy-efficiency and renewable energy technologies that are cost-effective and environmentally friendly.

Burgert, S.

2002-10-21

465

The multipath and SNR Quality in civil code L2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new generation of GPS satellites, with the addition of the new L2C civil code, may provide to the users better positioning capabilities. The new code in the L2 may increase the signal robustness, improve resistance to interference, reduce tracking noise and consequently, improve accuracy and provide better positioning inside buildings and in wooded areas. The second civil frequency code will eliminate the need of using fragile semi- codeless tracking techniques currently used in connection with L2. The L2C has a different structure that allows civil and military share the same code. L2C owns two codes of different length: moderate code (CM) and long code (CL). The CM was chosen to have 10.230 chips repeated to every 20 millisecond. The CL was chosen to have 767250 chips with period of 1.5 second. The main reasons for these choices were due to excellent correlation properties. Furthermore, L2C enhances performance by having no data modulation on CL code, which improves, among others, the threshold tracking performance. Comparing the L2C acquisition with the C/A, the CM code is ten times longer than the C/A and the two components have half the total power. This is an important feature for many low-power applications. Although this signal has several advantages, some investigations about its performance are necessary, mainly about the provided accuracy under some effects, for example, multipath. Thus, this paper aims to analyze the L2C signal, as well as its quality using some parameters, such as Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and multipath level (MP). The experiment was realized at Sao Paulo State University UNESP in Presidente Prudente, Brazil. The data were collected by two receivers of different brands, both able to collect the L2C signal, and connected to the same antenna, thought the use of a splitter. The results showed that the MP and SNR values were better for the modernized satellites. Furthermore, the SNR values of the two receivers were similar while the MP values of one receiver showed better results than the other model. Therefore, the satellites with L2C code presented, as expected, better performance than those not modernized satellites in relation to SNR and MP.

Polezel, W. G.; Souza, E. M.; Monico, J. F.

2007-12-01

466

Building digest - general building aspects  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen bulletins are compiled covering Flush Doors; Wood Seasoning; Proportioning of Fly Ash Concrete Mix; The Yield of Mortar and Concrete Mix; Solar Water Heater - Domestic Type; Units for Living; Plastics and their Applications in Buildings; Hardboard and Particle Board; Woodwool Board; Material Constants in Building Works; Check-list for Taking Over Newly Constructed Buildings; Some Typical Enquiries and their Replies; and Energy Conservation in Buildings. These bulletins provide a comprehensive, step-by-step set of instructions on how to make and use the materials and techniques covered. Wood preservation and termite and rodent resistance of plastic pipes is also covered.

Damodaran, K.; George, J.; Rehsi, S.S.; Singh, S.; Sofat, G.C.

1981-01-01

467

A New Relativistic Hydrodynamic Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relativistic temperature of gas raises the issue of equation of state (EoS) in relativistic hydrodynamics. We present a code for relativistic hydrodynamics with an EoS that is simple but approximates very closely the EoS of single- component perfect gas in the relativistic regime. Tests with a code based on the TVD scheme are presented to highlight dierences induced by dieren

Dongsu Ryu; Indranil Chattopadhyay; Eunwoo Choi

468

Energy conservation through building design (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964April 1978  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federally-funded research on energy conservation through design of residential and commercial buildings is discussed. Topic areas cover the impact of building codes and standards on new construction and retrofitting of existing buildings, energy calculations for new building design, methods for estimating life cycle costs of alternative energy conservation techniques, inclusion of thermal insulation during building design, and window strategies. (Contains

Hundemann

1978-01-01

469

Energy conservation through building design. Citations from the NTIS data base  

Microsoft Academic Search

This bibliography contains 48 abstracts. Federally-funded research on energy conservation through design of residential and commercial buildings is discussed. Topic areas cover the impact of building codes and standards on new construction and retrofitting of existing buildings, energy calculations for new building design, methods for estimating life cycle costs of alternative energy conservation techniques, inclusion of thermal insulation during building

A. S. Hundemann

1978-01-01

470

Energy conservation through building design (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for 1964April 1979  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federally-funded research on energy conservation through design of residential and commercial buildings is discussed. Topic areas cover the impact of building codes and standards on new construction and retrofitting of existing buildings, energy calculations for new building design, methods for estimating life cycle costs of alternative energy conservation techniques, inclusion of thermal insulation during building design, and window strategies. (This

Hundemann

1979-01-01

471

Explicit constructions of code loops as centrally twisted products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Code loops are certain Moufang loop extensions of doubly even binary codes which are useful in finite group theory (e.g. Conway's construction of the Monster). We give several methods for explicitly constructing code loops as centrally twisted products. More specifically, after establishing some preliminary examples, we show how to use decompositions of codes to build code loops out of more familiar pieces, such as abelian groups, extraspecial groups, or the octonion loop. In particular, we use Turyn's construction of the Golay code to give a simple explicit construction of the Parker loop, one which may have applications to the study of the Monster.

Hsu, Tim

2000-03-01

472

A Magnetic Diagnostic Code for 3D Fusion Equilibria  

SciTech Connect

A synthetic magnetic diagnostics code for fusion equilibria is presented. This code calculates the response of various magnetic diagnostics to the equilibria produced by the VMEC and PIES codes. This allows for treatment of equilibria with both good nested flux surfaces and those with stochastic re