Science.gov

Sample records for state building codes

  1. State building energy codes status

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This document contains the State Building Energy Codes Status prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC06-76RL01830 and dated September 1996. The U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards has developed this document to provide an information resource for individuals interested in energy efficiency of buildings and the relevant building energy codes in each state and U.S. territory. This is considered to be an evolving document and will be updated twice a year. In addition, special state updates will be issued as warranted.

  2. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  3. 75 FR 54131 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...1904-AC17 Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy...Conservation Code (IECC) would achieve greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings...

  4. 76 FR 64924 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ...1904-AC59 Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy...or 2012 edition) would achieve greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings...

  5. 76 FR 42688 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. ACTION...edition) would achieve greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential...

  6. 75 FR 54131 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... Energy Code (MEC) was renamed to the IECC. A previous Federal Register notice, 59 FR 36173, July 15, 1994... MEC for residential buildings. Similarly, another Federal Register notice, 61 FR 64727, December 6.... Finally, Federal Register notice 66 FR 1964, January 10, 2001, simultaneously announced the...

  7. 76 FR 42688 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... of the IECC would not achieve greater energy efficiency than the 2000 IECC. 75 FR 54131 (Sept. 3... incorporated into the ICC and the MEC was renamed to the IECC. A previous Federal Register notice, 59 FR 36173... relative to the 1992 MEC for residential buildings. Similarly, another Federal Register notice, 61 FR...

  8. 76 FR 64924 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Significantly Affect Energy Supply, Distribution, or Use,'' 66 FR 28355 (May 22, 2001), requires Federal... was renamed to the IECC. A previous Federal Register notice, 59 FR 36173, July 15, 1994, announced the... residential buildings. Similarly, another Federal Register notice, 61 FR 64727, December 6, 1996,...

  9. 41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Fire Prevention State and Local Codes § 102-80.85 Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection? Federally owned buildings are generally exempt... leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection? 102-80.85 Section...

  10. 41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fire Prevention State and Local Codes § 102-80.85 Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection? Federally owned buildings are generally exempt... leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection? 102-80.85 Section...

  11. 41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection? 102-80...Accident and Fire Prevention State and Local Codes § 102-80.85 Are Federally owned...leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection?...

  12. 41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection? 102-80...Accident and Fire Prevention State and Local Codes § 102-80.85 Are Federally owned...leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection?...

  13. 41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection? 102-80...Accident and Fire Prevention State and Local Codes § 102-80.85 Are Federally owned...leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection?...

  14. 41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection? 102-80...Accident and Fire Prevention State and Local Codes § 102-80.85 Are Federally owned...leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection?...

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection? 102-80...Accident and Fire Prevention State and Local Codes § 102-80.85 Are Federally owned...leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire protection?...

  16. Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

    2005-09-15

    The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

  17. Building Codes and Regulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John L.

    The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

  18. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  19. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  20. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-07

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

  1. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  2. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  3. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  4. Code Building A Alcuin College

    E-print Network

    Pumfrey, David

    Code Building A Alcuin College AEC Economics AEW Seebohm East Wing AMS Hull/York Medical School Rowntree Building B Biology BS Berrick Saul Building C Chemistry COHE Constantine College CSE Computer Science D Derwent College DB Drama Barn DS Chemistry Hub E Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall EN Edens Court F

  5. Seminar on building codes and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A seminar was conducted for state building code officials and state energy officials to discuss the following: status of the states regulatory activities for energy conservation standards for buildings; the development, administration, and enforcement processes for energy conservation standards affecting new construction; lighting and thermal standards for existing buildings; status of the development and implementation of the Title III Program, Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS); and current status of the State Energy Conservation Program. The welcoming address was given by John Wenning and the keynote address was delivered by John Millhone. Four papers presented were: Building Energy Performance Standards Development, James Binkley; Lighting Standards in Existing Buildings, Dorothy Cronheim; Implementation of BEPS, Archie Twitchell; Sanctions for Building Energy Performance Standards, Sue Sicherman.

  6. Active Fault Near-Source Zones Within and Bordering the State of California for the 1997 Uniform Building Code

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Toppozada, Tousson R.; Cao, T.; Cramer, C.H.; Reichle, M.S.; Bryant, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The fault sources in the Project 97 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the state of California were used to construct maps for defining near-source seismic coefficients, Na and Nv, incorporated in the 1997 Uniform Building Code (ICBO 1997). The near-source factors are based on the distance from a known active fault that is classified as either Type A or Type B. To determine the near-source factor, four pieces of geologic information are required: (1) recognizing a fault and determining whether or not the fault has been active during the Holocene, (2) identifying the location of the fault at or beneath the ground surface, (3) estimating the slip rate of the fault, and (4) estimating the maximum earthquake magnitude for each fault segment. This paper describes the information used to produce the fault classifications and distances.

  7. Understanding Building Energy Codes and Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2003-03-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. The Difference Between Energy Codes, Energy Standards and the Model Energy Code Energy codes--specify how buildings must be constructed or perform, and are written in mandatory, enforceable language. States or local governments adopt and enforce energy codes for their jurisdictions. Energy standards--describe how buildings should be constructed to save energy cost-effectively. They are published by national organizations such as the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). They are not mandatory, but serve as national recommendations, with some variation for regional climate. States and local governments frequently use energy standards as the technical basis for developing their energy codes. Some energy standards are written in mandatory, enforceable language, making it easy for jurisdictions to incorporate the provisions of the energy standards directly into their laws or regulations.

  8. Finite-state codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Mceliece, Robert J.; Abdel-Ghaffar, Khaled

    1988-01-01

    A class of codes called finite-state (FS) codes is defined and investigated. The codes, which generalize both block and convolutional codes, are defined by their encoders, which are finite-state machines with parallel inputs and outputs. A family of upper bounds on the free distance of a given FS code is derived. A general construction for FS codes is given, and it is shown that in many cases the FS codes constructed in this way have a free distance that is the largest possible. Catastrophic error propagation (CEP) for FS codes is also discussed. It is found that to avoid CEP one must solve the graph-theoretic problem of finding a uniquely decodable edge labeling of the state diagram.

  9. 75 FR 20833 - Building Energy Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ...EERE-2010-BT-BC-0012] Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...with the current model building energy codes or their equivalent. DOE is interested...compliance with the latest model building energy codes, Standard 90.1-2007, Energy...

  10. A Retrospective Analysis of Commercial Building Energy Codes: 1990 – 2008

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.; McDonald, Sean C.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2010-10-01

    Building Energy Codes Program's efforts are designed to result in increased stringency in national model energy codes, more rapid and broader adoption by states and localities of updated codes, and increased compliance and enforcement. Report estimates the historical impact of Building Energy Codes Program in terms of energy savings achieved that are based upon various editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 (ASHRAE Standard 90.1).

  11. 1994 Building energy codes and standards workshops: Summary and documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    During the spring of 1994, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, conducted five two-day Regional Building Energy Codes and Standards workshops across the United States. Workshops were held in Chicago, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Dallas, and Denver. The workshops were designed to benefit state-level officials including staff of building code commissions, energy offices, public utility commissions, and others involved with adopting/updating, implementing, and enforcing state building codes in their states. The workshops provided an opportunity for state and other officials to learn more about the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requirements for residential and commercial building energy codes, the Climate Change Action Plan, the role of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Building Energy Standards Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, the commercial and residential codes and standards, the Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS), Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEM), training issues, and other topics related to the development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement of building energy codes. In addition to receiving information on the above topics, workshop participants were also encouraged to inform DOE of their needs, particularly with regard to implementing building energy codes, enhancing current implementation efforts, and building on training efforts already in place. This paper documents the workshop findings and workshop planning and follow-up processes.

  12. BUILDING CODES: BARRIERS TO GREEN INNOVATION

    E-print Network

    BUILDING CODES: BARRIERS TO GREEN INNOVATION JENNIFER GARMAN DR. JIM BOWYER DR. STEVE BRATKOVICH/18/2011 DOVETAIL PARTNERS, INC. www.dovetailinc.org Building Codes: Barriers to Green Innovation Introduction Many architects and contractors want to pursue green building design, technologies and construction. Green

  13. Office of Codes and Standards resource book. Section 1, Building energy codes and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide: A discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stakeholders in the building energy codes and standards arena. The Resource Book is considered an evolving document and will be updated occasionally. Users are requested to submit additional data (e.g., more current, widely accepted, and/or documented data) and suggested changes to the address listed below. Please provide sources for all data provided.

  14. 1995 building energy codes and standards workshops: Summary and documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.

    1996-02-01

    During the spring of 1995, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted four two-day Regional Building Energy Codes and Standards workshops across the US. Workshops were held in Chicago, Denver, Rhode Island, and Atlanta. The workshops were designed to benefit state-level officials including staff of building code commissions, energy offices, public utility commissions, and others involved with adopting/updating, implementing, and enforcing building energy codes in their states. The workshops provided an opportunity for state and other officials to learn more about residential and commercial building energy codes and standards, the role of the US Department of Energy and the Building Standards and Guidelines Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS), Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEM), training issues, and other topics related to the development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement of building energy codes. Participants heard success stories, got tips on enforcement training, and received technical support materials. In addition to receiving information on the above topics, workshop participants had an opportunity to provide input on code adoption issues, building industry training issues, building design issues, and exemplary programs across the US. This paper documents the workshop planning, findings, and follow-up processes.

  15. Topic Brief 4: Above-Code Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Linda M.

    2009-10-07

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) requires a plan for achieving compliance with building energy codes in at least 90% of the new and renovated residential and commercial building space. The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) is developing procedures and tools for measuring compliance as required in this legislation. This is the fourth topic brief, to be posted on the BECP website, responding to feedback received on these procedures.

  16. Building a Better Campus: An Update on Building Codes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the implications for higher education institutions in terms of facility planning, design, construction, and renovation of the move from regionally-developed model-building codes to two international sets of codes. Also addresses the new performance-based design option within the codes. (EV)

  17. 78 FR 47677 - DOE Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... With Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... codes at the local, state, and national levels. To provide technical assistance for states implementing building energy codes, DOE developed and piloted a compliance methodology across several U.S. states....

  18. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...code Plumbing code Mechanical code Electrical code BOCA Basic/National Building Code 1 BOCA Basic/National...Code 1 BOCA Basic/National Mechanical Code 1 National Electrical Code 5 Standard Building Code 2...

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...code Plumbing code Mechanical code Electrical code BOCA Basic/National Building Code 1 BOCA Basic/National...Code 1 BOCA Basic/National Mechanical Code 1 National Electrical Code 5 Standard Building Code 2...

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...code Plumbing code Mechanical code Electrical code BOCA Basic/National Building Code 1 BOCA Basic/National...Code 1 BOCA Basic/National Mechanical Code 1 National Electrical Code 5 Standard Building Code 2...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...code Plumbing code Mechanical code Electrical code BOCA Basic/National Building Code 1 BOCA Basic/National...Code 1 BOCA Basic/National Mechanical Code 1 National Electrical Code 5 Standard Building Code 2...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...code Plumbing code Mechanical code Electrical code BOCA Basic/National Building Code 1 BOCA Basic/National...Code 1 BOCA Basic/National Mechanical Code 1 National Electrical Code 5 Standard Building Code 2...

  3. Energy codes and the building design process: Opportunities for improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.; Rigler, E.J.

    1994-05-01

    The Energy Policy Act (EPAct), passed by Congress in 1992, requires states to adopt building energy codes for new commercial buildings that meet or exceed the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) and Illuminating Engineers Society of North America (IES) Standard 90.1-1989 by October 24, 1994. In response to EPAct many states will be adopting a state-wide energy code for the first time. Understanding the role of stakeholders in the building design process is key to the successful implementation of these codes. In 1993, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a survey of architects and designers to determine how much they know about energy codes, to what extent energy-efficiency concerns influence the design process, and how they convey information about energy-efficient designs and products to their clients. Findings of the PNL survey, together with related information from a survey by the American Institute of Architects (AIA) and other reports, are presented in this report. This information may be helpful for state and utility energy program managers and others who will be involved in promoting the adoption and implementation of state energy codes that meet the requirements of EPAct.

  4. Assessment of Impacts from Adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code for Residential Buildings in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    The state of Wyoming currently does not have a statewide building energy efficiency code for residential buildings. The U.S. Department of Energy has requested Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to estimate the energy savings, economic impacts, and pollution reduction from adopting the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). This report addresses the impacts for low-rise residential buildings only.

  5. Building Energy Efficiency in India: Compliance Evaluation of Energy Conservation Building Code

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Delgado, Alison

    2014-03-26

    India is experiencing unprecedented construction boom. The country doubled its floorspace between 2001 and 2005 and is expected to add 35 billion m2 of new buildings by 2050. Buildings account for 35% of total final energy consumption in India today, and building energy use is growing at 8% annually. Studies have shown that carbon policies will have little effect on reducing building energy demand. Chaturvedi et al. predicted that, if there is no specific sectoral policies to curb building energy use, final energy demand of the Indian building sector will grow over five times by the end of this century, driven by rapid income and population growth. The growing energy demand in buildings is accompanied by a transition from traditional biomass to commercial fuels, particularly an increase in electricity use. This also leads to a rapid increase in carbon emissions and aggravates power shortage in India. Growth in building energy use poses challenges to the Indian government. To curb energy consumption in buildings, the Indian government issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which applies to commercial buildings with a connected load of 100 kW or 120kVA. It is predicted that the implementation of ECBC can help save 25-40% of energy, compared to reference buildings without energy-efficiency measures. However, the impact of ECBC depends on the effectiveness of its enforcement and compliance. Currently, the majority of buildings in India are not ECBC-compliant. The United Nations Development Programme projected that code compliance in India would reach 35% by 2015 and 64% by 2017. Whether the projected targets can be achieved depends on how the code enforcement system is designed and implemented. Although the development of ECBC lies in the hands of the national government – the Bureau of Energy Efficiency under the Ministry of Power, the adoption and implementation of ECBC largely relies on state and local governments. Six years after ECBC’s enactment, only two states and one territory out of 35 Indian states and union territories formally adopted ECBC and six additional states are in the legislative process of approving ECBC. There are several barriers that slow down the process. First, stakeholders, such as architects, developers, and state and local governments, lack awareness of building energy efficiency, and do not have enough capacity and resources to implement ECBC. Second, institution for implementing ECBC is not set up yet; ECBC is not included in local building by-laws or incorporated into the building permit process. Third, there is not a systematic approach to measuring and verifying compliance and energy savings, and thus the market does not have enough confidence in ECBC. Energy codes achieve energy savings only when projects comply with codes, yet only few countries measure compliance consistently and periodic checks often indicate poor compliance in many jurisdictions. China and the U.S. appear to be two countries with comprehensive systems in code enforcement and compliance The United States recently developed methodologies measuring compliance with building energy codes at the state level. China has an annual survey investigating code compliance rate at the design and construction stages in major cities. Like many developing countries, India has only recently begun implementing an energy code and would benefit from international experience on code compliance. In this paper, we examine lessons learned from the U.S. and China on compliance assessment and how India can apply these lessons to develop its own compliance evaluation approach. This paper also provides policy suggestions to national, state, and local governments to improve compliance and speed up ECBC implementation.

  6. 75 FR 20833 - Building Energy Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Request for Information. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department...

  7. A Comparative Study on Seismic Analysis of Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) with Other Building Codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Md. S.; Das, T.

    2013-09-01

    Tectonic framework of Bangladesh and adjoining areas indicate that Bangladesh lies well within an active seismic zone. The after effect of earthquake is more severe in an underdeveloped and a densely populated country like ours than any other developed countries. Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) was first established in 1993 to provide guidelines for design and construction of new structure subject to earthquake ground motions in order to minimize the risk to life for all structures. A revision of BNBC 1993 is undergoing to make this up to date with other international building codes. This paper aims at the comparison of various provisions of seismic analysis as given in building codes of different countries. This comparison will give an idea regarding where our country stands when it comes to safety against earth quake. Primarily, various seismic parameters in BNBC 2010 (draft) have been studied and compared with that of BNBC 1993. Later, both 1993 and 2010 edition of BNBC codes have been compared graphically with building codes of other countries such as National Building Code of India 2005 (NBC-India 2005), American Society of Civil Engineering 7-05 (ASCE 7-05). The base shear/weight ratios have been plotted against the height of the building. The investigation in this paper reveals that BNBC 1993 has the least base shear among all the codes. Factored Base shear values of BNBC 2010 are found to have increased significantly than that of BNBC 1993 for low rise buildings (?20 m) around the country than its predecessor. Despite revision of the code, BNBC 2010 (draft) still suggests less base shear values when compared to the Indian and American code. Therefore, this increase in factor of safety against the earthquake imposed by the proposed BNBC 2010 code by suggesting higher values of base shear is appreciable.

  8. 76 FR 64931 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ...EERE-2011-BT-BC-0046] Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis AGENCY: Office of Energy...request for information on Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis published in the Federal...request for information on Building Energy Code Cost Analysis and provide docket...

  9. FALCON BUILDING LIST BY CODE rev 05-27-15 Bldg Name Bldg Code PROPERTY

    E-print Network

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    FALCON BUILDING LIST BY CODE rev 05-27-15 Bldg Name Bldg Code PROPERTY Anatomy Chemistry 5 CAMPUS-5-155 Page 1 of 24 #12;FALCON BUILDING LIST BY CODE rev 05-27-15 Bldg Name Bldg Code PROPERTY Franklin 284 CAMPUS-284 Page 2 of 24 #12;FALCON BUILDING LIST BY CODE rev 05-27-15 Bldg Name Bldg Code PROPERTY

  10. An Analysis of Statewide Adoption Rates of Building Energy Code by Local Jurisdictions

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Butner, Ryan S.

    2012-12-31

    The purpose of this study is to generally inform the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program of the local, effective energy code adoption rate for a sample set of 21 states, some which have adopted statewide codes and some that have not. Information related to the residential energy code adoption process and status at the local jurisdiction was examined for each of the states. Energy code status information was gathered for approximately 2,800 jurisdictions, which effectively covered approximately 80 percent of the new residential building construction in the 21 states included in the study.

  11. 24 CFR 200.926a - Residential building code comparison items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Residential building code comparison items. 200.926a Section 200.926a Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... § 200.926a Residential building code comparison items. HUD will review each local and State...

  12. 24 CFR 200.926a - Residential building code comparison items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Residential building code comparison items. 200.926a Section 200.926a Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... § 200.926a Residential building code comparison items. HUD will review each local and State...

  13. NATURE'S BUILDING CODE : THE BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF CELL DESIGN

    E-print Network

    Boal, David

    NATURE'S BUILDING CODE : THE BAUHAUS SCHOOL OF CELL DESIGN by David H. Boal LA PHYSIQUE ET L- tion performed before the formation of the solar system, then cell design and construction must be sim's building code. By considering the construction of man-made buildings and bridges, we can extract some

  14. Technical Options for Energy Conservation in Buildings. National Conference of States on Building Codes and Standards and National Bureau of Standards Joint Emergency Workshop on Energy Conservation in Buildings. (Washington, D.C., June 19, 1973) NBS Technical Note 789.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Bureau of Standards (DOC), Washington, DC. Inst. for Applied Technology.

    The purpose of this report is to provide reference material on the technical options for energy conservation in buildings. Actions pertinent to existing buildings and new buildings are considered separately. Regarding existing buildings, principal topics include summer cooling, winter heating, and other energy-related features such as insulation,…

  15. ICAN Computer Code Adapted for Building Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in developing composite micromechanics and macromechanics theories over the last three decades. These activities have resulted in several composite mechanics theories and structural analysis codes whose applications range from material behavior design and analysis to structural component response. One of these computer codes, the Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN), is designed primarily to address issues related to designing polymer matrix composites and predicting their properties - including hygral, thermal, and mechanical load effects. Recently, under a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with a Fortune 500 corporation, Master Builders Inc., ICAN was adapted to analyze building materials. The high costs and technical difficulties involved with the fabrication of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites sometimes limit their use. Particulate-reinforced composites can be thought of as a viable alternative. They are as easily processed to near-net shape as monolithic materials, yet have the improved stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness that is characteristic of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. For example, particlereinforced metal-matrix composites show great potential for a variety of automotive applications, such as disk brake rotors, connecting rods, cylinder liners, and other hightemperature applications. Building materials, such as concrete, can be thought of as one of the oldest materials in this category of multiphase, particle-reinforced materials. The adaptation of ICAN to analyze particle-reinforced composite materials involved the development of new micromechanics-based theories. A derivative of the ICAN code, ICAN/PART, was developed and delivered to Master Builders Inc. as a part of the cooperative activity.

  16. Potential Job Creation in Minnesota as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  17. Potential Job Creation in Nevada as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  18. Potential Job Creation in Rhode Island as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  19. Potential Job Creation in Tennessee as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  20. Building Energy Codes Newsletter: Setting the Standard-February 2010

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy

    2010-02-01

    This newsletter from the U.S. Department of Energy Buildng Energy Codes Program keeps readers up to date on energy code standards; the February 2010 issue focuses on helping states with code adoption, compliance, and resources.

  1. Could Building Energy Codes Mandate Rooftop Solar in the Future?

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.; Williams, Jeremiah

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores existing requirements and compliance options for both commercial and residential code structures. Common alternative compliance options are discussed including Renewable Energy Credits (RECs), green-power purchasing programs, shared solar programs and other community-based renewable energy investments. Compliance options are analyzed to consider building lifespan, cost-effectiveness, energy trade-offs, enforcement concerns and future code development. Existing onsite renewable energy codes are highlighted as case studies for the code development process.

  2. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    E-print Network

    Austin G. Fowler; Simon J. Devitt; Cody Jones

    2013-01-29

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states |A>=(|0>+e^{i\\pi/4}|1>)/\\sqrt{2} produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k+8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

  3. The Florida Energy Efficiency Building Code, the Second Generation 

    E-print Network

    Dixon, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the Revision of the Residential Sections of the Florida Energy Efficiency Code for Building Construction. The procedures utilized in the Revision and the concepts integrated in to the 2nd Generation of the Florida Specific...

  4. Greene Track and Field Building Grid Location Code

    E-print Network

    Adhar, Gur Saran

    Building Grid Location Code Kenan Hall 7D KE King Hall 6D KI Kresge Greenhouse 5B GH Leutze Hall 5C LH Mc Suite Service Loop Walton Drive Community Drive Sawtooth Dr. Sawtooth Drive Tide Drive Sparrow Drive

  5. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-07

    The state of Iowa is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  6. Building guide : how to build Xyce from source code.

    SciTech Connect

    Keiter, Eric Richard; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Sholander, Peter E.; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Verley, Jason C.

    2013-08-01

    While Xyce uses the Autoconf and Automake system to configure builds, it is often necessary to perform more than the customary %E2%80%9C./configure%E2%80%9D builds many open source users have come to expect. This document describes the steps needed to get Xyce built on a number of common platforms.

  7. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  8. 78 FR 55245 - Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ...Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...evaluate compliance with building energy codes and general approaches towards compliance...Information for Methodology for Energy Code Compliance Evaluation, Docket No....

  9. New York State Code Adoption Analysis: Lighting Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2004-10-20

    The adoption of the IECC 2003 Energy code will include a set of Lighting Power Density (LPD) values that are effectively a subset of the values in Addendum g to the ASHRAE/IESNA/ANSI 90.1-2001 Standard which will soon be printed as part of the 90.1-2004 version. An analysis of the effectiveness of this adoption for New York State can be provided by a direct comparison of these values with existing LPD levels represented in the current IECC 2000 code, which are themselves a subset of the current ASHRAE/IESNA/ANSI 90.1-2001 Standard (without addenda). Because the complete ASHRAE 2001 and 2004 sets of LPDs are supported by a set of detailed models, they are best suited to provide the basis for an analysis comparison of the two code levels of lighting power density stringency. It is important to note that this kind of analysis is a point-to-point comparison where a fixed level of real world activity is assumed. It is understood that buildings are not built precisely to code levels and that actual percentage of compliance above and below codes will vary among individual buildings and building types. However, without specific knowledge of this real world activity for all buildings in existence and in the future (post-code adoption) it is not possible to analyze actual effects of code adoption. However, it is possible to compare code levels and determine the potential effect of changes from one code requirement level to another. This is the comparison and effectiveness assessment

  10. Overcoming Codes and Standards Barriers to Innovations in Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pamala C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2015-02-15

    In this journal article, the authors discuss approaches to overcoming building code barriers to energy-efficiency innovations in home construction. Building codes have been a highly motivational force for increasing the energy efficiency of new homes in the United States in recent years. But as quickly as the codes seem to be changing, new products are coming to the market at an even more rapid pace, sometimes offering approaches and construction techniques unthought of when the current code was first proposed, which might have been several years before its adoption by various jurisdictions. Due to this delay, the codes themselves can become barriers to innovations that might otherwise be helping to further increase the efficiency, comfort, health or durability of new homes. . The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America, a program dedicated to improving the energy efficiency of America’s housing stock through research and education, is working with the U.S. housing industry through its research teams to help builders identify and remove code barriers to innovation in the home construction industry. The article addresses several approaches that builders use to achieve approval for innovative building techniques when code barriers appear to exist.

  11. Understanding Energy Code Acceptance within the Alaska Building Community

    SciTech Connect

    Mapes, Terry S.

    2012-02-14

    This document presents the technical assistance provided to the Alaska Home Financing Corporation on behalf of PNNL regarding the assessment of attitudes toward energy codes within the building community in Alaska. It includes a summary of the existing situation and specific assistance requested by AHFC, the results of a questionnaire designed for builders surveyed in a suburban area of Anchorage, interviews with a lender, a building official, and a research specialist, and recommendations for future action by AHFC.

  12. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-04-30

    The state of North Dakota is considering updating its commercial building energy code. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to North Dakota residents from updating and requiring compliance with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in the analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST simulation combined with a Life-cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess correspodning economic costs and benefits.

  13. Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.

    SciTech Connect

    Washington State Energy Code Program

    1992-05-01

    This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

  14. Simplified Prescriptive Options in the Texas Residential Building Energy Code Make Compliance Easy 

    E-print Network

    Stone, G. A.; DeVito, E. M.; Nease, N. H.

    2002-01-01

    Texas recently adopted the 2000 International Residential Code (“IRC”) energy chapter and the 2000 International Energy Conservation Code (“IECC”) as its residential building energy code for new construction and existing homes. The range of code...

  15. Fault-Tolerant Coding for State Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naegle, Stephanie Taft; Burke, Gary; Newell, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Two reliable fault-tolerant coding schemes have been proposed for state machines that are used in field-programmable gate arrays and application-specific integrated circuits to implement sequential logic functions. The schemes apply to strings of bits in state registers, which are typically implemented in practice as assemblies of flip-flop circuits. If a single-event upset (SEU, a radiation-induced change in the bit in one flip-flop) occurs in a state register, the state machine that contains the register could go into an erroneous state or could hang, by which is meant that the machine could remain in undefined states indefinitely. The proposed fault-tolerant coding schemes are intended to prevent the state machine from going into an erroneous or hang state when an SEU occurs. To ensure reliability of the state machine, the coding scheme for bits in the state register must satisfy the following criteria: 1. All possible states are defined. 2. An SEU brings the state machine to a known state. 3. There is no possibility of a hang state. 4. No false state is entered. 5. An SEU exerts no effect on the state machine. Fault-tolerant coding schemes that have been commonly used include binary encoding and "one-hot" encoding. Binary encoding is the simplest state machine encoding and satisfies criteria 1 through 3 if all possible states are defined. Binary encoding is a binary count of the state machine number in sequence; the table represents an eight-state example. In one-hot encoding, N bits are used to represent N states: All except one of the bits in a string are 0, and the position of the 1 in the string represents the state. With proper circuit design, one-hot encoding can satisfy criteria 1 through 4. Unfortunately, the requirement to use N bits to represent N states makes one-hot coding inefficient.

  16. Building energy codes have a more than 20-year history in cost

    E-print Network

    Overview Building energy codes have a more than 20-year history in cost effectively improving to codes of less than one decade ago. Energy cost savings to consumers from building energy codes with about 300 million tons cumulatively since 1992. Building energy codes set minimum efficiency

  17. Evaluation of liquefaction potential for building code

    SciTech Connect

    Nunziata, C.; De Nisco, G.; Panza, G. F.

    2008-07-08

    The standard approach for the evaluation of the liquefaction susceptibility is based on the estimation of a safety factor between the cyclic shear resistance to liquefaction and the earthquake induced shear stress. Recently, an updated procedure based on shear-wave velocities (V{sub s}) has been proposed which could be more easily applied.These methods have been applied at La Plaja beach of Catania, that experienced liquefaction because of the 1693 earthquake. The detailed geotechnical and V{sub s} information and the realistic ground motion computed for the 1693 event let us compare the two approaches. The successful application of the V{sub s} procedure, slightly modified to fit historical and safety factor information, even if additional field performances are needed, encourages the development of a guide for liquefaction potential analysis, based on well defined V{sub s} profiles to be included in the italian seismic code.

  18. FALCON BUILDING LIST BY NAME rev 05-27-15 Bldg Name Bldg Code PROPERTY

    E-print Network

    Fang-Yen, Christopher

    FALCON BUILDING LIST BY NAME rev 05-27-15 Bldg Name Bldg Code PROPERTY 3910 Building 2104 PMC-2104 CAMPUS-241 Page 1 of 24 #12;FALCON BUILDING LIST BY NAME rev 05-27-15 Bldg Name Bldg Code PROPERTY Page 2 of 24 #12;FALCON BUILDING LIST BY NAME rev 05-27-15 Bldg Name Bldg Code PROPERTY Chestnut Street

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary National Model Building Codes E Exhibit E... National Model Building Codes The following documents address the health and safety aspects of buildings and related structures and are voluntary national model building codes as defined in § 1924.4(h)(2)...

  20. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary National Model Building Codes E Exhibit E... National Model Building Codes The following documents address the health and safety aspects of buildings and related structures and are voluntary national model building codes as defined in § 1924.4(h)(2)...

  1. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Voluntary National Model Building Codes E Exhibit E to... Model Building Codes The following documents address the health and safety aspects of buildings and related structures and are voluntary national model building codes as defined in § 1924.4(h)(2) of...

  2. 7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voluntary National Model Building Codes E Exhibit E... National Model Building Codes The following documents address the health and safety aspects of buildings and related structures and are voluntary national model building codes as defined in § 1924.4(h)(2)...

  3. Using Building Commissioning to Improve Performance in State Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Haasl, T.; Wilkinson, R.

    1998-01-01

    Using the commissioning process, states are beginning to improve and optimize their existing building stock as well as ensure that their new construction projects perform according to design. This paper reports on the progress a number of states...

  4. Building Grid Location Code Academic Support Center 2F AS

    E-print Network

    Olszewski Jr., Edward A.

    Building Grid Location Code Academic Support Center 2F AS Alderman Hall 7D AL Almkuist-Nixon Sports Wagoner Hall 2C WA Warehouse-Receiving 1F WH Warwick Center 6E WC Westside Hall 7D WE 8 7 6 5 4 2 3 1 8 7

  5. 76 FR 57982 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis Correction In notice document 2011-23236 beginning on page 56413 in the issue of Tuesday, September 13, 2011 make the...

  6. 76 FR 64931 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of reopening the public comment period... FR 56413. The original comment period closed on October 13, 2011. The comment period is reopened...

  7. Enforcing Building Energy Codes in China: Progress and Comparative Lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Halverson, Mark A.; Delgado, Alison

    2010-08-15

    From 1995 to 2005, building energy use in China increased more rapidly than the world average. China has been adding 0.4 to 1.6 billion square meters of floor space annually , making it the world’s largest market for new construction. In fact, by 2020, China is expected to comprise half of all new construction. In response to this, China has begun to make important steps towards achieving building energy efficiency, including the implementation of building energy standards that requires new buildings to be 65% more efficient than buildings from the early 1980s. Making progress on reducing building energy use requires both a comprehensive code and a robust enforcement system. The latter – the enforcement system – is a particularly critical component for assuring that a building code has an effect. China has dramatically enhanced its enforcement system in the past two years, with more detailed requirements for ensuring enforcement and new penalties for non-compliance. We believe that the U.S. and other developed countries could benefit from learning about the multiple checks and the documentation required in China. Similarly, some of the more user-friendly enforcement approaches developed in the U.S. and elsewhere may be useful for China as it strives to improve enforcement in rural and smaller communities. In this article, we provide context to China’s building codes enforcement system by comparing it to the U.S. Among some of the enforcement mechanisms we look at are testing and rating procedures, compliance software, and training and public information.

  8. Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

  9. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Options for Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Heather E.; Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Solana, Amy E.; Russo, Bryan J.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, use of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including envelope, mechanical and lighting, have been pressed to the end of reasonable limits. Research has been conducted to determine the mechanism for implementing this requirement (Kaufman 2011). Kaufmann et al. determined that the most appropriate way to structure an on-site renewable requirement for commercial buildings is to define the requirement in terms of an installed power density per unit of roof area. This provides a mechanism that is suitable for the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on future buildings to offset electricity and reduce the total building energy load. Kaufmann et al. suggested that an appropriate maximum for the requirement in the commercial sector would be 4 W/ft{sup 2} of roof area or 0.5 W/ft{sup 2} of conditioned floor area. As with all code requirements, there must be an alternative compliance path for buildings that may not reasonably meet the renewables requirement. This might include conditions like shading (which makes rooftop PV arrays less effective), unusual architecture, undesirable roof pitch, unsuitable building orientation, or other issues. In the short term, alternative compliance paths including high performance mechanical equipment, dramatic envelope changes, or controls changes may be feasible. These options may be less expensive than many renewable systems, which will require careful balance of energy measures when setting the code requirement levels. As the stringency of the code continues to increase however, efficiency trade-offs will be maximized, requiring alternative compliance options to be focused solely on renewable electricity trade-offs or equivalent programs. One alternate compliance path includes purchase of Renewable Energy Credits (RECs). Each REC represents a specified amount of renewable electricity production and provides an offset of environmental externalities associated with non-renewable electricity production. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible issues with RECs and comparable alternative compliance options. Existing codes have been examined to determine energy equivalence between the energy generation requirement and the RECs alternative over the life of the building. The price equivalence of the requirement and the alternative are determined to consider the economic drivers for a market decision. This research includes case studies that review how the few existing codes have incorporated RECs and some of the issues inherent with REC markets. Section 1 of the report reviews compliance options including RECs, green energy purchase programs, shared solar agreements and leases, and other options. Section 2 provides detailed case studies on codes that include RECs and community based alternative compliance methods. The methods the existing code requirements structure alternative compliance options like RECs are the focus of the case studies. Section 3 explores the possible structure of the renewable energy generation requirement in the context of energy and price equivalence. The price of RECs have shown high variation by market and over time which makes it critical to for code language to be updated frequently for a renewable energy generation requirement or the requirement will not remain price-equivalent over time. Section 4 of the report provides a maximum case estimate for impact to the PV market and the REC market based on the Kaufmann et al. proposed requirement levels. If all new buildings in the commercial sector complied with the requirement to install rooftop PV arrays, nearly 4,700 MW of solar would be installed in 2012, a major increase from EIA estimates of 640 MW of solar generation capacity installed in 2009. The residential sector could contribute roughly an additional 2,300 MW based on the same code requirement levels of 4 W/ft{sup 2} of r

  10. Assessment of state`s needs for building energy information tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hattrup, M.P.; Gilbride, T.L.

    1994-08-01

    In this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, Building Energy Standards Program (BESP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), conducted two surveys of state agencies involved with building codes (including each state energy office) to determine what resources they would find most helpful in complying with the residential and commercial energy efficiency requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. PNL conducted a telephone survey of all 50 states and then a mail survey of each state plus Washington, DC and the six trust territories. In the mail survey the survey participants were provided with a list of 27 hypothetical tool descriptions; the participants were asked to choose the tools they thought would be most useful in helping them implement building energy codes and standards in their state. The respondents were also asked to characterize their state`s commercial and/or residential building energy code development/implementation processes. The mail survey respondents were also asked if they would be interested in serving on task forces for commercial or residential code development, implementation, enforcement or utility programs.

  11. Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

    2013-01-31

    India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human resources available in the state and local governments, involving third-party inspectors could rapidly expand the capacity for plan reviews and broad implementation. However, the procedures of involving third-parties need to be carefully designed in order to guarantee a fair process. For example, there should be multiple checks and certification requirements for third-party inspectors, and the government should have the final approval when third-party inspectors are used in a project. This paper discusses different approaches of involving third-parties in ECBC enforcement; the Indian states may choose the approaches that work best in their given circumstances.

  12. Recommendations on Implementing the Energy Conservation Building Code in Rajasthan, India

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Makela, Eric J.; Evans, Meredydd; Mathur, Jyotirmay

    2012-02-01

    India launched the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007 and Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) recently indicated that it would move to mandatory implementation in the 12th Five-Year Plan. The State of Rajasthan adopted ECBC with minor modifications; the new regulation is known as the Energy Conservation Building Directives – Rajasthan 2011 (ECBD-R). It became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. This report provides recommendations on an ECBD-R enforcement roadmap for the State of Rajasthan.

  13. Associated Students of Boise State University Governing Code

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Associated Students of Boise State University Governing Code CHAPTERS get caps and underlined I. Titles are in bold. Definitions: Underlined with colon, always end with a period. I. Code Overview II. Ethics Code III. Financial Code IV. Executive Council Code V. Assembly Code VI. Election Code #12;CHAPTER

  14. Impacts of the 2009 IECC for Residential Buildings at State Level

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Cole, Pamala C.

    2009-10-01

    This report examines the requirements of the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code® (IECC) on residential buildings on a state-by-state basis with a separate, stand-alone chapter for each state. A summary of the requirements of the code is given for each state. The 2009 IECC is then compared to the current state code for most states or typical current construction practice for the states that do not have a residential energy efficiency code. This is the final version of a draft report by the same name that was previously cleared for release (ERICA # PNNL-18545).

  15. Classical codes in quantum state space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Mark

    2015-12-01

    We present a construction of Hermitian operators and quantum states labelled by strings from a finite field. The distance between these operators or states is then simply related (typically, proportional) to the Hamming distance between their corresponding strings. This allows a straightforward application of classical coding theory to find arrangements of operators or states with a given distance distribution. Using the simplex or extended Reed–Solomon code in our construction recovers the discrete Wigner function, which has important applications in quantum information theory.

  16. Small Codes for Magic State Distillation

    E-print Network

    Mark Howard; Hillary Dawkins

    2015-12-15

    Magic state distillation is a critical component in leading proposals for fault-tolerant quantum computation. Relatively little is known, however, about how to construct a magic state distillation routine or, more specifically, which stabilizer codes are suitable for the task. While transversality of a non-Clifford gate within a code often leads to efficient distillation routines, it appears to not be a necessary condition. Here we have examined a number of small stabilizer codes and highlight a handful of which displaying interesting, albeit inefficient, distillation behaviour. Many of these distill noisy states right up to the boundary of the known undististillable region, while some distill toward non-stabilizer states that have not previously been considered.

  17. Oregon State University University Code of Ethics

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Oregon State University University Code of Ethics Oregon State University (OSU) has a duty to work towards the fulfillment of our mission and conduct themselves ethically, with the highest and Compliance ­ We utilize resources and information entrusted to our care in a wise, ethical, and prudent

  18. Environmental performance of green building code and certification systems.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sangwon; Tomar, Shivira; Leighton, Matthew; Kneifel, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    We examined the potential life-cycle environmental impact reduction of three green building code and certification (GBCC) systems: LEED, ASHRAE 189.1, and IgCC. A recently completed whole-building life cycle assessment (LCA) database of NIST was applied to a prototype building model specification by NREL. TRACI 2.0 of EPA was used for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). The results showed that the baseline building model generates about 18 thousand metric tons CO2-equiv. of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and consumes 6 terajoule (TJ) of primary energy and 328 million liter of water over its life-cycle. Overall, GBCC-compliant building models generated 0% to 25% less environmental impacts than the baseline case (average 14% reduction). The largest reductions were associated with acidification (25%), human health-respiratory (24%), and global warming (GW) (22%), while no reductions were observed for ozone layer depletion (OD) and land use (LU). The performances of the three GBCC-compliant building models measured in life-cycle impact reduction were comparable. A sensitivity analysis showed that the comparative results were reasonably robust, although some results were relatively sensitive to the behavioral parameters, including employee transportation and purchased electricity during the occupancy phase (average sensitivity coefficients 0.26-0.29). PMID:24483287

  19. A long-term, integrated impact assessment of alternative building energy code scenarios in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Eom, Jiyong; Evans, Meredydd; Clarke, Leon E.

    2014-04-01

    China is the second largest building energy user in the world, ranking first and third in residential and commercial energy consumption. Beginning in the early 1980s, the Chinese government has developed a variety of building energy codes to improve building energy efficiency and reduce total energy demand. This paper studies the impact of building energy codes on energy use and CO2 emissions by using a detailed building energy model that represents four distinct climate zones each with three building types, nested in a long-term integrated assessment framework GCAM. An advanced building stock module, coupled with the building energy model, is developed to reflect the characteristics of future building stock and its interaction with the development of building energy codes in China. This paper also evaluates the impacts of building codes on building energy demand in the presence of economy-wide carbon policy. We find that building energy codes would reduce Chinese building energy use by 13% - 22% depending on building code scenarios, with a similar effect preserved even under the carbon policy. The impact of building energy codes shows regional and sectoral variation due to regionally differentiated responses of heating and cooling services to shell efficiency improvement.

  20. Empirical evidence for site coefficients in building code provisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Site-response coefficients, Fa and Fv, used in U.S. building code provisions are based on empirical data for motions up to 0.1 g. For larger motions they are based on theoretical and laboratory results. The Northridge earthquake of 17 January 1994 provided a significant new set of empirical data up to 0.5 g. These data together with recent site characterizations based on shear-wave velocity measurements provide empirical estimates of the site coefficients at base accelerations up to 0.5 g for Site Classes C and D. These empirical estimates of Fa and Fnu; as well as their decrease with increasing base acceleration level are consistent at the 95 percent confidence level with those in present building code provisions, with the exception of estimates for Fa at levels of 0.1 and 0.2 g, which are less than the lower confidence bound by amounts up to 13 percent. The site-coefficient estimates are consistent at the 95 percent confidence level with those of several other investigators for base accelerations greater than 0.3 g. These consistencies and present code procedures indicate that changes in the site coefficients are not warranted. Empirical results for base accelerations greater than 0.2 g confirm the need for both a short- and a mid- or long-period site coefficient to characterize site response for purposes of estimating site-specific design spectra.

  1. Comparison of current state residential energy codes with the 1992 model energy code for one- and two-family dwellings; 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Klevgard, L.A.; Taylor, Z.T.; Lucas, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report is one in a series of documents describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the program for DOE. The goal of the program is to develop and support the adopting, implementation, and enforcement of Federal, State, and Local energy codes for new buildings. The program approach to meeting the goal is to initiate and manage individual research and standards and guidelines development efforts that are planned and conducted in cooperation with representatives from throughout the buildings community. Projects under way involve practicing architects and engineers, professional societies and code organizations, industry representatives, and researchers from the private sector and national laboratories. Research results and technical justifications for standards criteria are provided to standards development and model code organizations and to Federal, State, and local jurisdictions as a basis to update their codes and standards. This effort helps to ensure that building standards incorporate the latest research results to achieve maximum energy savings in new buildings, yet remain responsive to the needs of the affected professions, organizations, and jurisdictions. Also supported are the implementation, deployment, and use of energy-efficient codes and standards. This report documents findings from an analysis conducted by PNL of the State`s building codes to determine if the codes meet or exceed the 1992 MEC energy efficiency requirements (CABO 1992a).

  2. A MODEL BUILDING CODE ARTICLE ON FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INCLUSION OF REQUIREMENTS FOR FALLOUT SHELTER CONSTRUCTION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Inst. of Architects, Washington, DC.

    A MODEL BUILDING CODE FOR FALLOUT SHELTERS WAS DRAWN UP FOR INCLUSION IN FOUR NATIONAL MODEL BUILDING CODES. DISCUSSION IS GIVEN OF FALLOUT SHELTERS WITH RESPECT TO--(1) NUCLEAR RADIATION, (2) NATIONAL POLICIES, AND (3) COMMUNITY PLANNING. FALLOUT SHELTER REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIELDING, SPACE, VENTILATION, CONSTRUCTION, AND SERVICES SUCH AS ELECTRICAL…

  3. Advancement of liquefaction assessment in Chinese building codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Liu, F.; Jiang, M.

    2015-09-01

    China has suffered extensive liquefaction hazards in destructive earthquakes. The post-earthquake reconnaissance effort in the country largely advances the methodology of liquefaction assessment distinct from other countries. This paper reviews the evolution of the specifications regarding liquefaction assessment in the seismic design building code of mainland China, which first appeared in 1974, came into shape in 1989, and received major amendments in 2001 and 2010 as a result of accumulated knowledge on liquefaction phenomenon. The current version of the code requires a detailed assessment of liquefaction based on in situ test results if liquefaction concern cannot be eliminated by a preliminary assessment based on descriptive information with respect to site characterization. In addition, a liquefaction index is evaluated to recognize liquefaction severity, and to choose the most appropriate engineering measures for liquefaction mitigation at a site being considered.

  4. Page 1 of 24 Environment Health & Safety, Building Code Enforcement Program

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    , Building shall apply to the installation of electrical systems, including alterations, repairs, replacement of each such reference. 101.4.1 Electrical. The provisions of Chapter 27 of the Florida Building Code of the Florida Building Code, Fuel Gas shall apply to the installation of gas piping from the point of

  5. Renewable Energy Requirements for Future Building Codes: Energy Generation and Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dillon, Heather E.

    2011-09-30

    As the model energy codes are improved to reach efficiency levels 50 percent greater than current codes, installation of on-site renewable energy generation is likely to become a code requirement. This requirement will be needed because traditional mechanisms for code improvement, including the building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting, have been maximized at the most cost-effective limit.

  6. The Evergreen State College BUILDING EVACUATION PLAN

    E-print Network

    1 The Evergreen State College BUILDING EVACUATION PLAN July 2013 For Official Use only The Evergreen State College Olympia, WA For emergencies, dial 911 Note: This document provides basic evacuation;2 Table of Contents Section Page A. Purpose 3 B. Basic Evacuation Procedures 3 C. Basic Emergency

  7. 27 CFR 20.135 - State code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false State code numbers. 20.135... Articles § 20.135 State code numbers. In showing the permit number on labels as provided in § 20.134(b)(2...-1234. The code numbers for the respective State are as follows: 01—Alabama 02—Alaska 03—Arizona...

  8. 27 CFR 20.135 - State code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State code numbers. 20.135... Articles § 20.135 State code numbers. In showing the permit number on labels as provided in § 20.134(b)(2...-1234. The code numbers for the respective State are as follows: 01—Alabama 02—Alaska 03—Arizona...

  9. 27 CFR 20.135 - State code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State code numbers. 20.135... Articles § 20.135 State code numbers. In showing the permit number on labels as provided in § 20.134(b)(2...-1234. The code numbers for the respective State are as follows: 01—Alabama 02—Alaska 03—Arizona...

  10. 27 CFR 20.135 - State code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State code numbers. 20.135... Articles § 20.135 State code numbers. In showing the permit number on labels as provided in § 20.134(b)(2...-1234. The code numbers for the respective State are as follows: 01—Alabama 02—Alaska 03—Arizona...

  11. 27 CFR 20.135 - State code numbers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State code numbers. 20.135... Articles § 20.135 State code numbers. In showing the permit number on labels as provided in § 20.134(b)(2...-1234. The code numbers for the respective State are as follows: 01—Alabama 02—Alaska 03—Arizona...

  12. Southern States Specialty Office Building 

    E-print Network

    Raiford Stripling Associates, Inc.; Stripling, Raiford L.

    1983-01-01

    that the United States no longer leads the world in biotechnology. Unfortunately for these scientists, Americans have had an uneasy past with the idea of ES cells. Since their isolation in 1998, ES cells have become one of the most hotly debated ethical issues...

  13. ALGORITHMIC CODING THEORY State University of New York at Buffalo

    E-print Network

    Rudra,, Atri

    ALGORITHMIC CODING THEORY Atri Rudra State University of New York at Buffalo 1 Introduction Error-correcting codes (or just codes) are clever ways of representing data so that one can recover the original the most natural and common application of error correcting codes is for communication. For example, when

  14. Recommendations for 15% Above ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Code-Compliant Building Energy Efficiency Measures for Small Retail Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Kim, H.; Kim, K.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.

    2012-01-01

    closely with code officials, energy raters, manufacturers, state officials and other stakeholders to develop cost effective energy efficiency measures. This report presents detailed information about the recommendations for achieving 15% above code...

  15. Abestos in Buildings: The State Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilander, Dennis K.; Sacarto, Douglas M.

    1988-01-01

    The widespread use of asbestos for several decades in building construction has created major public health concerns for state governments. If asbestos is not thoroughly bound in cement, plaster, resin or some other stable material, it will flake and powder, releasing countless microscopic fibers into the air. Asbestos fibers penetrate deep into…

  16. Overview of validation procedures for building energy-analysis simulation codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortman, D.; Odoherty, B.; Judkoff, R.

    1981-03-01

    A procedure for the validation of Building Energy Analysis Simulation Codes (BEAS) is described. These codes are used increasingly in the building design process, both directly and as the basis for simplified design tools and guidelines. The importance of the validity of the BEAS in predicting building energy performance is obvious when one considers the money and energy which could be wasted by energy-inefficient designs. The validation work consists of three distinct parts: comparative study; anaytical verification; and empirical validation.

  17. The State of Energy Codes in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Herbert, C.

    2014-01-01

    ,000 in population: 57 Texas Cities have adopted 2012 Energy Codes (+7) 108 Texas Cities are enforcing 2009 Energy Codes 52 are still using older codes… Since last year 60 cities have adopted higher codes and several others plan to adopt later this year. https://eepartnership.files.wordpress...

  18. Energy Efficiency Pilot Projects in Jaipur: Testing the Energy Conservation Building Code

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; Mathur, Jyotirmay; Yu, Sha

    2014-03-26

    The Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) in Jaipur, India is constructing two new buildings on its campus that allow it to test implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC), which Rajasthan made mandatory in 2011. PNNL has been working with MNIT to document progress on ECBC implementation in these buildings.

  19. Perfect teleportation and superdense coding with W states

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Pati, Arun

    2006-12-15

    True tripartite entanglement of the state of a system of three qubits can be classified on the basis of stochastic local operations and classical communications. Such states can be classified into two categories: GHZ states and W states. It is known that GHZ states can be used for teleportation and superdense coding, but the prototype W state cannot be. However, we show that there is a class of W states that can be used for perfect teleportation and superdense coding.

  20. Impact of seismic code provisions in the central U.S.: a performance evaluation of a reinforced concrete building 

    E-print Network

    Kueht, Erin

    2009-05-15

    building codes for non-essential structures have a lower seismic design intensity level than the 2003 International Building Code (IBC) with broader acceptance nationally. As such, it is important to evaluate structures designed with these local seismic...

  1. Impacts of Standard 90.1-2007 for Commercial Buildings at State Level

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Gowri, Krishnan

    2009-10-12

    This report examines the requirements of Standard 90.1-2007 on commercial buildings on a state-by-state basis with a separate, stand-alone chapter for each state. Standard 90.1-2007 is compared to the current state code for most states. This is the final version of the draft previously cleared and assigned ERICA # PNNL-18544, titled "Commercial Nationwide Report."

  2. Energy Metrics for State Government Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Trevor

    Measuring true progress towards energy conservation goals requires the accurate reporting and accounting of energy consumption. An accurate energy metrics framework is also a critical element for verifiable Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Energy conservation in government can reduce expenditures on energy costs leaving more funds available for public services. In addition to monetary savings, conserving energy can help to promote energy security, air quality, and a reduction of carbon footprint. With energy consumption/GHG inventories recently produced at the Federal level, state and local governments are beginning to also produce their own energy metrics systems. In recent years, many states have passed laws and executive orders which require their agencies to reduce energy consumption. In June 2008, SC state government established a law to achieve a 20% energy usage reduction in state buildings by 2020. This study examines case studies from other states who have established similar goals to uncover the methods used to establish an energy metrics system. Direct energy consumption in state government primarily comes from buildings and mobile sources. This study will focus exclusively on measuring energy consumption in state buildings. The case studies reveal that many states including SC are having issues gathering the data needed to accurately measure energy consumption across all state buildings. Common problems found include a lack of enforcement and incentives that encourage state agencies to participate in any reporting system. The case studies are aimed at finding the leverage used to gather the needed data. The various approaches at coercing participation will hopefully reveal methods that SC can use to establish the accurate metrics system needed to measure progress towards its 20% by 2020 energy reduction goal. Among the strongest incentives found in the case studies is the potential for monetary savings through energy efficiency. Framing energy conservation as budget enhancement is found to be a particularly useful approach in political environments that are not always receptive to climate change oriented efforts. For example, the NC Utility Savings Initiative claims to have saved over $400 million in avoided tax costs. The case studies reveal a wide range of individual successes as a result of energy conservation efforts. Despite the successes found, results indicate that most states have not obtained or completely measured progress towards their energy reduction goals.

  3. Associated Students of Boise State University CHAPTER 6: ELECTION CODE

    E-print Network

    Barrash, Warren

    Associated Students of Boise State University CHAPTER 6: ELECTION CODE I. Chapter Overview A, Elections Code, important dates, a job description of the position, all relevant regulations, and any other action taken by a Candidate, which violates or goes against this Code. 12. Voting Facility: Any place

  4. Optimal dense coding with arbitrary pure entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Yuan; Duan, Runyao; Ji, Zhengfeng

    2006-07-15

    We examine dense coding with an arbitrary pure entangled state sharing between the sender and the receiver. Upper bounds on the average success probability in approximate dense coding and on the probability of conclusive results in unambiguous dense coding are derived. We also construct the optimal protocol which saturates the upper bound in each case.

  5. Institutions by imposition : colonial lessons for contemporary state-building

    E-print Network

    Matsuzaki, Reo

    2011-01-01

    What explains variation in institution-building under foreign occupations? Why do some state-building missions produce effective and durable state institutions, while others leave a legacy of weak or dysfunctional ones? I ...

  6. Learning to Estimate Dynamical State with Probabilistic Population Codes

    PubMed Central

    Sabes, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking moving objects, including one’s own body, is a fundamental ability of higher organisms, playing a central role in many perceptual and motor tasks. While it is unknown how the brain learns to follow and predict the dynamics of objects, it is known that this process of state estimation can be learned purely from the statistics of noisy observations. When the dynamics are simply linear with additive Gaussian noise, the optimal solution is the well known Kalman filter (KF), the parameters of which can be learned via latent-variable density estimation (the EM algorithm). The brain does not, however, directly manipulate matrices and vectors, but instead appears to represent probability distributions with the firing rates of population of neurons, “probabilistic population codes.” We show that a recurrent neural network—a modified form of an exponential family harmonium (EFH)—that takes a linear probabilistic population code as input can learn, without supervision, to estimate the state of a linear dynamical system. After observing a series of population responses (spike counts) to the position of a moving object, the network learns to represent the velocity of the object and forms nearly optimal predictions about the position at the next time-step. This result builds on our previous work showing that a similar network can learn to perform multisensory integration and coordinate transformations for static stimuli. The receptive fields of the trained network also make qualitative predictions about the developing and learning brain: tuning gradually emerges for higher-order dynamical states not explicitly present in the inputs, appearing as delayed tuning for the lower-order states. PMID:26540152

  7. Learning to Estimate Dynamical State with Probabilistic Population Codes.

    PubMed

    Makin, Joseph G; Dichter, Benjamin K; Sabes, Philip N

    2015-11-01

    Tracking moving objects, including one's own body, is a fundamental ability of higher organisms, playing a central role in many perceptual and motor tasks. While it is unknown how the brain learns to follow and predict the dynamics of objects, it is known that this process of state estimation can be learned purely from the statistics of noisy observations. When the dynamics are simply linear with additive Gaussian noise, the optimal solution is the well known Kalman filter (KF), the parameters of which can be learned via latent-variable density estimation (the EM algorithm). The brain does not, however, directly manipulate matrices and vectors, but instead appears to represent probability distributions with the firing rates of population of neurons, "probabilistic population codes." We show that a recurrent neural network-a modified form of an exponential family harmonium (EFH)-that takes a linear probabilistic population code as input can learn, without supervision, to estimate the state of a linear dynamical system. After observing a series of population responses (spike counts) to the position of a moving object, the network learns to represent the velocity of the object and forms nearly optimal predictions about the position at the next time-step. This result builds on our previous work showing that a similar network can learn to perform multisensory integration and coordinate transformations for static stimuli. The receptive fields of the trained network also make qualitative predictions about the developing and learning brain: tuning gradually emerges for higher-order dynamical states not explicitly present in the inputs, appearing as delayed tuning for the lower-order states. PMID:26540152

  8. A brief introduction on training and public information of building energy codes in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin

    2010-12-01

    This report is associated with the project of Implementation of Building Energy Codes in China (55793). The report aims to give Chinese audience a brief introduction on training and public information activities of building energy codes in the U.S. The report contains four sections: Section One is about the development history and implementation of building energy codes in the U.S. Section Two is about the organizations of training and public information activities, mainly focused on ASHRAE, ICC, federal and state government. Policy implication, which is Section Three, addresses the role of federal government and on-line training and public information activities in promoting training and public information (the current China training system lacks strong support of central government and on-line training activities). Conclusions are made in Section Four. This report will be uploaded to an upcoming Chinese website which is devoted to provide first-time free on-line training and public information of building energy codes in China.

  9. Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Commercial Office Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Montgomery, C.; Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Liu, Z.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Cho, S.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents detailed information about the recommendations for achieving 15% above-code energy performance for commercial office buildings complying with ASHRAE Standard 90.1-19991. To accomplish the 15% annual ...

  10. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  11. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  12. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. FACADE, ELEVATION - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  13. Building energy codes as a tool for energy efficiency: Examining implementation in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwicker, Brittany L.

    2011-12-01

    Kentucky adopted the 2009 IECC residential energy code in 2011 and is developing a plan for achieving 90 percent compliance with the code. This report examines recommendations for energy code implementation from various expert sources and then compares them to Kentucky's current and planned future procedures for energy code adoption, implementation, and enforcement. It seeks to answer the question: To what extent is Kentucky following expert recommendations as it moves toward adopting and planning for implementation and enforcement of the IECC 2009? The report concludes with recommendations to the Kentucky Board of Housing, Buildings, and Construction for increasing residential energy code compliance and suggestions for exploring increased utility investments in energy efficiency.

  14. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-09-30

    The state of Michigan is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

  15. A labeling procedure for linear finite-state codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.

    1988-01-01

    A method to define the labels of the state diagram of a linear finite-state code is presented and investigated. This method is particularly suitable for simple hardware implementation since it simplifies the encoder structure. The method can also be applied to the labeling of a state diagram that is not completely connected to obtain a linear finite state code with larger free distance.

  16. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, P. C.; Halverson, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    This guidance document was prepared using the input from the meeting summarized in the draft CSI Roadmap to provide Building America research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods.

  17. Revision of seismic design codes corresponding to building damages in the ``5.12'' Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yayong

    2010-06-01

    A large number of buildings were seriously damaged or collapsed in the “5.12” Wenchuan earthquake. Based on field surveys and studies of damage to different types of buildings, seismic design codes have been updated. This paper briefly summarizes some of the major revisions that have been incorporated into the “Standard for classification of seismic protection of building constructions GB50223-2008” and “Code for Seismic Design of Buildings GB50011-2001.” The definition of seismic fortification class for buildings has been revisited, and as a result, the seismic classifications for schools, hospitals and other buildings that hold large populations such as evacuation shelters and information centers have been upgraded in the GB50223-2008 Code. The main aspects of the revised GB50011-2001 code include: (a) modification of the seismic intensity specified for the Provinces of Sichuan, Shanxi and Gansu; (b) basic conceptual design for retaining walls and building foundations in mountainous areas; (c) regularity of building configuration; (d) integration of masonry structures and pre-cast RC floors; (e) requirements for calculating and detailing stair shafts; and (f) limiting the use of single-bay RC frame structures. Some significant examples of damage in the epicenter areas are provided as a reference in the discussion on the consequences of collapse, the importance of duplicate structural systems, and the integration of RC and masonry structures.

  18. List updated 1/14/2015 BLDG. # BLDG. CODE BUILDING NAME

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    List updated 1/14/2015 BLDG. # BLDG. CODE BUILDING NAME 1 SC SANSON LIFE SCIENCES BUILDING 2 GS' HOUSE 22 CM COMPUTER CENTER 23 FW FLEMING WEST 24 FL FLEMING HALL 25 KH BARRY KAYE HALL 26 HS ALEXANDER D. HENDERSON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL 26-A HS ALEXANDER D. HENDERSON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL - CLASSROOM 26-B HS

  19. List updated 7/9/2012 BLDG. # BLDG. CODE BUILDING NAME

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    List updated 7/9/2012 BLDG. # BLDG. CODE BUILDING NAME 1 SC SANSON LIFE SCIENCES BUILDING 2 GS' HOUSE 22 CM COMPUTER CENTER 23 FW FLEMING WEST 24 FL FLEMING HALL 25 KH BARRY KAYE HALL 26 HS ALEXANDER D. HENDERSON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL 26A HS ALEXANDER D. HENDERSON UNIVERSITY SCHOOL - CLASSROOM 26B HS

  20. 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Residential Buildings in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Haberl, J. S.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

    2007-01-01

    of Texas Subject: 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Residential Buildings in Texas In the 79th Legislature (2005) the Energy Systems Laboratory was required to develop three alternative methods for achieving 15% above-code energy... measures that achieve 15% above-code savings, which are based on the 2001 IECC. These measures include envelope, HVAC systems, and plant equipment. Annual energy savings, estimated costs, simple payback, and NOx emissions reductions are provided...

  1. Building a State Industrial Energy Efficiency Network 

    E-print Network

    Ferland, K.

    2005-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-05-05-35.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 740 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name ESL-IE-05-05-35.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 ?Building a State Industrial... Energy Efficiency Network? Kathey Ferland Project Manager Texas Industries of the Future University of Texas at Austin (512)232-4823 or kferland@mail.utexas.edu http://TexasIOF.ces.utexas.edu Texas Industries of the Future brings the tools...

  2. Child Care Services and the NYS Uniform Fire Prevention and Building Code: A Building Code Examination of Child Day Care Services Which Are Regulated by the NYS Department of Social Services with Particular Attention to Day Care Centers and the Role of the Local Authority Having Jurisdiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Div. of Code Enforcement and Administration, Albany.

    This course manual details the Uniform Fire Prevention and Building Code of New York State and how it affects child care services, particularly day care centers. The sections of the manual, each detailing a part of the code, are: (1) Introduction, Scope, Registration, and Definitions and Facilities Regulated by the New York Department of Social…

  3. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pamala C.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building America program implemented a new Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) Team in 2013. The Team’s mission is to assist Building America (BA) research teams and partners in identifying and resolving conflicts between Building America innovations and the various codes and standards that govern the construction of residences. A CSI Roadmap was completed in September, 2013. This guidance document was prepared using the information in the CSI Roadmap to provide BA research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America (BA) innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods. For more information on the BA CSI team, please email: CSITeam@pnnl.gov

  4. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Collection Sacramento ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Collection Sacramento Co. History Thompson & West Sketch of 1880 Rephoto 1960 NORTHEAST CORNER - B. F. Hastings Bank Building, 128-132 J Street, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  5. Natural ventilation possibilities for buildings in the United States

    E-print Network

    Dean, Brian N. (Brian Nathan), 1974-

    2001-01-01

    In the United States, many of the commercial buildings built in the last few decades are completely mechanically air conditioned, without the capability to use natural ventilation. This habit has occurred in building designs ...

  6. Lessons learned from new construction utility demand side management programs and their implications for implementing building energy codes

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, B.K.; Hughes, K.R.; Danko, S.L.; Gilbride, T.L.

    1994-07-01

    This report was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) through its Building Energy Standards Program (BESP). The purpose of this task was to identify demand-side management (DSM) strategies for new construction that utilities have adopted or developed to promote energy-efficient design and construction. PNL conducted a survey of utilities and used the information gathered to extrapolate lessons learned and to identify evolving trends in utility new-construction DSM programs. The ultimate goal of the task is to identify opportunities where states might work collaboratively with utilities to promote the adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy-efficient building energy codes.

  7. 76 FR 56413 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    .../#!docketDetail ;dct=FR+PR+N+O+SR+PS;rpp=250;so=DESC;sb=postedDate;po=0;D= EERE-2011-BT-BC-0046. Please use..., 2011 (76 FR 9696) ( http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/pdfs/rf_noda_fr_notice.pdf ) for information on projecting future costs in the manufacture of new refrigeration products....

  8. Alternative Formats to Achieve More Efficient Energy Codes for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Halverson, Mark A.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Makela, Eric J.

    2013-01-26

    This paper identifies and examines several formats or structures that could be used to create the next generation of more efficient energy codes and standards for commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) to provide technical support to the development of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1. While the majority of PNNL’s ASHRAE Standard 90.1 support focuses on developing and evaluating new requirements, a portion of its work involves consideration of the format of energy standards. In its current working plan, the ASHRAE 90.1 committee has approved an energy goal of 50% improvement in Standard 90.1-2013 relative to Standard 90.1-2004, and will likely be considering higher improvement targets for future versions of the standard. To cost-effectively achieve the 50% goal in manner that can gain stakeholder consensus, formats other than prescriptive must be considered. Alternative formats that include reducing the reliance on prescriptive requirements may make it easier to achieve these aggressive efficiency levels in new codes and standards. The focus on energy code and standard formats is meant to explore approaches to presenting the criteria that will foster compliance, enhance verification, and stimulate innovation while saving energy in buildings. New formats may also make it easier for building designers and owners to design and build the levels of efficiency called for in the new codes and standards. This paper examines a number of potential formats and structures, including prescriptive, performance-based (with sub-formats of performance equivalency and performance targets), capacity constraint-based, and outcome-based. The paper also discusses the pros and cons of each format from the viewpoint of code users and of code enforcers.

  9. 76 FR 56413 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 9696) ( http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/pdfs/rf_noda_fr_notice.../#!docketDetail ;dct=FR+PR+N+O+SR+PS;rpp=250;so=DESC;sb=postedDate;po=0;D= EERE-2011-BT-BC-0046. Please use... 4 19 5 27 6 6 7 & 8 0.3 Table 3--Climate Locations Used in Energy Simulations With Climate Zone...

  10. EVOLUTION OF STATE CODES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews four surveys of state onsite sewage disposal regulations from 1949 to 1980 and identifies the changes and trends of these changes. The physical meaning of various state regulatory requirements are analyzed against the present scientific knowledge. The primary co...

  11. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. SECTION AND PLANS OF CUPOLA - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  12. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy: Credit: Nevada State Archives ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy: Credit: Nevada State Archives ARCHITECT'S DRAWINGS, 1869. BASEMENT AND ROOF PLANS - Nevada State Capitol, Plaza at Carson Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  13. Energy Use and Design Options for Texas State Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    In 1984, the Office of Governor in the State of Texas, working through the Energy Efficiency Division of the Public Utility Commission, instituted a program to reduce the energy costs in state owned buildings. One facet of this program...

  14. Deterministic dense coding and faithful teleportation with multipartite graph states

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.-Y.; Yu, I-C.; Lin, F.-L.; Hsu, L.-Y.

    2009-05-15

    We propose schemes to perform the deterministic dense coding and faithful teleportation with multipartite graph states. We also find the sufficient and necessary condition of a viable graph state for the proposed schemes. That is, for the associated graph, the reduced adjacency matrix of the Tanner-type subgraph between senders and receivers should be invertible.

  15. Deterministic Dense Coding and Faithful Teleportation with Multipartite Graph States

    E-print Network

    Ching-Yu Huang; I-Ching Yu; Feng-Li Lin; Li-Yi Hsu

    2008-07-03

    We proposed novel schemes to perform the deterministic dense coding and faithful teleportation with multipartite graph states. We also find the sufficient and necessary condition of a viable graph state for the proposed scheme. That is, for the associated graph, the reduced adjacency matrix of the Tanner-type subgraph between senders and receivers should be invertible.

  16. 2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE WITH TAILINGS ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. COLLAPSED ADIT APPROXIMATELY 25 YARDS UPHILL TO THE LEFT OF FAR BUILDING. TIP TOP AND ONTARIO ARE LOCATED OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  17. 5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EMPIRE STATE MINE. COLLAPSED SOUTHERN MOST BUILDING, CAMERA POINTED WEST. VISIBLE THROUGH WINDOW OPENING IS 'GRIZZLEY' IN ID-31-D-6 AND ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF BUILDING IS THE BED SPRINGS IN ID-31-D-9. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  18. 78 FR 55245 - Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    .... (78 FR 47677) This is being done in response to multiple stakeholder requests. DATES: The public... (78 FR 47677) seeking stakeholder input on the process by which DOE will utilize and make available to... Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of...

  19. Building code challenging the ethics behind adobe architecture in North Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Hurol, Yonca; Yüceer, Hülya; ?ahali, Öznem

    2015-04-01

    Adobe masonry is part of the vernacular architecture of Cyprus. Thus, it is possible to use this technology in a meaningful way on the island. On the other hand, although adobe architecture is more sustainable in comparison to other building technologies, the use of it is diminishing in North Cyprus. The application of Turkish building code in the north of the island has created complications in respect of the use of adobe masonry, because this building code demands that reinforced concrete vertical tie-beams are used together with adobe masonry. The use of reinforced concrete elements together with adobe masonry causes problems in relation to the climatic response of the building as well as causing other technical and aesthetic problems. This situation makes the design of adobe masonry complicated and various types of ethical problems also emerge. The objective of this article is to analyse the ethical problems which arise as a consequence of the restrictive character of the building code, by analysing two case studies and conducting an interview with an architect who was involved with the use of adobe masonry in North Cyprus. According to the results of this article there are ethical problems at various levels in the design of both case studies. These problems are connected to the responsibilities of architects in respect of the social benefit, material production, aesthetics and affordability of the architecture as well as presenting distrustful behaviour where the obligations of architects to their clients is concerned. PMID:24696019

  20. ARE BUILDING CODES EFFECTIVE AT SAVING ENERGY? EVIDENCE FROM RESIDENTIAL BILLING DATA IN FLORIDA

    E-print Network

    Kotchen, Matthew J.

    . Evidence at the state level suggests, for example, that energy codes for the thermal resistance of household insulation had no significant influ- ence on actual levels of insulation (Jaffe & Stavins, 1995

  1. 76 FR 13101 - Building Energy Codes Program: Presenting and Receiving Comments to DOE Proposed Changes to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... Part 430 Building Energy Codes Program: Presenting and Receiving Comments to DOE Proposed Changes to the International Green Construction Code (IgCC) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... the draft International Green Construction Code (IgCC). The first edition of the IgCC is...

  2. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  3. Code for the College of Health and Human Sciences Colorado State University

    E-print Network

    Code for the College of Health and Human Sciences Colorado State University Approved by HHS Faculty and administrative processes of the College of Health and Human Sciences (HHS). This Code for HHS operation is used under this Code. This Code shall be consistent with the provisions of the Colorado State University Code

  4. Building Code Compliance and Enforcement: The Experience of SanFrancisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinanace and California'sBuildign Standards for New Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1990-11-01

    As part of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) technical assistance to the Sustainable City Project, compliance and enforcement activities related to local and state building codes for existing and new construction were evaluated in two case studies. The analysis of the City of San Francisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance (RECO) showed that a limited, prescriptive energy conservation ordinance for existing residential construction can be enforced relatively easily with little administrative costs, and that compliance with such ordinances can be quite high. Compliance with the code was facilitated by extensive publicity, an informed public concerned with the cost of energy and knowledgeable about energy efficiency, the threat of punishment (Order of Abatement), the use of private inspectors, and training workshops for City and private inspectors. The analysis of California's Title 24 Standards for new residential and commercial construction showed that enforcement of this type of code for many climate zones is more complex and requires extensive administrative support for education and training of inspectors, architects, engineers, and builders. Under this code, prescriptive and performance approaches for compliance are permitted, resulting in the demand for alternative methods of enforcement: technical assistance, plan review, field inspection, and computer analysis. In contrast to existing construction, building design and new materials and construction practices are of critical importance in new construction, creating a need for extensive technical assistance and extensive interaction between enforcement personnel and the building community. Compliance problems associated with building design and installation did occur in both residential and nonresidential buildings. Because statewide codes are enforced by local officials, these problems may increase over time as energy standards change and become more complex and as other standards (eg, health and safety codes) remain a higher priority. The California Energy Commission realizes that code enforcement by itself is insufficient and expects that additional educational and technical assistance efforts (eg, manuals, training programs, and toll-free telephone lines) will ameliorate these problems.

  5. US Department of Energy Office of Codes and Standards resource book

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide a discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stockholders in the building energy codes and standards arena.

  6. Local equivalence, surface-code states, and matroids

    SciTech Connect

    Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

    2010-08-15

    Recently, Ji et al. disproved the local-unitary-local Clifford (LU-LC) conjecture and showed that the local unitary (LU) and local Clifford (LC) equivalence classes of the stabilizer states are not always the same. Despite the fact that this settles the LU-LC conjecture, a sufficient condition for stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture is not known. In this paper, we investigate further the properties of stabilizer states with respect to local equivalence. Our first result shows that there exist infinitely many stabilizer states that violate the LU-LC conjecture. In particular, we show that for all numbers of qubits n{>=}28, there exist distance-two stabilizer states which are counterexamples to the LU-LC conjecture. We prove that, for all odd n{>=}195, there exist stabilizer states with distance greater than two that are LU equivalent but not LC equivalent. Two important classes of stabilizer states that are of great interest in quantum computation are the cluster states and stabilizer states of the surface codes. We show that, under some minimal restrictions, both these classes of states preclude any counterexamples. In this context, we also show that the associated surface codes do not have any encoded non-Clifford transversal gates. We characterize the Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) surface-code states in terms of a class of minor closed binary matroids. In addition to making a connection to an important open problem in binary matroid theory, this characterization does in some cases provide an efficient test for CSS states that are not counterexamples.

  7. National Fire Codes. A Compilation of NFPA Codes, Standards, Recommended Practices, and Manuals. Volume 4: Building Construction and Facilities. 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Fire Protection Association, Boston, MA.

    A selected group of NFPA codes and standards pertaining to building construction and facilities is presented. The recommendations are phrased in terms of performance or objectives, the intent being to permit the utilization of any methods, devices or materials which will produce the desired results. The major topics included are--(1) building

  8. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

    2004-09-30

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Museum ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy Credit: Nevada State Museum EAST (FRONT) FACADE, ORIGINAL CONDITION WITH CUPOLA AND PORCH (no date) - Abraham Curry House, 406 North Nevada Street, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  10. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, California Original: Ante 1860 Re-photo: February 1940 VIEW FROM SOUTHEAST - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  11. 33. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, California Original: 1860's Re-photo: February 1940 INTERIOR OF CHURCH BEFORE RESTORATION - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  12. 32. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, California Original: Re-photo: February 1940 DETAIL OF ENTRANCE (East Elevation) - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  13. Building a New Role: States and School Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandham, Jessica L.; Richard, Alan; Johnston, Robert C.

    This report presents articles that explore the changing role of the states in addressing the nation's need to build and modernize its public schools. The article, "Doling Out Facilities Aid Proves Tricky," explains how some states have learned that securing funds is only one part of helping districts pay for construction. "Some States Help Charter…

  14. Building on Clues: Methods to Help State and Local Law

    E-print Network

    McShea, Daniel W.

    1 May 2009 Building on Clues: Methods to Help State and Local Law Enforcement Detect International Mark Pope, MS, RTI International Statement of Problem State and local law enforcement agencies, such as crime incident and suspicious activity data. While state and local law enforcement agencies are involved

  15. Building Gifted Education: One State at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The "Marland" Report was the impetus and structure to provide a more systematic approach to building state and regional gifted programs. One of the strategies used to proliferate the spread of programming for gifted students throughout the states was the National/State Leadership Training Institute on the Gifted and Talented…

  16. Feedbacks from Focus Group Meeting on Training and Implementation of Building Energy Codes in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Lin , Haiyan; Song, Bo; Halverson, Mark A.; Evans, Meredydd; Zhu, Xiaojiao

    2011-01-01

    A focus group meeting is a very effective quality research approach to collect information on a specific project. Through focus group meetings at both Changchun and Ningbo in August 2010, the project team gained a more complete understandings of key stakeholders (such as their education level), their training needs and expectations, key factors influencing their decision making, and incurred implementation difficulties. In addition, the meeting helped the project team (especially PNNL) improve its understanding of the implementation status of building energy codes in other regions (such as small cities and counties neighboring to urban areas, small townships and rural areas distant from urban areas). The collected feedbacks will serve as important input not only for better design of training materials and the development of an on-line training website, but also for development of follow-up projects to promote building energy codes in China.

  17. Identification code (ID-code): Lang_G_00329 Cobalt charge states in sodium cobaltates at intermediate dopings

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud 11, Université de

    1 Identification code (ID-code): Lang_G_00329 27.06.2008 Cobalt charge states in sodium cobaltates the peculiar magnetism of NaxCoO2 cobaltates in their paramagnetic state is their charge and spin states in the cobalt layers, responsible for the electronic properties. We examine here the situation for 0.50x0

  18. Stephen F. Austin State University Request to Establish a New Banner Finance Detail Code

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    Stephen F. Austin State University Request to Establish a New Banner Finance Detail Code Purpose: Please complete this form to request the creation or modification of a Detail Code. Requestor Name: ___________________ Description of Detail Code _____________________________________________________________________ Banner Fund

  19. NASA Lewis steady-state heat pipe code users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K.; Baker, Karl W.; Marks, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Lewis heat pipe code was developed to predict the performance of heat pipes in the steady state. The code can be used as a design tool on a personal computer or with a suitable calling routine, as a subroutine for a mainframe radiator code. A variety of wick structures, including a user input option, can be used. Heat pipes with multiple evaporators, condensers, and adiabatic sections in series and with wick structures that differ among sections can be modeled. Several working fluids can be chosen, including potassium, sodium, and lithium, for which monomer-dimer equilibrium is considered. The code incorporates a vapor flow algorithm that treats compressibility and axially varying heat input. This code facilitates the determination of heat pipe operating temperatures and heat pipe limits that may be encountered at the specified heat input and environment temperature. Data are input to the computer through a user-interactive input subroutine. Output, such as liquid and vapor pressures and temperatures, is printed at equally spaced axial positions along the pipe as determined by the user.

  20. A Comparison of Building Energy Code Stringency: 2009 IECC Versus 2012 IECC for Commercial Construction in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Baltazar, J.; Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.; Ellis, S.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the 80th legislature mandated the Energy Systems Laboratory (Laboratory) to take part in Texas rule-making process. As detailed in the Health and Safety Code, Chapter 388, Texas Building Energy Performance Standards, ...

  1. Model Code for the Control of Residential HVAC Distribution System Leakage and HVAC-Induced Building Leakage 

    E-print Network

    Wemhoff, P.

    1990-01-01

    documents published by the following organizations: the Southern Building Code Congress International, Inc., the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air conditioning Engineers...

  2. 76 FR 13101 - Building Energy Codes Program: Presenting and Receiving Comments to DOE Proposed Changes to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ...Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000...U.S. Department of Energy, Office of the General...baseline of codes addressing green construction, and...

  3. Cost Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Fairey, Philip

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous United States. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  4. Recommended requirements to code officials for solar heating, cooling, and hot water systems. Model document for code officials on solar heating and cooling of buildings

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    These recommended requirements include provisions for electrical, building, mechanical, and plumbing installations for active and passive solar energy systems used for space or process heating and cooling, and domestic water heating. The provisions in these recommended requirements are intended to be used in conjunction with the existing building codes in each jurisdiction. Where a solar relevant provision is adequately covered in an existing model code, the section is referenced in the Appendix. Where a provision has been drafted because there is no counterpart in the existing model code, it is found in the body of these recommended requirements. Commentaries are included in the text explaining the coverage and intent of present model code requirements and suggesting alternatives that may, at the discretion of the building official, be considered as providing reasonable protection to the public health and safety. Also included is an Appendix which is divided into a model code cross reference section and a reference standards section. The model code cross references are a compilation of the sections in the text and their equivalent requirements in the applicable model codes. (MHR)

  5. Fundamental period of Italian reinforced concrete buildings: comparison between numerical, experimental and Italian code simplified values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditommaso, Rocco; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Nigro, Antonella

    2015-04-01

    Aim of this study is a comparison among the fundamental period of reinforced concrete buildings evaluated using the simplified approach proposed by the Italian Seismic code (NTC 2008), numerical models and real values retrieved from an experimental campaign performed on several buildings located in Basilicata region (Italy). With the intention of proposing simplified relationships to evaluate the fundamental period of reinforced concrete buildings, scientists and engineers performed several numerical and experimental campaigns, on different structures all around the world, to calibrate different kind of formulas. Most of formulas retrieved from both numerical and experimental analyses provides vibration periods smaller than those suggested by the Italian seismic code. However, it is well known that the fundamental period of a structure play a key role in the correct evaluation of the spectral acceleration for seismic static analyses. Generally, simplified approaches impose the use of safety factors greater than those related to in depth nonlinear analyses with the aim to cover possible unexpected uncertainties. Using the simplified formula proposed by the Italian seismic code the fundamental period is quite higher than fundamental periods experimentally evaluated on real structures, with the consequence that the spectral acceleration adopted in the seismic static analysis may be significantly different than real spectral acceleration. This approach could produces a decreasing in safety factors obtained using linear and nonlinear seismic static analyses. Finally, the authors suggest a possible update of the Italian seismic code formula for the simplified estimation of the fundamental period of vibration of existing RC buildings, taking into account both elastic and inelastic structural behaviour and the interaction between structural and non-structural elements. Acknowledgements This study was partially funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department within the project DPC-RELUIS 2014 - RS4 ''Seismic observatory of structures and health monitoring''. References R. Ditommaso, M. Vona, M. R. Gallipoli and M. Mucciarelli (2013). Evaluation and considerations about fundamental periods of damaged reinforced concrete buildings. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 13, 1903-1912, 2013. www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/13/1903/2013. doi:10.5194/nhess-13-1903-2013

  6. 77 FR 29322 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ...for insulation in the cavity between wall studs, or two values: One for cavity insulation...value is for insulation in cavities between studs or furring strips. In this case the...distinction between homes with different steel stud spacing. In the 2012 IECC, there...

  7. 77 FR 29322 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ..., 59 FR 36173, July 15, 1994, announced the Secretary's determination that the 1993 MEC increased... notice, 61 FR 64727, December 6, 1996, announced the Secretary's determination that the 1995 MEC is an improvement over the 1993 MEC. Federal Register notice 66 FR 1964, January 10, 2001, simultaneously...

  8. Form-based code focuses on the character of a place not the use of the buildings. It considers

    E-print Network

    and has gained support from architects, community planners and urban designers who are looking zonings emphasis on use of buildings. A form-based code is a regulation, not a mere guideline, adopted into city or town law. From Traditional Zoning to Form-based Code Traditional zoning is characterized

  9. Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code

    E-print Network

    Adam M. Meier; Bryan Eastin; Emanuel Knill

    2012-04-18

    The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

  10. Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code

    E-print Network

    Meier, Adam M; Knill, Emanuel

    2012-01-01

    The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

  11. State-Dependent Population Coding in Primary Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Pachitariu, Marius; Lyamzin, Dmitry R.; Sahani, Maneesh

    2015-01-01

    Sensory function is mediated by interactions between external stimuli and intrinsic cortical dynamics that are evident in the modulation of evoked responses by cortical state. A number of recent studies across different modalities have demonstrated that the patterns of activity in neuronal populations can vary strongly between synchronized and desynchronized cortical states, i.e., in the presence or absence of intrinsically generated up and down states. Here we investigated the impact of cortical state on the population coding of tones and speech in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of gerbils, and found that responses were qualitatively different in synchronized and desynchronized cortical states. Activity in synchronized A1 was only weakly modulated by sensory input, and the spike patterns evoked by tones and speech were unreliable and constrained to a small range of patterns. In contrast, responses to tones and speech in desynchronized A1 were temporally precise and reliable across trials, and different speech tokens evoked diverse spike patterns with extremely weak noise correlations, allowing responses to be decoded with nearly perfect accuracy. Restricting the analysis of synchronized A1 to activity within up states yielded similar results, suggesting that up states are not equivalent to brief periods of desynchronization. These findings demonstrate that the representational capacity of A1 depends strongly on cortical state, and suggest that cortical state should be considered as an explicit variable in all studies of sensory processing. PMID:25653363

  12. State-dependent population coding in primary auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Pachitariu, Marius; Lyamzin, Dmitry R; Sahani, Maneesh; Lesica, Nicholas A

    2015-02-01

    Sensory function is mediated by interactions between external stimuli and intrinsic cortical dynamics that are evident in the modulation of evoked responses by cortical state. A number of recent studies across different modalities have demonstrated that the patterns of activity in neuronal populations can vary strongly between synchronized and desynchronized cortical states, i.e., in the presence or absence of intrinsically generated up and down states. Here we investigated the impact of cortical state on the population coding of tones and speech in the primary auditory cortex (A1) of gerbils, and found that responses were qualitatively different in synchronized and desynchronized cortical states. Activity in synchronized A1 was only weakly modulated by sensory input, and the spike patterns evoked by tones and speech were unreliable and constrained to a small range of patterns. In contrast, responses to tones and speech in desynchronized A1 were temporally precise and reliable across trials, and different speech tokens evoked diverse spike patterns with extremely weak noise correlations, allowing responses to be decoded with nearly perfect accuracy. Restricting the analysis of synchronized A1 to activity within up states yielded similar results, suggesting that up states are not equivalent to brief periods of desynchronization. These findings demonstrate that the representational capacity of A1 depends strongly on cortical state, and suggest that cortical state should be considered as an explicit variable in all studies of sensory processing. PMID:25653363

  13. Going Beyond a Resnet Certification for Code-Compliant Simulations: A Sensitivity Analysis of Detailed Results of Three RESNET-Certified, Code-Compliant Residential Simulation Programs 

    E-print Network

    Haberl, J.; Liu, Z.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Baltazar, J. C.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.; Montgomery, C.; Kim, H.

    2010-01-01

    In many states building code officials rely on certified, code-compliant simulations to determine whether or not a residence satisfies the energy code requirements using a performance-path analysis. In the United States, certification of residential...

  14. California State Capacity Building Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This report summarizes the California Information Dissemination Project, which was funded from 1976 to 1981 to improve access to information on educatonal resources in California. The report is divided into three sections: (1) project rationale, which provides background information on the California State Department of Education, its Office of…

  15. Structural irregularity: A comparative analysis of the differences between dynamic analysis and the uniform building code

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, R.B.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of varying mass and stiffness parameters in framed structures of uniform geometry. Although mass variations were explored, the fact that the UBC design forces are distributed independently of the structures stiffness caused the emphasis of this study to be focused on stiffness variations. This study discusses Normal Mode Analysis techniques. This chapter briefly addresses the theory used in the writing of the Dynamic Analysis Program (DAP). The code calculates story forces and shears, participation factors and base shears to be used in comparisons with UBC design forces. This report also discusses: Response Spectrum Analysis methods; discusses the Uniform Building Code; and the results from the shear distribution comparisons.

  16. Comparison of ASHRAE Standard 90.1, 189.1 and IECC Codes for Large Office Buildings in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Baltazar, J.C.; Kim, H.; Haberl, J.

    2011-01-01

    (Ahmad et al. 2005, Kim et al., 2009). METHODOLOGY Overview In order to quantify the savings from the implementation of the different versions of the ASHRAE and IECC codes, a simulation model for a large office was created using DOE-2.1e.... Building Form The base-case building is a six story office building as described in studies by Ahmad et al., (2005) and Kim et al., (2009). The aspect ratio for ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 is kept at 2.5:1 as prescribed in the code. The resulting...

  17. 28 CFR 36.607 - Guidance concerning model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Guidance concerning model codes. 36.607 Section 36.607 Judicial Administration...Certification of State Laws or Local Building Codes § 36.607 Guidance concerning model codes. Upon application by an authorized...

  18. 28 CFR 36.608 - Guidance concerning model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Guidance concerning model codes. 36.608 Section 36.608 Judicial Administration...Certification of State Laws or Local Building Codes § 36.608 Guidance concerning model codes. Upon application by an authorized...

  19. 28 CFR 36.607 - Guidance concerning model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Guidance concerning model codes. 36.607 Section 36.607 Judicial Administration...Certification of State Laws or Local Building Codes § 36.607 Guidance concerning model codes. Upon application by an authorized...

  20. 28 CFR 36.607 - Guidance concerning model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Guidance concerning model codes. 36.607 Section 36.607 Judicial Administration...Certification of State Laws or Local Building Codes § 36.607 Guidance concerning model codes. Upon application by an authorized...

  1. 28 CFR 36.607 - Guidance concerning model codes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Guidance concerning model codes. 36.607 Section 36.607 Judicial Administration...Certification of State Laws or Local Building Codes § 36.607 Guidance concerning model codes. Upon application by an authorized...

  2. 78 FR 47677 - DOE Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...EERE-2013-BT-BC-0036] DOE Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building...is soliciting public input on the methodology developed by DOE to assist in assessing...DOE developed and piloted a compliance methodology across several U.S. states....

  3. Historic building documentation in the united states, 1933-2000: the historic american buildings survey, a case study 

    E-print Network

    Komas, Tanya Wattenburg

    2005-08-29

    The objective of the study was to gain new insight into archival building documentation in the United States since 1933 focusing on Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) as a case study. It sought to help explain how ...

  4. Simple scheme for encoding and decoding a qubit in unknown state for various topological codes

    PubMed Central

    ?odyga, Justyna; Mazurek, Pawe?; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Micha?

    2015-01-01

    We present a scheme for encoding and decoding an unknown state for CSS codes, based on syndrome measurements. We illustrate our method by means of Kitaev toric code, defected-lattice code, topological subsystem code and 3D Haah code. The protocol is local whenever in a given code the crossings between the logical operators consist of next neighbour pairs, which holds for the above codes. For subsystem code we also present scheme in a noisy case, where we allow for bit and phase-flip errors on qubits as well as state preparation and syndrome measurement errors. Similar scheme can be built for two other codes. We show that the fidelity of the protected qubit in the noisy scenario in a large code size limit is of , where p is a probability of error on a single qubit per time step. Regarding Haah code we provide noiseless scheme, leaving the noisy case as an open problem. PMID:25754905

  5. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  6. 73. The Metals Bank Building (now the State Savings Bank) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. The Metals Bank Building (now the State Savings Bank) was designed by Cass Gilbert and built in 1906, under the suoervision of Link had Haire, Architects. The structure is L-shaped, with oak and tile finishes on the interior. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  7. Study of controlled dense coding with some discrete tripartite and quadripartite states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sovik; Ghosh, Biplab

    2015-07-01

    The paper presents a detailed study of controlled dense coding scheme for different types of three and four-particle states. It consists of GHZ state, GHZ type states, maximal slice (MS), state, 4-particle GHZ state and W class of states. It is shown that GHZ-type states can be used for controlled dense coding in a probabilistic sense. We have shown relations among parameter of GHZ type state, concurrence of the shared bipartite state by two parties with respect to GHZ type and Charlie's measurement angle ?. The GHZ states as a special case of MS states, depending on parameters, have also been considered here. We have seen that tripartite W state and quadripartite W state cannot be used in controlled dense coding whereas |Wn>ABC states can be used probabilistically. Finally, we have investigated controlled dense coding scheme for tripartite qutrit states.

  8. 75 FR 17644 - Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... 38 CFR Part 51 RIN 2900-AN59 Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home Facilities AGENCY... edition of the National Fire Protection Association's NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. This change is designed... submitted in response to ``RIN 2900-AN59--Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home...

  9. 75 FR 17644 - Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ...2900-AN59 Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home Facilities AGENCY: Department...Association's NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. This change is designed to ensure that...2900-AN59--Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home Facilities.''...

  10. On the relation between a graph code and a graph state

    E-print Network

    Yongsoo Hwang; Jun Heo

    2015-11-18

    A graph state and a graph code respectively are defined based on a mathematical simple graph. In this work, we examine a relation between a graph state and a graph code both obtained from the same graph, and show that a graph state is a superposition of logical qubits of the related graph code. By using the relation, we first discuss that a local complementation which has been used for a graph state can be useful for searching locally equivalent stabilizer codes, and second provide a method to find a stabilizer group of a graph code.

  11. Build a speaker Ohio State University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering March 2009

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Betty Lise

    Build a speaker Ohio State University Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering March 2009 1 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering BUILD A SPEAKER Purpose Build a working speaker from paper, magnets, and wire, Figure 1

  12. Building steady-state simulators via hierarchical feedback decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Rouquette, N.

    1996-12-31

    In recent years, compositional modeling and self-explanatory simulation techniques have simplified the process of building dynamic simulators of physical systems. Building steady-state simulators is, conceptually, a simpler task consisting in solving a set algebraic equations. This simplicity hides delicate technical issues of convergence and search-space size due to the potentially large number of unknown parameters. We present an automated technique for reducing the dimensionality of the problem by (1) automatically identifying feedback loops (a generally NP-complete problem), (2) hierarchically decomposing the set of equations in terms of feedback loops, and (3) structuring a simulator where equations are solved either serially without search or in isolation within a feedback loop. This paper describes the key algorithms and the results of their implementation on building simulators for a two-phase evaporator loop system across multiple combinations of causal and non-causal approximations.

  13. Getting to Fifty: Moving Towards Low-Energy Commercial Buildings in the United States 

    E-print Network

    Frankel, M.; Hewitt, D.; Egnor, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPACT 2005) provides tax incentives for buildings in the U.S. designed to use 50% or less of the energy of typical code buildings. Upon passage of this important legislation, the New Buildings Institute (NBI) developed...

  14. 22 CFR 9b.5 - Temporary Department of State press building passes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Temporary Department of State press building passes. 9b.5 Section 9b.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.5 Temporary Department of State press building passes. A...

  15. 22 CFR 9b.5 - Temporary Department of State press building passes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary Department of State press building passes. 9b.5 Section 9b.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.5 Temporary Department of State press building passes. A...

  16. 22 CFR 9b.5 - Temporary Department of State press building passes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Temporary Department of State press building passes. 9b.5 Section 9b.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.5 Temporary Department of State press building passes. A...

  17. 22 CFR 9b.5 - Temporary Department of State press building passes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Temporary Department of State press building passes. 9b.5 Section 9b.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.5 Temporary Department of State press building passes. A...

  18. Building topological devices through emerging robust helical surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zibo; Song, Juntao; Liu, Haiwen; Jiang, Hua; Xie, X. C.

    2015-11-01

    We propose a nonlocal manipulation method to build topological devices through emerging robust helical surface states in Z2 = 0 topological systems. Specifically, in a ribbon of Z2 = 0 Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang (BHZ) model with finite-size effect, if magnetic impurities are doped on the top (bottom) edge, the edge states on the bottom (top) edge can be altered according to the strengths and directions of these magnetic impurities. Consequently, the backscattering between the emerging robust helical edge states and gapped normal edge states due to finite-size confinement is also changed, which makes the system alternate between a good one-channel conductor and a good insulator. This effect allows for fabricating topological devices with a high on-off ratio. Furthermore, this proposal can be generalized to three-dimensional (3D) models and more realistic Cd3As2 type Dirac semimetals.

  19. Feedback Codes and Action Plans: Building the Capacity of First-Year Students to Apply Feedback to a Scientific Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Fiona L.; Yucel, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Effective feedback can build self-assessment skills in students so that they become more competent and confident to identify and self-correct weaknesses in their work. In this study, we trialled a feedback code as part of an integrated programme of formative and summative assessment tasks, which provided feedback to first-year students on their…

  20. 76 FR 11339 - Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...2900-AN59 Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home Facilities AGENCY: Department...Association's NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. The change is designed to assure that...Association's NFPA 101, Life Safety Code (2009 edition) (NFPA 101), and...

  1. Joint China-United States Report for Year 1 Insulation Materials and Systems Project Area Clean Energy Research Center Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Biswas, Kaushik; Song, Bo; Zhang, Sisi

    2012-08-01

    In November of 2009, the presidents of China and the U.S. announced the establishment of the Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). This broad research effort is co-funded by both countries and involves a large number of research centers and universities in both countries. One part of this program is focused on improving the energy efficiency of buildings. One portion of the CERC-BEE was focused on building insulation systems. The research objective of this effort was to Identify and investigate candidate high performance fire resistant building insulation technologies that meet the goal of building code compliance for exterior wall applications in green buildings in multiple climate zones. A Joint Work Plan was established between researchers at the China Academy of Building Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Efforts in the first year under this plan focused on information gathering. The objective of this research program is to reduce building energy use in China via improved building insulation technology. In cold regions in China, residents often use inefficient heating systems to provide a minimal comfort level within inefficient buildings. In warmer regions, air conditioning has not been commonly used. As living standards rise, energy consumption in these regions will increase dramatically unless significant improvements are made in building energy performance. Previous efforts that defined the current state of the built environment in China and in the U.S. will be used in this research. In countries around the world, building improvements have typically followed the implementation of more stringent building codes. There have been several changes in building codes in both the U.S. and China within the last few years. New U.S. building codes have increased the amount of wall insulation required in new buildings. New government statements from multiple agencies in China have recently changed the requirements for buildings in terms of energy efficiency and fire safety. A related issue is the degree to which new standards are adopted and enforced. In the U.S., standards are developed using a consensus process, and local government agencies are free to implement these standards or to ignore them. For example, some U.S. states are still using 2003 versions of the building efficiency standards. There is also a great variation in the degree to which the locally adopted standards are enforced in different U.S. cities and states. With a more central process in China, these issues are different, but possible impacts of variable enforcement efficacy may also exist. Therefore, current building codes in China will be compared to the current state of building fire-safety and energy-efficiency codes in the U.S. and areas for possible improvements in both countries will be explored. In particular, the focus of the applications in China will be on green buildings. The terminology of 'green buildings' has different meanings to different audiences. The U.S. research is interested in both new, green buildings, and on retrofitting existing inefficient buildings. An initial effort will be made to clarify the scope of the pertinent wall insulation systems for these applications.

  2. Improving Building Construction Specifications in State and Local Governments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    State and local governments can benefit from master specifications systems that centralize data on all types of building materials, products, and processes. Most of these systems are organized according to the MASTERFORMAT system, which, along with guide specifications that require the insertion or deletion of standardized information, resulted from the specific needs of users and providers. For jurisdictions preparing their own specifications, staff time and cost are reduced. For those subcontracting the preparation, master specifications provide a means of evaluating the specifications submitted. Current management specification systems described include SPECINTACT, OMSPEC, MASTERPEC, and the NAVFAC, Corps of Engineers, and GSA guide specifications.

  3. Geothermal Retrofit of Illinois National Guard's State headquarters Building

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Mark

    2015-04-27

    The goal of this project was to assess the feasibility of utilizing mine water as a heat sink for a geothermal heat pump system to heat and cool the 74,000 sq. ft. Illinois National Guard State Headquarters’ building in Springfield Illinois. If successful, this type of system would be less expensive to install than a traditional closed loop geothermal (ground source) heat pump system by significantly reducing the size of the well field, thus shortening or eliminate the payback period compared to a conventional system. In the end, a conventional ground loop was used for the project.

  4. Impact of the Level of State Tax Code Progressivity on Children's Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granruth, Laura Brierton; Shields, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    This research study examines the impact of the level of state tax code progressivity on selected children's health outcomes. Specifically, it examines the degree to which a state's tax code ranking along the progressive-regressive continuum relates to percentage of low birthweight babies, infant and child mortality rates, and percentage of…

  5. A blind dual color images watermarking based on IWT and state coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qingtang; Niu, Yugang; Liu, Xianxi; Zhu, Yu

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, a state-coding based blind watermarking algorithm is proposed to embed color image watermark to color host image. The technique of state coding, which makes the state code of data set be equal to the hiding watermark information, is introduced in this paper. When embedding watermark, using Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) and the rules of state coding, these components, R, G and B, of color image watermark are embedded to these components, Y, Cr and Cb, of color host image. Moreover, the rules of state coding are also used to extract watermark from the watermarked image without resorting to the original watermark or original host image. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking algorithm cannot only meet the demand on invisibility and robustness of the watermark, but also have well performance compared with other proposed methods considered in this work.

  6. Law Is Code: A Software Engineering Approach to Analyzing the United States Code

    E-print Network

    Li, William P.

    2015-01-01

    The agglomeration of rules and regulations over time has produced a body of legal code that no single individual can fully comprehend. This complexity produces inefficiencies, makes the processes of understanding and ...

  7. Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprak, A. Emre; Gülay, F. Gülten; Ruge, Peter

    2008-07-01

    Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 m×7.80 m = 127.90 m2 with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is much higher than the requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code while the selected ground conditions represent the same characteristics. The main reason is that the ordinate of the horizontal elastic response spectrum for Eurocode 8 is increased by the soil factor. In TEC'07 force-based linear assessment, the seismic demands at cross-sections are to be checked with residual moment capacities; however, the chord rotations of primary ductile elements must be checked for Eurocode safety verifications. On the other hand, the demand curvatures from linear methods of analysis of Eurocode 8 together with TEC'07 are almost similar.

  8. Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Toprak, A. Emre; Guelay, F. Guelten; Ruge, Peter

    2008-07-08

    Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 mx7.80 m = 127.90 m{sup 2} with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is much higher than the requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code while the selected ground conditions represent the same characteristics. The main reason is that the ordinate of the horizontal elastic response spectrum for Eurocode 8 is increased by the soil factor. In TEC'07 force-based linear assessment, the seismic demands at cross-sections are to be checked with residual moment capacities; however, the chord rotations of primary ductile elements must be checked for Eurocode safety verifications. On the other hand, the demand curvatures from linear methods of analysis of Eurocode 8 together with TEC'07 are almost similar.

  9. Heat recovery and thermal storage : a study of the Massachusetts State Transportation Building

    E-print Network

    Bjorklund, Abbe Ellen

    1986-01-01

    A study of the energy system at the Massachusetts State Transportation Building was conducted. This innovative energy system utilizes internal-source heat pumps and a water thermal storage system to provide building heating ...

  10. 50 CFR Table 17 to Part 679 - Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial...Table 17 Table 17 to Part 679—Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR) Codes Process Codes and Description...

  11. 50 CFR Table 17 to Part 679 - Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial...Table 17 Table 17 to Part 679—Process Codes for Use With State of Alaska Commercial Operator's Annual Report (COAR) Codes Process Codes and Description...

  12. Impact of building technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Elliott, D.B.; Schultz, R.W.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. This assessment is being done for the first time in FY99 as a supplement to the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA--formerly, Quality Metrics) estimates of primary energy savings and environmental and direct financial benefits of the BTS programs. The programmatic needs of BTS suggest that a simple, flexible, user-friendly method is needed to derive national employment and income impacts of individual BTS programs. Therefore, BTS funded Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a special-purpose version of the Impact Analysis for Planning (IMPLAN) national input-output model (Minnesota IMPLAN Group, Inc. 1997) specifically to estimate the employment and income effects of building energy technologies. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. Extensive documentation and a user`s guide are provided in Scott et al. (1998). Compared with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as the published multipliers from the Department of Commerce Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS 2), ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. In this report, the authors use the ImBuild model to calculate the impact of all 32 BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997.

  13. Green Building Performance Evaluation in the United States: Measured Results from LEED- New Construction Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Hewitt, D.; Turner, C.; Frankel, M.

    2008-01-01

    compare EUIs by building type to both the all- vintages CBECS and the 1990?2003 vintages only. 2 Prior published studies were Diamond et al, 2006, which included LBNL analysis of federal building... building performance. For example, CBECS EUIs for office buildings differ by a factor of 10, after excluding the highest and lowest 5% of all observations. A 1994 study by LBNL saw EUIs differing by a factor of over 4, for 28 new commercial buildings...

  14. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research supporting Thermal Bypass Air Barrier requirements. Since these were adopted in the 2009 IECC, close to one million homes have been mandated to include this vitally important energy efficiency measure.

  15. List updated 7/26/2013 BLDG. # BLDG. CODE BUILDING NAME

    E-print Network

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    OCEAN DISCOVERY CENTER HB24 RR JOHNSON HOUSE WOMEN'S RESTROOM HB25 DM APARTMENTS HB26 DM DORMITORIES HB MARINE OPS BUILDING HB39 LC LARIZZA AQUACULTURE CENTER HB40 MM MARINE MAMMAL RESEARCH - ANDERSON BUILDING

  16. High Performance “Reach” Codes 

    E-print Network

    Edelson, J.

    2011-01-01

    Buildings Institute A Growing Role for Codes and Stretch Codes in Utility Programs Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency November 9, 2011 ESL-KT-11-11-39 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7 ? 9, 2011 New Buildings Institute ESL-KT-11-11-39 CATEE 2011... of Codes ? Building Codes Construction Codes Energy Codes Stretch or Reach Energy Codes Above-code programs Green or Sustainability Codes Model Codes ?Existing Building? Codes Outcome-Based Codes ESL-KT-11-11-39 CATEE 2011, Dallas, Texas, Nov. 7...

  17. Recommendations for 15% Above ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Code-Compliant Building Energy Efficiency Measures for Small Office Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Haberl, J.; Yazdani, B.

    2012-01-01

    .1-2007 Climate Zone, a representative county was selected in each climate zone: Harris County for Climate Zone 2, Tarrant County for Climate Zone 3, and Potter County for Climate Zone 4. The ASHRAE 90.1-2007 code-compliant, small office base-case models were...

  18. 76 FR 11339 - Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home Facilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... INFORMATION: In a document published in the Federal Register on April 7, 2010 (75 FR 17644), VA proposed to... 38 CFR Part 51 RIN 2900-AN59 Update to NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, for State Home Facilities AGENCY... 2009 edition of the National Fire Protection Association's NFPA 101, Life Safety Code. The change...

  19. 49 CFR 578.6 - Civil penalties for violations of specified provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code. 578.6 Section 578.6 Transportation...provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code. (a) Motor vehicle safety —(1...through 30147 of Title 49 of the United States Code or a regulation prescribed...

  20. 49 CFR 578.6 - Civil penalties for violations of specified provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code. 578.6 Section 578.6 Transportation...provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code. (a) Motor vehicle safety —(1...through 30147 of Title 49 of the United States Code or a regulation prescribed...

  1. 49 CFR 578.6 - Civil penalties for violations of specified provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code. 578.6 Section 578.6 Transportation...provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code. (a) Motor vehicle safety —(1...through 30147 of Title 49 of the United States Code or a regulation prescribed...

  2. 49 CFR 578.6 - Civil penalties for violations of specified provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code. 578.6 Section 578.6 Transportation...provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code. (a) Motor vehicle safety —(1...through 30147 of Title 49 of the United States Code or a regulation prescribed...

  3. 49 CFR 578.6 - Civil penalties for violations of specified provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code. 578.6 Section 578.6 Transportation...provisions of Title 49 of the United States Code. (a) Motor vehicle safety —(1...through 30147 of Title 49 of the United States Code or a regulation prescribed...

  4. Building a State Coalition for Nursing Home Excellence

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This article describes the successful evolution of a state coalition for nursing home excellence that brought together organizations that had once worked in silos to improve the quality of care through the implementation of culture change for Arkansas’ 240 nursing homes with 27,700 residents. Design and Methods: The Coalition was established in 2004 when stakeholders were invited to participate in a retreat to explore how they could come together with a common goal to improve the care of older Arkansans. These stakeholders were encouraged to bring their organization’s perspectives to the Coalition and determine ways to work with others. The continuous refinement of the Coalition’s activities involved revisiting goals of the Coalition, assessing the need for other stakeholders, identifying gaps and overlaps in quality and culture change programming, and providing feedback to Coalition members. Results: The Coalition stakeholders had the leadership to articulate and mobilize others around a common vision of improving quality of care in nursing homes through culture change. Over time, the Coalition members developed a willingness to share resources and to speak as one voice. Implications: Stakeholders from diverse organizations and governing bodies can come together to complement each other’s work and collaborate on programs to build a better system of care for the frail and elderly persons across a state. The success of this statewide effort lends support for policies that encourage regional coalitions of providers to improve care. PMID:24443610

  5. Impact of Climate Change Heating and Cooling Energy Use in Buildings in the United States

    E-print Network

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    1 Impact of Climate Change Heating and Cooling Energy Use in Buildings in the United States Haojie activities in buildings. One area directly affected by climate change is the energy consumption for heating to systematically study the climate change impact on various types of residential and commercial buildings in all 7

  6. A Comparison of the 2003 and 2006 International Energy Conservation Codes to Determine the Potential Impact on Residential Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Stovall, Therese K; Baxter, Van D

    2008-03-01

    The IECC was updated in 2006. As required in the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1992, Title 3, DOE has a legislative requirement to "determine whether such revision would improve energy efficiency in residential buildings" within 12 months of the latest revision. This requirement is part of a three-year cycle of regular code updates. To meet this requirement, an independent review was completed using personnel experienced in building science but not involved in the code development process.

  7. A steady state analysis code for prediction of behavior in loop heat pipes 

    E-print Network

    Hamm, Trenton Allen

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to prepare an analysis raphics. code for the prediction of Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) behavior in steady-state operation. The FORTRAN program is then benchmarked with experimental data obtained in two orientations: 1...

  8. 78 FR 37571 - Certain Opaque Polymers; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United States Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Certain Opaque Polymers; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United States Code AGENCY: U.S... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain opaque polymers by reason of... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain opaque polymers that...

  9. New State Standards 

    E-print Network

    Lopez, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    . Code ? State that SECO shall establish and publish mandatory energy and water conservation design standards for each new state building or major renovation project ? SECO shall define ?major renovation project? and shall review and update... and water conservation design standards that SECO has adopted under this chapter, when constructing new state buildings or conducting major renovations of existing state buildings. 4 CATEE-Dallas 11-09-2011 Texas Administrative Code (TAC) Amended ?19...

  10. Building Call Graphs for Embedded Client-Side Code in Dynamic Web Applications

    E-print Network

    Kaestner, Christian

    on analyses of dynamic programming languages has advanced the ability of IDE support for languages such as PHP-graph edges. 62% of the edges cross PHP strings, and 17% of them cross files--in both situations, navi- gation of Programming Languages]: Program Analysis Keywords Web Code Analysis; Embedded Code; Call Graphs 1

  11. Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Pamala C.; Lucas, Robert G.

    2009-05-01

    The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the current Utah code, the 2006 IECC. The most notable changes are improved duct sealing and efficient lighting requirements. A limited analysis of these changes resulted in estimated savings of $168 to $188 for an average new house in Utah at recent fuel prices.

  12. Building a Hydrodynamics Code with Kinetic Theory This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Bauer, Wolfgang

    Building a Hydrodynamics Code with Kinetic Theory This article has been downloaded from IOPscience a Hydrodynamics Code with Kinetic Theory Irina Sagert1, Wolfgang Bauer1,2, Dirk Colbry2, Rodney Pickett2, Terrance equations have to be solved instead. 2. Kinetic Theory In transport theory the many-body problem is solved

  13. ,lournal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 41-44 (1992) 1787-1798 Low Building Wind Load Variability With Application to Codes

    E-print Network

    Kareem, Ahsan

    1992-01-01

    identica! r,~ct,a.ngular fiat-roofed buildings were placed randomly within a suburban conmmrci~d/industrial,lournal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 41-44 (1992) 1787-1798 Elsevier 1787 Low Building Wind Load Variability With Application to Codes T.C.E. H-, D. Surry and A.G. Davenport Boundary

  14. 4. EMPIRE STATE MINE TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE/BIN, COLLAPSED BUILDING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EMPIRE STATE MINE TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE/BIN, COLLAPSED BUILDING FROM BELOW. CAMERA POINTED NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  15. Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures for Residential Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Montgomery, C.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J. S.; Liu, Z.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Malhotra, M.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents detailed information about the recommendations for achieving 15% above-code energy performance for single-family residences. The analysis was performed using a simulation model of an International ...

  16. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Scott; DJ Hostick; DB Elliott

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model allied In Build is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1995$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

  17. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, State and Community Programs on United States Employment and Wage Income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Elliott, Douglas B.

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1999$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

  18. 78 FR 37921 - Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United State Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HOUSE, Washington, June 19, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-15234 Filed 6-21-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 5001-06 ... Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United States Code Notice of June 20, 2013--Continuation of the... Reporting Functions Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United State Code Memorandum for the Secretary...

  19. 78 FR 37923 - Delegation of Reporting Functions Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United State Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HOUSE, Washington, June 19, 2013. [FR Doc. 2013-15234 Filed 6-21-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 5001-06 ... Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United States Code Notice of June 20, 2013--Continuation of the... Reporting Functions Specified in Section 491 of Title 10, United State Code Memorandum for the Secretary...

  20. Student-Reported School Drinking Fountain Availability by Youth Characteristics and State Plumbing Codes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohyun; Wilking, Cara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Caloric intake among children could be reduced if sugar-sweetened beverages were replaced by plain water. School drinking water infrastructure is dictated in part by state plumbing codes, which generally require a minimum ratio of drinking fountains to students. Actual availability of drinking fountains in schools and how availability differs according to plumbing codes is unknown. Methods We abstracted state plumbing code data and used the 2010 YouthStyles survey data from 1,196 youth aged 9 through 18 years from 47 states. We assessed youth-reported school drinking fountain or dispenser availability and differences in availability according to state plumbing codes, sociodemographic characteristics, and area-level characteristics. Results Overall, 57.3% of youth reported that drinking fountains or dispensers in their schools were widely available, 40.1% reported there were only a few, and 2.6% reported that there were no working fountains. Reported fountain availability differed significantly (P < .01) by race/ethnicity, census region, the fountain to student ratio specified in plumbing codes, and whether plumbing codes allowed substitution of nonplumbed water sources for plumbed fountains. “Widely available” fountain access ranged from 45.7% in the West to 65.4% in the Midwest and was less common where state plumbing codes required 1 fountain per more than 100 students (45.4%) compared with 1 fountain per 100 students (60.1%) or 1 fountain per fewer than 100 students (57.6%). Conclusion Interventions designed to increase consumption of water may want to consider the role of plumbing codes in availability of school drinking fountains. PMID:24742393

  1. Appendix C - GPRA06 building technologies (BT) program documentation

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The Residential Building Energy Codes project improves the minimum or baseline energy efficiency of new residential buildings requiring code perm its. The project promulgates upgraded energy-efficiency requirements for residential buildings. Similarly, the project works with modeI energy code groups to upgrade the energy-efficiency requirements of their codes. Federal, state, and local jurisdictions then adopt and implement these upgraded federal and model energy codes. The long-term goal is to improve the minimum energy efficiency by 20% to 25% in new low-rise residential building construction.

  2. ZERO-DIMENSIONAL STEADY STATE PLASMA SIMULATION COMPUTER CODE

    E-print Network

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    ) 3. obstacle losses 4. microwave heating (including finite cavity Q) S. electron-ion ener-steady state situations such as a cw microwave plasma in a toroidal octupole. It uses a UW library subroutine- tive sample are described below. For each case considered, the microwave power is varied from 1 watt

  3. Trends in Building Energy Usage in Texas State Agencies 

    E-print Network

    Murphy, W. E.; Turner, W. D.; O'Neal, D. L.; Seshan, S.

    1985-01-01

    unit costs for gas and electricity and a lack of incentives for conservation efforts due to the method of utility budget allocations. A building standard signed into law in 1976 could have reduced energy consumption, but was never enforced. Beginning...

  4. Magic state distillation in all prime dimensions using quantum Reed-Muller codes

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Earl T; Browne, Dan E

    2012-01-01

    We propose families of protocols for magic state distillation -- important components of fault tolerance schemes --- for systems of odd prime dimension. Our protocols utilize quantum Reed-Muller codes with transversal non-Clifford gates. We find that in higher dimensions smaller codes can be used than one might expect based on qubit codes. All our protocols produce magic states at a resource cost that increases only polynomially with the inverse of the final ouput error probability. We give specific details for 3-dimensional systems, where we find that certain magic states can be distilled provided an initial error probability of less than 20.02% or a depolarizing noise rate of less than 31.7%. This is the largest error probability threshold of all known protocols with polynomial resource cost. For a depolarizing noise model we also give distillation thresholds for odd prime dimensions up-to 19.

  5. VIRGINIA TECH 250 Student Services Building

    E-print Network

    VIRGINIA TECH 250 Student Services Building Office of the University Registrar Mail Code 0134 Phone: (540) 231-6252 Blacksburg, VA 24061 2/11/2003 ELIGIBILITY FOR VIRGINIA IN-STATE TUITION PRIVILEGES by §23-7.4 of the Code of Virginia. The provisions of §23-7.4 of the Code of Virginia are set forth

  6. Build, code, make, engineer, solve problems, have fun and learn to

    E-print Network

    Rutowski, Ronald L.

    1-5 | June 8-12 | Cost: $225 Engineering Adventure: Mechanical Animations Have you wondered how pop renewable energy to "do work" by designing, building and testing a solar powered car and a windmill. Are you? Entering grades 5-8 June 15-19 June 22-26 | Geared for Girls session Cost: $225 Engineering Adventure

  7. Establishment of a Beta Test Center for the NPARC Code at Central State University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okhio, Cyril B.

    1996-01-01

    Central State University has received a supplementary award to purchase computer workstations for the NPARC (National Propulsion Ames Research Center) computational fluid dynamics code BETA Test Center. The computational code has also been acquired for installation on the workstations. The acquisition of this code is an initial step for CSU in joining an alliance composed of NASA, AEDC, The Aerospace Industry, and academia. A post-Doctoral research Fellow from a neighboring university will assist the PI in preparing a template for Tutorial documents for the BETA test center. The major objective of the alliance is to establish a national applications-oriented CFD capability, centered on the NPARC code. By joining the alliance, the BETA test center at CSU will allow the PI, as well as undergraduate and post-graduate students to test the capability of the NPARC code in predicting the physics of aerodynamic/geometric configurations that are of interest to the alliance. Currently, CSU is developing a once a year, hands-on conference/workshop based upon the experience acquired from running other codes similar to the NPARC code in the first year of this grant.

  8. 22 CFR 9b.7 - Procedures for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.7 Procedures...of Department of State press building passes. (a) If the...a Department of State press building pass might be denied...extension. (e) At the time of the filing of the...

  9. 22 CFR 9b.7 - Procedures for denial, revocation, or non-renewal of Department of State press building passes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...GOVERNING DEPARTMENT OF STATE PRESS BUILDING PASSES § 9b.7 Procedures...of Department of State press building passes. (a) If the...a Department of State press building pass might be denied...extension. (e) At the time of the filing of the...

  10. Comparison of building energy use data between the United States and China

    SciTech Connect

    Xia , Jianjun; Hong , Tianzhen; Shen, Qi; Feng , Wei; Yang, Le; Im , Piljae; Lu, Alison; Bhandari , Mahabir

    2013-10-30

    Buildings in the United States and China consumed 41percent and 28percent of the total primary energy in 2011, respectively. Good energy data are the cornerstone to understanding building energy performance and supporting research, design, operation, and policy making for low energy buildings. This paper presents initial outcomes from a joint research project under the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency. The goal is to decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders. This paper first reviews and compares several popular existing building energy monitoring systems in both countries. Next a standard energy data model is presented. A detailed, measured building energy data comparison was conducted for a few office buildings in both countries. Finally issues of data collection, quality, sharing, and analysis methods are discussed. It was found that buildings in both countries performed very differently, had potential for deep energy retrofit, but that different efficiency measures should apply.

  11. Analyses of postulated ALMR containment and steam generator building accidents using the CONTAIN-LMR code

    SciTech Connect

    Chiao, T.; Wood, S.A.; Shen, P.K.; Baker, R.B.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    The development of liquid metal reactor concepts with passive safety characteristics is in progress at the General Electric Company under contract to the US Department of Energy. To assess the performance of these systems under postulated severe accident conditions analyses of containment accidents relating to the breach of the primary coolant boundary of the Department of Energy Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor were completed by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the plant designer General Electric. A series of three accident cases were selected by General Electric for characterizing the containment responding to a hypothetical core disruptive accident. In addition, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Steam Generator Building was also analyzed to demonstrate the acceptability of the Steam Generator Building sodium fire protection strategy related to a design-basis leak.

  12. The limits of state building : the politics of war and the ideology of peace

    E-print Network

    Radin, Andrew M. (Andrew Marc)

    2012-01-01

    When can the international community build strong state institutions - such as security forces or electoral institutions - in post-conflict societies? An influential technical perspective argues that authority, resources, ...

  13. Registrar's Office Oregon State University, B102 Kerr Administration Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-2130

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    are declaring. *Major/Minor/Option codes are at the bottom of each program page in the OSU General Catalog: http to Select a College Major 1: Code* Major 1: Code* Major 2: Code* Major 2: Code* Option 1: Code* Option 1: Code* Option 2: Code* Option 2: Code* Option 3: Code* Option 3: Code* Minor 1: Code* Minor 1**: Code

  14. Office of Human Resources The Pennsylvania State University 407 James M. Elliott Building

    E-print Network

    Omiecinski, Curtis

    Office of Human Resources The Pennsylvania State University 407 James M. Elliott Building University Park, PA 16802 THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY CHILD CARE PROVIDER AGREEMENT I. PURPOSE This Agreement establishes the terms of The Pennsylvania State University Child Care Subsidy Program. The goal

  15. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.; Friedrich, Michele

    2002-05-01

    ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for energy efficienty design and construction of new commercial buildings. This report assesses the benefits and costs of adopting this standard as the building energy code in Illinois. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using BLAST combined with a Life-Cycle Cost approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  16. Experimental demonstration of a graph state quantum error-correction code.

    PubMed

    Bell, B A; Herrera-Martí, D A; Tame, M S; Markham, D; Wadsworth, W J; Rarity, J G

    2014-01-01

    Scalable quantum computing and communication requires the protection of quantum information from the detrimental effects of decoherence and noise. Previous work tackling this problem has relied on the original circuit model for quantum computing. However, recently a family of entangled resources known as graph states has emerged as a versatile alternative for protecting quantum information. Depending on the graph's structure, errors can be detected and corrected in an efficient way using measurement-based techniques. Here we report an experimental demonstration of error correction using a graph state code. We use an all-optical setup to encode quantum information into photons representing a four-qubit graph state. We are able to reliably detect errors and correct against qubit loss. The graph we realize is setup independent, thus it could be employed in other physical settings. Our results show that graph state codes are a promising approach for achieving scalable quantum information processing. PMID:24752224

  17. Can you build an iPhone app without writing a single line of code?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.

    2011-12-01

    At the last ESIP summer meeting, a study was conducted to explore different commercial tools now available that allow one to create a mobile app without writing a single line of code. The proposed research comprised of two components. First, systematically evaluate different tools to create mobile apps along the dimensions of features and price. Second, create an iPhone app prototype for the ESIP community using some of these tools. The initial assessment classified the currently available tools to create mobile app tools into two categories. The tools that fall under the first category require no programming, but the content for the mobile apps are fed to it either via a web site RSS feed or entered manually. Consequently, these tools only support limited user interactivity. These tools follow the business model of website hosting services. This business model offers a set of templates to the end users with limited customization features to create their content in order to publish to websites. The second category of tools requires programming, but the code can be written in popular languages such as Javascript (compatible with most mobile platforms) rather than mobile app specific languages. For the second component of the study, two ESIP iPhone app prototypes were created. The first prototype required no programming and used the AppMakr tool. Objective C was used to create the second iPhone prototype from scratch and the source code for this prototype is available on the ESIP website. The study concluded that existing tools do make it easy to create a simple mobile app especially if one already has a well designed website. The associated costs are adequate but not cheap. However, if the mobile app has requirements that require interactivity and specialized customization then one needs to work with a mobile app developer.

  18. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2007: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Last year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducted its first-ever comprehensive study of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities, "Spotlight on Speech Codes 2006: The State of Free Speech on our Nation's Campuses." In light of the essentiality of free expression to a truly liberal education, its…

  19. Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy-Efficiency Measures for Commercial Office Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.; Cho, S.

    2007-01-01

    , window shading, reducing static pressure, improving chiller coefficient of performance (COP), improving boiler efficiency, cold deck reset, variable speed drives (VSDs) on chilled and hot water pumps, and occupancy sensors for lighting control 3... of 2.5 inches of water (gauge), and has a constant supply air temperature of 55 ºF. Plant Characteristics The base-case building has one 160 ton (1.926 MBtu/hr) screw chiller 7 with a COP of 4.9, and a constant speed chilled water pump. Two...

  20. Methodology for Residential Building Energy Simulations Implemented in the International Code Compliance Calculator (IC3) 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Z.; Mukhopadhyay, J.; Malhotra, M.; Haberl, J.; Gilman, D.; Montgomery, C.; McKelvey, K.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

    2008-01-01

    simulation program (LBNL 1993a, 1993b), were then linked to a web-based graphical 1 IC3 (ver. 3.2) is available at http://ic3.tamu.edu/. ESL-HH-08-12-02 Proceedings of the Sixteenth Symposium... User and Humidity Predictions,? Proceedings of 2000 Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Vol. 1, p. 113, American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, 1001 Connecticut Avenue, Washington, DC. LBNL, 1993a. DOE-2.1e BDL Summary...

  1. Do Merit-Aid Programs Help States Build Skilled Workforces?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major developments in financing undergraduate education in the United States in the past 20 years has been the introduction of broad-based merit-aid programs by state governments. The typical program waives tuition and fees at public colleges and universities for state residents who have attained a respectable grade-point average…

  2. Building Energy Use Modeling at the U.S. State Level Under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Eom, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change plays an important role in building energy use for heating and cooling. As global building energy use accounts for as much as about 32% of global final energy consumption in 2005, the impact of climate change on greenhouse gas emissions may also be significant. As long-term socioeconomic transformation and energy service expansion show large spatial heterogeneity, advanced understanding of climate impact on building energy use at the sub-national level will offer useful insights into regional energy system planning. In this study, we have developed a detailed building energy model with U.S. 50-state representation, embedded in an integrated assessment framework (Global Change Assessment Model). The climate change impact on heating and cooling demand is measured through estimating heating and cooling degree days (HDD/CDDs) derived from MIT Integrated Global System Model (IGSM) climate data and linking the estimates to the building energy model. Having the model calibrated against historical data at the U.S. state level, we estimated the building energy use in the 21st century at the U.S. state level and analyzed its spatial pattern. We have found that the total building energy use (heating and cooling) in U.S. states is over- or under-estimated without having climate feedback taken into account, and that the difference with and without climate feedback at the state level varies from -25% to 25% in reference scenario and -15% to 10% in climate mitigation scenario. The result not only confirms earlier finding that global warming leads to increased cooling and decreased heating energy use, it also indicates that climate change has a different impact on total building energy use at national and state level, exhibiting large spatial heterogeneity across states (Figure 1). The scale impact in building energy use modeling emphasizes the importance of developing a building energy model that represents socioeconomic development, energy service expansion, and their interaction with climate change in a spatially explicit manner. The sensitivity analysis suggests that the impact of climate change on building energy use is influenced by a number of key drivers, such as climate policy, technology, population, GDP, and climate models. The findings from this study will help inform the climate-based policy decision at U.S. state and regional level.;

  3. Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2011-09-30

    The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of about $145 a year for an average new house. Construction cost increases are estimated at $655. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of close to $100 a year because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

  4. Coding of nonlinear states for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with periodic potential

    E-print Network

    Georgy L. Alfimov; Alexei I. Avramenko

    2012-11-05

    We study nonlinear states for NLS-type equation with additional periodic potential U(x) (called the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, GPE, in theory of Bose-Einstein Condensate, (BEC)). We prove that if the nonlinearity is defocusing (repulsive, in BEC context) then under certain conditions there exists a homeomorphism between the set of nonlinear states for GPE (i.e. real bounded solutions of some nonlinear ODE) and the set of bi-infinite sequences of numbers from 1 to N for some integer N. These sequences can be viewed as codes of the nonlinear states. Sufficient conditions for the homeomorphism to exist are given in the form of three hypotheses. For a given U(x), the verification of the hypotheses should be done numerically. We report on numerical results for the case of GPE with cosine potential and describe regions in the plane of parameters where this coding is possible.

  5. 76 FR 22003 - Delegation of Functions and Authority Under Sections 315 and 325 of Title 32, United States Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... in the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, April 14, 2011 [FR Doc... 325 of Title 32, United States Code Memorandum for the Secretary of Defense By the authority vested in... 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you: (a) the functions and authority of...

  6. Building Projected Entangled Pair States with a Local Gauge Symmetry

    E-print Network

    Zohar, Erez

    2015-01-01

    Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states (PEPS), suggest an innovative approach for the study of lattice gauge theories, both from a pure theoretic point of view, and as a tool for the analysis of the recent proposals for quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories. In this paper we present a framework for describing locally gauge invariant states on lattices using PEPS. The PEPS constructed hereby shall include both bosonic and fermionic states, suitable for all combinations of matter and gauge fields in lattice gauge theories defined by either finite or compact Lie groups.

  7. Building Projected Entangled Pair States with a Local Gauge Symmetry

    E-print Network

    Erez Zohar; Michele Burrello

    2015-11-26

    Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states (PEPS), suggest an innovative approach for the study of lattice gauge theories, both from a pure theoretic point of view, and as a tool for the analysis of the recent proposals for quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories. In this paper we present a framework for describing locally gauge invariant states on lattices using PEPS. The PEPS constructed hereby shall include both bosonic and fermionic states, suitable for all combinations of matter and gauge fields in lattice gauge theories defined by either finite or compact Lie groups.

  8. VALIDATION OF THE eCALC COMMERCIAL CODE-COMPLIANT SIMULATION VERSUS MEASURED DATA FROM AN OFFICE BUILDING IN A HOT AND HUMID CLIMATE 

    E-print Network

    Cho, S.; Haberl, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the results of a calibrated simulation of a case-study building versus simulation using the web-based eCALC code-compliant commercial simulation program (Haberl et al., 2004). Previously, as-built calibrated simulation results...

  9. Environmental impacts of building integrated PV applications in the state public buildings sector

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, J.; Agbemabiese, L.; Kliesch, J.; Eiffert, P.; Hadjilambrinos, C.; Nigro, R.

    1999-07-01

    If the US is to meet its commitments for CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emission reductions, as anticipated by the 1997 Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change and the Clean air Act Amendments of 1990, it almost certainly must implement policies to increase the use of renewable energy. This paper evaluates the potential of photovoltaic (PV) technologies to deliver high-value electrical services while offsetting SO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} emissions. Their study focuses on PV applications in the public buildings sector because of its potential for speeding the commercialization of the technology in a market conducive to long-term return on investment. The study investigates the economic and environmental implications of PV meeting 2% of the energy demand of public buildings. The specific application investigated is a roof-mounted dispatchable peak-shaving system with uninterruptible power supply (UPS) capability. Several previous studies have shown that such a system is cost-effective on the basis of the energy services it provides. The present analysis indicates that this application can play an important role in helping the US meet its CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emissions targets.

  10. School Mental Health: The Impact of State and Local Capacity-Building Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Sharon; Paternite, Carl; Grimm, Lindsey; Hurwitz, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Despite a growing number of collaborative partnerships between schools and community-based organizations to expand school mental health (SMH) service capacity in the United States, there have been relatively few systematic initiatives focused on key strategies for large-scale SMH capacity building with state and local education systems. Based on a…

  11. Earthdata Code Collaborative: Building a Reuseable and Shared Platform for Earth Science Collaboration, Development, and Application Hosting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, B. D.; Pilone, D.

    2014-12-01

    An ever-growing number of applications to expose, utilize, and process Earth Science data are developed every year. These applications are sometimes developed by large organizations with significant budgets, and at other times by graduate students or professors with short-term grant money and little else. Because of this wide variance in environments, these applications are rarely consistent in their approach to testing, hosting, presentation of information, and approach to maintenance. Many of these applications also continually re-invent solutions to common problems such as bug tracking, collaboration, source code management, user support and feedback, and deployment of new features. The Earthdata Code Collaborative (https://ecc.earthdata.nasa.gov, typically referred to as the ECC) provides a unified and consistent environment for Earth Science application development, whether an application is developed by a team of 10, 50, or even 1. By using commercial products such as the Atlassian suite of tools (https://www.atlassian.com) and custom APIs, the ECC allows Earth Science applications to focus on science rather than infrastructure and tooling. This session will detail the process by which the Earthdata Code Collaborative was developed, as well as the initial requirements that drove its inception. It will go on to demonstrate the current state of the ECC, and explore how bringing on applications-both internal to Earthdata and external-has shaped its requirements and implementation. Concepts such as code management, continuous integration (testing), and one-touch deployment will be explored in the context of Earth Science applications.

  12. Analysis of PANDA Passive Containment Cooling Steady-State Tests with the Spectra Code

    SciTech Connect

    Stempniewicz, Marek M

    2000-07-15

    Results of post test simulation of the PANDA passive containment cooling (PCC) steady-state tests (S-series tests), performed at the PANDA facility at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, are presented. The simulation has been performed using the computer code SPECTRA, a thermal-hydraulic code, designed specifically for analyzing containment behavior of nuclear power plants.Results of the present calculations are compared to the measurement data as well as the results obtained earlier with the codes MELCOR, TRAC-BF1, and TRACG. The calculated PCC efficiencies are somewhat lower than the measured values. Similar underestimation of PCC efficiencies had been obtained in the past, with the other computer codes. To explain this difference, it is postulated that condensate coming into the tubes forms a stream of liquid in one or two tubes, leaving most of the tubes unaffected. The condensate entering the water box is assumed to fall down in the form of droplets. With these assumptions, the results calculated with SPECTRA are close to the experimental data.It is concluded that the SPECTRA code is a suitable tool for analyzing containments of advanced reactors, equipped with passive containment cooling systems.

  13. Analysis of 2009 International Energy Conservation Code Requirements for Residential Buildings in Mesa, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.

    2011-03-31

    The 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) contains several major improvements in energy efficiency over the 2006 IECC and the 2003 IECC. The notable changes are: (1) Improved duct sealing verified by testing the duct system; (2) Increased duct insulation; (3) Improvement of window U-factors from 0.40 to 0.35; and (4) Efficient lighting requirements. An analysis of these changes resulted in estimated annual energy cost savings of $145 a year for an average new house compared to the 2003 IECC. This energy cost saving decreases to $125 a year for the 2009 IECC compared to the 2006 IECC. Construction cost increases (per home) for complying with the 2009 IECC are estimated at $1256 relative to the 2003 IECC and $800 for 2006 IECC. Home owners will experience an annual cost savings of about $80 a year by complying with the 2009 IECC because reduction to energy bills will more than compensate for increased mortgage payments and other costs.

  14. Representation of bidirectional ground motions for design spectra in building codes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Jonathan P.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Atkinson, Gail M.; Beker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Campbell, Kenneth W.; Comartin, Craig D.; Idriss, I.M.; Lew, Marshall; Mehrain, Michael; Moehle, Jack P.; Naeim, Farzad; Sabol, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 NEHRP Provisions modified the definition of horizontal ground motion from the geometric mean of spectral accelerations for two components to the peak response of a single lumped mass oscillator regardless of direction. These maximum-direction (MD) ground motions operate under the assumption that the dynamic properties of the structure (e.g., stiffness, strength) are identical in all directions. This assumption may be true for some in-plan symmetric structures, however, the response of most structures is dominated by modes of vibration along specific axes (e.g., longitudinal and transverse axes in a building), and often the dynamic properties (especially stiffness) along those axes are distinct. In order to achieve structural designs consistent with the collapse risk level given in the NEHRP documents, we argue that design spectra should be compatible with expected levels of ground motion along those principal response axes. The use of MD ground motions effectively assumes that the azimuth of maximum ground motion coincides with the directions of principal structural response. Because this is unlikely, design ground motions have lower probability of occurrence than intended, with significant societal costs. We recommend adjustments to make design ground motions compatible with target risk levels.

  15. PEBBLE: a two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics code

    SciTech Connect

    Vondy, D.R.

    1981-09-01

    This report documents the local implementation of the PEBBLE code to treat the two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics problem. This code is implemented as a module of a computation system used for reactor core history calculations. Given power density data, the geometric description in (RZ), and basic heat removal conditions and thermal properties, the coolant properties, flow conditions, and temperature distributions in the pebble fuel elements are predicted. The calculation is oriented to the continuous fueling, steady state condition with consideration of the effect of the high energy neutron flux exposure and temperature history on the thermal conductivity. The coolant flow conditions are calculated for the same geometry as used in the neutronics calculation, power density and fluence data being used directly, and temperature results are made available for subsequent use.

  16. [ HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING STANDARD] STATE OF MONTANA HIGH PERFORMANCE BUILDING STANDARDS

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    and completed by the Contracting Agency. 1.1 DESIGN AND DOCUMENTATION DRAFT AVAILABLE ON STATE A&E WEBSITE #12;A, and perform according to the owner's project requirements (OPR), basis of design (BOD), and construction STANDARDS MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL PROJECTS UNDER 17-7-201, MCA #12;A. Incorporate an integrated design

  17. States Striving to Build Data Systems across Education Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    To help track whether students are being prepared for further education and work, many states are trying to connect their data systems from preschool through postsecondary education. But a national forum on the topic held June 13, 2006 suggests there's a long way to go. In preparation for the meeting, Peter Ewell, the vice president of the…

  18. LAND ADMINISTRATION AND POST-CONFLICT STATE BUILDING

    E-print Network

    question What are CONFLICTS/WARS fought about? Are wars fought over land? ... and the answer would: Causes and Length) Conflict ­ Scarcity of land (Markakis, 2012) Productive land Climate Changes (water conflicts Mainly three types of conflicts: international conflict, civil wars and conflicts over state

  19. Powerful Alignment: Building Consensus around the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Keridan

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a sampling of arguments for and against the Common Core State Standards from the period surrounding their adoption. While supporters of the standards have articulated common goals such as economic security, equity, and alignment, opposing voices have failed to coalesce around a unified set of principles or a common language. An…

  20. SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.

  1. Flood-resilient waterfront development in New York City: bridging flood insurance, building codes, and flood zoning.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter

    2011-06-01

    Waterfronts are attractive areas for many-often competing-uses in New York City (NYC) and are seen as multifunctional locations for economic, environmental, and social activities on the interface between land and water. The NYC waterfront plays a crucial role as a first line of flood defense and in managing flood risk and protecting the city from future climate change and sea-level rise. The city of New York has embarked on a climate adaptation program (PlaNYC) outlining the policies needed to anticipate the impacts of climate change. As part of this policy, the Department of City Planning has recently prepared Vision 2020: New York City Comprehensive Waterfront Plan for the over 500 miles of NYC waterfront (NYC-DCP, 2011). An integral part of the vision is to improve resilience to climate change and sea-level rise. This study seeks to provide guidance for advancing the goals of NYC Vision 2020 by assessing how flood insurance, flood zoning, and building code policies can contribute to waterfront development that is more resilient to climate change. PMID:21692807

  2. State courts and public health: building partnerships to enhance preparedness.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Patricia M; Stebbins, Samuel; Stier, Daniel D; Pines, Zygmont

    2010-01-01

    Laws and regulations can facilitate or impede emergency preparedness and response activities. State legislators, judges, and lawyers play critically important roles in creating and interpreting laws that affect the ability of public health practitioners and their partners to effectively respond to emergencies. In an age when political unrest, global travel, and emerging biological threats can combine to create social and economic havoc worldwide, it is critical that those responsible for upholding the rule of law during emergencies understand the law and its implications. In 2003, the University of Pittsburgh Center for Public Health Preparedness (UP-CPHP) created a Preparedness Law and Policy Program to advance legal preparedness for public health emergencies across Pennsylvania and the nation. To achieve this goal, UP-CPHP has partnered with local, state, and national organizations. In the course of these activities, Pennsylvania judges, the Administrative Office of Pennsylvania Courts, UP-CPHP, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Law Program have developed a strong and enduring collaborative relationship that has put the Pennsylvania judiciary in a better position today to plan for and respond to a public health crisis than it has been at any other point in its history. The tools and resources developed through this collaboration can readily be adapted to assist other jurisdictions nationwide in their efforts to ensure that their judicial systems are similarly prepared. PMID:21133065

  3. BUILDING STRONGER STATE ENERGY PARTNERSHIPS WITH THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Kate Burke

    2002-11-01

    This technical progress report includes an update of the progress during the second year of cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. The report also describes the barriers in conduct of the effort, and our assessment of future progress and activities.

  4. Illinois state buildings energy expense study FY85 and projected FY86-89

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, R.R.; Harms, J.; Jones, D.; Shum, J.; Tuma, S.L.

    1985-03-10

    In the report, the Dept. of Energy and Natural Resources (ENR) attempts to project energy costs for Illinois state buildings from FY86 through FY89. It also identifies energy usage and cost by fuel type and agency for FY81 through FY86.

  5. Funding Mobilization and Capacity Building Programmes for Knowledge Creation among Employees in Lagos State Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aina, Sola; Oladega, Taofiki; Akejelu, Mary Aliyenju

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigated the relationship between funding/resource mobilization and capacity building programmes for knowledge creation among employees in tertiary institutions in Lagos State. The ex post facto research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study consists of all the teaching and non-teaching employees in all the…

  6. Registrar's Office Oregon State University, B102 Kerr Administration Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-2130

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Return to: Registrar's Office Oregon State University, B102 Kerr Administration Building, Corvallis click "Obtain an Enrollment Certificate." The certificate will load. Print the certificate and provide fee and require 3 business days to process. To request a verification, submit a completed and signed

  7. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, Brian A.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  8. Lessons Learned From a Healthful Vending Pilot Program in Delaware State Agency Buildings, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Laura; Trotter, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Changes in food availability in worksites can result in changes in eating behavior and weight status. Nemours Health and Prevention Services, in conjunction with partners in Delaware, conducted a 6-month pilot program to assess the feasibility and impact of requiring that 75% of the items in vending machines in 3 state agency buildings have healthful items. Methods We collected process evaluation data from October 2011 through April 2012 by taking weekly photographs of all machines to record the number of healthful items available. Outcomes were measured through sales reports designed to enumerate changes in number and type of items sold and overall profit from each building. Results We found challenges in fully implementing the 75% goal. In one of the 3 buildings, all machines were compliant within 7 weeks; in another, full compliance did not occur until week 19. Despite these challenges, the number of items sold in each machine was comparable to numbers from the previous year. Total profits from each building varied across the 3 sites and during the pilot. One building had a 51% increase in profits in January 2012 compared with profits averaged for January 2011 and January 2010. In contrast, monthly profit at another building fluctuated from an increase of 6% to a loss of 30%. Conclusion Overall, our results suggest that collaborative efforts can result in a feasible intervention with little negative influence on profits. PMID:25144678

  9. Disciples of the state : secularization and state building in the former Ottoman World

    E-print Network

    Fabbe, Kristin Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Disciples of the State seeks to explain why some former Ottoman states succeeded in effectively secularizing schooling and law and regulating religion upon independence - thereby consolidating state power- whereas others ...

  10. Collapsed Building

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    This masonry office building in the downtown area of Concepcion, Chile collapsed as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. The construction of this building predates the establishment of strict building codes in Chile, put in place following the devastating earthquake of 1960. ...

  11. Energy standards and model codes development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    This report provides an overview of the energy standards and model codes process for the voluntary sector within the United States. The report was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Building Energy Standards Program and is intended to be used as a primer or reference on this process. Building standards and model codes that address energy have been developed by organizations in the voluntary sector since the early 1970s. These standards and model codes provide minimum energy-efficient design and construction requirements for new buildings and, in some instances, existing buildings. The first step in the process is developing new or revising existing standards or codes. There are two overall differences between standards and codes. Energy standards are developed by a consensus process and are revised as needed. Model codes are revised on a regular annual cycle through a public hearing process. In addition to these overall differences, the specific steps in developing/revising energy standards differ from model codes. These energy standards or model codes are then available for adoption by states and local governments. Typically, energy standards are adopted by or adopted into model codes. Model codes are in turn adopted by states through either legislation or regulation. Enforcement is essential to the implementation of energy standards and model codes. Low-rise residential construction is generally evaluated for compliance at the local level, whereas state agencies tend to be more involved with other types of buildings. Low-rise residential buildings also may be more easily evaluated for compliance because the governing requirements tend to be less complex than for commercial buildings.

  12. A tutorial on building markov state models with MSMBuilder and coarse-graining them with BACE.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Gregory R

    2014-01-01

    Markov state models (MSMs) are a powerful means of (1) making sense of molecular simulations, (2) making a quantitative connection between simulation and experiment, and (3) driving efficient simulations. A Markov model can be thought of as a map of the conformational space a molecule explores. Instead of having towns and cities connected with roads labeled with speed limits, a Markov model has conformational states and probabilities of transitioning between pairs of these states. This tutorial describes how to build Markov models and a few of the basic analyses that can be performed with the MSMBuilder software package. PMID:24061920

  13. Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, Kate

    2011-09-30

    This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from October 2007 – September 2011 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-07NT43264, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Energy Assurance and Critical Infrastructure, State and Regional Technical Assistance, Regional Initiative, Regional Coordination and Technical Assistance, and International Activities in China. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

  14. Overcoming a limitation of deterministic dense coding with a nonmaximally entangled initial state

    SciTech Connect

    Bourdon, P. S.; Gerjuoy, E.

    2010-02-15

    Under two-party deterministic dense coding, Alice communicates (perfectly distinguishable) messages to Bob via a qudit from a pair of entangled qudits in pure state |{Psi}>. If |{Psi}> represents a maximally entangled state (i.e., each of its Schmidt coefficients is {radical}(1/d)), then Alice can convey to Bob one of d{sup 2} distinct messages. If |{Psi}> is not maximally entangled, then Ji et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 034307 (2006)] have shown that under the original deterministic dense-coding protocol, in which messages are encoded by unitary operations performed on Alice's qudit, it is impossible to encode d{sup 2}-1 messages. Encoding d{sup 2}-2 messages is possible; see, for example, the numerical studies by Mozes et al. [Phys. Rev. A 71, 012311 (2005)]. Answering a question raised by Wu et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 042311 (2006)], we show that when |{Psi}> is not maximally entangled, the communications limit of d{sup 2}-2 messages persists even when the requirement that Alice encode by unitary operations on her qudit is weakened to allow encoding by more general quantum operators. We then describe a dense-coding protocol that can overcome this limitation with high probability, assuming the largest Schmidt coefficient of |{Psi}> is sufficiently close to {radical}(1/d). In this protocol, d{sup 2}-2 of the messages are encoded via unitary operations on Alice's qudit, and the final (d{sup 2}-1)-th message is encoded via a non-trace-preserving quantum operation.

  15. Enabling Efficient, Responsive, and Resilient Buildings: Collaboration Between the United States and India

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Chandrayee; Ghatikar, Girish

    2013-09-25

    The United States and India have among the largest economies in the world, and they continue to work together to address current and future challenges in reliable electricity supply. The acceleration to efficient, grid-responsive, resilient buildings represents a key energy security objective for federal and state agencies in both countries. The weaknesses in the Indian grid system were manifest in 2012, in the country’s worst blackout, which jeopardized the lives of half of India’s 1.2 billion people. While both countries are investing significantly in power sector reform, India, by virtue of its colossal growth rate in commercial energy intensity and commercial floor space, is better placed than the United States to integrate and test state-of-art Smart Grid technologies in its future grid-responsive commercial buildings. This paper presents a roadmap of technical collaboration between the research organizations, and public-private stakeholders in both countries to accelerate the building-to-grid integration through pilot studies in India.

  16. The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

    High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption and intensity, over and above the variation associated with the contextual factors. This study also had implications in program implementation theory, and revealed that resource availability, stringency and adherence had significant impacts on program outcomes. Using seven classification tables, this study categorized and matched the predictors of electricity consumption and intensity with the specific energy sectors in which they demonstrated significance. Project developers, energy advocates, policy makers, program administrators, building occupants and other stakeholders could use study findings in conjunction with other empirical findings, to make informed decisions regarding the adoption, continuation or discontinuation of energy programs, while taking contextual factors into consideration. The adoption and efficient implementation of the most significant programs could reduce U.S. electricity consumption, and in the long term, probably reduce U.S. energy waste, environmental degradation, energy imports, energy prices, and demands for expanding energy generation and distribution infrastructure.

  17. Building Comprehensive State Systems for Vulnerable Babies: A Resource for State Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP) has developed this resource to help state leaders strategize how to create or improve early childhood systems to meet the needs of vulnerable babies and toddlers, their families, and pregnant women. Every state has the pieces of a comprehensive early childhood system in place. This tool will help state

  18. Holographic codes

    E-print Network

    Latorre, Jose I

    2015-01-01

    There exists a remarkable four-qutrit state that carries absolute maximal entanglement in all its partitions. Employing this state, we construct a tensor network that delivers a holographic many body state, the H-code, where the physical properties of the boundary determine those of the bulk. This H-code is made of an even superposition of states whose relative Hamming distances are exponentially large with the size of the boundary. This property makes H-codes natural states for a quantum memory. H-codes exist on tori of definite sizes and get classified in three different sectors characterized by the sum of their qutrits on cycles wrapped through the boundaries of the system. We construct a parent Hamiltonian for the H-code which is highly non local and finally we compute the topological entanglement entropy of the H-code.

  19. REDUCING ENERGY USE IN FLORIDA BUILDINGS 

    E-print Network

    Raustad, R.; Basarkar, M.; Vieira, R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2007 Florida Building Code (ICC, 2008) requires building designers and architects to achieve a minimum energy efficiency rating for commercial buildings located throughout Florida. Although the Florida Building Code is strict in the minimum...

  20. Energy efficiency in new buildings: Implementing the Energy Policy Act of 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Stockmeyer, M.K.

    1994-03-01

    The Building Energy Standards Program (Program) is conducted for the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, within the Office of Building Technologies. The Program seeks to facilitate the construction of energy efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally sound new buildings through the application of energy efficiency codes and standards. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires that the Department of Energy support the voluntary energy standards development process, advocate the use of model energy codes, and provide technical support to states and the federal government in adopting energy efficiency standards for new buildings. In meeting these requirements, Program staff work with a wide variety of stakeholders - particularly designers, builders and code officials - to base codes and standards on the application of sound scientific principles. Further, Program staff work with individuals in the federal government, states, code development organizations, and the buildings community to deploy energy efficient technologies and encourage complementary practices throughout the design and construction processes.

  1. FORCE2: A state-of-the-art two-phase code for hydrodynamic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Jianmin; Lyczkowski, R. W.; Burge, S. W.

    1993-02-01

    A three-dimensional computer code for two-phase flow named FORCE2 has been developed by Babcock and Wilcox (B & W) in close collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). FORCE2 is capable of both transient as well as steady-state simulations. This Cartesian coordinates computer program is a finite control volume, industrial grade and quality embodiment of the pilot-scale FLUFIX/MOD2 code and contains features such as three-dimensional blockages, volume and surface porosities to account for various obstructions in the flow field, and distributed resistance modeling to account for pressure drops caused by baffles, distributor plates and large tube banks. Recently computed results demonstrated the significance of and necessity for three-dimensional models of hydrodynamics and erosion. This paper describes the process whereby ANL's pilot-scale FLUFIX/MOD2 models and numerics were implemented into FORCE2. A description of the quality control to assess the accuracy of the new code and the validation using some of the measured data from Illinois Institute of Technology (UT) and the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) are given. It is envisioned that one day, FORCE2 with additional modules such as radiation heat transfer, combustion kinetics and multi-solids together with user-friendly pre- and post-processor software and tailored for massively parallel multiprocessor shared memory computational platforms will be used by industry and researchers to assist in reducing and/or eliminating the environmental and economic barriers which limit full consideration of coal, shale and biomass as energy sources, to retain energy security, and to remediate waste and ecological problems.

  2. Codes for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1988-01-01

    This standard provides codes to be used for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States, the Caribbean and other outlying areas. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Midway Islands, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and miscellaneous Pacific Islands. Each code identifies an aquifer or rock-stratigraphic unit and its age designation. The codes provide a standardized base for use by organizations in the storage, retrieval, and exchange of ground-water data; the indexing and inventory of ground-water data and information; the cataloging of ground-water data acquisition activities; and a variety of other applications.

  3. Codes for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1985-01-01

    This standard provides codes to be used for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States, the Caribbean and other outlying areas. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Midway Islands, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and miscellaneous Pacific Islands. Each code identifies an aquifer or rock-stratigraphic unit and its age designation. The codes provide a standardized base for use by organizations in the storage, retrieval, and exchange of ground-water data; the indexing and inventory of ground-water data and information; the cataloging of ground-water data acquisition activities; and a variety of other applications.

  4. Registrar's Office Oregon State University, B102 Kerr Administration Building, Corvallis, OR 97331-2130

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    : __________________________________________________________________________________ Certificate Name: ___________________________________________________________________________ Certificate Code (4-digit Major Code) (see "How to" below): ________________________________________ Campus: Corvallis for graduation in MyOSU to apply for the awarding of the certificate. How to get a Certificate Code (Major Code

  5. Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    David Terry

    2008-09-30

    This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from July 2000 - July 2008 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Rebuild America/Energy Smart Schools, Higher Education Initiative, Winter/Summer Fuels Outlook Conferences, Energy Emergency, Clean Energy Integration, Energy Star, and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

  6. Representation of excited states and topological order of the toric code in MERA

    E-print Network

    Johannes M. Oberreuter; Stefan Kehrein

    2015-10-27

    The holographic duality relates a field theory to a theory of (quantum) gravity in one dimension more. The extra dimension represents the scale of the RG transformation in the field theory. It has been conjectured that the tensor networks which arise during the real space renormalization procedure like the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) are a discretized version of the background of the gravity theory. We strive to contribute to make this conjecture testable by considering an explicit and tractable example, namely the dual network of the toric code, for which MERA can be performed analytically. We examine how this construction can be extended to include excited states. Furthermore, we show how to calculate topological entanglement entropy from the geometry of MERA. This method is expected to generalize to systems with generic entanglement structure.

  7. Prediction of explosive cylinder tests using equations of state from the PANDA code

    SciTech Connect

    Kerley, G.I.; Christian-Frear, T.L.

    1993-09-28

    The PANDA code is used to construct tabular equations of state (EOS) for the detonation products of 24 explosives having CHNO compositions. These EOS, together with a reactive burn model, are used in numerical hydrocode calculations of cylinder tests. The predicted detonation properties and cylinder wall velocities are found to give very good agreement with experimental data. Calculations of flat plate acceleration tests for the HMX-based explosive LX14 are also made and shown to agree well with the measurements. The effects of the reaction zone on both the cylinder and flat plate tests are discussed. For TATB-based explosives, the differences between experiment and theory are consistently larger than for other compositions and may be due to nonideal (finite dimameter) behavior.

  8. California's Transition to the Common Core State Standards: The State's Role in Local Capacity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Paul; Murphy, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and the Local Control Funding Formula are introducing major changes to California's K-12 system. Implementation of new curricula and instruction is under way at the district level, but California started its transition relatively late and it has taken a more decentralized approach than most other states.…

  9. State energy office data management: the preliminary energy audit of the institutional buildings grants program

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, J.L.; Zuschneid, P.B.; Carney, J.H.; Hirst, E.

    1980-10-01

    This report reviews state energy office (SEO) activities related to data collection, verification, and analysis for the preliminary energy audit portion of the Institutional Buildings Grant Program (IBGP). A preliminary energy audit (PEA), a collection of basic data on the characteristics of buildings and their energy use, was performed. Individual building energy use data were collected in the PEA program for thousands of institutions in each state. Such detailed data are potentially valuable in a number of ways: program management, program evaluation, policy analysis, and energy model development. However, such data must be consistently collected, carefully verified, and fully documented to fill these needs. Our examination of the SEO data management processes for the PEA showed problems in all these areas. Many SEOs lacked the time and staff to design a form adequately. This, in turn, influenced the clarity of and simplicity of the questionnaire, the ease of question interpretation, and, finally, the quality of responses. Confusion over the meaning of the federal regulations compounded these problems. Once the PEA data were collected, SEOs encountered problems in storing, verifying, and analyzing the data. Almost half the states did not computerize their PEA data and instead attempted manual control of a data set containing hundreds of thousands of data elements. Data verification and analysis in these states have been limited. Even among those SEOs with computerized data files, the computer and staff time necessary for adequate verification and analysis of the PEA data has rarely been available. Cross-comparison among states was facilitated by development of a procedure to rank PEA processes. It appears that the most important determinant of a good PEA process is the presence of a highly motivated, well-trained staff.

  10. Statewide Emissions Reduction, Electricity and Demand Savings from the Implementation of Building-Energy-Codes in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Yazdani, B.; Haberl, J.; Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Zilbershtein, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the estimate of electricity reduction and electric demand savings from the adoption energy codes for single-family residences in Texas, 2002-2009, corresponding increase in cnstruction costs and estimates of the statewide...

  11. Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures on Implementing Houston Amendments to Multifamily Residential Buildings in Houston Texas 

    E-print Network

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Liu, Z.; Malhotra, M.; Kota, S.; Blake, S.; Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

    2009-01-01

    conditioning (HVAC), fenestration, envelope, lighting and domestic hot water (DHW) options. The analysis was performed using a simulation model of an International Energy Conservation Code (IECC 2000 with 2001 supplement)-compliant, single-family residence...

  12. Building state capacity in Russia: A case study of energy sector reform, 1992--1998

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Younkyoo

    This study seeks an explanation for the neglect of state building in Russia. The major hypothesis is that dependence on external rent leads to the weakness of the state. Three intervening variables---transaction costs, bargaining power of the state, and discount rates---are posited to explain variance on the dependent variable, the weakness of the state. Based on the exploration of three dimensions of energy sector reform, the dissertation argues that in the short run resource rents may be the only reliable and adequate source of finance for the Russian government. The division of resource rents among the many claimants (state vs. business, state vs. society, Moscow vs. regions, and Russia vs. foreign companies), it submits, will pose a stringent test of the viability of democratic governance in Russia. The dissertation concludes that some evidence indicates that Russia has in fact met the characteristics of the rentier state. The greater reliance on a large resource sector for revenue has led to high transaction costs of tax collection, weak bargaining power of the state, and high discount rates of government officials in Russia.

  13. FRAPCON-2: A Computer Code for the Calculation of Steady State Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oxide Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Berna, G. A; Bohn, M. P.; Rausch, W. N.; Williford, R. E.; Lanning, D. D.

    1981-01-01

    FRAPCON-2 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady state response of light Mater reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, deformation, and tai lure histories of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (a) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (b) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (c) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (d) fission gas release, (e} fuel rod internal gas pressure, (f) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (g) cladding oxidation, and (h) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. FRAPCON-2 is programmed for use on the CDC Cyber 175 and 176 computers. The FRAPCON-2 code Is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by either the FRAP-T6 computer code or the thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP4/MOD7 Version 2.

  14. Honor Code Agreement Introduction

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Honor Code Agreement Introduction An Honor Code establishes a fundamental social contract within community. The Honor Code is vital to the Building Community Campaign, which is striving to develop The purpose of an Honor Code at the University of Colorado at Boulder is to secure an environment where

  15. Appendices of an appraisal for the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings in Colorado. Section A. Alamosa

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.T.; Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Two state-owned building complexes have been evaluated within the city of Alamosa: Adams State College and the State Highway Department Buildings. The resource assessment in dicates that 150/sup 0/F may be available at flow rates of 1000 gpm per well, depths of 4000 feet, and possibly under Artesian pressure. Two building retrofit engineering options are evaluated for Adams State College, both of which assume only partial replacement (approximately 50%) of the existing natural-gas-fired steam-boiler system. The two retrofit options for goethermal heating include (1) a high performance central heat pump for boosting the circulating heat water to 200/sup 0/F for space heating and (2) a central heat exchanger for delivery of heating water at 145/sup 0/F. The first option provides for continued usage of the existing hot water heating units in the campus buildings, with the exception of retrofit of the steam units in College Center. The second option provides for the addition of terminal hot water heating units in all of the buildings in order to adapt to 145/sup 0/F heating water. Retrofit engineering for the State Highway Department Buildings provides for the use of a central heat exchanger and the distribution of 140/sup 0/F heating water to all building areas that are presently heated.

  16. LoanSTAR Monitoring and Analysis Program: Presentation Summary of the State Capitol Complex Building Operation and Maintenance Field Test 

    E-print Network

    Turner, W. D.; Houcek, J. K.; Liu, M.; Claridge, D. E.

    1993-01-01

    During the Fall of 1992 a comprehensive survey was conducted on eight buildings at the State Capitol Complex to determine potential operations and maintenance (O&M) savings opportunities. A verbal report of the findings ...

  17. 75 FR 21266 - Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Overview Information; Building State Capacity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ...to support effective efforts to prevent youth drug use and violence; 4. A description...to your application). Within three working days after submitting your electronic...Building State Capacity for Preventing Youth Substance Use and Violence program:...

  18. Coding of Electronic Laboratory Reports for Biosurveillance, Selected United States Hospitals, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Sanjaya; Burrer, Sherry L.; Winston, Carla A.; Dey, Achintya; Ajani, Umed; Groseclose, Samuel L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Electronic laboratory reporting has been promoted as a public health priority. The Office of the U.S. National Coordinator for Health Information Technology has endorsed two coding systems: Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) for laboratory test orders and Systemized Nomenclature of Medicine-Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) for test results. Materials and Methods We examined LOINC and SNOMED CT code use in electronic laboratory data reported in 2011 by 63 non-federal hospitals to BioSense electronic syndromic surveillance system. We analyzed the frequencies, characteristics, and code concepts of test orders and results. Results A total of 14,028,774 laboratory test orders or results were reported. No test orders used SNOMED CT codes. To describe test orders, 77% used a LOINC code, 17% had no value, and 6% had a non-informative value, “OTH”. Thirty-three percent (33%) of test results had missing or non-informative codes. For test results with at least one informative value, 91.8% had only LOINC codes, 0.7% had only SNOMED codes, and 7.4% had both. Of 108 SNOMED CT codes reported without LOINC codes, 45% could be matched to at least one LOINC code. Conclusion Missing or non-informative codes comprised almost a quarter of laboratory test orders and a third of test results reported to BioSense by non-federal hospitals. Use of LOINC codes for laboratory test results was more common than use of SNOMED CT. Complete and standardized coding could improve the usefulness of laboratory data for public health surveillance and response. PMID:26392850

  19. User's manual for PANDA II: A computer code for calculating equations of state

    SciTech Connect

    Kerley, G.I.

    1991-07-18

    PANDA is an interactive computer code that is used to compute equations of state (EOS) for many classes of materials over a wide range of densities and temperatures. The first step in the development of a general EOS model is to determine the EOS for a one- component system, consisting of a single solid or fluid phase and a single chemical species. The results of several such calculations can then be combined to construct EOS for multiphase and multicomponent systems. For one-component solids and fluids, PANDA offers a variety of options for modeling various contributions to the EOS: the zero Kelvin isotherm, lattice vibrations, fluid degrees of freedom, thermal electronic excitation and ionization, and molecular vibrational and rotational degrees of freedom. Two options are available for computing EOS for multicomponent systems from separate EOS for the individual species and phases. The phase transition model is used for a system of immiscible phases, each having the same chemical composition. In the mixture model, the components can be either miscible or immiscible and can have different chemical compositions; mixtures cab be either inert or reactive. PANDA provides over 50 commands that are used to define the EOS models, to make calculations and compare the models to experimental data, and to generate and maintain tabular EOS libraries for use in hydrocodes and other applications. Versions of the code available for the Cray (UNICOS and CTSS), SUN (UNIX), and VAX(VMS) machines, and a small version is available for personal computers (DOS). This report describes the EOS models, use of the commands, and several sample problems. 92 refs., 7 figs., 10 tabs.

  20. The State of the State: Building a Better Future for Kansas Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas Action for Children, Inc., Topeka.

    This special Kids Count report compares the current well-being of Kansas children to that of children in other states. The statistical portrait is based on a composite rank and 10 indicators of child well-being: (1) percent low birthweight infants; (2) infant mortality rate; (3) child death rate; (4) teen death rate by accident, homicide, and…

  1. Nuclear New Build in the United States 1990-2010: A Three State Analysis

    E-print Network

    Heffron, Raphael J.

    2012-01-23

     expansion  in many US  states  at  present  (H1).  Further,  the  potential  of  shale  gas  (for  example  in  Pennsylvania  with  the  discovery  of  the  Marcellus  Shale  gas  reserves)  is  adding  to  the  competition. Nevertheless,  some  interviewees...  is not to favour nuclear as such, but to realise within the electricity  sector  ‘...what’s  needed,  what  capacity  has  got  to  be  out  there,  what  the  environmental  impact  is  going  to  be, we  have  to make  leadership  decisions  and...

  2. 78 FR 75446 - Notice of Availability of Draft Guidance on the Application of United States Code to Corridor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Privacy Act Statement published in the Federal Register on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477). Docket: For... States Code to Corridor Preservation and Request for Comment AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) regarding corridor preservation for future...

  3. Instruction in Specialized Braille Codes, Abacus, and Tactile Graphics at Universities in the United States and Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, L. Penny; Smith, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study gathered data on methods and materials that are used to teach the Nemeth braille code, computer braille, foreign-language braille, and music braille in 26 university programs in the United States and Canada that prepare teachers of students with visual impairments. Information about instruction in the abacus and the…

  4. 77 FR 15122 - Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone- Ordinance Pursuant to United States Code, Legalizing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ...duly adopted by the Te-Moak Tribal...05-ORD-TM-05) to the Te-Moak Liquor...1161, Title 18 United States Code, Legalizing and Regulating the Introduction...and Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages...1(f) of the Constitution of the...

  5. Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Eric E.

    2006-09-29

    This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  7. PROFESSIONAL ATTIRE/DRESS CODE It is very important to promote an appropriate view of the institution, build patient trust

    E-print Network

    view of the institution, build patient trust and maintain a safe work environment. Consideration must in which the resident/fellow is working. Exceptions can be made for medical and religious reason above the waist. Public safety of the appropriate hospital should be contacted as soon as possible

  8. MeshVoro: A Three-Dimensional Voronoi Mesh Building Tool for the TOUGH Family of Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C. M.; Boyle, K. L.; Reagan, M.; Johnson, J.; Rycroft, C.; Moridis, G. J.

    2013-09-30

    Few tools exist for creating and visualizing complex three-dimensional simulation meshes, and these have limitations that restrict their application to particular geometries and circumstances. Mesh generation needs to trend toward ever more general applications. To that end, we have developed MeshVoro, a tool that is based on the Voro (Rycroft 2009) library and is capable of generating complex threedimensional Voronoi tessellation-based (unstructured) meshes for the solution of problems of flow and transport in subsurface geologic media that are addressed by the TOUGH (Pruess et al. 1999) family of codes. MeshVoro, which includes built-in data visualization routines, is a particularly useful tool because it extends the applicability of the TOUGH family of codes by enabling the scientifically robust and relatively easy discretization of systems with challenging 3D geometries. We describe several applications of MeshVoro. We illustrate the ability of the tool to straightforwardly transform a complex geological grid into a simulation mesh that conforms to the specifications of the TOUGH family of codes. We demonstrate how MeshVoro can describe complex system geometries with a relatively small number of grid blocks, and we construct meshes for geometries that would have been practically intractable with a standard Cartesian grid approach. We also discuss the limitations and appropriate applications of this new technology.

  9. Old-Time Origins of Modern Sovereignty: State-Building among the Keweenaw Bay Ojibway, 1832-1854

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article examines a brief period of Lake Superior Ojibway history in detail. It describes the territorial dimensions of usufructuary rights and tells how one Ojibway community at Keweenaw Bay, William Jondreau's home, reorganized itself as an Anishnabe state in the 1840s and early 1850s. It also argues that this state-building grew out of…

  10. Building Stronger State Partnerships with the US Department of Energy (Energy Assurance)

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Keogh

    2011-09-30

    From 2007 until 2011, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) engaged in a partnership with the National Energy Technology Lab (NETL) to improve State-Federal coordination on electricity policy and energy assurance issues. This project allowed State Public Utility Commissioners and their staffs to engage on the most cutting-edge level in the arenas of energy assurance and electricity policy. Four tasks were outlined in the Statement of Performance Objectives: Task 1 - Training for Commissions on Critical Infrastructure Topics; Task 2 - Analyze and Implement Recommendations on Energy Assurance Issues; Task 3 - Ongoing liaison activities & outreach to build stronger networks between federal agencies and state regulators; and Task 4 - Additional Activities. Although four tasks were prescribed, in practice these tasks were carried out under two major activity areas: the critical infrastructure and energy assurance partnership with the US Department of Energy's Infrastructure Security and Emergency Response office, and the National Council on Electricity Policy, a collaborative which since 1994 has brought together State and Federal policymakers to address the most pressing issues facing the grid from restructuring to smart grid implementation. On Critical Infrastructure protection, this cooperative agreement helped State officials yield several important advances. The lead role on NARUC's side was played by our Committee on Critical Infrastructure Protection. Key lessons learned in this arena include the following: (1) Tabletops and exercises work - They improve the capacity of policymakers and their industry counterparts to face the most challenging energy emergencies, and thereby equip these actors with the capacity to face everything up to that point as well. (2) Information sharing is critical - Connecting people who need information with people who have information is a key success factor. However, exposure of critical infrastructure information to bad actors also creates new vulnerabilities. (3) Tensions exist between the transparency-driven basis of regulatory activity and the information-protection requirements of asset protection. (4) Coordination between states is a key success factor - Because comparatively little federal authority exists over electricity and other energy infrastructure, the interstate nature of these energy grids defy centralized command and control governance. Patchwork responses are a risk when addressed at a state-by-state level. Coordination is the key to ensuring consistent response to shared threats. In Electricity Policy, the National Council on Electricity Policy continued to make important strides forward. Coordinated electricity policy among States remains the best surrogate for an absent national electricity policy. In every area from energy efficiency to clean coal, State policies are driving the country's electricity policy, and regional responses to climate change, infrastructure planning, market operation, and new technology deployment depend on a forum for bringing the States together.

  11. The Building Energy Report Card is used to compare the actual annual energy consumption of buildings to a

    E-print Network

    be consumed by a similar building built to today's State Energy Code. The target takes into account's area (Gross Square Feet or GSF). The report card accounts for all forms of energy used in a building (electricity, steam, chilled water, natural gas) by converting each into a common unit of energy -- the British

  12. Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures for Above Code (2003 and 2009 IECC) Residential Buildings in the City of Arlington 

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    -08-03 ENERGY SYSTEMS LABORATORY Proposed Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs) 2003 IECC Code-Compliant House with Natural Gas Heating 6 Description of Individual Measures Site Source A Envelope and Fenestration Measures 1 Radiant Barrier in Attics (w ith Ducts... SHGC & U Value (f rom .4 to .2 SHGC & from .47 to .3 U-Value) $900 - $1,100 1 Radiant Barrier in Attics (w ith Ducts in Attics) $300 - $880 16 100% Energy Star Permanent CFL or Fluorescent Indoor Lamps $50 - $215 9 Improved Air Conditioner SEER (from 13...

  13. Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures for 15% Above 2009 IECC Code-Compliant House for Residential Buildings in TX 

    E-print Network

    Kim, H.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.; Lewis, C.; Yazdani, B.

    2011-01-01

    counties were classified as Climate Zone 2, and seven were classified as Climate Zone 3. For Climate Zone 4, only Potter County was simulated with the Amarillo TMY2 data. To begin, the 2009 IECC code-compliant base- case models were constructed.... For the test-case house, a SHGC of 0.2 was used. For Potter County, this measure was not considered, due to negative savings because of the increased heating energy penalty. This measure was assumed to increase the cost by $200 - $400. 6) Decreased...

  14. Research and Innovation in the Building Regulatory Process: Proceedings of the 5th Annual NBS/NCSBCS Joint Conference. Technical Seminar on Solar Energy Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, S. A.

    1981-05-01

    Topics in solar energy and energy conservation are addressed. These proceedings include: (1) energy programs in the state of Colorado; (2) building energy performance standards concepts (3) state energy audits; (4) energy and building systems services; (5) solar energy and building codes.

  15. Building-integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    This is a study of the issues and opportunities for building-integrated PV products, seen primarily from the perspective of the design community. Although some quantitative analysis is included, and limited interviews are used, the essence of the study is qualitative and subjective. It is intended as an aid to policy makers and members of the technical community in planning and setting priorities for further study and product development. It is important to remember that the success of a product in the building market is not only dependent upon its economic value; the diverse group of building owners, managers, regulators, designers, tenants and users must also find it practical, aesthetically appealing and safe. The report is divided into 11 sections. A discussion of technical and planning considerations is followed by illustrative diagrams of different wall and roof assemblies representing a range of possible PV-integration schemes. Following the diagrams, several of these assemblies are then applied to a conceptual test building which is analyzed for PV performance. Finally, a discussion of mechanical/electrical building products incorporating PVs is followed by a brief surveys of cost issues, market potential and code implications. The scope of this report is such that most of the discussion does not go beyond stating the questions. A more detailed analysis will be necessary to establish the true costs and benefits PVs may provide to buildings, taking into account PV power revenue, construction costs, and hidden costs and benefits to building utility and marketability.

  16. Prefrontal Goal Codes Emerge as Latent States in Probabilistic Value Learning.

    PubMed

    Stoianov, Ivilin; Genovesio, Aldo; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) supports goal-directed actions and exerts cognitive control over behavior, but the underlying coding and mechanism are heavily debated. We present evidence for the role of goal coding in PFC from two converging perspectives: computational modeling and neuronal-level analysis of monkey data. We show that neural representations of prospective goals emerge by combining a categorization process that extracts relevant behavioral abstractions from the input data and a reward-driven process that selects candidate categories depending on their adaptive value; both forms of learning have a plausible neural implementation in PFC. Our analyses demonstrate a fundamental principle: goal coding represents an efficient solution to cognitive control problems, analogous to efficient coding principles in other (e.g., visual) brain areas. The novel analytical-computational approach is of general interest because it applies to a variety of neurophysiological studies. PMID:26439267

  17. Differences between the 1993 and 1995 CABO Model Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.R.; Lucas, R.G.

    1995-10-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 requires the US DOE to determine if changes to the Council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) (CABO 1993), published in the 1995 edition of the MEC (CABO 1995), will improve energy efficiency in residential buildings. The DOE, the states, and others have expressed an interest in the differences between the 1993 and 1995 editions of the MEC. This report describes each change to the 1993 MEC, and its impact. Referenced publications are also listed along with discrepancies between code changes approved in the 1994 and 1995 code-change cycles and what actually appears in the 1995 MEC.

  18. Building an HIV continuum for inmates: New York State's criminal justice initiative.

    PubMed

    Klein, Susan J; O'Connell, Daniel A; Devore, Barbara S; Wright, Lester N; Birkhead, Guthrie S

    2002-10-01

    The benefits of public health, corrections, and community-based organization (CBO) collaboration to meet HIV prevention needs of inmates are recognized. Each year over 100,000 inmates, most of whom have a history that put them at HIV risk, pass through the New York State (NYS) prison system. The NYS Department of Health AIDS Institute, the NYS Department of Correctional Services, the NYS Division of Parole, and a statewide network of CBOs collaborate to meet HIV prevention and support services needs of inmates and parolees through a continuum of interventions and services. This article describes the evolution of the prevention, supportive services, and transitional planning continuum within the NYS prison system. It identifies other agencies involved, obstacles to service delivery, describes approaches to overcome them, discusses ways to meet capacity building and technical assistance needs of CBOs, identifies challenges remaining, and provides practical advice from actual experience in NYS. PMID:12413199

  19. Capacity Building for collecting primary data through Crowdsourcing - An Example of Disaster affected Uttarakhand State (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna Murthy, Y. V. N.; Raju, P. L. N.; Srivastav, S. K.; Kumar, P.; Mitra, D.; Karnatak, H.; Saran, S.; Pandey, K.; Oberai, K.; Shiva Reddy, K.; Gupta, K.; Swamy, M.; Deshmukh, A.; Dadhwal, V. K.; Bothale, V.; Diwakar, P. G.; Ravikumar, M. V.; Leisely, A.; Arulraj, M.; Kumar, S.; Rao, S. S.; Singh Rawat, R.; Pathak, D. M.; Dutt, V.; Negi, D.; Singh, J.; Shukla, K. K.; Tomar, A.; Ahmed, N.; Singh, B.; Singh, A. K.; Shiva Kumar, R.

    2014-11-01

    Uttarakhand State of India suffered a widespread devastation in June 2013 due to floods caused by excessive rain in the upper reaches of the Himalaya, glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF) and landslides. Restoration process in this mountainous State calls for scientifically sound planning so that the vulnerabilities and risks to such natural hazards are minimised and developmental processes are sustainable in long run. Towards this, an understanding of the patterns and major controls of damage of the recent disaster is a key requirement which can be achieved only if the primary data on locations and types of damage along with other local site conditions are available. Considering widespread damage, tough nature of terrain and the need for collecting the primary data on damage in shortest possible time, crowdsourcing approach was considered to be the most viable solution. Accordingly, a multiinstitutional initiative called "Map the Neighbourhood in Uttarakhand" (MANU) was conceptualised with the main objective of collecting primary data on damage through participation of local people (mainly students) using state-of-art tools and technologies of data collection and a mechanism to integrate the same with Bhuvan geo-portal (www.bhuvan.nrsc.gov.in) in near real-time. Geospatial analysis of crowd-sourced points with different themes has been carried out subsequently for providing inputs to restoration planning and for future developmental activities. The present paper highlights the capacity building aspect in enabling the data collection process using crowdsourcing technology.

  20. Hardware acceleration of PIC codes: tapping into the power of state of the art processing units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, R. A.; Abreu, P.; Martins, S. F.; Silva, L. O.

    2008-11-01

    There are many astrophysical and laboratory scenarios where kinetic effects play an important role. Further understanding of these scenarios requires detailed numerical modeling using fully relativistic three-dimensional kinetic code such as OSIRIS [1]. However, these codes are computationally heavy. Explicitly using available hardware resources such as SIMD units (Altivec/SSE3) [2], cell processors or graphics processing units (GPUs) may allow us to significantly boost performance of these codes. For the most cases, the processing units are limited to single precision arithmetic, and require specific C/C++ code to be used. We present a comparison between double precision and single precision results, focusing both on performance and on the effects on the simulation in terms of algorithm properties. Details on a framework allowing the integration of hardware optimized routines with existing high performance codes in languages other than C is given. Finally, initial results of high performance modules of the PIC algorithm using SIMD units and GPU's will also be presented. [1] R. A. Fonseca et al., LNCS 2331, 342, (2002) [2] K. J. Bowers et al., Phys Plasmas vol. 15 (5) pp. 055703 (2008)

  1. Assessment of the Technical Potential for Micro-Cogeneration in Small Commerical Buildings across the United States: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, B.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the technical potential for micro-cogeneration in small commercial buildings throughout the United States. The cogeneration devices are simulated with the computer program EnergyPlus using models developed by Annex 42, a working group of the International Energy Agency's Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Community Systems (IEA/ECBCS). Although the Annex 42 models were developed for residential applications, this study applies them to small commercial buildings, assumed to have a total floor area of 500 m2 or less. The potential for micro-cogeneration is examined for the entire existing stock of small U.S. commercial buildings using a bottom-up method based on 1,236 EnergyPlus models.

  2. Planning for the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Initiative (SECCS): An Environmental Scan of Opportunities and Readiness for Building Systems. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halfon, Neal; Uyeda, Kimberly; Inkelas, Moira; Kumar, Vani; Tullis, Ericka; Rice, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This report outlines the national and state environmental context for the SECCS Initiative in supporting MCH strategic planning in early childhood systems building. This strategic context has implications for roles, relationships, and activities within a planning process and ultimately an implementation process. It summarizes the opportunities and…

  3. Comparison of Standard 90.1-2007 and the 2009 IECC with Respect to Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.

    2009-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) has been asked by some states and energy code stakeholders to address the comparability of the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code® (IECC) as applied to commercial buildings and ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 (hereinafter referred to as Standard 90.1-07). An assessment of comparability will help states respond to and implement conditions specified in the State Energy Program (SEP) Formula Grants American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Funding Opportunity, Number DE-FOA-0000052, and eliminate the need for the states individually or collectively to perform comparative studies of the 2009 IECC and Standard 90.1-07. The funding opportunity announcement contains the following conditions: (2) The State, or the applicable units of local government that have authority to adopt building codes, will implement the following: (A) A residential building energy code (or codes) that meets or exceeds the most recent International Energy Conservation Code, or achieves equivalent or greater energy savings. (B) A commercial building energy code (or codes) throughout the State that meets or exceeds the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007, or achieves equivalent or greater energy savings . (C) A plan to achieve 90 percent compliance with the above energy codes within eight years. This plan will include active training and enforcement programs and annual measurement of the rate of compliance. With respect to item (B) above, many more states, regardless of the edition date, directly adopt the IECC than Standard 90.1-07. This is predominately because the IECC is a model code and part of a coordinated set of model building codes that state and local government have historically adopted to regulate building design and construction. This report compares the 2009 IECC to Standard 90.1-07 with the intent of helping states address whether the adoption and application of the 2009 IECC for commercial buildings can be considered equivalent to the adoption and application of Standard 90.1-07. Based on this document, states adopting the 2009 IECC, which is the document cited in (A), above, for residential construction, can also determine if they are in compliance with the above provisions for commercial buildings in (B) above and if their code meets or exceeds the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-07.

  4. Home energy ratings and energy codes -- A marriage that should work

    SciTech Connect

    Verdict, M.E.; Fairey, P.W.; DeWein, M.C.

    1998-07-01

    This paper examines how voluntary home energy ratings systems (HERS) can be married to mandatory energy codes to increase code compliance while providing added benefits to consumers, builders, and code officials. Effective code enforcement and compliance is a common problem for state and local jurisdictions attempting to reduce energy consumption and increase housing affordability. Reasons frequently cited for energy code noncompliance are: (1) builder resistance to government regulations and change in building practices; (2) the perceived complexity of the code; (3) a lack of familiarity of energy impacts by cod officials and the housing industry, and (4) inadequate government resources for enforcement. By combing ratings and codes, one can create a win-win approach for code officials and energy rating organizations, the housing industry, as well as consumers who wish to reduce air pollution and energy waste. Additionally, state and local government experiences where the marriage between codes and ratings has begun are highlighted and the barriers and benefits assessed.

  5. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should include mixed mode thermal comfort models, semi-volatile organic compounds, assessment of new chemicals, and permissible exposure levels of many known indoor VOCs and bioaerosols. Plus, the relationship between energy consumption and IAQ, and tenant education on health effects of indoor pollutants and their sources may need more attention in IAQ investigations in green buildings. PMID:25594117

  6. FIVE-DIGIT ZIP CODE BOUNDARIES FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Five-Digit ZIP (Zoning Improvement Plan) Code boundary layer (zip5) is derived from the Geographic Data Technology (GDT), Inc. ZIP Boundary and Inventory Files (v. 5.0) and stored in the EPA Spatial Data Library System (ESDLS). This layer contains data for the conterminous U...

  7. Spotlight on Speech Codes 2012: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court has called America's colleges and universities "vital centers for the Nation's intellectual life," but the reality today is that many of these institutions severely restrict free speech and open debate. Speech codes--policies prohibiting student and faculty speech that would, outside the bounds of campus, be protected by the…

  8. Application of the new modular SWAT code to three watersheds in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the integration of new variables and subroutines over the past two decades since the release of the first version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), the model has become difficult to manipulate and maintain. Therefore, the SWAT code and the input and output file structure have rece...

  9. The Revised Austin Energy Code and Comparisons with the Texas State Energy Standard 

    E-print Network

    Crow, G.

    1992-01-01

    -ILocust, Arizona Ash, SycCode must go beyond ASI-IRAE 90.2P was in W

  10. NASA Glen Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Users Manual, DOS Input. Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K.

    2000-01-01

    The heat pipe code LERCHP has been revised, corrected, and extended. New features include provisions for pipes with curvature and bends in "G" fields. Heat pipe limits are examined in detail and limit envelopes are shown for some sodium and lithium-filled heat pipes. Refluxing heat pipes and gas-loaded or variable conductance heat pipes were not considered.

  11. 75 FR 21266 - Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Overview Information; Building State Capacity for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... is extended, an e-mail will be sent to all registered users who have initiated an e-Application.... Representative and U.S. Senators and send you a Grant Award Notification (GAN). We may notify you informally... of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Overview Information; Building State Capacity for Preventing...

  12. Building a System...To Be among the Best: The Washington State Master Plan for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    This report presents Washington State's Master Plan for building a higher education system that addresses change in four fundamental elements: accessing education in urban areas; developing a new higher education funding process; evaluating institutional performance; and strengthening admissions standards. The Master Plan recommends the following:…

  13. Disparities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Using TUS in a "non-ATS" state to Build Support for Evidence Based Policy

    Cancer.gov

    Disparities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Using TUS in a “non-ATS” state to Build Support for Evidence Based Policy Sally Herndon Malek, MPH Marcus Plescia, MD MPH NC Division of Public Health Don Shopland, PHS Retired Goal: Eliminate Exposure to

  14. How to Build a Time Machine: Interfacing Hydrodynamics, Ionization Calculations and X-ray Spectral Codes for Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badenes, Carlos

    2006-02-01

    Thanks to Chandra and XMM-Newton, spatially resolved spectroscopy of SNRsin the X-ray band has become a reality. Several impressive data sets forejecta-dominated SNRs can now be found in the archives, the Cas A VLP justbeing one (albeit probably the most spectacular) example. However, it isoften hard to establish quantitative, unambiguous connections between theX-ray observations of SNRs and the dramatic events involved in a corecollapse or thermonuclear SN explosion. The reason for this is that thevery high quality of the data sets generated by Chandra and XMM for thelikes of Cas A, SNR 292.0+1.8, Tycho, and SN 1006 has surpassed our abilityto analyze them. The core of the problem is in the transient nature of theplasmas in SNRs, which results in anintimate relationship between the structure of the ejecta and AM, the SNRdynamics arising from their interaction, and the ensuing X-rayemission. Thus, the ONLY way to understand the X-ray observations ofejecta-dominated SNRs at all levels, from the spatially integrated spectrato the subarcsecond scales that can be resolved by Chandra, is to couplehydrodynamic simulations to nonequilibrium ionization (NEI) calculationsand X-ray spectral codes. I will review the basic ingredients that enterthis kind of calculations, and what are the prospects for using them tounderstand the X-ray emission from the shocked ejecta in young SNRs. Thisunderstanding (when it is possible), can turn SNRs into veritable timemachines, revealing the secrets of the titanic explosions that generatedthem hundreds of years ago.

  15. Building Energy Information Systems: State of the Technology and User Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish; Price, Phillip

    2009-10-01

    The focus of this study is energy information systems, broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. At a minimum, an EIS provides hourly whole-building electric data that are web-accessible, with analytical and graphical capabilities. Time series data from meters, sensors, and external data streams are used to perofmr analysis such as baselining, benchmarking, building level anomaly detection, and energy performance tracking.

  16. Lighting efficiency for better energy cost control: guidelines for lighting standards and low-cost strategies for efficient use of lighting in Illinois state buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Trager, P.A.; Stephens, R.R.; Tuma, S.L.

    1986-03-01

    The manual provides both lighting-standard guidelines and low-cost strategies to encourage energy cost control in new and existing Illinois state-building illumination systems. Such guidance should provide a better understanding of simple operations and maintenance changes that will result in significant savings of energy use and cost in Illinois state building utility expense.

  17. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036... General 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) of the U.S. Coast Guard may use one-step...

  18. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036.104-90... 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) of the U.S. Coast Guard may use one-step...

  19. 48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036... General 3036.104-90 Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) of the U.S. Coast Guard may use one-step...

  20. The Instructional Capacity Building Role of the State Education Agency: Lessons Learned in Kentucky with Implications for No Child Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keedy, John L.; McDonald, Deborah H.

    2007-01-01

    Across the United States the state education agency (SEA) is a "sleeping giant" with untapped potential to build instructional capacity in the nation's 110,000 public schools. The SEA is positioned to build the system-wide synergy requisite to achieve the unprecedented school-level student outcomes mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act.…

  1. 78 FR 37571 - Certain Opaque Polymers; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United States Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...No. 337-TA-883] Certain Opaque Polymers; Institution of Investigation Pursuant...States after importation of certain opaque polymers by reason of infringement of certain...States after importation of certain opaque polymers that infringe one or more of claims...

  2. CODE OF CONDUCT The Board of Governors of the State University System recognizes that ensuring the

    E-print Network

    -University business with any Lending Institution and, subject to state law, receive value in connection with such non University business; (b) conduct University business and, subject to state law, receive value on behalf or processing of any student loans. #12;and, subject to state law, receive materials, refreshments, and other

  3. Differences between the 1992 and 1993 CABO Model Energy Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, D.R.; Lucas, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report is one in a series of documents describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Standards Program. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the program for DOE. The goal of the Program is to develop and encourage the implementation Of Performance standards to achieve the maximum practicable energy efficiency in the design of new buildings. The program approach to meeting the goal is to initiate and manage individual research and standards and guidelines development efforts that are planned and conducted in cooperation with representatives from throughout the buildings community. Projects under way involve practicing architects and engineers, Professional societies and code organizations, industry representatives, and researchers from the private sector and national laboratories. Research results and technical justifications for standards criteria are provided to standards development and model code organizations and to Federal, State, and local jurisdictions as a basis to update their codes and standards. This effort helps to ensure that building standards incorporate the latest research results to achieve maximum energy savings in new buildings, Yet remain responsive to the needs of the affected professions, organizations, and jurisdictions. Our efforts also support the implementation, deployment, and use of energy-efficient codes and standards. This report identifies the differences between the 1992 and 1993 editions of the Council of American Building Officials, (CABO) Model Energy Code (MEC) and briefly highlights the technical and administrative impacts of these changes.

  4. Building on Family Strengths: Research and Services in Support of Children and Their Families. Proceedings of the Building on Family Strengths Annual Conference (14th, Portland, Oregon, May 31-June 2, 2007) and State of the Science Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swart, Sandra, Ed.; Friesen, Barbara, Ed.; Holman, Ariel, Ed.; Aue, Nicole, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The State of the Science conference was held in May, 2007 as part of the ongoing series of national conferences, "Building on Family Strengths," conducted by the Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health at Portland State University. The theme of this State-of-the Science conference was "Effective services for all…

  5. Environmental issues in planning building energy technologies R D in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B.C. ); Abel, F.H. ); Nicholls, A.K. ); Millhone, J.P. . Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Building Technologies)

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has begun studies on the relationship and impact of buildings energy use on the environment, particularly with respect to global climate change, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and indoor air quality. The paper presents an overview of international and US federal activity in global change to set OBT's activities in context. The paper then reviews briefly the contribution of buildings to atmospheric problems through building energy use. OBT's program primarily supports projects with indirect environmental impacts through energy efficiency (e.g., thermally activated heat pumps use natural gas instead of electricity) and the use of renewables in buildings. The paper briefly describes the OBT program and covers an inventory of projects that OBT has funded on environmental/building problems. Analyses have included three kinds of topics: (1) CFC substitutes for refrigeration equipment, (2) incorporating the cost of externalities into utility electricity generation, and (3) indoor air quality. The paper shows how environmental issues are being taken into account in planning the US R D program in building energy technologies. 27 refs.

  6. Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Building Characterization, Indoor Environmental Quality Monitoring and Energy Usage Data from Office Buildings and Classrooms in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Linda Stetzenbach; Lauren Nemnich; Davor Novosel

    2009-08-31

    Three independent tasks had been performed (Stetzenbach 2008, Stetzenbach 2008b, Stetzenbach 2009) to measure a variety of parameters in normative buildings across the United States. For each of these tasks 10 buildings were selected as normative indoor environments. Task 1 focused on office buildings, Task 13 focused on public schools, and Task 0606 focused on high performance buildings. To perform this task it was necessary to restructure the database for the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) data and the Sound measurement as several issues were identified and resolved prior to and during the transfer of these data sets into SPSS. During overview discussions with the statistician utilized in this task it was determined that because the selection of indoor zones (1-6) was independently selected within each task; zones were not related by location across tasks. Therefore, no comparison would be valid across zones for the 30 buildings so the by location (zone) data were limited to three analysis sets of the buildings within each task. In addition, differences in collection procedures for lighting were used in Task 0606 as compared to Tasks 01 & 13 to improve sample collection. Therefore, these data sets could not be merged and compared so effects by-day data were run separately for Task 0606 and only Task 01 & 13 data were merged. Results of the statistical analysis of the IEQ parameters show statistically significant differences were found among days and zones for all tasks, although no differences were found by-day for Draft Rate data from Task 0606 (p>0.05). Thursday measurements of IEQ parameters were significantly different from Tuesday, and most Wednesday measures for all variables of Tasks 1 & 13. Data for all three days appeared to vary for Operative Temperature, whereas only Tuesday and Thursday differed for Draft Rate 1m. Although no Draft Rate measures within Task 0606 were found to significantly differ by-day, Temperature measurements for Tuesday and Thursday showed variation. Moreover, Wednesday measurements of Relative Humidity within Task 0606 varied significantly from either Tuesday or Thursday. The majority of differences in IEQ measurements by-zone were highly significant (p<0.001), with the exception of Relative Humidity in some buildings. When all task data were combined (30 buildings) neither the airborne culturable fungi nor the airborne non-culturable spore data differed in the concentrations found at any indoor location in terms of day of collection. However, the concentrations of surface-associated fungi varied among the day of collection. Specifically, there was a lower concentration of mold on Tuesday than on Wednesday, for all tasks combined. As expected, variation was found in the concentrations of both airborne culturable fungi and airborne non-culturable fungal spores between indoor zones (1-6) and the outdoor zone (zone 0). No variation was found among the indoor zones of office buildings for Task 1 in the concentrations of airborne culturable fungi. However, airborne non-culturable spores did vary among zones in one building in Task 1 and variation was noted between zones in surface-associated fungi. Due to the lack of multiple lighting measurements for Tasks 13 and 0606, by-day comparisons were only performed for Task 1. No statistical differences were observed in lighting with respect to the day of collection. There was a wide range of variability by-zone among seven of the office buildings. Although few differences were found for the brightest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcBrtst) and the darkest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcDrkst) in Task 1, there was considerable variation for these variables in Task 13 and Task 0606 (p < 0.001). Other variables that differed by-zone in Task 13 include CombCCT and AmbCCT1 for S03, S07, and S08. Additionally, AmbChromX1, CombChromY, and CombChromX varied by-zone for school buildings S02, S04, and S05, respectively. Although all tasks demonstrated significant differences in sound measurements by zone, some of the buil

  7. The HART II International Workshop: An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art in Comprehensive Code Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWall, Berend G.; Lim, Joon W.; Smith, Marilyn J.; Jung, Sung N.; Bailly, Joelle; Baeder, James D.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Significant advancements in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and their coupling with computational structural dynamics (CSD, or comprehensive codes) for rotorcraft applications have been achieved recently. Despite this, CSD codes with their engineering level of modeling the rotor blade dynamics, the unsteady sectional aerodynamics and the vortical wake are still the workhorse for the majority of applications. This is especially true when a large number of parameter variations is to be performed and their impact on performance, structural loads, vibration and noise is to be judged in an approximate yet reliable and as accurate as possible manner. In this article, the capabilities of such codes are evaluated using the HART II International Workshop database, focusing on a typical descent operating condition which includes strong blade-vortex interactions. A companion article addresses the CFD/CSD coupled approach. Three cases are of interest: the baseline case and two cases with 3/rev higher harmonic blade root pitch control (HHC) with different control phases employed. One setting is for minimum blade-vortex interaction noise radiation and the other one for minimum vibration generation. The challenge is to correctly predict the wake physics-especially for the cases with HHC-and all the dynamics, aerodynamics, modifications of the wake structure and the aero-acoustics coming with it. It is observed that the comprehensive codes used today have a surprisingly good predictive capability when they appropriately account for all of the physics involved. The minimum requirements to obtain these results are outlined. XXXX The HART-II Workshops have resulted in significant improvement in the knowledge of how reliable the most utilized comprehensive codes from industry can predict rotor behavior with higher harmonic controls and blade vortex interactions. Without the collaboration provided via the Workshop series, it would not have been possible to determine the current state of the art, including the strengths and weaknesses of these methodologies. For future work, it is recommended that testing of these rotor blade types include measurement of blade bending and torsion across the entire span to provide a more complete database. It is also recommended that a very detailed and reliable knowledge of the blade structural properties be included, as questions in the appropriate modeling of the blade can render the numerical conclusions less useful. Further, it is suggested that the impact of the fuselage on wake trajectories and hence the BVI locations be further investigated.

  8. Energy Savings Assessment for the Robert E. Johnson State Office Building in Austin, Texas 

    E-print Network

    Sylvester, K. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Song, S.; Turner, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    the reliability of the results is frequently compromised by a lack of certainty that the simulations reflect actual conditions. Although there is little documentation on current methods to verify energy savings in buildings, the International Performance...

  9. Highlighting High Performance: Four Times Square. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Brochure

    SciTech Connect

    2001-11-01

    4 Times Square is a 48-story environmentally responsible building in New York City and is the first project of its size to adopt standards for energy efficiency, indoor ecology, sustainable materials.

  10. Lessons Learned from Continuous Commissioning of the Robert E. Johnson State Office Building, Austin, TX 

    E-print Network

    Bynum, J.; Claridge, D. E.

    2008-09-22

    the energy conservation analysis team • The entire building process should be reorganized to assure that complete information is provided and passed on from the energy conservation analysis team • High performance buildings should be continuously... the team members should continue from design through the first few years of occupancy. Further, the entire process should be reorganized to assure that complete information is provided and passed on that will allow for proper design, construction...

  11. A State Observation Technique for Highly Compressed Source Coding of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle Position

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Toby

    In this paper, a novel technique is presented for using state observers in conjunction with an entropy source encoder to enable highly compressed telemetry of autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) position vectors. In this ...

  12. Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.; Kim, Son H.; Dirks, James A.; Jensen, Erik A.; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.; Schmidt, Laurel C.; Seiple, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    As long-term socioeconomic transformation and energy service expansion show large spatial heterogeneity, advanced understanding of climate impact on building energy use at the sub-national level will offer useful insights into climate policy and regional energy system planning. In this study, we presented a detailed building energy model with a U.S. state-level representation, nested in the GCAM integrated assessment framework. We projected state-level building energy demand and its spatial pattern over the century, considering the impact of climate change based on the estimates of heating and cooling degree days derived from downscaled USGS CASCaDE temperature data. The result indicates that climate change has a large impact on heating and cooling building energy and fuel use at the state level, exhibiting large spatial heterogeneity across states (ranges from -10% to +10%). The sensitivity analysis reveals that the building energy demand is subject to multiple key factors, such as the magnitude of climate change, the choice of climate models, and the growth of population and GDP, and that their relative contributions vary greatly across the space. The scale impact in building energy use modeling highlights the importance of constructing a building energy model with the spatially-explicit representation of socioeconomics, energy system development, and climate change. These findings will help the climate-based policy decision and energy system, especially utility planning related to building sector at the U.S. state and regional level facing the potential climate change.

  13. FRAPCON-3: A computer code for the calculation of steady-state, thermal-mechanical behavior of oxide fuel rods for high burnup

    SciTech Connect

    Berna, G.A.; Beyer, G.A.; Davis, K.L.; Lanning, D.D.

    1997-12-01

    FRAPCON-3 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady-state response of light water reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, and deformation of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (1) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (2) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (3) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (4) fission gas release, (5) fuel rod internal gas pressure, (6) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (7) cladding oxidation, and (8) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat-transfer correlations. The codes` integral predictions of mechanical behavior have not been assessed against a data base, e.g., cladding strain or failure data. Therefore, it is recommended that the code not be used for analyses of cladding stress or strain. FRAPCON-3 is programmed for use on both mainframe computers and UNIX-based workstations such as DEC 5000 or SUN Sparcstation 10. It is also programmed for personal computers with FORTRAN compiler software and at least 8 to 10 megabytes of random access memory (RAM). The FRAPCON-3 code is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by the FRAPTRAN computer code (formerly named FRAP-T6).

  14. GIBBS2: A new version of the quasiharmonic model code. II. Models for solid-state thermodynamics, features and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero-de-la-Roza, A.; Abbasi-Pérez, David; Luaña, Víctor

    2011-10-01

    In the second article of the series, we present the GIBBS2 code, a Fortran90 reimplementation of the original GIBBS program [Comput. Phys. Commun. 158 (2004) 57] for the calculation of pressure-temperature dependent thermodynamic properties of solids under the quasiharmonic approximation. We have taken advantage of the detailed analysis carried out in the first paper to implement robust fitting techniques. In addition, new models to introduce temperature effects have been incorporated, from the simple Debye model contained in the original article to a full quasiharmonic model that requires the phonon density of states at each calculated volume. Other interesting novel features include the empirical energy corrections, that rectify systematic errors in the calculation of equilibrium volumes caused by the choice of the exchange-correlation functional, the electronic contributions to the free energy and the automatic computation of phase diagrams. Full documentation in the form of a user's guide and a complete set of tests and sample data are provided along with the source code.

  15. An implicit steady-state initialization package for the RELAP5 computer code

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsen, M.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Odar, F.

    1995-08-01

    A direct steady-state initialization (DSSI) method has been developed and implemented in the RELAP5 hydrodynamic analysis program. It provides a means for users to specify a small set of initial conditions which are then propagated through the remainder of the system. The DSSI scheme utilizes the steady-state form of the RELAP5 balance equations for nonequilibrium two-phase flow. It also employs the RELAP5 component models and constitutive model packages for wall-to-phase and interphase momentum and heat exchange. A fully implicit solution of the linearized hydrodynamic equations is implemented. An implicit coupling scheme is used to augment the standard steady-state heat conduction solution for steam generator use. It solves the primary-side tube region energy equations, heat conduction equations, wall heat flux boundary conditions, and overall energy balance equation as a coupled system of equations and improves convergence. The DSSI method for initializing RELAP5 problems to steady-state conditions has been compared with the transient solution scheme using a suite of test problems including; adiabatic single-phase liquid and vapor flow through channels with and without healing and area changes; a heated two-phase test bundle representative of BWR core conditions; and a single-loop PWR model.

  16. High-frequency combination coding-based steady-state visual evoked potential for brain computer interface

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xin; Xie, Jun; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Lili, Li; Wang, Jing; Xu, Guang-Hua

    2015-03-10

    This study presents a new steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm for brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The goal of this study is to increase the number of targets using fewer stimulation high frequencies, with diminishing subject’s fatigue and reducing the risk of photosensitive epileptic seizures. The new paradigm is High-Frequency Combination Coding-Based High-Frequency Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (HFCC-SSVEP).Firstly, we studied SSVEP high frequency(beyond 25?Hz)response of SSVEP, whose paradigm is presented on the LED. The SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) of high frequency(beyond 40?Hz) response is very low, which is been unable to be distinguished through the traditional analysis method; Secondly we investigated the HFCC-SSVEP response (beyond 25?Hz) for 3 frequencies (25Hz, 33.33Hz, and 40Hz), HFCC-SSVEP produces n{sup n} with n high stimulation frequencies through Frequence Combination Code. Further, Animproved Hilbert-huang transform (IHHT)-based variable frequency EEG feature extraction method and a local spectrum extreme target identification algorithmare adopted to extract time-frequency feature of the proposed HFCC-SSVEP response.Linear predictions and fixed sifting (iterating) 10 time is used to overcome the shortage of end effect and stopping criterion,generalized zero-crossing (GZC) is used to compute the instantaneous frequency of the proposed SSVEP respondent signals, the improved HHT-based feature extraction method for the proposed SSVEP paradigm in this study increases recognition efficiency, so as to improve ITR and to increase the stability of the BCI system. what is more, SSVEPs evoked by high-frequency stimuli (beyond 25Hz) minimally diminish subject’s fatigue and prevent safety hazards linked to photo-induced epileptic seizures, So as to ensure the system efficiency and undamaging.This study tests three subjects in order to verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  17. Educational Administration as National Capacity Building: Towards South Korea Becoming a Creative Learning State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold; Sun Hyung, Park

    2015-01-01

    This philosophy paper proposes that a primary purpose of Educational Administration, as a field of study, research and practice in South Korea, becomes national capacity building. It does this by evaluating the current scope of Educational Administration against the need for a new national education policy to help South Korea make the transition…

  18. Sustainability Assessment of the Robert E. Johnson State Office Building, Final Report, Revised April 2002 

    E-print Network

    Sylvester, K. E.; Song, S.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    northern facade is approximately 14 degrees west of north, exposing it to direct sunlight during the late afternoon hours in the winter. It is also important to note that the building contains over 50% glazing in the façade consisting of two types of energy...

  19. Building condition monitoring

    E-print Network

    Samouhos, Stephen V. (Stephen Vincent), 1982-

    2010-01-01

    The building sector of the United States currently consumes over 40% of the United States primary energy supply. Estimates suggest that between 5 and 30% of any building's annual energy consumption is unknowingly wasted ...

  20. Diagnosis code assignment: models and evaluation metrics

    PubMed Central

    Perotte, Adler; Pivovarov, Rimma; Natarajan, Karthik; Weiskopf, Nicole; Wood, Frank; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective The volume of healthcare data is growing rapidly with the adoption of health information technology. We focus on automated ICD9 code assignment from discharge summary content and methods for evaluating such assignments. Methods We study ICD9 diagnosis codes and discharge summaries from the publicly available Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) repository. We experiment with two coding approaches: one that treats each ICD9 code independently of each other (flat classifier), and one that leverages the hierarchical nature of ICD9 codes into its modeling (hierarchy-based classifier). We propose novel evaluation metrics, which reflect the distances among gold-standard and predicted codes and their locations in the ICD9 tree. Experimental setup, code for modeling, and evaluation scripts are made available to the research community. Results The hierarchy-based classifier outperforms the flat classifier with F-measures of 39.5% and 27.6%, respectively, when trained on 20?533 documents and tested on 2282 documents. While recall is improved at the expense of precision, our novel evaluation metrics show a more refined assessment: for instance, the hierarchy-based classifier identifies the correct sub-tree of gold-standard codes more often than the flat classifier. Error analysis reveals that gold-standard codes are not perfect, and as such the recall and precision are likely underestimated. Conclusions Hierarchy-based classification yields better ICD9 coding than flat classification for MIMIC patients. Automated ICD9 coding is an example of a task for which data and tools can be shared and for which the research community can work together to build on shared models and advance the state of the art. PMID:24296907

  1. Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

    2007-01-01

    Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

  2. Indoor environmental quality in six commercial office buildings in the midwest United States.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, S J; Black, D W; Borin, S S; Breuer, G; Burmeister, L F; Fuortes, L J; Smith, T F; Stein, M A; Subramanian, P; Thorne, P S; Whitten, P

    2001-11-01

    The aims of this study were to characterize physical, mechanical, and environmental factors influencing indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in commercial office buildings; document occupant perceptions and psychosocial attributes; and evaluate relationships among these parameters. Six large office buildings in metropolitan areas were selected in Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. Comprehensive sampling was conducted over one week in each building, during all four seasons. This paper presents the study methods and selected results from the first round of sampling (November 1996 to April 1997). Air flow and recirculation rates were quite variable, with the proportion of outdoor air provided to occupants ranging from 10 to 79 CFM/person. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and temperature were within ranges anticipated for nonproblem buildings. Relative humidity was low, ranging from 11.7 to 24.0 percent. Indoor geometric mean concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) ranged from 73 to 235 microg/m3. The most prevalent compounds included xylene, toluene, 2-propanol, limonene, and heptane. Geometric mean formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 13.3 microg/m3, and mean acetaldehyde levels ranged from <3.0 to 7.5 microg/m3. Airborne concentrations of culturable bacteria and fungi were low, with no samples exceeding 150 CFU/m3. Total (direct count) bioaerosols were more variable, ranging from 5010 to 10,700 organisms/m3. Geometric mean endotoxin concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 3.0 EU/m3. Respirable particulates (PM10) were low (14 to 36 microg/m3). Noise levels ranged from 48 to 56 dBA, with mean light values ranging from 200 to 420 lux. Environmental parameters were significantly correlated with each other. The prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms (dry eyes, runny nose), central nervous system symptoms (headache, irritability), and musculoskeletal symptoms (pain/stiffness in shoulders/neck) were elevated compared to other studies using similar questionnaires. Importantly, psychosocial factors were significantly related to increased symptoms in females, while environmental factors were more closely correlated with symptoms in males. Endotoxin concentrations were associated with symptoms in both males and females. These data will help to identify and quantify the relative role of factors that contribute to sick building syndrome. The data collected in this study may also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of current building operation practices, and can be used to prioritize allocations of resources for reduction of risk associated with IEQ complaints. PMID:11757903

  3. Using courts to build states: The competing spaces of citizenship in transitional justice programmes

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey, Alex; Jakala, Michaelina

    2015-03-13

    to study both the contexts and practices through which concepts of citi- zenship are articulated and challenged (see, for example, McNamara & Morse, 2004; Mohan, 2002). This approach gleaned information about both concerning elite discourse and what... faded into existence through a series of new laws and initiatives. Most notably in 2002 the Office of the High Representative (OHR) imposed a Law on the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and a year later imposed a new Criminal Procedure Code in 2003 based...

  4. Impact of the FY 2005 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Michael J.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hostick, Donna J.

    2004-08-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild II is used in this study of all 21 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2005 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget on February 2, 2004. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 396,000 jobs and about $5.6 billion in earned income (2003$) by the year 2030.

  5. Building Knowledge Stocks: The Role of State Higher-Education Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groen, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    A variety of studies provide evidence that the stock of college-educated labor has fundamental effects on state and local economies through its association with wages, economic growth, personal incomes, and tax revenues. As a result, policymakers in many states try to increase the percentage of the state's population (or workforce) that has a…

  6. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 282 - State Requirements Incorporated by Reference in Part 282 of the Code of Federal Regulations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State Requirements Incorporated by Reference in Part 282 of the Code of Federal Regulations A Appendix A to Part 282 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) APPROVED UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANK PROGRAMS Pt. 282, App. A Appendix A...

  7. COPYRIGHT NOTICE: The copy law of the United States (Title 17 U.S. Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of

    E-print Network

    Biederman, Irving

    COPYRIGHT NOTICE: The copy law of the United States (Title 17 U.S. Code) governs the making in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction law. By using USC's Integrated Document Delivery (IDD) services you expressly agree to comply

  8. Building-up a code for the purpose of TRUE coincidence summing correction in gamma-ray spectrometry with EGS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celik, Necati; Altin, Duygu; Cevik, Ugur

    2015-10-01

    In the presented study, a code was created for the purpose of true coincidence summing (TCS) correction factors for 134Cs. The created code was implemented in EGS4 Monte Carlo simulation package. TCS factors were determined for nine different energies for different detector-source geometries. The calculated results were successfully validated by an empirical method using a point 134Cs radioactive source and a p-type HPGe detector having 55% relative efficiency. Although the code created gives TCS factors only for 134Cs, the technique presented can be used to obtain the factors for any radionuclide used in gamma-ray spectrometry.

  9. Sharing State Mental Health Data for Research: Building Toward Ongoing Learning in Mental Health Care Systems.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David A; Rupp, Agnes

    2015-09-01

    With the rise of "big data," the opportunities to use administrative and clinical data to evaluate impact of state level program initiatives are greatly expanded. The National Institute of Mental Health has in recent years supported research studies pooling data across states to address state-relevant questions. This commentary summarizes these activities and describes future platforms that may enhance ongoing work in this area. PMID:25583270

  10. Toward a virtual building laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Klems, J.H.; Finlayson, E.U.; Olsen, T.H.; Banks, D.W.; Pallis, J.M.

    1999-03-01

    In order to achieve in a timely manner the large energy and dollar savings technically possible through improvements in building energy efficiency, it will be necessary to solve the problem of design failure risk. The most economical method of doing this would be to learn to calculate building performance with sufficient detail, accuracy and reliability to avoid design failure. Existing building simulation models (BSM) are a large step in this direction, but are still not capable of this level of modeling. Developments in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques now allow one to construct a road map from present BSM's to a complete building physical model. The most useful first step is a building interior model (BIM) that would allow prediction of local conditions affecting occupant health and comfort. To provide reliable prediction a BIM must incorporate the correct physical boundary conditions on a building interior. Doing so raises a number of specific technical problems and research questions. The solution of these within a context useful for building research and design is not likely to result from other research on CFD, which is directed toward the solution of different types of problems. A six-step plan for incorporating the correct boundary conditions within the context of the model problem of a large atrium has been outlined. A promising strategy for constructing a BIM is the overset grid technique for representing a building space in a CFD calculation. This technique promises to adapt well to building design and allows a step-by-step approach. A state-of-the-art CFD computer code using this technique has been adapted to the problem and can form the departure point for this research.

  11. Building a Multicontextual Model of Latino College Enrollment: Student, School, and State-Level Effects

    E-print Network

    Nuñ ez, Anne-Marie; Kim, Dongbin

    2012-12-01

    stream_size 74040 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name DongbinK_RHE_35(2)237.pdf.txt stream_source_info DongbinK_RHE_35(2)237.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Nuñez & Kim... / Latino College Enrollment 237 The Review of Higher Education Winter 2012, Volume 35, No. 2, pp. 237–263 Copyright © 2011 Association for the Study of Higher Education All Rights Reserved (ISSN 0162-5748) Building a Multicontextual Model of Latino...

  12. Results Accountability for a State Early Childhood Comprehensive System: A Planning Guide for Improving the Well Being of Young Children and Their Families. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series. Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau has launched a five-year initiative that will support state efforts to build comprehensive early childhood service systems. This initiative--the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Initiative (SECCS)--provides two year planning grants followed by three year implementation grants to the 50 state

  13. Safety in Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Hutcheon, N. B.

    Building codes are essentially sets of safety regulations in respect of structure, fire, and health. They were originally developed in response to frequently demonstrated hazards of structural collapse, catastrophic fires, ...

  14. Recommendations for 15% Above-Code Energy Efficiency Measures on Implementing Houston Amendments to Single-Family Residential Buildings in Houston Texas 

    E-print Network

    Mukhopadhyay, J.; Liu, Z.; Malhotra, M.; Kota, S.; Blake, S.; Haberl, J.; Culp, C.; Yazdani, B.

    2009-01-01

    (HVAC), Fenestration, Envelope, Lighting and Domestic Hot Water (DHW) options. The analysis was performed using an hourly simulation of an International Energy Conservation Code (IECC)-compliant, single family residence in Houston, Texas. Four sets...

  15. Building a Multicontextual Model of Latino College Enrollment: Student, School, and State-Level Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Anne-Marie; Kim, Dongbin

    2012-01-01

    Latinos' college enrollment rates, particularly in four-year institutions, have not kept pace with their population growth in the United States. Using three-level hierarchical generalized linear modeling, this study analyzes data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS) to examine the influence of high school and state contexts, in addition…

  16. State of the South: Building an Infrastructure of Opportunity for the Next Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillory, Ferrel; Mitchell, Kate; Parcell, Abby; Hart, Richard; Zandt, Alyson; Caldwell, Beth; Robertson, Shun; Rose, Max; Dodson, David

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 edition of "State of the South" features analysis of state and regional data and calls on the region to develop and implement purposeful policies and systemic practices--an "infrastructure of opportunity"--to bolster the prospects for its 15- to 24-year-olds to achieve economic resilience as adults and a fulfilling…

  17. Leveraging the Power of State Longitudinal Data Systems: Building Capacity to Turn Data into Useful Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Faced with the need to create a competitive workforce and improve the quality of our education system, states are pursuing policy agendas to better prepare students for postsecondary education and careers. To inform these agendas, statewide longitudinal data systems (SLDSs) have become an invaluable asset and serve as a tool to help states answer…

  18. A history of the Building Energy Standards Program

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, D.L.; Merrick, J.A.; Gilbride, T.L.

    1994-02-01

    This report describes the history of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) work in development of energy standards for commercial and residential construction in the United States. PNL`s standards development efforts are concentrated in the Building Energy Standards Program (the Program), which PNL conducts for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards. The Program has worked with DOE, the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE), and other building codes and standards organizations to develop, evaluate, and promulgate energy standards in all sectors of the building industry. This report describes the recent history of U.S. code development and PNL`s contributions through the 1980s and early 1990s, up to the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Impacts to standards development resulting from the passage of this act will be described in other reports.

  19. Building Ready States: A Governor's Guide to Supporting a Comprehensive, High-Quality Early Childhood State System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demma, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Developing an effective and efficient early childhood state system will involve efforts to support program quality and a highly qualified professional workforce based on clearly articulated standards for child development and school readiness. This kind of system improvement will rely on collaborative governance, integrated data to drive and…

  20. Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez

    2010-03-31

    Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago's recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work. The new green building houses the hospital's Family Medicine Residency Program and Specialty Medical Offices. The residency program has been vital in attracting new, young physicians to this medically underserved area. The new outpatient center will also help to allure needed medical providers to the community. The facility also has areas designated to women's health and community education. The Community Education Conference Room will provide learning opportunities to area residents. Emphasis will be placed on conserving resources and protecting our environment, as well as providing information on healthcare access and preventive medicine. The new Medical Office Building was constructed with numerous energy saving features. The exterior cladding of the building is an innovative, locally-manufactured precast concrete panel system with integral insulation that achieves an R-value in excess of building code requirements. The roof is a 'green roof' covered by native plantings, lessening the impact solar heat gain on the building, and reducing air conditioning requirements. The windows are low-E, tinted, and insulated to reduce cooling requirements in summer and heating requirements in winter. The main entrance has an air lock to prevent unconditioned air from entering the building and impacting interior air temperatures. Since much of the traffic in and out of the office building comes from the adjacent Jackson Park Hospital, a pedestrian bridge connects the two buildings, further decreasing the amount of unconditioned air that enters the office building. The HVAC system has an Energy Efficiency Rating 29% greater than required. No CFC based refrigerants were used in the HVAC system, thus reducing the emission of compounds that contribute to ozone depletion and global warming. In addition, interior light fixtures employ the latest energy-efficient lamp and ballast technology. Interior lighting throughout the building is operated by sensors that will automatically turn off lights inside a room when the room is unoccupied. The electrical traction elevators use less energy than typical elevators, and they are made of 95% recycled material. Further, locally manufactured products were used throughout, minimizing the amount of energy required to construct this building. The primary objective was to construct a 30,000 square foot medical office building on the Jackson Park Hospital campus that would comply with newly adopted City of Chicago green building codes focusing on protecting the environment and conserving energy and resources. The energy saving systems demonstrate a state of the-art whole-building approach to energy efficient design and construction. The energy efficiency and green aspects of the building contribute to the community by emphasizing the environmental and economic benefits of conserving resources. The building highlights the integration of Chicago's new green building codes into a poor, inner city neighborhood project and it is designed to attract medical providers and physicians to a medically underserved area.

  1. Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

  2. Response to comments received from the State of Colorado and the public on the Environmental Assessment for resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this document to respond to comments from the State of Colorado and the public on the draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Resumption of Thermal Stabilization of Plutonium Oxide in Building 707 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The draft EA was provided to the State of Colorado and the public on September 8, 1993, for a comment period of 60 days. The Department`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1021.301) requires that prior to approval of the EA, DOE is to allow the host State and Indian Tribe a period of from 14 to 30 days to review and comment on the EA. The Department established a comment period of 60 days for this EA in response to requests by the public during the first public meeting on July 7, 1993, before preparation of the EA. Other issues raised at the July 7 meeting included the range of alternatives to be considered, the time period for preparation of the EA, and the amount of material to be thermally stabilized. These and other comments made by the public at that meeting were carefully considered in preparation of the EA. In addition to providing the preapproval draft EA to the State of Colorado, DOE distributed the EA to all persons and groups on the RFP public information mailing list and placed the EA and reference documents in the DOE Public Reading Rooms in the RFP area. A public meeting was held on October 6, 1993, to hear public comments on the draft EA. All comments on the draft EA, those received both at the October 6 public meeting and through correspondence, have been reproduced in their entirety in this Response to Comments document. Responses to the commenters` questions and concerns are provided, and changes made to the body of the EA are indicated in the responses. All comments received have been considered in the revision of the EA.

  3. ClinicalCodes: An Online Clinical Codes Repository to Improve the Validity and Reproducibility of Research Using Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Springate, David A.; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Ashcroft, Darren M.; Olier, Ivan; Parisi, Rosa; Chamapiwa, Edmore; Reeves, David

    2014-01-01

    Lists of clinical codes are the foundation for research undertaken using electronic medical records (EMRs). If clinical code lists are not available, reviewers are unable to determine the validity of research, full study replication is impossible, researchers are unable to make effective comparisons between studies, and the construction of new code lists is subject to much duplication of effort. Despite this, the publication of clinical codes is rarely if ever a requirement for obtaining grants, validating protocols, or publishing research. In a representative sample of 450 EMR primary research articles indexed on PubMed, we found that only 19 (5.1%) were accompanied by a full set of published clinical codes and 32 (8.6%) stated that code lists were available on request. To help address these problems, we have built an online repository where researchers using EMRs can upload and download lists of clinical codes. The repository will enable clinical researchers to better validate EMR studies, build on previous code lists and compare disease definitions across studies. It will also assist health informaticians in replicating database studies, tracking changes in disease definitions or clinical coding practice through time and sharing clinical code information across platforms and data sources as research objects. PMID:24941260

  4. Building success : the role of the state in the cultural facility development process

    E-print Network

    Choy, Carolyn (Carolyn Anne)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the question of what is the current role of the state in the cultural facility development process, and, in light of facility-related warnings that have been made over the years, what role should ...

  5. Impact of the FY 2009 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, Olga V.; Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Dirks, James A.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2008-06-17

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose input-output model called ImSET is used in this study of 14 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2009 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget in February 2008. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2025. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 258,000 jobs and about $3.7 billion in earned income (2007$) by the year 2025.

  6. Efficient, transparent, and comprehensive runtime code manipulation

    E-print Network

    Bruening, Derek L. (Derek Lane), 1976-

    2004-01-01

    This thesis addresses the challenges of building a software system for general-purpose runtime code manipulation. Modern applications, with dynamically-loaded modules and dynamically-generated code, are assembled at runtime. ...

  7. Analysis of the Chinese Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Shi, Qing

    2014-03-20

    China will account for about half of the new construction globally in the coming decade. Its floorspace doubled from 1996 to 2011, and Chinese rural buildings alone have as much floorspace as all of U.S. residential buildings. Building energy consumption has also grown, increasing by over 40% since 1990. To curb building energy demand, the Chinese government has launched a series of policies and programs. Combined, this growth in buildings and renovations, along with the policies to promote green buildings, are creating a large market for energy efficiency products and services. This report assesses the impact of China’s policies on building energy efficiency and on the market for energy efficiency in the future. The first chapter of this report introduces the trends in China, drawing on both historical analysis, and detailed modeling of the drivers behind changes in floorspace and building energy demand such as economic and population growth, urbanization, policy. The analysis describes the trends by region, building type and energy service. The second chapter discusses China’s policies to promote green buildings. China began developing building energy codes in the 1980s. Over time, the central government has increased the stringency of the code requirements and the extent of enforcement. The codes are mandatory in all new buildings and major renovations in China’s cities, and they have been a driving force behind the expansion of China’s markets for insulation, efficient windows, and other green building materials. China also has several other important policies to encourage efficient buildings, including the Three-Star Rating System (somewhat akin to LEED), financial incentives tied to efficiency, appliance standards, a phasing out of incandescent bulbs and promotion of efficient lighting, and several policies to encourage retrofits in existing buildings. In the third chapter, we take “deep dives” into the trends affecting key building components. This chapter examines insulation in walls and roofs; efficient windows and doors; heating, air conditioning and controls; and lighting. These markets have seen significant growth because of the strength of the construction sector but also the specific policies that require and promote efficient building components. At the same time, as requirements have become more stringent, there has been fierce competition, and quality has at time suffered, which in turn has created additional challenges. Next we examine existing buildings in chapter four. China has many Soviet-style, inefficient buildings built before stringent requirements for efficiency were more widely enforced. As a result, there are several specific market opportunities related to retrofits. These fall into two or three categories. First, China now has a code for retrofitting residential buildings in the north. Local governments have targets of the number of buildings they must retrofit each year, and they help finance the changes. The requirements focus on insulation, windows, and heat distribution. Second, the Chinese government recently decided to increase the scale of its retrofits of government and state-owned buildings. It hopes to achieve large scale changes through energy service contracts, which creates an opportunity for energy service companies. Third, there is also a small but growing trend to apply energy service contracts to large commercial and residential buildings. This report assesses the impacts of China’s policies on building energy efficiency. By examining the existing literature and interviewing stakeholders from the public, academic, and private sectors, the report seeks to offer an in-depth insights of the opportunities and barriers for major market segments related to building energy efficiency. The report also discusses trends in building energy use, policies promoting building energy efficiency, and energy performance contracting for public building retrofits.

  8. State Requirements for Educational Facilities, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Office of Educational Facilities.

    This updated, two-volume document provides guidance for those involved in the educational facilities procurement process, and includes recent legislative changes affecting the state of Florida's building code. The first volume is organized by the sequence of steps required in the facilities procurement process and presents state requirements for…

  9. Coding theory basics Toric codes

    E-print Network

    Little, John B.

    Coding theory basics Toric codes Tools from the toric world Higher-dimensional polytopes and Vandermonde matrices Toric Varieties in Error-Control Coding Theory Math in the Mountains Tutorial John B. Little Toric Varieties in Coding Theory #12;Coding theory basics Toric codes Tools from the toric world

  10. Student Health Services Oregon State University, 201 Plageman Building, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-8567

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    federal law. However, I also understand that federal or state law may restrict redisclosure of HIV_______________________________________________________________________________________ If the information to be disclosed contains any of the types of records or information listed below, additional laws. *** The following must be initialed in order for it to be included in your request. ____ HIV/AIDS information

  11. Building Software Development Capacity to Advance the State of Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterbach, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Educational technologists may advance the state of the field by increasing capacity to develop software tools and instructional applications. Presently, few academic programs in educational technology require even a single computer programming course. Further, the educational technologists who develop software generally work independently or in…

  12. Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting a Commercial Building Energy Standard in South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.

    2005-03-04

    The state of South Dakota is considering adopting a commercial building energy standard. This report evaluates the potential costs and benefits to South Dakota residents from requiring compliance with the most recent edition of the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings. These standards were developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The quantitative benefits and costs of adopting a commercial building energy code are modeled by comparing the characteristics of assumed current building practices with the most recent edition of the ASHRAE Standard, 90.1-2001. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed in this analysis. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using results from a detailed building simulation tool (Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics [BLAST] model) combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

  13. The Collapse of the Alto Río Building during the 27 February 2010 Maule, Chile, Earthquake

    E-print Network

    Song, Cheng; Pujol, Santiago; Lepage, Andres

    2012-06-01

    The Alto Río Building, a 15-story building located in Concepción, Chile, collapsed during the 2010 Maule earthquake. Construction of the building was completed in 2009 following the Chilean building code of 1996. The building was provided...

  14. Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures for Above Code (ASHRAE 90.1-2001 and 2007) Small Office Buildings in the City of Arlington 

    E-print Network

    2011-01-01

    -shape, two-story, office building ? Wood frame construction ? 20% window-to- wall ratio ? Packaged rooftop air conditioner (CAV, DX, gas furnace) Building Type Number of occupants = 73 Gross Area (sq. ft.) NREL TSD: AEDG-SMO-2011 and CoA Aspect Ratio...-SMO-2011 Foundation Construction NREL TSD: AEDG-SMO-2011 Wall Absorptance DOE 2.1E BDL SUMMARY, Page 12 Assuming gray, light oil paint Wall Insulation (hr-sq.ft.-°F/Btu) ASHRAE 90.1-2001 Table B-8 and ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Table 5.5-3 Roof Absorptance ASHRAE 90...

  15. Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency Measures for Above Code (ASHRAE 90.1-2001 and 2007) Small Retail Buildings in the City of Arlington 

    E-print Network

    Do, S.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.; Lewis, C.; Kim, K.H.; Kim, H.

    2011-01-01

    ). The information provided in this report is intended to be the best available information at the time of publication. TEES makes no claim or warranty, express or implied that the report or data herein is necessarily error-free. Reference herein to any specific... retail buildings in the CoA. For more realistic recommendations, the CoA provided two years of commercial building energy compliance reports from 2008 to 2010 which exceeded the energy efficiency requirements of the CoA (i.e., ASHRAE 90...

  16. Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: brick arch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: brick arch lintel over historic entry that was brick infilled; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  17. Exterior building details of Building C, west façade: second floor: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, west façade: second floor: four-over-four windows, arch brick lintels, brick sills, decorative metal grilles; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  18. Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: doublehung wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building D, west façade: double-hung wood window with brick arch lintel and brick sill; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  19. Exterior building details of Building E, oblique west façade: brick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building E, oblique west façade: brick arch lintel and brick infilled window with brick sill; southeasterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  20. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  1. 6. West side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  2. 3. East side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. East side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking west - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  3. 5. North side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. North side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking southeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  4. 4. South side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. South side of Building 1001 (administration building), looking north - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  5. 9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior of Building 1001 (administration building), Room 204, vault, looking east - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Building 1001, Independence Street, .45 mile south of intersection of Texas State Highway & Independence Street, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  6. Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: ca. 1914 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: ca. 1914 covered porch with an asphalt singled low-hipped roof; southwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  7. Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: brick quoins, brick lintels, brick window sills, decorative metal grilles, scored cement finished brick wall; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  8. Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: second floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: second floor entrance with cement plaster profiled surround and embedded wood beam end; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  9. Patterns of state building in the Arabian Gulf: Kuwait and Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Crystal, J.

    1986-01-01

    In the past few decades Kuwait and Qatar have experienced a radial but apparently smoothly transition from protectorate poverty to petroleum prosperity. Rapid economic and social changes have been accompanied by remarkable political continuity at the apex of their systems. This thesis examines this apparent continuity in ruling regimes. Oil revenues, it argues, preserved continuity only at the very apex of the political system. This continuity was accompanied by the breakdown of the historical ruling coalition binding the amirs and the trading families and its replacement by a new, but ultimately precarious, set of coalitions: first, between the amir and the national population, through social services and direct transfers; second, between the amir and the ruling family, whose political role expanded. These changes were the result of oil: by freeing rulers from the need to extract resources from the population, oil freed them from their historical economic hence political dependence on the merchants, the group which had historically pressed its claims most effectively on the state. Instead a tacit deal developed between the amirs and the trading families: a trade of wealth for formal power. Finally, the thesis argues that these new arrangements are only transitional adaptations. Distributive policies designed to ensure domestic peace have inadvertantly created relatively large and complex state administrations, or distributive states.

  10. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  11. Steady-State Gyrokinetics Transport Code (SSGKT), A Scientific Application Partnership with the Framework Application for Core-Edge Transport Simulations, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, Mark R.; Candy, Jeff

    2013-11-07

    This project initiated the development of TGYRO ? a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale GYRO turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of conventional tokamaks as well as future reactors. Using a lightweight master transport code, multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations are coordinated. The capability to evolve profiles using the TGLF model was also added to TGYRO and represents a more typical use-case for TGYRO. The goal of the project was to develop a steady-state Gyrokinetic transport code (SSGKT) that integrates micro-scale gyrokinetic turbulence simulations into a framework for practical multi-scale simulation of a burning plasma core ? the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in particular. This multi-scale simulation capability will be used to predict the performance (the fusion energy gain, Q) given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. At present, projections of this type rely on transport models like GLF23, which are based on rather approximate fits to the results of linear and nonlinear simulations. Our goal is to make these performance projections with precise nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. The method of approach is to use a lightweight master transport code to coordinate multiple independent (each massively parallel) gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code. This project targets the practical multi-scale simulation of a reactor core plasma in order to predict the core temperature and density profiles given the H-mode pedestal temperature and density. A master transport code will provide feedback to O(16) independent gyrokinetic simulations (each massively parallel). A successful feedback scheme offers a novel approach to predictive modeling of an important national and international problem. Success in this area of fusion simulations will allow US scientists to direct the research path of ITER over the next two decades. The design of an efficient feedback algorithm is a serious numerical challenge. Although the power source and transport balance coding in the master are standard, it is nontrivial to design a feedback loop that can cope with outputs that are both intermittent and extremely expensive. A prototypical feedback scheme has already been successfully demonstrated for a single global GYRO simulation, although the robustness and efficiency are likely far from optimal. Once the transport feedback scheme is perfected, it could, in principle, be embedded into any of the more elaborate transport codes (ONETWO, TRANSP, and CORSICA), or adopted by other FSP-related multi-scale projects.

  12. Approved Module Information for EC314C, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Building Services Module Code: EC314C

    E-print Network

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    service installation. ii. Appreciation of the work carried out by mechanical and electrical (M&E) sub systems Heating and ventilation Gas installation and controls Electrical supply and distribution within and standards relevant to building services and their installation Intellectual Skills i. Research into specific

  13. Overview of Commercial Buildings, 2003

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration conducts the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) to collect information on energy-related building characteristics and types and amounts of energy consumed in commercial buildings in the United States.

  14. Tuning the excited state of photoactive building blocks for metal-templated self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Haslina; Meijer, Anthony J H M; Thomas, Jim A

    2011-09-01

    The reaction of 2,2':4,4'':4',4'''-quaterpyridyl (qtpy), with d(6) ruthenium(II) (Ru(II) ), and rhenium(I) (Re(I) ) metal centers has been investigated. The pendant pyridyl groups on the products have also been methylated to produce a second series of complexes containing coordinated Meqtpy(2+). The absorption spectra of the complexes are dominated by intraligand and charge-transfer bands. The ruthenium(II) complexes display broad unstructured luminescence consistent with emission from a Ru(d)?diimine(?*) manifold in acetonitrile solutions. In aqueous solutions, their emissions are weaker and the lifetimes are shorter. This effect is particularly acute for complexes incorporating coordinated dipyridylpyrazine, dppz, ligands. Although the emission of the ruthenium(II) complexes containing Meqtpy(2+) is generally shorter than their qtpy analogs, it is notable that solvent-dependent effects are much less intense. The rhenium(I) complexes also display broad unstructured luminescence but, compared with the ruthenium(II) systems, they have a relatively short lifetime in acetonitrile. Electrochemical studies reveal that all of the Ru(II) complexes display chemically reversible metal-based oxidations. Re(I) complexes only display irreversible metal-based oxidations. In most cases, the reduction processes were not fully chemically reversible. The electrochemical and optical studies reveal that the nature of the lowest excited state of these complexes--particularly, the systems incorporating dppz--is highly dependent on the nature of the coordinated ligands. Calculations indicate that, although the excited state of most of the complexes is centered on the qtpy or Meqtpy(2+) ligands, the excited state of the complexes containing dppz ligands is switched away from the dppz by qtpy methylation. A crystallographic study on one of the dicationic ruthenium(II) structures reveals that it forms an inclusion complex with benzene. PMID:21735553

  15. A comparison of IBC with 1997 UBC for modal response spectrum analysis in standard-occupancy buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahhas, Tariq M.

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of the seismic forces generated from a Modal Response Spectrum Analysis (MRSA) by applying the provisions of two building codes, the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC) and the 2000-2009 International Building Code (IBC), to the most common ordinary residential buildings of standard occupancy. Considering IBC as the state of the art benchmark code, the primary concern is the safety of buildings designed using the UBC as compared to those designed using the IBC. A sample of four buildings with different layouts and heights was used for this comparison. Each of these buildings was assumed to be located at four different geographical sample locations arbitrarily selected to represent various earthquake zones on a seismic map of the USA, and was subjected to code-compliant response spectrum analyses for all sample locations and for five different soil types at each location. Response spectrum analysis was performed using the ETABS software package. For all the cases investigated, the UBC was found to be significantly more conservative than the IBC. The UBC design response spectra have higher spectral accelerations, and as a result, the response spectrum analysis provided a much higher base shear and moment in the structural members as compared to the IBC. The conclusion is that ordinary office and residential buildings designed using UBC 1997 are considered to be overdesigned, and therefore they are quite safe even according to the IBC provisions.

  16. Analysis of the impacts of energy conservation codes in new single-family homes

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.L.; Hanford, J.W.; Sezgen, A.O.

    1992-12-01

    Within the 50 states some form of federal code or standard for energy conservation in new building construction is typically incorporated into state and local codes. Two of these codes, the Model Energy Code (MEC) and the proposed ASHRAE standard 90.2P are of special importance to the residential data base developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) because they influence thermal requirements and have either been recently updated or will be revised in 1992. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of these two thermal codes on the energy performance and energy consumption of prototypical new single-family buildings. Base case buildings, with characteristics typical of current building practices, are modified to meet the thermal envelope standards and are simulated with the DOE-2.1D building energy simulation program. In addition, we also model the effects of appliance and heating and cooling equipment efficiencies promulgated under the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) of 1987 and of the NAECA Amendments of 1988. We compare heating and cooling loads and energy use for the prototypical house for several cases: the base case, with 1980s vintage thermal envelope and appliance and equipment efficiencies; with ASHRAE 90 thermal requirements; with Model Energy Code thermal requirements; with NAECA appliance and HVAC efficiencies; and with combinations of the ASHRAE 90 Standard or Model Energy Code and the NAECA appliance and equipment efficiency improvements. The results provide a glimpse of how these standards will affect future end-use energy consumption in new single-family buildings.

  17. Putting Chronic Disease on the Map: Building GIS Capacity in State and Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Michele; Tootoo, Joshua; Schieb, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based on geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely adopted and applied in the fields of infectious disease and environmental epidemiology; their use in chronic disease programs is relatively new. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention is collaborating with the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors and the University of Michigan to provide health departments with capacity to integrate GIS into daily operations, which support priorities for surveillance and prevention of chronic diseases. So far, 19 state and 7 local health departments participated in this project. On the basis of these participants’ experiences, we describe our training strategy and identify high-impact GIS skills that can be mastered and applied over a short time in support of chronic disease surveillance. We also describe the web-based resources in the Chronic Disease GIS Exchange that were produced on the basis of this training and are available to anyone interested in GIS and chronic disease (www.cdc.gov/DHDSP/maps/GISX). GIS offers diverse sets of tools that promise increased productivity for chronic disease staff of state and local health departments. PMID:23786907

  18. Putting chronic disease on the map: building GIS capacity in state and local health departments.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Casper, Michele; Tootoo, Joshua; Schieb, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Techniques based on geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely adopted and applied in the fields of infectious disease and environmental epidemiology; their use in chronic disease programs is relatively new. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention is collaborating with the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors and the University of Michigan to provide health departments with capacity to integrate GIS into daily operations, which support priorities for surveillance and prevention of chronic diseases. So far, 19 state and 7 local health departments participated in this project. On the basis of these participants' experiences, we describe our training strategy and identify high-impact GIS skills that can be mastered and applied over a short time in support of chronic disease surveillance. We also describe the web-based resources in the Chronic Disease GIS Exchange that were produced on the basis of this training and are available to anyone interested in GIS and chronic disease (www.cdc.gov/DHDSP/maps/GISX). GIS offers diverse sets of tools that promise increased productivity for chronic disease staff of state and local health departments. PMID:23786907

  19. Building hierarchical models of avian distributions for the State of Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, J.E.; Peterson, J.T.; Conroy, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    To predict the distributions of breeding birds in the state of Georgia, USA, we built hierarchical models consisting of 4 levels of nested mapping units of decreasing area: 90,000 ha, 3,600 ha, 144 ha, and 5.76 ha. We used the Partners in Flight database of point counts to generate presence and absence data at locations across the state of Georgia for 9 avian species: Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), brownheaded nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor), yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyxus americanus), white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus), and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). At each location, we estimated hierarchical-level-specific habitat measurements using the Georgia GAP Analysis18 class land cover and other Geographic Information System sources. We created candidate, species-specific occupancy models based on previously reported relationships, and fit these using Markov chain Monte Carlo procedures implemented in OpenBugs. We then created a confidence model set for each species based on Akaike's Information Criterion. We found hierarchical habitat relationships for all species. Three-fold cross-validation estimates of model accuracy indicated an average overall correct classification rate of 60.5%. Comparisons with existing Georgia GAP Analysis models indicated that our models were more accurate overall. Our results provide guidance to wildlife scientists and managers seeking predict avian occurrence as a function of local and landscape-level habitat attributes.

  20. Achievable Steps Toward Building a National Health Information Infrastructure in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Stead, William W.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kolodner, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need to reflect carefully on which approaches are likely to work on a large enough scale to have the intended beneficial national impacts and which are better left to smaller projects within the boundaries of health care organizations. This report provides a primer for use by informatics professionals as they explain aspects of that dividing line to policy makers and to health care leaders and front-line providers. It then identifies short-term, intermediate, and long-term steps that might be taken by the NHII initiative. PMID:15561783

  1. Building a meteorology/atmospheric science program for the future - the Penn State approach (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, W. H.; Shirer, H. N.; Young, G. S.; Verlinde, J.

    2009-12-01

    The Department of Meteorology at the Pennsylvania State University, which will have its 75th anniversary in 2010, has become one of the largest meteorology and atmospheric science programs in the country. While we would like a small increase in the size of our student populations, we focus primarily on three goals: becoming better in every aspect of our program; ensuring that our curricula and programs of today will prepare our graduates for the careers of tomorrow; and broadening the impact of our teaching, research, and service. Accomplishing these goals requires almost continual strategic planning that emphasizes the most immediate needs in the context of the overall program. In this presentation, we will discuss our program’s vision, structure, processes, and recent results.

  2. Spinal codes

    E-print Network

    Perry, Jonathan

    Spinal codes are a new class of rateless codes that enable wireless networks to cope with time-varying channel conditions in a natural way, without requiring any explicit bit rate selection. The key idea in the code is the ...

  3. Spinal codes

    E-print Network

    Perry, Jonathan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Spinal codes are a new class of rateless codes that enable wireless networks to cope with time-varying channel conditions in a natural way, without requiring any explicit bit rate selection. The key idea in the code is the ...

  4. Analysis of the Impact of Using Improved Multi-Layer Window Models for Code-Compliant Residential Building Energy Simulation in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Choi, Jong-Hyo

    2014-12-23

    National Laboratory (LBNL), especially in the case of Low-e coated windows. Therefore, the more accurate calculation of window heat transfer method should be used to calculate total U.S. annual building energy savings from advanced windows. 2... more sophisticated heat transfer calculations of window systems than the previously developed conventional glazing calculation method (i.e., the TAR method). One of these efforts, by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), developed...

  5. Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States

    PubMed Central

    Merrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S.Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography. PMID:21387006

  6. Coordinating across scales: Building a regional marsh bird monitoring program from national and state Initiatives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shriver, G.W.; Sauer, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Salt marsh breeding bird populations (rails, bitterns, sparrows, etc.) in eastern North America are high conservation priorities in need of site specific and regional monitoring designed to detect population changes over time. The present status and trends of these species are unknown but anecdotal evidence of declines in many of the species has raised conservation concerns. Most of these species are listed as conservation priorities on comprehensive wildlife plans throughout the eastern U.S. National Wildlife Refuges, National Park Service units, and other wildlife conservation areas provide important salt marsh habitat. To meet management needs for these areas, and to assist regional conservation planning, survey designs are being developed to estimate abundance and population trends for these breeding bird species. The primary purpose of this project is to develop a hierarchical sampling frame for salt marsh birds in Bird Conservation Region (BCR) 30 that will provide the ability to estimate species population abundances on 1) specific sites (i.e. National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges), 2) within states or regions, and 3) within BCR 30. The entire breeding range of Saltmarsh Sharp-tailed and Coastal Plain Swamp sparrows are within BCR 30, providing an opportunity to detect population trends within the entire breeding ranges of two priority species.

  7. Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe

    2008-07-08

    Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements.

  8. This paper has been downloaded from the Building and Environmental Thermal Systems Research Group at Oklahoma State University (www.hvac.okstate.edu)

    E-print Network

    at Oklahoma State University (www.hvac.okstate.edu) The correct citation for the paper is: Spitler, J., C is an important componentof building design andsimulation programs. Current models and heat transfer coef changesper hour (ach); and an air speed and temperature measurementsystem. This paper describes the design

  9. This paper has been downloaded from the Building and Environmental Thermal Systems Research Group at Oklahoma State University (www.hvac.okstate.edu)

    E-print Network

    , ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) engineers, who design HVAC systems and/or perform building energy at Oklahoma State University (www.hvac.okstate.edu) The correct citation for the paper is: Chantrasrisalai, C., D.E. Fisher, I.S. Iu, and D. Eldridge. 2003. "Experimental Validation of Design Cooling Load

  10. Controlled Quantum Dense Coding in a Four-particle Non-maximally Entangled State via Local Measurements

    E-print Network

    Chang-Bao Fu; Yan Xia; Bo-Xue Liu; Shou Zhang; Kyu-Hwang Yeon; Chung-In Um

    2006-01-21

    A controlled quantum dense coding scheme is investigated with a four-particle non-maximal quantum channel. The amount of classical information is shown to be capable of being controlled by the controllers through adjustments of the local measurement angles and to depend on the coefficients of the quantum channel; in addition, the four particles are distributed in two inverse ways in such an quantum channel. A restricted condition for distributing the particles to realize quantum dense coding in an arbitrary ($N+2$)-particle quantum channel is proposed.

  11. 2006 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 19, NO. 24, DECEMBER 15, 2007 LDPC-Coded Optical Coherent State Quantum

    E-print Network

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.

    Coherent State Quantum Communications Ivan B. Djordjevic, Member, IEEE Abstract--The problem, optical communications, quantum receiver. I. INTRODUCTION THE optical coherent state discrimination the optimism that optical coherent state communications might become reality soon. The optical field provided

  12. Commercial Energy Code Enforcement in Oregon and Washington 

    E-print Network

    Johnson, M.; Miller, W.; O'Neill, M.

    1988-01-01

    ENFORCEMENT IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON WILL MILLER )(AURA O'NEILL UARK JOHNSON TECHNICAL DIRECTOR PRESIDENT PUBLIC UTILITIES SPECIALIST PORTLAND ENERGY CONSERVATION, IWC . , O'NEILL 6 CO., INC., BONNEVILLE POWER ADHINISTBATION PORTLAND, OREGON SEATTLE... and remodeled commercial buildings. The studies were performed for the Bonneville Power Administration to better understand the current enEorcement practices and costs of enforcing the commercial energy codes in these two states. The Oregon study...

  13. Building Commissioning Process: Quality Buildings for Better Quality of Life 

    E-print Network

    Leung

    2006-01-01

    of the HKSAR has launched a new voluntary scheme, termed the Consolidated Environmental Performance Assessment Scheme (CEPAS) that promote the design of environmental-friendly buildings in Hong Kong. Building Commissioning has been incorporated... Building Commissioning Code, ?M1 ? A Practice Guide on Building Commissioning Management for Hong Kong? was launched in March 2006. The second commissioning document M2 is currently being drafted and will be available for review by independent experts...

  14. An Assessment of Comprehensive Code Prediction State-of-the-Art Using the HART II International Workshop Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWall, Berend G.; Lim, Joon W.; Smith, Marilyn J.; Jung, Sung N.; Bailly, Joelle; Baeder, James D.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant advancements in computational fluid dynamics and their coupling with computational structural dynamics (= CSD, or comprehensive codes) for rotorcraft applications, CSD codes with their engineering level of modeling the rotor blade dynamics, the unsteady sectional aerodynamics and the vortical wake are still the workhorse for the majority of applications. This is especially true when a large number of parameter variations is to be performed and their impact on performance, structural loads, vibration and noise is to be judged in an approximate yet reliable and as accurate as possible manner. In this paper, the capabilities of such codes are evaluated using the HART II Inter- national Workshop data base, focusing on a typical descent operating condition which includes strong blade-vortex interactions. Three cases are of interest: the baseline case and two cases with 3/rev higher harmonic blade root pitch control (HHC) with different control phases employed. One setting is for minimum blade-vortex interaction noise radiation and the other one for minimum vibration generation. The challenge is to correctly predict the wake physics - especially for the cases with HHC - and all the dynamics, aerodynamics, modifications of the wake structure and the aero-acoustics coming with it. It is observed that the comprehensive codes used today have a surprisingly good predictive capability when they appropriately account for all of the physics involved. The minimum requirements to obtain these results are outlined.

  15. Cost-Effecitive Energy Efficiency Measure for Above 2003 and 2009 IECC Code-Compliant Residential and Commercial Buildings in the City of Arlington 

    E-print Network

    Kim, H.; Do, S.; Baltazar, J.C.; Haberl, J.; Lewis, C.

    2011-01-01

    A Residential Project, p.11 July 2011 Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University Table 5. System Information of 21 Residential Buildings 1 R-6 R-6 Untested - Uncond. 14 5.0 HP 7.7 - Elec 0.91 - 2 R-6 R-6 Untested - Uncond. 13 3.5 Gas - 0.8 Gas 0..., these houses will be referred to as (a) electric/gas house and (b) all-electric house, respectively. CoA Residential Project, p.3 July 2011 Energy Systems Laboratory, Texas A&M University Figure 5. Tarrant County and Fort Worth TMY2 Weather File Used...

  16. Low-Rate Turbo Codes for Deep-Space Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    It is shown how turbo codes and decoders can be used to improve the coding gain for deep-space communications, while decreasing the decoding complexity with respect to the large constraint length convolutional codes currently in use. Similar code constructions were used to build multiple-encoder turbo codes. This generalizes the turbo decoding concept to a truly distributed decoding system.

  17. On Linear Network Coding Sidharth Jaggi, Michelle Effros

    E-print Network

    Ho, Tracey

    On Linear Network Coding #3; Sidharth Jaggi, Michelle Effros Dept. of Electrical Engineering coding. We examine prior definitions of linearity in network coding and show their implications in terms of code design and performance. We demonstrate how codes with one notion of linearity can be used to build

  18. Solar buildings. Overview: The Solar Buildings Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Buildings account for more than one third of the energy used in the United States each year, consuming vast amounts of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil. Given this level of consumption, the buildings sector is rife with opportunity for alternative energy technologies. The US Department of Energy`s Solar Buildings Program was established to take advantage of this opportunity. The Solar Buildings Program is engaged in research, development, and deployment on solar thermal technologies, which use solar energy to produce heat. The Program focuses on technologies that have the potential to produce economically competitive energy for the buildings sector.

  19. Design and implementation of a structural health monitoring and alerting system for hospital buildings in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulusoy, Hasan S.; Kalkan, Erol; Fletcher, Jon Peter B.; Friberg, Paul; Leith, W. K.; Banga, Krishna

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the current progress in the development of a structural health monitoring and alerting system to meet the needs of the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs to monitor hospital buildings instrumented in high and very high seismic hazard regions in the U.S. The system, using the measured vibration data, is primarily designed for post-earthquake condition assessment of the buildings. It has two essential components – sensing and analysis. The sensing component includes all necessary firmware and sensors to measure the response of the building; while the analysis component consists of several data processing modules integrated into an open source software package which compresses a large amount of measured data into useful information to assess the building’s condition before and after an event. The information can be used for a rapid building safety assessment, and to support decisions for necessary repairs, replacements, and other maintenance and rehabilitation measures.

  20. 10 CFR 434.520 - Speculative buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL...RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.520 Speculative...ILPA) for calculating the Energy Cost Budget shall be...

  1. 10 CFR 434.520 - Speculative buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL...RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.520 Speculative...ILPA) for calculating the Energy Cost Budget shall be...

  2. 10 CFR 434.520 - Speculative buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL...RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.520 Speculative...ILPA) for calculating the Energy Cost Budget shall be...

  3. 10 CFR 434.520 - Speculative buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL...RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.520 Speculative...ILPA) for calculating the Energy Cost Budget shall be...

  4. 10 CFR 434.520 - Speculative buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL...RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.520 Speculative...ILPA) for calculating the Energy Cost Budget shall be...

  5. Computer Model Buildings Contaminated with Radioactive Material

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-05-19

    The RESRAD-BUILD computer code is a pathway analysis model designed to evaluate the potential radiological dose incurred by an individual who works or lives in a building contaminated with radioactive material.

  6. 2. Overview of Buildings 2015, 2133 and 2009, with Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview of Buildings 2015, 2133 and 2009, with Building 1001 (administration building) in background, looking northeast - Naval Air Station Chase Field, Texas State Highway 202, 4.8 miles east of intersection of Texas State Highway 202 & U.S. State Highway 181, Beeville, Bee County, TX

  7. 10 CFR 434.505 - Reference building method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...434.505 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.505 Reference building...

  8. 10 CFR 434.503 - Prototype building procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...434.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.503 Prototype building...

  9. 10 CFR 434.503 - Prototype building procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...434.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.503 Prototype building...

  10. 10 CFR 434.505 - Reference building method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...434.505 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.505 Reference building...

  11. 10 CFR 434.505 - Reference building method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...434.505 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.505 Reference building...

  12. 10 CFR 434.503 - Prototype building procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...434.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.503 Prototype building...

  13. 10 CFR 434.503 - Prototype building procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...434.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.503 Prototype building...

  14. 10 CFR 434.505 - Reference building method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...434.505 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.505 Reference building...

  15. 10 CFR 434.505 - Reference building method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...434.505 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.505 Reference building...

  16. 10 CFR 434.503 - Prototype building procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...434.503 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.503 Prototype building...

  17. Overview of Development and Deployment of Codes, Standards and Regulations Affecting Energy Storage System Safety in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, David R.

    2014-08-22

    This report acquaints stakeholders and interested parties involved in the development and/or deployment of energy storage systems (ESS) with the subject of safety-related codes, standards and regulations (CSRs). It is hoped that users of this document gain a more in depth and uniform understanding of safety-related CSR development and deployment that can foster improved communications among all ESS stakeholders and the collaboration needed to realize more timely acceptance and approval of safe ESS technology through appropriate CSR.

  18. 10 CFR 434.520 - Speculative buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Speculative buildings. 434.520 Section 434.520 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.520 Speculative buildings....

  19. 10 CFR 434.520 - Speculative buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Speculative buildings. 434.520 Section 434.520 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.520 Speculative buildings....

  20. 10 CFR 434.520 - Speculative buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Speculative buildings. 434.520 Section 434.520 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.520 Speculative buildings....