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1

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

2009-04-30

2

State building codes and regulations, 3rd ed  

SciTech Connect

The source of information on state building codes and regulations in the U.S. provides basic data on individual state building codes and regulations. The guide lists state officials to contact for more information. Lists the technical basis for enactment; administrative rules and regulations; preemptive application; occupancy classifications; level of enforcement and enforcement agency.

Not Available

1985-01-01

3

Building Codes and Standards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief document from David Cohan includes some information on building codes and standards. The purpose of building codes and standards is defined, and how they relate to energy and sustainability topics is also explored. This document would be useful for instructors looking for some notes on how to incorporate building codes and standards into their class work, or for students looking to learn more about the topic. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Cohan, David

2012-01-17

4

Texas State Building Energy Code: Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Commercial Lighting Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The State Energy Conservation Office of Texas has asked the U.S. Department of Energy to analyze the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in the 2003 IECC as they consider adoption of this energy code. The new provisions of interest in the lighting section of IECC 2003 include new lighting power densities (LPD) and requirements for automatic lighting shutoff controls. The potential effect of the new LPD values is analyzed as a comparison with previous values in the nationally available IECC codes and ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The basis for the analysis is a set of lighting models developed as part of the ASHRAE/IES code process, which is the basis for IECC 2003 LPD values. The use of the models allows for an effective comparison of values for various building types of interest to Texas state. Potential effects from control requirements are discussed, and available case study analysis results are provided but no comprehensive numerical evaluation is provided in this limited analysis effort.

Richman, Eric E.; Belzer, David B.; Winiarski, David W.

2005-09-15

5

Building Codes and Regulations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The hazard of fire is of great concern to libraries due to combustible books and new plastics used in construction and interiors. Building codes and standards can offer architects and planners guidelines to follow but these standards should be closely monitored, updated, and researched for fire prevention. (DS)

Fisher, John L.

6

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

2009-04-15

7

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

2009-04-02

8

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in India  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America. This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in India, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes in India, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial buildings in India.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Somasundaram, Sriram

2009-04-07

9

Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada  

SciTech Connect

This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

2009-04-06

10

Seminar on building codes and standards  

SciTech Connect

A seminar was conducted for state building code officials and state energy officials to discuss the following: status of the states regulatory activities for energy conservation standards for buildings; the development, administration, and enforcement processes for energy conservation standards affecting new construction; lighting and thermal standards for existing buildings; status of the development and implementation of the Title III Program, Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS); and current status of the State Energy Conservation Program. The welcoming address was given by John Wenning and the keynote address was delivered by John Millhone. Four papers presented were: Building Energy Performance Standards Development, James Binkley; Lighting Standards in Existing Buildings, Dorothy Cronheim; Implementation of BEPS, Archie Twitchell; Sanctions for Building Energy Performance Standards, Sue Sicherman.

Not Available

1980-01-01

11

United States Code  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every six years, the Office of the Law Revision Counsel, US House of Representatives, publishes the United States Code, the "codification of the general and permanent laws of the United States." The first seven titles of the 2000 code have been made available this month at GPO Access. The code can be browsed and searched, and search results include citations plus links to the full text of the legislation.

2001-01-01

12

A Retrospective Analysis of Commercial Building Energy Codes: 1990 – 2008  

SciTech Connect

Building Energy Codes Program's efforts are designed to result in increased stringency in national model energy codes, more rapid and broader adoption by states and localities of updated codes, and increased compliance and enforcement. Report estimates the historical impact of Building Energy Codes Program in terms of energy savings achieved that are based upon various editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1 (ASHRAE Standard 90.1).

Belzer, David B.; McDonald, Sean C.; Halverson, Mark A.

2010-10-01

13

1994 Building energy codes and standards workshops: Summary and documentation  

SciTech Connect

During the spring of 1994, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, conducted five two-day Regional Building Energy Codes and Standards workshops across the United States. Workshops were held in Chicago, Philadelphia, Atlanta, Dallas, and Denver. The workshops were designed to benefit state-level officials including staff of building code commissions, energy offices, public utility commissions, and others involved with adopting/updating, implementing, and enforcing state building codes in their states. The workshops provided an opportunity for state and other officials to learn more about the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requirements for residential and commercial building energy codes, the Climate Change Action Plan, the role of the U.S. Department of Energy and the Building Energy Standards Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, the commercial and residential codes and standards, the Home Energy Rating Systems (HERS), Energy Efficient Mortgages (EEM), training issues, and other topics related to the development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement of building energy codes. In addition to receiving information on the above topics, workshop participants were also encouraged to inform DOE of their needs, particularly with regard to implementing building energy codes, enhancing current implementation efforts, and building on training efforts already in place. This paper documents the workshop findings and workshop planning and follow-up processes.

Sandahl, L.J.; Shankle, D.L.

1994-09-01

14

75 FR 20833 - Building Energy Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standard 90.1-2007, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential...2009 International Energy Conservation Code (or equivalent) for low- rise residential...Standard 90.1-2007, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise...

2010-04-21

15

Office of Codes and Standards resource book. Section 1, Building energy codes and standards  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide: A discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stakeholders in the building energy codes and standards arena. The Resource Book is considered an evolving document and will be updated occasionally. Users are requested to submit additional data (e.g., more current, widely accepted, and/or documented data) and suggested changes to the address listed below. Please provide sources for all data provided.

Hattrup, M.P.

1995-01-01

16

Building Construction and Codes Course Outline  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from Betty Ravnik of Alexandria Technical College provides an outline for a three-credit building construction and codes course. The main goal of this course is to identify housing components and historic housing styles. Students learn about common structural materials used in building and their applications. The outline includes an extensive list of objectives for the course. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Ravnik, Betty

2011-11-24

17

Determinate-state convolutional codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A determinate state convolutional code is formed from a conventional convolutional code by pruning away some of the possible state transitions in the decoding trellis. The type of staged power transfer used in determinate state convolutional codes proves to be an extremely efficient way of enhancing the performance of a concatenated coding system. The decoder complexity is analyzed along with free distances of these new codes and extensive simulation results is provided of their performance at the low signal to noise ratios where a real communication system would operate. Concise, practical examples are provided.

Collins, O.; Hizlan, M.

1991-01-01

18

A Comparative Study on Seismic Analysis of Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) with Other Building Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tectonic framework of Bangladesh and adjoining areas indicate that Bangladesh lies well within an active seismic zone. The after effect of earthquake is more severe in an underdeveloped and a densely populated country like ours than any other developed countries. Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC) was first established in 1993 to provide guidelines for design and construction of new structure subject to earthquake ground motions in order to minimize the risk to life for all structures. A revision of BNBC 1993 is undergoing to make this up to date with other international building codes. This paper aims at the comparison of various provisions of seismic analysis as given in building codes of different countries. This comparison will give an idea regarding where our country stands when it comes to safety against earth quake. Primarily, various seismic parameters in BNBC 2010 (draft) have been studied and compared with that of BNBC 1993. Later, both 1993 and 2010 edition of BNBC codes have been compared graphically with building codes of other countries such as National Building Code of India 2005 (NBC-India 2005), American Society of Civil Engineering 7-05 (ASCE 7-05). The base shear/weight ratios have been plotted against the height of the building. The investigation in this paper reveals that BNBC 1993 has the least base shear among all the codes. Factored Base shear values of BNBC 2010 are found to have increased significantly than that of BNBC 1993 for low rise buildings (?20 m) around the country than its predecessor. Despite revision of the code, BNBC 2010 (draft) still suggests less base shear values when compared to the Indian and American code. Therefore, this increase in factor of safety against the earthquake imposed by the proposed BNBC 2010 code by suggesting higher values of base shear is appreciable.

Bari, Md. S.; Das, T.

2013-09-01

19

The Influence of Building Codes on Recreation Facility Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Implications of building codes upon design and construction of recreation facilities are investigated (national building codes, recreation facility standards, and misperceptions of design requirements). Recreation professionals can influence architectural designers to correct past deficiencies, but they must understand architectural and…

Morrison, Thomas A.

1989-01-01

20

Superdense coding using multipartite states  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that with the fourpartite quantum channel used to teleport an arbitrary two qubit state, we can construct a superdense coding protocol where it is possible to transmit 4 bits of classical information sending only 2 qubits. Alice and Bob initially share a four qubit maximally entangled state and by locally manipulating her two qubits Alice can generate 16

G. Rigolin

2004-01-01

21

Reusable State Machine Code Generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.

Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.

2010-12-01

22

ICAN Computer Code Adapted for Building Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center has been involved in developing composite micromechanics and macromechanics theories over the last three decades. These activities have resulted in several composite mechanics theories and structural analysis codes whose applications range from material behavior design and analysis to structural component response. One of these computer codes, the Integrated Composite Analyzer (ICAN), is designed primarily to address issues related to designing polymer matrix composites and predicting their properties - including hygral, thermal, and mechanical load effects. Recently, under a cost-sharing cooperative agreement with a Fortune 500 corporation, Master Builders Inc., ICAN was adapted to analyze building materials. The high costs and technical difficulties involved with the fabrication of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites sometimes limit their use. Particulate-reinforced composites can be thought of as a viable alternative. They are as easily processed to near-net shape as monolithic materials, yet have the improved stiffness, strength, and fracture toughness that is characteristic of continuous-fiber-reinforced composites. For example, particlereinforced metal-matrix composites show great potential for a variety of automotive applications, such as disk brake rotors, connecting rods, cylinder liners, and other hightemperature applications. Building materials, such as concrete, can be thought of as one of the oldest materials in this category of multiphase, particle-reinforced materials. The adaptation of ICAN to analyze particle-reinforced composite materials involved the development of new micromechanics-based theories. A derivative of the ICAN code, ICAN/PART, was developed and delivered to Master Builders Inc. as a part of the cooperative activity.

Murthy, Pappu L. N.

1997-01-01

23

SAFETY IN THE DESIGN OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES AND BUILDING CODES.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE DESIGN OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS USED FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES AND REGULATIONS. MAJOR TOPIC AREAS ARE--(1) SAFETY RELATED DESIGN FEATURES OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES, (2) LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES, AND (3) EVIDENCE OF UNSAFE DESIGN. EXAMPLES EMPHASIZE…

HOROWITZ, HAROLD

24

SALT steady state systems code  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady state system code has been developed at ANL and has been used to analyze or evaluate the following technologies: open cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), liquid metal MHD, fuel cells, combined cycle coal gasification plants, pulverized coal fired power plants with flue gas desulfurization, pressurized and atmospheric fluidized bed combustion plants, municipal solid waste disposal systems, geothermal systems, fusion reactor

G. Berry; H. Geyer

1983-01-01

25

SALT steady state systems code  

SciTech Connect

A steady state system code has been developed at ANL and has been used to analyze or evaluate the following technologies: open cycle magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), liquid metal MHD, fuel cells, combined cycle coal gasification plants, pulverized coal fired power plants with flue gas desulfurization, pressurized and atmospheric fluidized bed combustion plants, municipal solid waste disposal systems, geothermal systems, fusion reactor coolant systems, nuclear power plants, and ocean thermal energy conversion power plants. The SALT systems code contains many unique and state-of-the-art features that have promoted its use in the many extensive systems. These features are: (1) a language translator, which allows free format and unsorted input; (2) a preprocessor, which allows great flexibility in defining a system and permitting the user to generate his own labels; (3) a state-of-the-art hybrid nonlinear N-dimensional equation solver that is extremely fast and robust (this algorithm has been incorporated in the latest version of the EPRI dynamic systems code (MMS) to find the steady-state solution), (4) a state-of-the-art optimizer; (5) a chemical-equilibrium subroutine for calculating thermodynamic gas properties for specific chemical compositions; (6) off-design analysis capability; (7) economic modeling subroutines; (8) extensive use of splines for accurate and quick numerical evaluations (e.g., steam tables are represented by cubic splines); (9) precompiled models, so that only one set of generic instructions is loaded into core for each unique model type; (10) total modularity; and (11) compactness (an abridged version has fit on a 64K microprocessor).

Berry, G.; Geyer, H.

1983-01-01

26

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation.  

PubMed

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved [formula: see text] state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved [formula: see text] states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

Fowler, Austin G; Devitt, Simon J; Jones, Cody

2013-01-01

27

Constructions for finite-state codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A class of codes called finite-state (FS) codes is defined and investigated. These codes, which generalize both block and convolutional codes, are defined by their encoders, which are finite-state machines with parallel inputs and outputs. A family of upper bounds on the free distance of a given FS code is derived from known upper bounds on the minimum distance of block codes. A general construction for FS codes is then given, based on the idea of partitioning a given linear block into cosets of one of its subcodes, and it is shown that in many cases the FS codes constructed in this way have a d sub free which is as large as possible. These codes are found without the need for lengthy computer searches, and have potential applications for future deep-space coding systems. The issue of catastropic error propagation (CEP) for FS codes is also investigated.

Pollara, F.; Mceliece, R. J.; Abdel-Ghaffar, K.

1987-01-01

28

Layered Coding Transport (LCT) Building Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layered Coding Transport (LCT) provides transport level support for reliable content delivery and stream delivery protocols. LCT is specifically designed to support protocols using IP multicast, but also provides support to protocols that use unicast. LCT is compatible with congestion control that provides multiple rate delivery to receivers and is also compatible with coding techniques that provide reliable delivery of

L. Vicisano; L. Rizzo; Univ. Pisa; J. Crowcroft

2002-01-01

29

76 FR 57982 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Docket No. EERE-2011-BT-BC-0046] Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis Correction In notice document 2011-23236 beginning on page 56413...

2011-09-19

30

Building guide : how to build Xyce from source code.  

SciTech Connect

While Xyce uses the Autoconf and Automake system to configure builds, it is often necessary to perform more than the customary %E2%80%9C./configure%E2%80%9D builds many open source users have come to expect. This document describes the steps needed to get Xyce built on a number of common platforms.

Keiter, Eric Richard; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Sholander, Peter E.; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Verley, Jason C.

2013-08-01

31

National Commercial Construction Characteristics and Compliance With Building Energy Codes: 1999-2007  

SciTech Connect

As States adopt the latest energy standards which continue to be developed with more stringent requirements, a better understanding of actual compliance with standards and construction practice can be important. Claims are made that energy-related standards impose excessive burdens on building owners and the construction industry. Other claims indicate that many energy-codes requirements are common practice and will have little impact on the building community. Analysis of code effects as well as energy efficiency projects and programs are also more important than ever. These energy realities create a need for better information on the current state of new commercial construction. Regional and national studies exist that provide primarily survey data for only selections of buildings in specific locations. This paper presents an assessment of how current new commercial construction complies with applicable energy codes on a national basis for a range of code levels represented by buildings designed in the 1999 – 2007 timeframe. This analysis makes use of a recently updated commercial buildings database with more than 130 energy-related building characteristics from over 340 new commercial buildings across the United States. Energy code compliance of the buildings in this sample is assessed using the COMcheck™ energy standard compliance software tool to determine how closely new construction across the nation is to meeting current and recently adopted energy codes such as ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1. The results present an interesting look at where code requirements stand with respect to current construction and provide insights into the challenges faced by the building community to meet these standards.

Richman, Eric E.; Rauch, Emily M.; Phillips, Jaclyn N.; Petty, Kimberly A.; Knappek, Jessica; Lopez-Rangel, Priscilla L.

2008-04-30

32

Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka  

SciTech Connect

1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

2000-09-30

33

Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where were going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and

John R. Kaufmann; James R. Hand; Mark A. Halverson

2011-01-01

34

MUMPS Code-Building Package for Data-Base Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The MUMPS code-building package described in this report is a collection of MUMPS-11 codes which, given logical specifications set up by a user, automatically construct MUMPS programs. The programs built by the package accomplish various data-base manipul...

C. A. Goad

1975-01-01

35

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Updating the Commercial Building Energy Code in Iowa  

SciTech Connect

The state of Iowa is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

2002-09-07

36

BUILDING STRONGER STATE ENERGY PARTNERSHIPS  

SciTech Connect

When initiated by the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Rebuild America Program (RBA), this project--Strengthening the Partnerships Between the State and Territory Energy Offices and the U.S. Department of Energy--was geared toward addressing some project development and communications barriers between the State Energy Offices and the RBA program. While successful in some states, RBA officials were having difficulty assisting states in forming partnerships with communities and taking advantage of the programs technical assistance and other resources. NASEO's efforts under the project were, in large part, aimed at educating state energy offices about RBA's resources and delivering timely information to help move the program forward by emphasizing the successes of key states and identifying concerns and problems in states beginning to implement RBA activities. This report defines these outreach needs and challenges, the tasks designed to address these issues, and results during the first year of the project. As contemplated in NASEO's workplan, the approach during the first year of the agreement focuses on working through NASEO's State Energy Committee structure. Support provided under the agreement for tasks one and two during year one was intended to address partnerships in the buildings area. Specifically, NASEO was to work with its buildings committee, various state energy office members, and the Rebuild America program to improve partnership efforts, communications, and effectiveness of these combined efforts. The approach of to the project included three elements during year one. First, NASEO and its Buildings Committee were to focus on raising awareness and coordination of Rebuild activities. Through education, one-on-one communications, and presentations at NASEO meetings and other events, staff and the committee will assist Rebuild officials in stimulating interest in the program and building greater support among State Energy Office Directors. Second, NASEO would work to improve the efficiency of America's schools by assisting states and DOE in promoting projects that result in more energy efficient (and clean energy) schools and a better learning environment. Third, NASEO was to identify opportunities, needs, and priorities related to the emerging public benefit funds/programs operated by many states emerging from utility restructuring. This third activity, while still a high-priority for the state energy offices, has not been funded under this agreement. Thus, no activity will be reported. The results of the two funded efforts described above are a significant increase in the awareness of RBA resources and assistance, as well as a better understanding of successful approaches to implementing RBA activities. This technical progress report includes an update of the progress during the first year of cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00nt40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. The report also describes the barriers in conduct of the effort, and our assessment of future progress and activities.

David Terry

2002-04-22

37

Building a Hydrodynamics Code with Kinetic Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the development of a test-particle based kinetic Monte Carlo code for large systems and its application to simulate matter in the continuum regime. Our code combines advantages of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo and the Point-of-Closest-Approach methods to solve the collision integral of the Boltzmann equation. With that, we achieve a high spatial accuracy in simulations while maintaining computational feasibility when applying a large number of test-particles. The hybrid setup of our approach allows us to study systems which move in and out of the hydrodynamic regime, with low and high particle densities. To demonstrate our code's ability to reproduce hydrodynamic behavior we perform shock wave simulations and focus here on the Sedov blast wave test. The blast wave problem describes the evolution of a spherical expanding shock front and is an important verification problem for codes which are applied in astrophysical simulation, especially for approaches which aim to study core-collapse supernovae.

Sagert, Irina; Bauer, Wolfgang; Colbry, Dirk; Pickett, Rodney; Strother, Terrance

2013-08-01

38

New York State Code Adoption Analysis: Lighting Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The adoption of the IECC 2003 Energy code will include a set of Lighting Power Density (LPD) values that are effectively a subset of the values in Addendum g to the ASHRAE/IESNA/ANSI 90.1-2001 Standard which will soon be printed as part of the 90.1-2004 version. An analysis of the effectiveness of this adoption for New York State can be provided by a direct comparison of these values with existing LPD levels represented in the current IECC 2000 code, which are themselves a subset of the current ASHRAE/IESNA/ANSI 90.1-2001 Standard (without addenda). Because the complete ASHRAE 2001 and 2004 sets of LPDs are supported by a set of detailed models, they are best suited to provide the basis for an analysis comparison of the two code levels of lighting power density stringency. It is important to note that this kind of analysis is a point-to-point comparison where a fixed level of real world activity is assumed. It is understood that buildings are not built precisely to code levels and that actual percentage of compliance above and below codes will vary among individual buildings and building types. However, without specific knowledge of this real world activity for all buildings in existence and in the future (post-code adoption) it is not possible to analyze actual effects of code adoption. However, it is possible to compare code levels and determine the potential effect of changes from one code requirement level to another. This is the comparison and effectiveness assessment

Richman, Eric E.

2004-10-20

39

Evaluation of liquefaction potential for building code  

SciTech Connect

The standard approach for the evaluation of the liquefaction susceptibility is based on the estimation of a safety factor between the cyclic shear resistance to liquefaction and the earthquake induced shear stress. Recently, an updated procedure based on shear-wave velocities (V{sub s}) has been proposed which could be more easily applied.These methods have been applied at La Plaja beach of Catania, that experienced liquefaction because of the 1693 earthquake. The detailed geotechnical and V{sub s} information and the realistic ground motion computed for the 1693 event let us compare the two approaches. The successful application of the V{sub s} procedure, slightly modified to fit historical and safety factor information, even if additional field performances are needed, encourages the development of a guide for liquefaction potential analysis, based on well defined V{sub s} profiles to be included in the italian seismic code.

Nunziata, C.; De Nisco, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Univ. Napoli Federico II (Italy); Panza, G. F. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Univ. Trieste (Italy); Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics, ESP-SAND Group, Trieste (Italy)

2008-07-08

40

Understanding Energy Code Acceptance within the Alaska Building Community  

SciTech Connect

This document presents the technical assistance provided to the Alaska Home Financing Corporation on behalf of PNNL regarding the assessment of attitudes toward energy codes within the building community in Alaska. It includes a summary of the existing situation and specific assistance requested by AHFC, the results of a questionnaire designed for builders surveyed in a suburban area of Anchorage, interviews with a lender, a building official, and a research specialist, and recommendations for future action by AHFC.

Mapes, Terry S.

2012-02-14

41

41 CFR 102-80.85 - Are Federally owned and leased buildings exempt from State and local code requirements in fire...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention State and Local...

2013-07-01

42

Energy Code Enforcement Training Manual : Covering the Washington State Energy Code and the Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code.  

SciTech Connect

This manual is designed to provide building department personnel with specific inspection and plan review skills and information on provisions of the 1991 edition of the Washington State Energy Code (WSEC). It also provides information on provisions of the new stand-alone Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality (VIAQ) Code.The intent of the WSEC is to reduce the amount of energy used by requiring energy-efficient construction. Such conservation reduces energy requirements, and, as a result, reduces the use of finite resources, such as gas or oil. Lowering energy demand helps everyone by keeping electricity costs down. (It is less expensive to use existing electrical capacity efficiently than it is to develop new and additional capacity needed to heat or cool inefficient buildings.) The new VIAQ Code (effective July, 1991) is a natural companion to the energy code. Whether energy-efficient or not, an homes have potential indoor air quality problems. Studies have shown that indoor air is often more polluted than outdoor air. The VIAQ Code provides a means of exchanging stale air for fresh, without compromising energy savings, by setting standards for a controlled ventilation system. It also offers requirements meant to prevent indoor air pollution from building products or radon.

Washington State Energy Code Program

1992-05-01

43

Using Mobile Code to Build a Smart Kitchen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software infrastructures for handheld and ubiquitous computing systems help developers tackle many implementation problems. Sun Microsystems recently introduced an infrastructure called Jini. We report on our experiences of using Jini to build a smart kitchen. We found that the central Jini concept of code mobility proved very beneficial, offering a simple mechanism for device interoperability and encouraging developers to better

Tore Urnes; Arne S. Hatlen; Rune Johansen; Øystein Myhre

2000-01-01

44

Enforcing Building Energy Codes in China: Progress and Comparative Lessons  

SciTech Connect

From 1995 to 2005, building energy use in China increased more rapidly than the world average. China has been adding 0.4 to 1.6 billion square meters of floor space annually , making it the world’s largest market for new construction. In fact, by 2020, China is expected to comprise half of all new construction. In response to this, China has begun to make important steps towards achieving building energy efficiency, including the implementation of building energy standards that requires new buildings to be 65% more efficient than buildings from the early 1980s. Making progress on reducing building energy use requires both a comprehensive code and a robust enforcement system. The latter – the enforcement system – is a particularly critical component for assuring that a building code has an effect. China has dramatically enhanced its enforcement system in the past two years, with more detailed requirements for ensuring enforcement and new penalties for non-compliance. We believe that the U.S. and other developed countries could benefit from learning about the multiple checks and the documentation required in China. Similarly, some of the more user-friendly enforcement approaches developed in the U.S. and elsewhere may be useful for China as it strives to improve enforcement in rural and smaller communities. In this article, we provide context to China’s building codes enforcement system by comparing it to the U.S. Among some of the enforcement mechanisms we look at are testing and rating procedures, compliance software, and training and public information.

Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Halverson, Mark A.; Delgado, Alison

2010-08-15

45

Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes  

SciTech Connect

This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

2011-07-01

46

Adoption, implementation and enforcement of commercial building energy codes in New Mexico and Arizona  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering ways to encourage states to adopt energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial buildings in the private sector. Such standards are now mandatory for federal buildings, and for private buildings in 34 states; in the remaining 16 states, the standards serve as guidelines for voluntary compliance. In this study for DOE, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) assessed the process by which energy codes for commercial buildings were adopted and implemented in Arizona and New Mexico. Information was gathered primarily through a series of interviews with state officials, city building officials, architects and engineers, builders, and staff from utilities in the two states. Until other state processes are studied, the extent of the similarities and dissimilarities to the situation in New Mexico and Arizona are unknown. A more extensive study may show that at least some elements of the two state's experience have been paralleled in other parts of the country. General strategies to encourage the adoption of energy codes, assist implementation, and support enforcement were developed based on the research from Arizona and New Mexico and are presented in this report. 6 refs., 4 figs.

Callaway, J W; Thurman, A G; Shankle, D L

1991-07-01

47

Assessment of state`s needs for building energy information tools  

SciTech Connect

In this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards, Building Energy Standards Program (BESP), which is operated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), conducted two surveys of state agencies involved with building codes (including each state energy office) to determine what resources they would find most helpful in complying with the residential and commercial energy efficiency requirements of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. PNL conducted a telephone survey of all 50 states and then a mail survey of each state plus Washington, DC and the six trust territories. In the mail survey the survey participants were provided with a list of 27 hypothetical tool descriptions; the participants were asked to choose the tools they thought would be most useful in helping them implement building energy codes and standards in their state. The respondents were also asked to characterize their state`s commercial and/or residential building energy code development/implementation processes. The mail survey respondents were also asked if they would be interested in serving on task forces for commercial or residential code development, implementation, enforcement or utility programs.

Hattrup, M.P.; Gilbride, T.L.

1994-08-01

48

Local Equivalence of Surface Code States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface code states are an important class of stabilizer states that play a prominent role in quantum information processing. In this paper we show that these states do not contain any counterexamples to the recently disproved LU-LC conjecture. In the process we show that An important consequence of our result is that surface codes do not have any encoded non-Clifford transversal gates. We also prove some interesting structural properties of the CSS surface code states. We show that these states can be characterized as a class of minor closed binary matroids. This characterization could be of independent interest in that it makes a connection with the theory of binary matroids.

Sarvepalli, Pradeep; Raussendorf, Robert

49

Using Third-Party Inspectors in Building Energy Codes Enforcement in India  

SciTech Connect

India is experiencing fast income growth and urbanization, and this leads to unprecedented increases in demand for building energy services and resulting energy consumption. In response to rapid growth in building energy use, the Government of India issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which is consistent with and based on the 2001 Energy Conservation Act. ECBC implementation has been voluntary since its enactment and a few states have started to make progress towards mandatory implementation. Rajasthan is the first state in India to adopt ECBC as a mandatory code. The State adopted ECBC with minor additions on March 28, 2011 through a stakeholder process; it became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, and Andhra Pradesh have started to draft an implementation roadmap and build capacity for its implementation. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) plans to encourage more states to adopt ECBC in the near future, including Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, and Delhi. Since its inception, India has applied the code on a voluntary basis, but the Government of India is developing a strategy to mandate compliance. Implementing ECBC requires coordination between the Ministry of Power and the Ministry of Urban Development at the national level as well as interdepartmental coordination at the state level. One challenge is that the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs), the enforcement entities of building by-laws, lack capacity to implement ECBC effectively. For example, ULBs in some states might find the building permitting procedures to be too complex; in other cases, lack of awareness and technical knowledge on ECBC slows down the amendment of local building by-laws as well as ECBC implementation. The intent of this white paper is to share with Indian decision-makers code enforcement approaches: through code officials, third-party inspectors, or a hybrid approach. Given the limited capacity and human resources available in the state and local governments, involving third-party inspectors could rapidly expand the capacity for plan reviews and broad implementation. However, the procedures of involving third-parties need to be carefully designed in order to guarantee a fair process. For example, there should be multiple checks and certification requirements for third-party inspectors, and the government should have the final approval when third-party inspectors are used in a project. This paper discusses different approaches of involving third-parties in ECBC enforcement; the Indian states may choose the approaches that work best in their given circumstances.

Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Kumar, Pradeep; Van Wie, Laura; Bhatt, Vatsal

2013-01-31

50

Minimal instances for toric code ground states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A decade ago Kitaev's toric code model established the new paradigm of topological quantum computation. Due to remarkable theoretical and experimental progress, the quantum simulation of such complex many-body systems is now within the realms of possibility. Here we consider the question, to which extent the ground states of small toric code systems differ from local-unitary (LU)-equivalent graph states. We argue that simplistic (though experimentally attractive) setups obliterate the differences between the toric code and equivalent graph states; hence we search for the smallest setups on the square and triangular lattices, such that the quasilocality of the toric code Hamiltonian becomes a distinctive feature. To this end, a purely geometric procedure to transform a given toric code setup into a local-Clifford (LC)-equivalent graph state is derived. In combination with an algorithmic computation of LC-equivalent graph states, we find the smallest nontrivial setup on the square lattice to contain five plaquettes and 16 qubits; on the triangular lattice the number of plaquettes and qubits is reduced to four and nine, respectively.

Lang, Nicolai; Büchler, Hans Peter

2012-08-01

51

24 CFR 200.926a - Residential building code comparison items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Residential building code comparison items. 200...Standards § 200.926a Residential building code comparison items. HUD...Structural loads and seismic design. (1) Design live loads; (2) Design...

2013-04-01

52

Recommendations on Implementing the Energy Conservation Building Code in Rajasthan, India  

SciTech Connect

India launched the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007 and Indian Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) recently indicated that it would move to mandatory implementation in the 12th Five-Year Plan. The State of Rajasthan adopted ECBC with minor modifications; the new regulation is known as the Energy Conservation Building Directives – Rajasthan 2011 (ECBD-R). It became mandatory in Rajasthan on September 28, 2011. This report provides recommendations on an ECBD-R enforcement roadmap for the State of Rajasthan.

Yu, Sha; Makela, Eric J.; Evans, Meredydd; Mathur, Jyotirmay

2012-02-01

53

Using Performance-Based Approach in Building Energy Standards and Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the nature and concept of performance -based approach in building design control with particular focus on building energy efficiency. The meaning of performance-based approach is explained and the current developments of performance - based building energy codes in some representative countries are described. Experience in these countries indicates that performance-based approach in building energy code is important

SAM C. M. HUI

2002-01-01

54

Probabilistic seismic hazard zonation for the Cuban building code update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probabilistic seismic hazard assessment has been performed in response to a revision and update of the Cuban building code (NC-46-99) for earthquake-resistant building construction. The hazard assessment have been done according to the standard probabilistic approach (Cornell, 1968) and importing the procedures adopted by other nations dealing with the problem of revising and updating theirs national building codes. Problems of earthquake catalogue treatment, attenuation of peak and spectral ground acceleration, as well as seismic source definition have been rigorously analyzed and a logic-tree approach was used to represent the inevitable uncertainties encountered through the whole seismic hazard estimation process. The seismic zonation proposed here, is formed by a map where it is reflected the behaviour of the spectral acceleration values for short (0.2 seconds) and large (1.0 seconds) periods on rock conditions with a 1642 -year return period, which being considered as maximum credible earthquake (ASCE 07-05). In addition, other three design levels are proposed (severe earthquake: with a 808 -year return period, ordinary earthquake: with a 475 -year return period and minimum earthquake: with a 225 -year return period). The seismic zonation proposed here fulfils the international standards (IBC-ICC) as well as the world tendencies in this thematic.

Garcia, J.; Llanes-Buron, C.

2013-05-01

55

RESPONSE ANALYSIS STUDY OF A BASE-ISOLATED BUILDING BASED ON SEISMIC CODES WORLDWIDE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The procedures to do response analysis of a seismically isolated building are summarized based on the building codes of Japan, China, the USA, Italy and Taiwan. While a dynamic response analysis method is recommended in all five building codes, a simplified design procedure based on equivalent linear analysis is also permitted under limited conditions. Subsequently, a typical 14-story reinforced concrete

Demin Feng; Tian-Chyuan Chan; Shuguang Wang; Hsi-Yun Chen; Yaw-Nan Chang

56

Energy-efficient manufactured housing in Chicago: Part 2, Building code, construction and energy efficiency issues  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Neighborhood Technology (CNT) with funding from federal and state sources is involved in a broad study examining the many economic and social issues of deteriorating neighborhoods. This study is a portion of the major study, conducted by CNT, which will specifically focus on the adaptability of manufactured housing for the City of Chicago. Specifically, this report focuses on: building codes regulating the construction of manufactured housing; manufactured housing construction process; current energy efficiency of manufactured housing; and Illinois manufacturers. Major conclusions of this report are: manufactured housing, with some changes in the construction process, can comply to the City of Chicago Building Code; and a high level of energy efficiency can be achieved in manufactured housing because of the controlled environment inherent in the construction of manufactured housing, because efficient products and techniques can be easily incorporated.

Rangelov, L.

1986-12-01

57

Efficiency accolade given proposed Illinois state building  

SciTech Connect

The design proposal for a new state office building in Chicago will replace an energy-wasteful building with one which is hailed as possibility the most energy-efficient in the country. A short, squat design reduces exterior wall area and minimizes air infilration. A mixture of relfective and clear glass and several sky lights will capitalize on sunlight. Heating and cooling will be by a computerized heat pump-water storage system which captures waste and excess building heat for distribution. The need for little supplemental heat is expected. The passive solar design is considered to be more efficient than using solar collectors.

Ellis, P.

1980-02-25

58

Energy Metrics for State Government Buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measuring true progress towards energy conservation goals requires the accurate reporting and accounting of energy consumption. An accurate energy metrics framework is also a critical element for verifiable Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Energy conservation in government can reduce expenditures on energy costs leaving more funds available for public services. In addition to monetary savings, conserving energy can help to promote energy security, air quality, and a reduction of carbon footprint. With energy consumption/GHG inventories recently produced at the Federal level, state and local governments are beginning to also produce their own energy metrics systems. In recent years, many states have passed laws and executive orders which require their agencies to reduce energy consumption. In June 2008, SC state government established a law to achieve a 20% energy usage reduction in state buildings by 2020. This study examines case studies from other states who have established similar goals to uncover the methods used to establish an energy metrics system. Direct energy consumption in state government primarily comes from buildings and mobile sources. This study will focus exclusively on measuring energy consumption in state buildings. The case studies reveal that many states including SC are having issues gathering the data needed to accurately measure energy consumption across all state buildings. Common problems found include a lack of enforcement and incentives that encourage state agencies to participate in any reporting system. The case studies are aimed at finding the leverage used to gather the needed data. The various approaches at coercing participation will hopefully reveal methods that SC can use to establish the accurate metrics system needed to measure progress towards its 20% by 2020 energy reduction goal. Among the strongest incentives found in the case studies is the potential for monetary savings through energy efficiency. Framing energy conservation as budget enhancement is found to be a particularly useful approach in political environments that are not always receptive to climate change oriented efforts. For example, the NC Utility Savings Initiative claims to have saved over $400 million in avoided tax costs. The case studies reveal a wide range of individual successes as a result of energy conservation efforts. Despite the successes found, results indicate that most states have not obtained or completely measured progress towards their energy reduction goals.

Michael, Trevor

59

Impacts of Standard 90.1-2007 for Commercial Buildings at State Level  

SciTech Connect

This report examines the requirements of Standard 90.1-2007 on commercial buildings on a state-by-state basis with a separate, stand-alone chapter for each state. Standard 90.1-2007 is compared to the current state code for most states. This is the final version of the draft previously cleared and assigned ERICA # PNNL-18544, titled "Commercial Nationwide Report."

Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Gowri, Krishnan

2009-10-12

60

Decision-Making Through Performance Simulation and Code Compliance from the Early, Schematic Phases of Building Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper is about the merging of two software applications that allows building decision makers to consider code compliance and to use performance simulation tools from the early, schematic phases of building design. By making the capabilities of a code...

G. Reichard K. Papamichael

2005-01-01

61

How does a brain build a cognitive code?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses how competition between afferent data and learned feedback expectancies can stabilize a developing code by buffering committed populations of detectors against continual erosion by new environmental demands. The gating phenomena that result lead to dynamically maintained critical periods and to attentional phenomena such as overshadowing in the adult. The functional unit of cognitive coding is suggested to be an

Stephen Grossberg

1980-01-01

62

Building Codes and Land Values in High Hazard Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacant land prices on Florida’s barrier islands are examined under four coastal building regulatory regimes. A hedonic pricing model features 1,745 vacant residential land sales from five barrier islands in Lee County between 1980 and 1993. We find that land values decrease in response to the county’s participation in the National Flood Insurance Program, the establishment of a Coastal Building

Carolyn A. Dehring

2006-01-01

63

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Michigan  

SciTech Connect

The state of Michigan is considering adpoting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropraite code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits are assessed. The energy simulation and economic results suggest that adopting ASHRAE 90.1-1999 would provide postitive net benefits to the state relative to the building and design requirements currently in place.

Cort, Katherine A.; Belzer, David B.; Halverson, Mark A.; Richman, Eric E.; Winiarski, David W.

2002-09-30

64

Lessons learned from new construction utility demand side management programs and their implications for implementing building energy codes  

SciTech Connect

This report was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Codes and Standards by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) through its Building Energy Standards Program (BESP). The purpose of this task was to identify demand-side management (DSM) strategies for new construction that utilities have adopted or developed to promote energy-efficient design and construction. PNL conducted a survey of utilities and used the information gathered to extrapolate lessons learned and to identify evolving trends in utility new-construction DSM programs. The ultimate goal of the task is to identify opportunities where states might work collaboratively with utilities to promote the adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy-efficient building energy codes.

Wise, B.K.; Hughes, K.R.; Danko, S.L.; Gilbride, T.L.

1994-07-01

65

EVOLUTION OF STATE CODES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper reviews four surveys of state onsite sewage disposal regulations from 1949 to 1980 and identifies the changes and trends of these changes. The physical meaning of various state regulatory requirements are analyzed against the present scientific knowledge. The primary co...

66

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE WITH TAILINGS ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. COLLAPSED ADIT APPROXIMATELY 25 YARDS UPHILL TO THE LEFT OF FAR BUILDING. TIP TOP AND ONTARIO ARE LOCATED OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

67

Nonlinear quasisteady state benchmark of global gyrokinetic codes  

SciTech Connect

Two global gyrokinetic codes are benchmarked against each other by comparing simulation results in the case of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence, in the adiabatic electron response limit. The two codes are the Eulerian code GENE and the Lagrangian particle-in-cell code ORB5 which solve the gyrokinetic equations. Linear results are presented, including growth rates, real frequencies, and mode structure comparisons. Nonlinear simulations without sources are carried out with particular attention to considering the same initial conditions, showing identical linear phase and first nonlinear burst. Very good agreement is also achieved between simulations obtained using a Krook-type heat source, which enables to reach a quasisteady state and thus to compare the heat diffusivity traces over a statistically meaningful time interval. For these nonlinear results, the radial zonal flow structure and shearing rate profile are also discussed. The very detailed comparisons presented may serve as reference for benchmarking other gyrokinetic simulation codes, in particular those which consider global geometry.

Lapillonne, X.; McMillan, B. F.; Brunner, S.; Villard, L. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, Lausanne CH-1015 (Switzerland); Goerler, T.; Dannert, T.; Jenko, F.; Merz, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching D-85748 (Germany)

2010-11-15

68

Nonlinear quasisteady state benchmark of global gyrokinetic codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two global gyrokinetic codes are benchmarked against each other by comparing simulation results in the case of ion temperature gradient driven turbulence, in the adiabatic electron response limit. The two codes are the Eulerian code GENE and the Lagrangian particle-in-cell code ORB5 which solve the gyrokinetic equations. Linear results are presented, including growth rates, real frequencies, and mode structure comparisons. Nonlinear simulations without sources are carried out with particular attention to considering the same initial conditions, showing identical linear phase and first nonlinear burst. Very good agreement is also achieved between simulations obtained using a Krook-type heat source, which enables to reach a quasisteady state and thus to compare the heat diffusivity traces over a statistically meaningful time interval. For these nonlinear results, the radial zonal flow structure and shearing rate profile are also discussed. The very detailed comparisons presented may serve as reference for benchmarking other gyrokinetic simulation codes, in particular those which consider global geometry.

Lapillonne, X.; McMillan, B. F.; Görler, T.; Brunner, S.; Dannert, T.; Jenko, F.; Merz, F.; Villard, L.

2010-11-01

69

Evaluation of the seismic performance of a code-conforming reinforced-concrete frame building—from seismic hazard to collapse safety and economic losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY A state-of-the-art seismic performance assessment is illustrated through application to a reinforced- concrete moment-frame building designed per current (2003) building code provisions. Performance is quantified in terms of economic losses and collapse safety. The assessment includes site-specific seismic hazard analyses, nonlinear dynamic structural response simulations to collapse, damage analyses, and loss estimation. When selecting ground motion records for nonlinear

Christine A. Goulet; B. Haselton; Judith Mitrani-Reiser; James L. Beck; Gregory G. Deierlein; Keith A. Porter; Jonathan P. Stewart

2007-01-01

70

7 CFR Exhibit E to Subpart A of... - Voluntary National Model Building Codes  

...2013-01-01 true Voluntary National Model Building Codes E Exhibit E to Subpart A of Part 1924 Agriculture Regulations...Construction and Other Development Pt. 1924, Subpt. A, Exh. E Exhibit E to Subpart A of Part 1924—Voluntary...

2014-01-01

71

Dense Coding with Nonmaximally Entangled Cluster State via Local Measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present two schemes for dense coding with nonmaximally entangled cluster state via local measurement. The average amounts of information are unique from the different two schemes. The average amount of information transmitted from Alice to Bob depends not only on the measurement angle ?, but also on the superposition coefficients of the state. For a given nonmaximally entangled cluster state, the supervisor can control the average amount of information transmitted from the sender to the receiver by adjusting the measurement angle.

Zhu, Hua-Gui; Huang, Guo-qiang; Luo, Cui-Lan

2013-08-01

72

A method to prove violation of building code sound insulation standards in small condominiums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Building code sound insulation standards are health measures intended to protect people from excessive noise. In the USA, minimum values for Field Sound Transmission Loss (FSTC), and Field Impact Insulation Class (FIIC) are widely used to rate noise insulation between adjacent condominiums. Current American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) field test standards specify minimum room volumes for each of 16 one-third octave band test frequencies. For field impact insulation class ratings (FIIC), ASTM E 1007 specifies a minimum room volume of 2100 ft3 for valid measurement in the 100-Hz band. For air-borne sound transmission class ratings (FSTC), ASTM E 336 specifies minimum room volumes of 1400 ft3 for valid measurement in the 125-Hz band. FIIC and FSTC cannot be determined for bedrooms and kitchens of smaller condominiums which fail the minimum size requirement for the lowest bands. However, upper bounds can be determined merely by excluding invalid lower bands from computations. It is shown that when the upper bound on FIIC or FSTC falls below the code requirement (field values of 45 under the Uniform Building Code and the International Building Code), one may logically conclude that the code requirement is violated under existing standards.

Lubman, David

2003-10-01

73

Building for School and Community. III: United States. OECD Programme on Educational Building.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Programme on Educational Building (PEB) has sponsored the analysis of projects in various countries that associate school buildings with community facilities. The texts brought together in this volume concern the United States. A paper prepared by the Office of Education provides information on the historical and administrative background of…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

74

Impact of building technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the nation's building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic im...

M. J. Scott D. J. Hostick D. B. Elliott R. W. Schultz

1998-01-01

75

Buildings for the 21st Century, Summer 2001. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Newsletter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable ...

S. Burgert

2001-01-01

76

4. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Sacramento, California ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Historic American Buildings Survey California State Library Sacramento, California Photo Taken: 1860 Re-photo: March 1940 EAST FRONT - CENTRAL SECTION - Custom House, Custom House Plaza, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

77

35. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

35. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, California Original: About 1882 Re-photo: February 1940 CONVENTO - FRONT (view from south) - Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad, Soledad, Monterey County, CA

78

38. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

38. Historic American Buildings Survey From California State Library Sacramento, California Original: About 1900 Re-photo: February 1940 CONVENTO - FACADE (view from south) - Mission Nuestra Senora de la Soledad, Soledad, Monterey County, CA

79

National Fire Codes. A Compilation of NFPA Codes, Standards, Recommended Practices, and Manuals. Volume 4: Building Construction and Facilities. 1969-70.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A selected group of NFPA codes and standards pertaining to building construction and facilities is presented. The recommendations are phrased in terms of performance or objectives, the intent being to permit the utilization of any methods, devices or materials which will produce the desired results. The major topics included are--(1) building

National Fire Protection Association, Boston, MA.

80

Building State Assessment from the Classroom Up.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Nebraska's School-Based, Teacher-Led Assessment and Reporting System (STARS), whereby local districts are required to develop plans to assess students against state standards. Districts are held accountable for the quality of their formative assessment programs following guidelines provided by the state. Plans must include a…

Christensen, Douglas D.

2001-01-01

81

NASA Lewis steady-state heat pipe code users manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis heat pipe code was developed to predict the performance of heat pipes in the steady state. The code can be used as a design tool on a personal computer or with a suitable calling routine, as a subroutine for a mainframe radiator code. A variety of wick structures, including a user input option, can be used. Heat pipes with multiple evaporators, condensers, and adiabatic sections in series and with wick structures that differ among sections can be modeled. Several working fluids can be chosen, including potassium, sodium, and lithium, for which monomer-dimer equilibrium is considered. The code incorporates a vapor flow algorithm that treats compressibility and axially varying heat input. This code facilitates the determination of heat pipe operating temperatures and heat pipe limits that may be encountered at the specified heat input and environment temperature. Data are input to the computer through a user-interactive input subroutine. Output, such as liquid and vapor pressures and temperatures, is printed at equally spaced axial positions along the pipe as determined by the user.

Tower, Leonard K.; Baker, Karl W.; Marks, Timothy S.

1992-01-01

82

NASA Lewis steady-state heat pipe code users manual  

SciTech Connect

The NASA Lewis heat pipe code has been developed to predict the performance of heat pipes in the steady state. The code can be used as a design tool on a personal computer or, with a suitable calling routine, as a subroutine for a mainframe radiator code. A variety of wick structures, including a user input option, can be used. Heat pipes with multiple evaporators, condensers, and adiabatic sections in series and with wick structures that differ among sections can be modeled. Several working fluids can be chosen, including potassium, sodium, and lithium, for which the monomer-dimer equilibrium is considered. The code incorporates a vapor flow algorithm that treats compressibility and axially varying heat input. This code facilitates the determination of heat pipe operating temperatures and heat pipe limits that may be encountered at the specified heat input and environment temperature. Data are input to the computer through a user-interactive input subroutine. Output, such as liquid and vapor pressures and temperatures, is printed at equally spaced axial positions along the pipe as determined by the user.

Tower, L.K. [Sverdrup Technology, Inc., Brook Park, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center Group; Baker, K.W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center; Marks, T.S. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1992-06-01

83

Ground-state coding in partially connected neural networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Patterns over (-1,0,1) define, by their outer products, partially connected neural networks, consisting of internally strongly connected, externally weakly connected subnetworks. The connectivity patterns may have highly organized structures, such as lattices and fractal trees or nests. Subpatterns over (-1,1) define the subcodes stored in the subnetwork, that agree in their common bits. It is first shown that the code words are locally stable stares of the network, provided that each of the subcodes consists of mutually orthogonal words or of, at most, two words. Then it is shown that if each of the subcodes consists of two orthogonal words, the code words are the unique ground states (absolute minima) of the Hamiltonian associated with the network. The regions of attraction associated with the code words are shown to grow with the number of subnetworks sharing each of the neurons. Depending on the particular network architecture, the code sizes of partially connected networks can be vastly greater than those of fully connected ones and their error correction capabilities can be significantly greater than those of the disconnected subnetworks. The codes associated with lattice-structured and hierarchical networks are discussed in some detail.

Baram, Yoram

1989-01-01

84

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 as the Commercial Building Energy Code in Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 Energy Standard for Buildings except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (hereafter referred to as ASHRAE 90.1-2001 or 90.1-2001) was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for the energy efficient design and construction of new commercial buildings. The State of Tennessee is considering adopting ASHRAE 90.1-2001 as its commercial building energy code. In an effort to evaluate whether or not this is an appropriate code for the state, the potential benefits and costs of adopting this standard are considered in this report. Both qualitative and quantitative benefits and costs are assessed. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) simulations combined with a Life-Cycle Cost (LCC) approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits. Tennessee currently has ASHRAE Standard 90A-1980 as the statewide voluntary/recommended commercial energy standard; however, it is up to the local jurisdiction to adopt this code. Because 90A-1980 is the recommended standard, many of the requirements of ASHRAE 90A-1980 were used as a baseline for simulations.

Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Belzer, David B.; Richman, Eric E.

2004-09-30

85

77 FR 29322 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...zones of a single value for insulation in the cavity between wall studs, or two values: One for cavity insulation and one for additional continuous...whereas the second value is for insulation in cavities between studs or furring strips. In...

2012-05-17

86

76 FR 42688 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1 through 3. Basement wall insulation in R-13 cavity or R- R-19 cavity or R- Zones 6 through 8. 10 continuous 15 continuous...Basement wall insulation in No insulation R-13 cavity or R-5 northern section of Zone 3....

2011-07-19

87

75 FR 54131 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1 through 3. Basement wall insulation in R-13 cavity or R- R-19 cavity or R- Zones 6 through 8. 10 continuous 15 continuous...Basement wall insulation in No insulation R-13 cavity or R-5 northern section of Zone 3. required....

2010-09-03

88

Controlled Dense Coding with Four-Particle Entangled State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two schemes, via generalized measurement and entanglement concentration respectively, for dense coding are investigated by using a four-particle entangled state, in which the supervisor can control the average amount of information transmitted from the sender to the receiver by adjusting the local measurement angle. It is shown that the results for the average amounts of information are unique from the different two schemes.

Liu, Li-Shu; Hu, Guo-Jin; Rao, Song

2013-08-01

89

Decentralization in Nation State Building of Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Today, many countries, regardless of developed or developing, are trying to promote decentralization. According to Manor, as his quoting of Nickson's argument, decentralization stems from the necessity to strengthen local governments as proxy of civil society to fill the yawning gap between the state and civil society (Manor [1999]: 30). With the end to the Cold War following the

Kazuhisa Matsui

2003-01-01

90

Object-based Video Coding Using Pixel State Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In archiving video for surveillance, frame-based coding has been used and it makes storage size large because the whole image is stored even if there is no object in the image. On the other hand, object-based coding has the capability to make storage size small, because it distinguishes between the foreground and the background regions of the image, and stores only foreground objects such as people. This paper describes object-based coding by pixel state analysis. In our method, pixel state analysis detects the foreground objects and background regions in video frames. Furthermore, it distinguishes foreground object pixels as stationary or transient pixels. For stationary pixels, it is possible to restore the color intensity by refering to the same pixel location in the last frame. Therefore, our method makes the storage size smaller. Additionally, the transient pixels of foreground objects are compressed using LZH codec. Since LZH codec uses lossless compression, the object region can be compressed with lesser loss in image quality. We have evaluated our method over 9 test sequences and obtained an improvement of 15% in compression ratio and better quality for the moving parts of the object region compared to MPEG-4.

Nishi, Takayuki; Fujiyoshi, Hironobu; Umezaki, Taizo

91

US Department of Energy Office of Codes and Standards resource book  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Codes and Standards has developed this Resource Book to provide a discussion of DOE involvement in building codes and standards; a current and accurate set of descriptions of residential, commercial, and Federal building codes and standards; information on State contacts, State code status, State building construction unit volume, and State needs; and a list of stockholders in the building energy codes and standards arena.

NONE

1996-01-01

92

Building the United States National Vegetation Classification  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

Franklin, S. B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

2012-01-01

93

Strategies and Challenges for Energy Efficient Retrofitting: Study of the Empire State Building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational and maintenance cost of existing buildings is escalating making it tough for both the owner and the tenants. Retrofitting them with state of the art technologies help them to keep pace with amended recent code provisions and thus extending the older building stocks one more chance to live responsively. Retrofitted iconic buildings can thus retain their status in commerce driven real estate sector. It helps in reducing green house gas emission as well. World's iconic skyscraper, the Empire State Building (ESB), has undergone an exemplary retrofit process since 2008 to reduce its energy demands. To achieve the goal of operational cost and energy consumption reduction, stiff challenges had taken care in a systematic manner to realize benefit throughout the entire lifespan of the ESB. Least disturbances to the tenant and on-site component handling strategies required precise planning. The present paper explores strategies and process adopted for retrofitting the ESB, and derived insightful guidelines towards operational cost savings and energy efficiency of existing buildings through retrofitting.

De, B.; Mukherjee, M.

2014-05-01

94

Strategies and Challenges for Energy Efficient Retrofitting: Study of the Empire State Building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational and maintenance cost of existing buildings is escalating making it tough for both the owner and the tenants. Retrofitting them with state of the art technologies help them to keep pace with amended recent code provisions and thus extending the older building stocks one more chance to live responsively. Retrofitted iconic buildings can thus retain their status in commerce driven real estate sector. It helps in reducing green house gas emission as well. World's iconic skyscraper, the Empire State Building (ESB), has undergone an exemplary retrofit process since 2008 to reduce its energy demands. To achieve the goal of operational cost and energy consumption reduction, stiff challenges had taken care in a systematic manner to realize benefit throughout the entire lifespan of the ESB. Least disturbances to the tenant and on-site component handling strategies required precise planning. The present paper explores strategies and process adopted for retrofitting the ESB, and derived insightful guidelines towards operational cost savings and energy efficiency of existing buildings through retrofitting.

De, B.; Mukherjee, M.

2013-11-01

95

Energy conservation business opportunities in multifamily housing: Energy-efficient manufactured housing in Chicago: Part 2, Building code, construction and energy efficiency issues: (Final report)  

SciTech Connect

The Center for Neighborhood Technology (CNT) with funding from federal and state sources is involved in a broad study examining the many economic and social issues of deteriorating neighborhoods. This study is only a portion of the major study, conducted by CNT, which will specifically focus on the adaptability of manufactured housing for the City of Chicago. Specifically this report focuses on: building codes regulating the construction of manufactured housing; manufactured housing construction process; current energy efficiency of manufactured housing; and Illinois manufacturers.

Rangelov, L.

1986-12-01

96

73. The Metals Bank Building (now the State Savings Bank) ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

73. The Metals Bank Building (now the State Savings Bank) was designed by Cass Gilbert and built in 1906, under the suoervision of Link had Haire, Architects. The structure is L-shaped, with oak and tile finishes on the interior. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

97

Peace building and state-building in Afghanistan: Constructing sovereignty for whose security?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the aftermath of civil wars, international actors often worry about the incoherence, tribalism, and division of war-torn nation-states like Afghanistan. However, the problems encountered in the Afghanistan recovery and reconstruction effort illustrate that the divisions, rivalries and fragmentation of authority of the ‘international community’ have constituted just as big an obstacle to what the UN now calls ‘peace building’.

Barnett R. Rubin

2006-01-01

98

Steady State Porous Body Assembly Code (SPAC): User's Manual.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At this stage, the SPAC code is a useful code for evaluating the temperature and flow conditions under forced or mixed convection conditions. It is a significant improvement on the ENERGY III code (and the simpler ENERGY I and II codes), although it uses ...

G. J. Van Tuyle

1983-01-01

99

Fundamental studies of quantum codes and gates for building a reliable quantum computer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation we have studied various methods that have been proposed to overcome the problem of decoherence in a quantum computer. These methods are: (1) Quantum-error correcting codes (QECC's); (2) Decoherence-free subsystem/subspace (DFS); (3) Adiabatic gate operation. In the first two methods, information is encoded in the form of a code that provides protection against certain noise and hence protect the qubit from losing information to the environment. In the third method, the gate operation is performed in such a way that the qubit is made to evolve adiabatically because of which it acquires a phase which is insensitive to the certain form of noise. Thus, because of the insensivity of the phase to the noise, the qubit is prevented from losing information to the environment. All these methods have limitations and in this work we studied these limitations. This work is divided into two parts. In the first part, we studied the performance of a 3-qubit QECC in the presence of quantized partially correlated noise, as well as 3 and 4-qubit DFS in the presence of partially correlated noise. We derived the relationship between the fidelity of the code, the initial state, coherence length of the noise and the spatial distance between the qubits. For the case of, 3-qubit QECC we found that the quantum nature of the noise enhances the infidelity of the code. For the case of, 3 and 4-qubit DFS we found that under certain conditions 3-qubit DFS code is a better code over 4-qubit code. Nonetheless, these studies provide us insights of the influence of the environment on the performance of quantum codes. In the second part, we studied the problem of the entanglement of the coherent field (that is used to turn on/off the gate) with the qubit on which gate operation is performed. The gate operation is made adiabatic by making the coherent field to change very slowly in time. The entanglement arises due to the quantum nature of the coherent field and causes faulty gate operation. Through our studies we found that by increasing the average photon number of the coherent field, the qubit can be made to stay in a coherent superposition state for short times and hence the entanglement between the coherent field and the qubit can be avoided.

Siddiqui, Shabnam

100

Completeness of cause of injury coding in healthcare administrative databases in the United States, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the completeness of external cause of injury coding (E-coding) within healthcare administrative databases in the United States and to identify factors that contribute to variations in E-code reporting across states.Design: Cross sectional analysis of the 2001 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), including 33 State Inpatient Databases (SID), a Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), and nine State Emergency

J H Coben; C A Steiner; M Barrett; C T Merrill; D Adamson

2006-01-01

101

Buildings for the 21st Century, Winter 2002. Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) Newsletter  

SciTech Connect

The Buildings for the 21st Century newsletter is produced by the Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs and contains information on building programs, events, products, and initiatives, with a focus on energy efficiency and renewable energy. The winter issue contains information on energy efficient health care design, solid state lighting, Brookhaven National Laboratory, school design guidelines, E-News, Energy Star, DOE energy awards, and upcoming events and meetings.

Not Available

2002-02-01

102

Impact of 2003 Building Technology, State and Community Programs on United States Employment and Earned Income  

SciTech Connect

As part of measuring the impact of government programs for improving the energy efficiency of the nation's building stock, this report uses the ImBuild II model to assess the future economic impacts of Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) FY 2003 portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The energy savings expected to be created by market penetration of the BTS programs have the potential of creating nearly 270,000 jobs and about $3.41 billion in wage income(1999$) by the year 2030.

Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Elliott, Douglas B.

2002-07-08

103

Comparison of the Seismic Provisions of Model Building Codes and Standards to the 1994 NEHRP Recommended Provisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report builds on the conclusions of two previous reports prepared for National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST 95674 and NIST 91598). This report summarizes and documents changes in each model code or standard since the date of the last c...

C. D. Poland J. A. Heintz D. Hom L. Iida R. Chung

1998-01-01

104

Improving Building Construction Specifications in State and Local Governments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

State and local governments can benefit from master specifications systems that centralize data on all types of building materials, products, and processes. Most of these systems are organized according to the MASTERFORMAT system, which, along with guide specifications that require the insertion or deletion of standardized information, resulted from the specific needs of users and providers. For jurisdictions preparing their own specifications, staff time and cost are reduced. For those subcontracting the preparation, master specifications provide a means of evaluating the specifications submitted. Current management specification systems described include SPECINTACT, OMSPEC, MASTERPEC, and the NAVFAC, Corps of Engineers, and GSA guide specifications.

1980-01-01

105

Comprehensive Development Plan of the State University System of Florida, 1969-1980; CODE, Phase I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document outlines a plan (CODE) for the comprehensive development of the Florida State University System. Part I discusses the nature and purpose of CODE, earlier planning efforts, the Board of Regents, and the Office of the Chancellor. Part 2 presents the basic components of CODE, the objectives and educational goals, PPBS, and the planning…

Florida State Board of Regents, Tallahassee.

106

New residential construction compliance: Evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code program  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s (PNL`s) evaluation of the Washington State Energy Code Program (WSECP). In 1990, the Washington State Legislature passed a residential energy efficiency code to be effective July 1, 1992. Bonneville supported passage and implementation of the code to ensure that new residences in the State of Washington were as energy efficient as economically feasible. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) is conducting the WSECP for Bonneville to support code implementation. This support takes several forms, including providing training to code enforcement officials, technical support both in the field and through telephone ``hot lines,`` and computerized tools to review house plans for code compliance. WSEO began implementing the WSECP in 1992, prior to the effective date of the new code. This first phase of the WSECP was the subject of an earlier process evaluation conducted by PNL. From that evaluation PNL found that most new homes being built immediately after the code went into effect were ``grand-fathered`` under the old code. The training program for the new code was in place and sessions were being attended by the jurisdictions but it was too early to determine if the training was effective in improving code compliance and easing the transition to the new energy code. That is the subject of this evaluation.

Warwick, W.M.; Lee, A.D.; Sandahl, L.J.; Durfee, D.L.; Richman, E.E.

1993-07-01

107

An improved two-state turbo-SPC code for wireless communication systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—This letter presents an improved two-state turbo single-parity-check code for applications with rates around 1\\/3. The new code is compared with the,turbo code used in the Third Generation Partnership Project. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed code can achieve similar perfor- mance at reduced decoding complexity. Index Terms—A posteriori probability (APP) decoding, iterative

Keying Y. Wu; Li Ping

2004-01-01

108

Quantum steganography with a large payload based on dense coding and entanglement swapping of Greenberger—Horne—Zeilinger states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantum steganography protocol with a large payload is proposed based on the dense coding and the entanglement swapping of the Greenberger—Horne—Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Its super quantum channel is formed by building up a hidden channel within the original quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) scheme. Based on the original QSDC, secret messages are transmitted by integrating the dense coding and the entanglement swapping of the GHZ states. The capacity of the super quantum channel achieves six bits per round covert communication, much higher than the previous quantum steganography protocols. Its imperceptibility is good, since the information and the secret messages can be regarded to be random or pseudo-random. Moreover, its security is proved to be reliable.

Ye, Tian-Yu; Jiang, Li-Zhen

2013-05-01

109

CMAD: A Self-consistent Parallel Code to Simulate the Electron Cloud Build-up and Instabilities  

SciTech Connect

We present the features of CMAD, a newly developed self-consistent code which simulates both the electron cloud build-up and related beam instabilities. By means of parallel (Message Passing Interface - MPI) computation, the code tracks the beam in an existing (MAD-type) lattice and continuously resolves the interaction between the beam and the cloud at each element location, with different cloud distributions at each magnet location. The goal of CMAD is to simulate single- and coupled-bunch instability, allowing tune shift, dynamic aperture and frequency map analysis and the determination of the secondary electron yield instability threshold. The code is in its phase of development and benchmarking with existing codes. Preliminary results on benchmarking are presented in this paper.

Pivi, M.T.F.; /SLAC

2007-11-07

110

FRAP-S2: A Computer Code for the Steady State Analysis of Oxide Fuel Rods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the Fuel Rod Analysis Program--Steady State code (FRAP-S) and the verification of FRAP-S as a fuel rod analysis tool. FRAP-S2 (Fuel Rod Analysis Program--Steady State, Version 2) is a FORTRAN IV computer code which can be used to s...

J. A. Dearien M. P. Bohn G. A. Berna D. R. Coleman E. T. Laats

1977-01-01

111

Comparative Study on Code-based Linear Evaluation of an Existing RC Building Damaged during 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake  

SciTech Connect

Determination of seismic performance of existing buildings has become one of the key concepts in structural analysis topics after recent earthquakes (i.e. Izmit and Duzce Earthquakes in 1999, Kobe Earthquake in 1995 and Northridge Earthquake in 1994). Considering the need for precise assessment tools to determine seismic performance level, most of earthquake hazardous countries try to include performance based assessment in their seismic codes. Recently, Turkish Earthquake Code 2007 (TEC'07), which was put into effect in March 2007, also introduced linear and non-linear assessment procedures to be applied prior to building retrofitting. In this paper, a comparative study is performed on the code-based seismic assessment of RC buildings with linear static methods of analysis, selecting an existing RC building. The basic principles dealing the procedure of seismic performance evaluations for existing RC buildings according to Eurocode 8 and TEC'07 will be outlined and compared. Then the procedure is applied to a real case study building is selected which is exposed to 1998 Adana-Ceyhan Earthquake in Turkey, the seismic action of Ms = 6.3 with a maximum ground acceleration of 0.28 g It is a six-storey RC residential building with a total of 14.65 m height, composed of orthogonal frames, symmetrical in y direction and it does not have any significant structural irregularities. The rectangular shaped planar dimensions are 16.40 mx7.80 m = 127.90 m{sup 2} with five spans in x and two spans in y directions. It was reported that the building had been moderately damaged during the 1998 earthquake and retrofitting process was suggested by the authorities with adding shear-walls to the system. The computations show that the performing methods of analysis with linear approaches using either Eurocode 8 or TEC'07 independently produce similar performance levels of collapse for the critical storey of the structure. The computed base shear value according to Eurocode is much higher than the requirements of the Turkish Earthquake Code while the selected ground conditions represent the same characteristics. The main reason is that the ordinate of the horizontal elastic response spectrum for Eurocode 8 is increased by the soil factor. In TEC'07 force-based linear assessment, the seismic demands at cross-sections are to be checked with residual moment capacities; however, the chord rotations of primary ductile elements must be checked for Eurocode safety verifications. On the other hand, the demand curvatures from linear methods of analysis of Eurocode 8 together with TEC'07 are almost similar.

Toprak, A. Emre; Guelay, F. Guelten [Istanbul Technical University, Department of Civil Eng., Maslak, Istanbul, 34469 (Turkey); Ruge, Peter [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institut fuer Statik und Dynamik der Tragwerke, Dresden, 01062 (Germany)

2008-07-08

112

Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assesment for Bulgaria as a Basis for a new National Building Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The territory of Bulgaria represents a typical example of high seismic risk area in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. Bulgaria contains important industrial areas that face considerable earthquake risk. Moreover, the seismicity of the neighboring countries, like Greece, Turkey, former Yugoslavia and Romania (especially Vrancea-Romania intermediate earthquakes involving the non-crustal lithosphere), influences the seismic hazard in Bulgaria. Seismic hazard maps proposed as part of a new building code for Bulgaria based on the recommendations in EUROCODE 8 are presented in the study. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) carries out integration over the total expected seismicity during a given exposure period to provide the estimate of a strong-motion parameter of interest with a specified confidence level. The basic approach used for the creation of ground motion maps combines via GIS, source-geometry, earthquake occurrence model, the strength of the earthquake sources, and the appropriate attenuation relations. In the study seismic hazard maps for Bulgaria are presented in terms of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) in agreement with EC8. As recommended in EC8, the maps are calculated for a 475 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 50 years) for the design earthquake and for a 95 years return period (probability of exceedance of 10% in 10 years) for weaker earthquakes with higher frequency of occurrence. The PSHA was performed, using the Bulgarian version of computer code EQRISK. For the sensitivity analysis on the characterization of the seismicity in the seismic sources a PSHA for 500 randomly chosen models was run. The results suggested that uncertainties in seismic characteristics have relatively small effect on the final seismic hazard. A procedure called disaggregation has been applied to examine the spatial and magnitude dependence of PSHA results. The aim is to determine the magnitudes and distances that contribute to the calculated exceedance frequencies at a given return period and at a structural period of engineering interest. The hazard for 27 cities on the territory of Bulgaria for a 475 years return period and at PGA is partitioned into selected magnitude-distance bins.

Solakov, D.; Simeonova, S.; Christoskov, L.; Trifonova, P.; Aleksandrova, I.

2012-04-01

113

Evaluation and Analysis of Current Effective Building and Fire Prevention Code Administration and Enforcement Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was designed to provide communities, including their code enforcement and administration personnel, administrations, and elected officials with a method for analysis and improvement of code administration and enforcement techniques with respec...

J. G. Degenkolb

1979-01-01

114

Seismic fragility assessment of RC frame structure designed according to modern Chinese code for seismic design of buildings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following several damaging earthquakes in China, research has been devoted to find the causes of the collapse of reinforced concrete (RC) building sand studying the vulnerability of existing buildings. The Chinese Code for Seismic Design of Buildings (CCSDB) has evolved over time, however, there is still reported earthquake induced damage of newly designed RC buildings. Thus, to investigate modern Chinese seismic design code, three low-, mid- and high-rise RC frames were designed according to the 2010 CCSDB and the corresponding vulnerability curves were derived by computing a probabilistic seismic demand model (PSDM).The PSDM was computed by carrying out nonlinear time history analysis using thirty ground motions obtained from the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center. Finally, the PSDM was used to generate fragility curves for immediate occupancy, significant damage, and collapse prevention damage levels. Results of the vulnerability assessment indicate that the seismic demands on the three different frames designed according to the 2010 CCSDB meet the seismic requirements and are almost in the same safety level.

Wu, D.; Tesfamariam, S.; Stiemer, S. F.; Qin, D.

2012-09-01

115

Energy Building Regulations: The Effect of the Federal Performance Standards on Building Code Administration and the Conservation of Energy in New Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the changes in the administration and enforcement of building regulations that will be engendered by the proposed federal energy building standards. Also evaluates the effectiveness of those standards in meeting congressional intent. Available from U.C. Davis Law Review, School of Law, Martin Luther King Jr. Hall, University of…

Kopper, William D.

1980-01-01

116

Error-Correcting Codes for Semiconductor Memory Applications: A State-of-the-Art Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a state-of-the-art review of error-correcting codes for computer semiconductor memory applications. The construction of four classes of error-correcting codes appropriate for semiconductor memory designs is described, and for each class of codes the number of check bits required for commonly used data lengths is provided. The implementation aspects of error correction and error detection are also discussed,

Chin-long Chen

1984-01-01

117

Hybrid coding method of multiple orbital angular momentum states based on the inherent orthogonality.  

PubMed

We put forward a hybrid coding method of multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM) states based on the inherent orthogonality. Theoretical analysis shows this new coding method can tremendously improve the coding efficiency compared to the conventional way, and the OAM mode can be extended to all the transverse orthographic modes such as Bessel beams or Laguerre-Gauss modes. We also present a typical scheme to achieve the encoding of hybrid OAM states based on a concentric ring resonator array. We further suggest a digital device and a phase hologram pattern to decode the hybrid OAM states. PMID:24562192

Zhou, Hailong; Dong, Jianji; Shi, Lei; Huang, Dexiu; Zhang, Xinliang

2014-02-15

118

A mathematical approach to the study of the United States Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Code (Code) is a document containing over 22 million words that represents a large and important source of Federal statutory law. Scholars and policy advocates often discuss the direction and magnitude of changes in various aspects of the Code. However, few have mathematically formalized the notions behind these discussions or directly measured the resulting representations. This paper addresses the current state of the literature in two ways. First, we formalize a representation of the United States Code as the union of a hierarchical network and a citation network over vertices containing the language of the Code. This representation reflects the fact that the Code is a hierarchically organized document containing language and explicit citations between provisions. Second, we use this formalization to measure aspects of the Code as codified in October 2008, November 2009, and March 2010. These measurements allow for a characterization of the actual changes in the Code over time. Our findings indicate that in the recent past, the Code has grown in its amount of structure, interdependence, and language.

Bommarito, Michael J.; Katz, Daniel M.

2010-10-01

119

Whether a Building or a State of Mind, the Central Office Must Evolve  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The central office is both a physical place and a state of mind. In some school systems, the central office is a separate building located away from schools. In other communities, the office is housed in one of the school buildings. When someone mentions "central office," they may not be referring only to the building. They may also mean the tip…

Mizell, Hayes

2010-01-01

120

Implementation of an analytical verification technique on three building energy-analysis codes: SUNCAT 2. 4, DOE 2. 1, and DEROB III  

SciTech Connect

An analytical verification technique for building energy analysis codes has been developed. For this technique, building models are developed that can be both solved analytically and modeled using the analysis codes. The output of the codes is then compared with the analytical solutions. In this way, the accuracy of selected mechanisms in the codes can be verified. The procedure consists of several tests and was run on SUNCAT 2.4, DOE 2.1, and DEROB III. The results are presented and analyzed.

Wortman, D.; O'Doherty, B.; Judkoff, R.

1981-01-01

121

ANTEO: An optimised PC computer code for the steady state thermal hydraulic analysis of rod bundles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper deals with the description of a Personal Computer oriented subchannel code, devoted to the steady state thermal hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactor fuel bundles. The development of a such code was made possible by two facts: first, the increas...

S. Cevolani

1996-01-01

122

New Seismic Hazard study in Spain Aimed at the revision of the Spanish Building Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a global overview of the recent study carried out in Spain for the new hazard map, which final goal is the revision of the Building Code in our country (NCSE-02). The study was carried our for a working group joining experts from The Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) , being the different phases of the work supervised by an expert Committee integrated by national experts from public institutions involved in subject of seismic hazard. The PSHA method (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) has been followed, quantifying the epistemic uncertainties through a logic tree and the aleatory ones linked to variability of parameters by means of probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations. In a first phase, the inputs have been prepared, which essentially are: 1) a project catalogue update and homogenization at Mw 2) proposal of zoning models and source characterization 3) calibration of Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPE's) with actual data and development of a local model with data collected in Spain for Mw < 5.5. In a second phase, a sensitivity analysis of the different input options on hazard results has been carried out in order to have criteria for defining the branches of the logic tree and their weights. Finally, the hazard estimation was done with the logic tree shown in figure 1, including nodes for quantifying uncertainties corresponding to: 1) method for estimation of hazard (zoning and zoneless); 2) zoning models, 3) GMPE combinations used and 4) regression method for estimation of source parameters. In addition, the aleatory uncertainties corresponding to the magnitude of the events, recurrence parameters and maximum magnitude for each zone have been also considered including probability density functions and Monte Carlo simulations The main conclusions of the study are presented here, together with the obtained results in terms of PGA and other spectral accelerations SA (T) for return periods of 475, 975 and 2475 years. The map of the coefficient of variation (COV) are also represented to give an idea of the zones where the dispersion among results are the highest and the zones where the results are robust.

Rivas-Medina, A.; Benito, B.; Cabañas, L.; Martínez-Solares, J. M.; Ruíz, S.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Carreño, E.; Crespo, M.; García-Mayordomo, J.

2013-05-01

123

Solid state lighting in buildings: status and future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, there has been considerable press coverage about the promise of Solid State Lighting (SSL). Despite this or perhaps because of the coverage, it can be difficult to separate hype from reality and set expectations for the near to medium term. The short answer is there are good SSL products on the market now and some poor ones. The good ones are getting better, more common, and more affordable. This paper will cover the basics of the key components that make up a luminaire which are LEDs (light emitting diode), power supply, optics, and thermo/mechanical subsystems. Each component will be reviewed with highlights as to what is important. These subsystems will then be considered as a system. Several methodologies for designing both spot and area luminaires will be discussed focusing on non-residential buildings. The topic of SSL lifetime will be discussed. Finally, trends will be explored to provide an understanding of the kinds of improvements one can expect and the timeframe over which they may occur.

Paolini, Steven

2010-08-01

124

User's Manual for PANDA: a Computer Code for Calculating Equations of State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

PANDA is an interactive computer code that constructs equations of state (EOS) for materials over a wide range of densities and temperatures. It provides several options for such contributions to the EOS as the cold curve, lattice vibrations, fluid degree...

G. I. Kerley

1981-01-01

125

Determination for the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code, Residential Buildings – Technical Support Document  

SciTech Connect

Provides a technical analysis showing that the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code contains improvements in energy efficiency compared to its predecessor, the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code. DOE is required by law to issue "determinations" of whether or not new editions of the IECC improve energy efficiency.

Lucas, Robert G.

2009-09-26

126

Ground motion amplification factors for the proposed 2005 edition of the National Building Code of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foundation factors are used in seismic codes to capture the amplification effects of local soil conditions on ground motions and, hence, on seismic design forces. Recent developments in categorizing site conditions for seismic codes and assigning intensity- and frequency-dependent amplification factors to the various site classes are presented to provide a basis for understanding the new foundation factors proposed for

W. D. Liam Finn; Adrian Wightman

2003-01-01

127

Gapless Hamiltonians for the Toric Code Using the Projected Entangled Pair State Formalism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study Hamiltonians which have Kitaev’s toric code as a ground state, and show how to construct a Hamiltonian which shares the ground space of the toric code, but which has gapless excitations with a continuous spectrum in the thermodynamic limit. Our construction is based on the framework of projected entangled pair states, and can be applied to a large class of two-dimensional systems to obtain gapless “uncle Hamiltonians.”

Fernández-González, Carlos; Schuch, Norbert; Wolf, Michael M.; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Pérez-García, David

2012-12-01

128

Impact of 2001 Building Technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model allied In Build is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1995$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

MJ Scott; DJ Hostick; DB Elliott

2000-03-20

129

Impact of 2001 Building Technology, State and Community Programs on United States Employment and Wage Income  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1999$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

Scott, Michael J.; Hostick, Donna J.; Elliott, Douglas B.

2000-03-20

130

PCM thermal storage in buildings: A state of art  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of various possible methods for heating and cooling in buildings are discussed in this paper. The thermal performance of various types of systems like PCM trombe wall, PCM wallboards, PCM shutters, PCM building blocks, air-based heating systems, floor heating, ceiling boards, etc., is presented in this paper. All systems have good potential for heating and cooling in

Vineet Veer Tyagi; D. Buddhi

2007-01-01

131

4. EMPIRE STATE MINE TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE/BIN, COLLAPSED BUILDING FROM ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. EMPIRE STATE MINE TAILINGS, ORE CHUTE/BIN, COLLAPSED BUILDING FROM BELOW. CAMERA POINTED NORTHEAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

132

A Comparison of the 2003 and 2006 International Energy Conservation Codes to Determine the Potential Impact on Residential Building Energy Efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The IECC was updated in 2006. As required in the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1992, Title 3, DOE has a legislative requirement to "determine whether such revision would improve energy efficiency in residential buildings" within 12 months of the latest revision. This requirement is part of a three-year cycle of regular code updates. To meet this requirement, an independent review was completed using personnel experienced in building science but not involved in the code development process.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2008-03-01

133

Development of the dual-cycle absorption heat pump for residential application. Appendix D: Review of building and mechanical codes and standards for absorption heat pumps. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The study indicates that there are no existing building and mechanical codes and standards that would greatly impede the development and commercialization of the Battelle Absorption Heat Pump (BAHP) when used for residential and/or light commercial applications. Summary tables of applicable existing codes and standards cover design materials, design pressures, pressure relief, refrigerant discharge, discharge capacity, other design criteria, installation, and pressure vessels. Applicable codes are presented in an appendix.

Not Available

1990-04-01

134

Non-Interleaved Reed-Solomon Coding Performance on Finite State Channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of a communication system operating over finite state channel (FSC) models includes the calculation of the probability of subsets of error sequences. In this paper we first present an analytical method for evaluating the performance of non-interleaved Reed-Solomon (RS) codes over channels modeled as FSC models with an arbitrary number of states. The main idea is to express

Cecilio Pimentel; Ian F. Blake

1997-01-01

135

Indoor air quality study in Agency Building Two, Empire State Plaza, Albany, New York. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The quality of the indoor environment and potential health conquences have become major concerns for occupants of office buildings. Increasing ventilation rates are often recommended as a potential solution for indoor air quality (IAQ) problems, whether real or perceived as real by occupants. To date, limited quantitative data have been collected to relate increased outdoor-air intake to commonly measured IAQ or comfort parameters. The purpose of this study, conducted by GEOMET Technologies, Inc. for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, was to quantitatively assess the effect of ventilation rate on indoor air quality and associated parameters in an occupied office building, and occupant perceptions of air quality and comfort in the building. The building studied, a 20-story office tower located at the Empire State Plaza in Albany, New York, has a total floor area of approximately 100,000 ft. The building is operated by the New York State Office of General Services (OGS). The air-distribution component of the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for the building consists of two air-handling units that serve the perimeter of the building through induction supply-air units and two other units that serve the core area of the building through ceiling diffusers. The perimeter system has separate zones that serve the north and south sides of the building, and the core system is zoned to individually serve the upper and lower halves of the building.

Not Available

1992-04-01

136

Indoor air quality study in Agency Building Two, Empire State Plaza, Albany, New York  

SciTech Connect

The quality of the indoor environment and potential health conquences have become major concerns for occupants of office buildings. Increasing ventilation rates are often recommended as a potential solution for indoor air quality (IAQ) problems, whether real or perceived as real by occupants. To date, limited quantitative data have been collected to relate increased outdoor-air intake to commonly measured IAQ or comfort parameters. The purpose of this study, conducted by GEOMET Technologies, Inc. for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, was to quantitatively assess the effect of ventilation rate on indoor air quality and associated parameters in an occupied office building, and occupant perceptions of air quality and comfort in the building. The building studied, a 20-story office tower located at the Empire State Plaza in Albany, New York, has a total floor area of approximately 100,000 ft. The building is operated by the New York State Office of General Services (OGS). The air-distribution component of the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system for the building consists of two air-handling units that serve the perimeter of the building through induction supply-air units and two other units that serve the core area of the building through ceiling diffusers. The perimeter system has separate zones that serve the north and south sides of the building, and the core system is zoned to individually serve the upper and lower halves of the building.

Not Available

1992-04-01

137

Comparison of various NLTE codes in computing the charge-state populations of an argon plasma  

SciTech Connect

A comparison among nine computer codes shows surprisingly large differences where it had been believed that the theroy was well understood. Each code treats an argon plasma, optically thin and with no external photon flux; temperatures vary around 1 keV and ion densities vary from 6 x 10/sup 17/ cm/sup -3/ to 6 x 10/sup 21/ cm/sup -3/. At these conditions most ions have three or fewer bound electrons. The calculated populations of 0-, 1-, 2-, and 3-electron ions differ from code to code by typical factors of 2, in some cases by factors greater than 300. These differences depend as sensitively on how may Rydberg states a code allows as they do on variations among computed collision rates. 29 refs., 23 figs.

Stone, S.R.; Weisheit, J.C.

1984-11-01

138

Accuracy of external cause of injury codes reported in Washington State hospital discharge records  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective—To evaluate the accuracy of external cause of injury codes (E codes) reported in computerized hospital discharge records.Methods—All civilian hospitals in Washington State submit computerized data for each hospital discharge to a file maintained by the Department of Health. In 1996, 32 hospitals accounted for 80% of the injury related discharges in this file; from these hospitals, we sampled 1260

M LeMier; P Cummings; T A West

2001-01-01

139

User's manual for PANDA: a computer code for calculating equations of state  

SciTech Connect

PANDA is an interactive computer code that constructs equations of state (EOS) for materials over a wide range of densities and temperatures. It provides several options for such contributions to the EOS as the cold curve, lattice vibrations, fluid degrees of freedom, electronic excitations, and intramolecular vibration and rotation. The user enters parameters that define the EOS and makes calculations to test and study the model. The code generates standard Sesame EOS tables that can be read in to other codes or added to a data library for applications.

Kerley, G.I.

1981-11-01

140

Washington State Department of Transportation energy efficiency guidelines for small buildings  

SciTech Connect

This document provides energy efficiency guidelines for the construction and remodel of small buildings owned by the Washington State Department of Transportation (DOT). For the purpose of these guidelines {open_quotes}small buildings{close_quotes} are defined as those under 25,000 square feet. However, many of the guidelines can also be used for larger buildings. DOT is responsible for 641 buildings totaling 2.2 million square feet and consuming approximately $1,087,500 dollars in energy costs each year. Building types covered by these guidelines are small offices, shop buildings, and heated and unheated storage. These building types can be expected to vary greatly in both the distribution and magnitude of energy use.

NONE

1995-03-01

141

Analyses of postulated ALMR containment and steam generator building accidents using the CONTAIN-LMR code  

SciTech Connect

The development of liquid metal reactor concepts with passive safety characteristics is in progress at the General Electric Company under contract to the US Department of Energy. To assess the performance of these systems under postulated severe accident conditions analyses of containment accidents relating to the breach of the primary coolant boundary of the Department of Energy Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor were completed by Westinghouse Hanford Company for the plant designer General Electric. A series of three accident cases were selected by General Electric for characterizing the containment responding to a hypothetical core disruptive accident. In addition, the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor Steam Generator Building was also analyzed to demonstrate the acceptability of the Steam Generator Building sodium fire protection strategy related to a design-basis leak.

Chiao, T.; Wood, S.A.; Shen, P.K.; Baker, R.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Gluekler, E.L. [General Electric Co., Richland, WA (United States). Hanford Atomic Products Operation

1994-01-01

142

Using Exception Handling to Build Opaque Predicates in Intermediate Code Obfuscation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsoft's .NET Framework, and JAVA plat- forms, are based in a just-in-time compilation philosophy. Software developed using these tech- nologies is executed in a hardware independent framework, which provides a full object-oriented environment, and in some cases allows the inter- action of several components written in dier- ent programming languages. This flexibility is achieved by compiling into an intermediate code

Daniel Dolz; Gerardo Parra

143

VULNERABILITY OF CODE-COMPLIANT RC BUILDINGS UNDER MULTI-AXIAL EARTHQUAKE LOADING  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the vicinity of the source of moderate-to-strong earthquakes, the ratio of peak vertical to horizontal acceleration (V\\/H) often exceeds the values around 2\\/3rd adopted in design codes. The difference in frequency content between the vertical and horizontal ground motions (VGM and HGM, respectively), when coupled with difference between the vertical and horizontal dynamic characteristics of structures, cast doubt regarding

Aman Mwafy; Amr Elnashai

144

Energy Conservation Code Decoded  

SciTech Connect

Designing an energy-efficient, affordable, and comfortable home is a lot easier thanks to a slime, easier to read booklet, the 2006 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), published in March 2006. States, counties, and cities have begun reviewing the new code as a potential upgrade to their existing codes. Maintained under the public consensus process of the International Code Council, the IECC is designed to do just what its title says: promote the design and construction of energy-efficient homes and commercial buildings. Homes in this case means traditional single-family homes, duplexes, condominiums, and apartment buildings having three or fewer stories. The U.S. Department of Energy, which played a key role in proposing the changes that resulted in the new code, is offering a free training course that covers the residential provisions of the 2006 IECC.

Cole, Pam C.; Taylor, Zachary T.

2006-09-01

145

Transfer function bounds for partial-unit-memory convolutional codes based on reduced state diagram  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of a coding system consisting of a convolutional encoder and a Viterbi decoder is analytically found by the well-known transfer function bounding technique. For the partial-unit-memory byte-oriented convolutional encoder with m sub 0 binary memory cells and (k sub 0 m sub 0) inputs, a state diagram of 2(K) (sub 0) was for the transfer function bound. A reduced state diagram of (2 (m sub 0) +1) is used for easy evaluation of transfer function bounds for partial-unit-memory codes.

Lee, P. J.

1984-01-01

146

Building Stone of the United States: The NIST Test Wall  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This report explains how the NIST test wall was constructed to study the performance and durability of various building stones under uniform climatic conditions. It was built by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 1948 and is currently located at their facility in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Users may read and see pictures of the wall's physical features, its orientation, and search among descriptions and pictures of the various types of stone which are incorporated into the wall.

Raz, Jaime; Stutzman, Paul

147

Do Merit-Aid Programs Help States Build Skilled Workforces?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the major developments in financing undergraduate education in the United States in the past 20 years has been the introduction of broad-based merit-aid programs by state governments. The typical program waives tuition and fees at public colleges and universities for state residents who have attained a respectable grade-point average…

Groen, Jeffrey A.

2011-01-01

148

Can you build an iPhone app without writing a single line of code?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the last ESIP summer meeting, a study was conducted to explore different commercial tools now available that allow one to create a mobile app without writing a single line of code. The proposed research comprised of two components. First, systematically evaluate different tools to create mobile apps along the dimensions of features and price. Second, create an iPhone app prototype for the ESIP community using some of these tools. The initial assessment classified the currently available tools to create mobile app tools into two categories. The tools that fall under the first category require no programming, but the content for the mobile apps are fed to it either via a web site RSS feed or entered manually. Consequently, these tools only support limited user interactivity. These tools follow the business model of website hosting services. This business model offers a set of templates to the end users with limited customization features to create their content in order to publish to websites. The second category of tools requires programming, but the code can be written in popular languages such as Javascript (compatible with most mobile platforms) rather than mobile app specific languages. For the second component of the study, two ESIP iPhone app prototypes were created. The first prototype required no programming and used the AppMakr tool. Objective C was used to create the second iPhone prototype from scratch and the source code for this prototype is available on the ESIP website. The study concluded that existing tools do make it easy to create a simple mobile app especially if one already has a well designed website. The associated costs are adequate but not cheap. However, if the mobile app has requirements that require interactivity and specialized customization then one needs to work with a mobile app developer.

Ramachandran, R.; Maskey, M.

2011-12-01

149

Quantum error correction and detection: Quantitative analysis of a coherent-state amplitude-damping code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reexamine a non-Gaussian quantum error-correction code designed to protect optical coherent-state qubits against errors due to an amplitude-damping channel. We improve on a previous result [R. Wickert, N. K. Bernardes, and P. van Loock, Phys. Rev. A 81, 062344 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.062344] by providing a tighter upper bound on the performance attained when considering realistic assumptions, which constrain the operation of the gates employed in the scheme. The quantitative characterization is performed through measures of fidelity and concurrence, the latter obtained by employing the code as an entanglement distillation protocol. We find that, when running the code in fully deterministic error-correction mode, direct transmission can only be beaten for certain combinations of channel and input state parameters. In contrast, in error-detection mode, the usage of higher repetition encodings remains beneficial throughout, however, at the expense of diminishing success probabilities.

Wickert, Ricardo; van Loock, Peter

2014-05-01

150

Experimental demonstration of a graph state quantum error-correction code.  

PubMed

Scalable quantum computing and communication requires the protection of quantum information from the detrimental effects of decoherence and noise. Previous work tackling this problem has relied on the original circuit model for quantum computing. However, recently a family of entangled resources known as graph states has emerged as a versatile alternative for protecting quantum information. Depending on the graph's structure, errors can be detected and corrected in an efficient way using measurement-based techniques. Here we report an experimental demonstration of error correction using a graph state code. We use an all-optical setup to encode quantum information into photons representing a four-qubit graph state. We are able to reliably detect errors and correct against qubit loss. The graph we realize is setup independent, thus it could be employed in other physical settings. Our results show that graph state codes are a promising approach for achieving scalable quantum information processing. PMID:24752224

Bell, B A; Herrera-Martí, D A; Tame, M S; Markham, D; Wadsworth, W J; Rarity, J G

2014-01-01

151

Experimental demonstration of a graph state quantum error-correction code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scalable quantum computing and communication requires the protection of quantum information from the detrimental effects of decoherence and noise. Previous work tackling this problem has relied on the original circuit model for quantum computing. However, recently a family of entangled resources known as graph states has emerged as a versatile alternative for protecting quantum information. Depending on the graph’s structure, errors can be detected and corrected in an efficient way using measurement-based techniques. Here we report an experimental demonstration of error correction using a graph state code. We use an all-optical setup to encode quantum information into photons representing a four-qubit graph state. We are able to reliably detect errors and correct against qubit loss. The graph we realize is setup independent, thus it could be employed in other physical settings. Our results show that graph state codes are a promising approach for achieving scalable quantum information processing.

Bell, B. A.; Herrera-Martí, D. A.; Tame, M. S.; Markham, D.; Wadsworth, W. J.; Rarity, J. G.

2014-04-01

152

International Code Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Code Council is �a membership association dedicated to building safety and fire prevention, develops the codes used to construct residential and commercial buildings, including homes and schools. Most U.S. cities, counties and states that adopt codes choose the International Codes developed by the International Code Council.� Although some sections of the site are reserved for members only (which requires a fee), there is a remarkable amount of material available to non-members. Available on the website are details about codes development, how to acquire an opinion on a code from multiple sources and how to reach a building code liaison for your locality. Under the �Certification and Testing� tab, users can find sample certification exam questions as well as outlines. The site also provides links to various periodicals, ICC meetings and also includes an event calendar to see dates for industry conferences and upcoming trade shows.

2006-12-04

153

Spotlight on Speech Codes 2007: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Last year, the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) conducted its first-ever comprehensive study of restrictions on speech at America's colleges and universities, "Spotlight on Speech Codes 2006: The State of Free Speech on our Nation's Campuses." In light of the essentiality of free expression to a truly liberal education, its…

Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2007

2007-01-01

154

Aerospace design optimization using a steady state real-coded genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the advantages of using a real coded genetic algorithm (GA) for aerospace engineering design applications. The GA developed for this study runs steady state, meaning that after every function evaluation the worst performer is determined and that worst performer is then thrown out and replaced by a new member that has been evaluated. The new member is

John D. Dyer; Roy J. Hartfield; Gerry V. Dozier; John E. Burkhalter

155

User's manual for PANDA: a computer code for calculating equations of state  

Microsoft Academic Search

PANDA is an interactive computer code that constructs equations of state (EOS) for materials over a wide range of densities and temperatures. It provides several options for such contributions to the EOS as the cold curve, lattice vibrations, fluid degrees of freedom, electronic excitations, and intramolecular vibration and rotation. The user enters parameters that define the EOS and makes calculations

Kerley

1981-01-01

156

Analysis of Potential Benefits and Costs of Adopting ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 as a Commercial Building Energy Code in Illinois Jurisdictions  

SciTech Connect

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999 was developed in an effort to set minimum requirements for energy efficienty design and construction of new commercial buildings. This report assesses the benefits and costs of adopting this standard as the building energy code in Illinois. Energy and economic impacts are estimated using BLAST combined with a Life-Cycle Cost approach to assess corresponding economic costs and benefits.

Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Winiarski, David W.; Richman, Eric E.; Friedrich, Michele

2002-05-01

157

Using Microsoft Excel as a pre-processor for CODE V optimization of air spaces when building camera lenses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When building high-performance camera lenses, it is often preferable to tailor element-to-element air spaces instead of tightening the fabrication tolerances sufficiently so that random assembly is possible. A tailored air space solution is usually unique for each serial number camera lens and results in nearly nominal performance. When these air spaces are computed based on measured radii, thickness, and refractive indices, this can put a strain on the design engineering department to deal with all the data in a timely fashion. Excel† may be used by the assembly technician as a preprocessor tool to facilitate data entry and organization, and to perform the optimization using CODE V‡ (or equivalent) without any training or experience in using lens design software. This makes it unnecessary to involve design engineering for each lens serial number, sometimes waiting in their work queue. In addition, Excel can be programmed to run CODE V in such a way that discrete shim thicknesses result. This makes it possible for each tailored air space solution to be achieved using a finite number of shims that differ in thickness by a reasonable amount. It is generally not necessary to tailor the air spaces in each lens to the micron level to achieve nearly nominal performance.

Stephenson, Dave

2013-09-01

158

Energy-Efficient Manufactured Housing in Chicago: Part 2, Building Code, Construction and Energy Efficiency Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Center for Neighborhood Technology (CNT) with funding from federal and state sources is involved in a broad study examining the many economic and social issues of deteriorating neighborhoods. This study is a portion of the major study, conducted by CN...

L. Rangelov

1986-01-01

159

Representation of bidirectional ground motions for design spectra in building codes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 2009 NEHRP Provisions modified the definition of horizontal ground motion from the geometric mean of spectral accelerations for two components to the peak response of a single lumped mass oscillator regardless of direction. These maximum-direction (MD) ground motions operate under the assumption that the dynamic properties of the structure (e.g., stiffness, strength) are identical in all directions. This assumption may be true for some in-plan symmetric structures, however, the response of most structures is dominated by modes of vibration along specific axes (e.g., longitudinal and transverse axes in a building), and often the dynamic properties (especially stiffness) along those axes are distinct. In order to achieve structural designs consistent with the collapse risk level given in the NEHRP documents, we argue that design spectra should be compatible with expected levels of ground motion along those principal response axes. The use of MD ground motions effectively assumes that the azimuth of maximum ground motion coincides with the directions of principal structural response. Because this is unlikely, design ground motions have lower probability of occurrence than intended, with significant societal costs. We recommend adjustments to make design ground motions compatible with target risk levels.

Stewart, Jonathan P.; Abrahamson, Norman A.; Atkinson, Gail M.; Beker, Jack W.; Boore, David M.; Bozorgnia, Yousef; Campbell, Kenneth W.; Comartin, Craig D.; Idriss, I. M.; Lew, Marshall; Mehrain, Michael; Moehle, Jack P.; Naeim, Farzad; Sabol, Thomas A.

2011-01-01

160

Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 91-125-2125, State of Colorado, Office of the State Public Defender, Petroleum building, Denver, Colorado  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to a request from the State of Colorado, Office of the State Public Defender (SIC-9222), an investigation was made of indoor air quality at the office in the Petroleum Building, Denver, Colorado. The building was built in 1957 and consisted of 14 stories plus a penthouse in downtown Denver. Ventilation in the building consisted of a central heating,

McCammon

1991-01-01

161

Illinois State Buildings Energy Expense Study FY86 and Projected FY87-90.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During FY86 the State of Illinois spent almost $120 million for electricity, natural gas, coal, fuel oil, propane and steam to operate state owned and leased buildings. Over the next four years it is projected that this will increase to $134 million in FY...

D. Jones

1987-01-01

162

Collaborative Leadership for State Systems Building: New Mexico's Early Childhood Action Network  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Early Childhood Action Network (ECAN) provides an example of successful state systems building in New Mexico. The far-reaching scope of ECAN's coalition and accomplishments identifies promising collaborative leadership practices that have relevance for early childhood leaders in other states. The author describes the accomplishments of ECAN's…

Vermilya, Lois

2009-01-01

163

Powerful Alignment: Building Consensus around the Common Core State Standards  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines a sampling of arguments for and against the Common Core State Standards from the period surrounding their adoption. While supporters of the standards have articulated common goals such as economic security, equity, and alignment, opposing voices have failed to coalesce around a unified set of principles or a common language. An…

Doyle, Keridan

2012-01-01

164

Do Sports Build Character. A Study of the Intramural Sports Program of the United States Air Force Academy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examines the premise that 'sports build character.' Educational institutions in the United States have used sports participation to build character for over 100 years, but verification of whether sport is an effective tool to accomplish charact...

D. C. Gould

2000-01-01

165

Investigation of Coded Source Neutron Imaging at the North Carolina State University PULSTAR Reactor  

SciTech Connect

A neutron imaging facility is located on beam-tube #5 of the 1-MWth PULSTAR reactor at the North Carolina State University. An investigation has been initiated to explore the application of coded imaging techniques at the facility. Coded imaging uses a mosaic of pinholes to encode an aperture, thus generating an encoded image of the object at the detector. To reconstruct the image recorded by the detector, corresponding decoding patterns are used. The optimized design of coded masks is critical for the performance of this technique and will depend on the characteristics of the imaging beam. In this work, Monte Carlo (MCNP) simulations were utilized to explore the needed modifications to the PULSTAR thermal neutron beam to support coded imaging techniques. In addition, an assessment of coded mask design has been performed. The simulations indicated that a 12 inch single crystal sapphire filter is suited for such an application at the PULSTAR beam in terms of maximizing flux with good neutron-to-gamma ratio. Computational simulations demonstrate the feasibility of correlation reconstruction methods on neutron transmission imaging. A gadolinium aperture with thickness of 500 m was used to construct the mask using a 38 34 URA pattern. A test experiment using such a URA design has been conducted and the point spread function of the system has been measured.

Xiao, Ziyu [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University; Mishra, Kaushal [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University; Hawari, Ayman [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL] [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL] [ORNL; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL] [ORNL

2010-01-01

166

Research Report on Feasibility Study of Building a QT Gui Testing Tool-AX Program Code Group Computer Science R & D Project (U).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project was divided into two main steps. The first step was to understand the underlying Qt source code much better. The second step was to build a small prototype that I could use to test ideas. The first step was actually much shorter than I had or...

B. T. Grover

2003-01-01

167

Applications of the seismic hazard model of Italy: from a new building code to the L'Aquila trial against seismologists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2003, a large national project fur updating the seismic hazard map and the seismic zoning in Italy started, according to the rules fixed by an Ordinance by Italian Prime Minister. New input elements for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment were compiled: the earthquake catalogue, the seismogenic zonation, the catalogue completeness, a set of new attenuation relationships. The map of expected PGA on rock soil condition with 10% probability of exceedance is the new reference seismic hazard map for Italy (http://zonesismiche.mi.ingv.it). In the following, further 9 probabilities of exceedance and the uniform hazard spectra up to 2 seconds together with the disaggregation of the PGA was also released. A comprehensive seismic hazard model that fully describes the seismic hazard in Italy was then available, accessible by a webGis application (http://esse1-gis.mi.ingv.it/en.php). The detailed information make possible to change the approach for evaluating the proper seismic action for designing: from a zone-dependent approach (in Italy there were 4 seismic zones, each one with a single design spectrum) to a site-dependent approach: the design spectrum is now defined at each site of a grid of about 11000 points covering the whole national territory. The new building code becomes mandatory only after the 6 April 2009 L'Aquila earthquake, the first strong event in Italy after the release of the seismic hazard map. The large number of recordings and the values of the experienced accelerations suggested the comparisons between the recorded spectra and spectra defined in the seismic codes Even if such comparisons could be robust only after several consecutive 50-year periods of observation and in a probabilistic approach it is not a single observation that can validate or not the hazard estimate, some of the comparisons that can be undertaken between the observed ground motions and the hazard model used for the seismic code have been performed and have shown that the assumptions and modeling choices made in the Italian hazard study are in line with the observations, by considering different return period, the soil condition at the recording stations and the uncertainties of the model. A further application of Italian seismic hazard model is in the identification of buildings and factories struck by the 2012 Emilia (Italy) earthquakes to be investigated in order to determine if they were still safe or not. The law states that no safety check is needed if the construction experienced a shaking greater than 70% of the design acceleration expected at the site, without abandoning the elastic behavior. The ground motion values are evaluated from the shakemaps available (http://shakemap.rm.ingv.it) and the design accelerations derived from the Building Code, which is based on the reference Italian seismic hazard model. Finally, the national seismic hazard model was one the most debated element during the trial in L'Aquila against the seismologists, experts of Civil Protection Department, sentenced to six years in prison on charges of manslaughter, because, according to the judge, they underestimated the risk in the region, giving a wrong message to the people, before the strong 2009 L'Aquila earthquake.

Meletti, C.

2013-05-01

168

PEBBLE: a two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics code  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the local implementation of the PEBBLE code to treat the two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics problem. This code is implemented as a module of a computation system used for reactor core history calculations. Given power density data, the geometric description in (RZ), and basic heat removal conditions and thermal properties, the coolant properties, flow conditions, and temperature distributions in the pebble fuel elements are predicted. The calculation is oriented to the continuous fueling, steady state condition with consideration of the effect of the high energy neutron flux exposure and temperature history on the thermal conductivity. The coolant flow conditions are calculated for the same geometry as used in the neutronics calculation, power density and fluence data being used directly, and temperature results are made available for subsequent use.

Vondy, D.R.

1981-09-01

169

Precoder Design for Space-Time Coded MIMO Systems with Imperfect Channel State Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of designing a linear precoder for space-time coded multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with imperfect knowledge of channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT), subject to a total transmit power constraint. Assuming an uncorrelated flat-fading channel and using a maximum likelihood decoder at the receiver, we analytically reveal that the derived precoder is a function of the

Jane W. Huang; Edward K. S. Au; Vincent K. N. Lau

2008-01-01

170

Linear Precoding for Space-Time Coded MIMO Systems using Partial Channel State Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of designing a linear precoder for space-time coded multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with partial knowledge of channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT), subject to a total transmit power constraint. Assuming an uncorrelated flat-fading channel and using a maximum-likelihood detector at the receiver, we show that the derived precoder is a function of the noise variance,

Jane W. Huang; Edward K. S. Au; Vincent K. N. Lau

2006-01-01

171

Dense Coding via Local Measurement with Extended GHZ-Type State  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two schemes for dense coding via local measurement with an extended GHZ-type state are investigated. In this protocol, the supervisor (Cliff) can control the channel and the average amount of information transmitted from the sender (Alice) to the receiver (Bob) by adjusting the local measurement angle ?. It is shown that the results for the average amounts of information are unique from the different two schemes.

Yi, Xiao-jie; Wang, Jian-min

2013-03-01

172

Analysis of MIMO Systems with Finite-Rate Channel State Information Feedback: A Source Coding Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper employs a source coding approach to study the effects of finite-rate quantization of the channel state information on the performance of MIMO systems over flat fading channels. In our previous work, the finite-rate feedback-based communication system was formulated as a general fixed-rate vector quantization problem for the purposes of analysis. In this paper, the analysis is extended to

Jun Zheng; Bhaskar D. Rao

2006-01-01

173

Building the Capacity of States to Ensure Inclusion of Rural Communities in State and Local Primary Violence Prevention Planning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities face unique challenges associated with ensuring that they are equal partners in capacity-building and prevention planning processes at the state and local level despite barriers that can inhibit participation. By their nature, rural, frontier, and geographically isolated communities and…

Cook-Craig, Patricia G.; Lane, Karen G.; Siebold, Wendi L.

2010-01-01

174

State courts and public health: building partnerships to enhance preparedness.  

PubMed

Laws and regulations can facilitate or impede emergency preparedness and response activities. State legislators, judges, and lawyers play critically important roles in creating and interpreting laws that affect the ability of public health practitioners and their partners to effectively respond to emergencies. In an age when political unrest, global travel, and emerging biological threats can combine to create social and economic havoc worldwide, it is critical that those responsible for upholding the rule of law during emergencies understand the law and its implications. In 2003, the University of Pittsburgh Center for Public Health Preparedness (UP-CPHP) created a Preparedness Law and Policy Program to advance legal preparedness for public health emergencies across Pennsylvania and the nation. To achieve this goal, UP-CPHP has partnered with local, state, and national organizations. In the course of these activities, Pennsylvania judges, the Administrative Office of Pennsylvania Courts, UP-CPHP, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Law Program have developed a strong and enduring collaborative relationship that has put the Pennsylvania judiciary in a better position today to plan for and respond to a public health crisis than it has been at any other point in its history. The tools and resources developed through this collaboration can readily be adapted to assist other jurisdictions nationwide in their efforts to ensure that their judicial systems are similarly prepared. PMID:21133065

Sweeney, Patricia M; Stebbins, Samuel; Stier, Daniel D; Pines, Zygmont

2010-01-01

175

SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis  

SciTech Connect

Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.

Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.

1980-08-01

176

Search for Active-State Conformation of Drug Target GPCR Using Real-Coded Genetic Algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

G-Protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large superfamily of proteins and are a target for nearly 50% of drugs in clinical use today. GPCRs have a unique structural motif, seven transmembrane helices, and it is known that agonists and antagonists dock with a GPCR in its ``active'' and ``inactive'' condition, respectively. Knowing conformations of both states is eagerly anticipated for elucidation of drug action mechanism. Since GPCRs are difficult to crystallize, the 3D structures of these receptors have not yet been determined by X-ray crystallography, except the inactive-state conformation of two proteins. The conformation of them enabled the inactive form of other GPCRs to be modeled by computer-aided homology modeling. However, to date, the active form of GPCRs has not been solved. This paper describes a novel method to predict the 3D structure of an active-state GPCR aiming at molecular docking-based virtual screening using real-coded genetic algorithm (real-coded GA), receptor-ligand docking simulations, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The basic idea of the method is that the MD is first used to calculate an average 3D coordinates of all atoms of a GPCR protein against heat fluctuation on the pico- or nano- second time scale, and then real-coded GA involving receptor-ligand docking simulations functions to determine the rotation angle of each helix as a movement on wider time scale. The method was validated using human leukotriene B4 receptor BLT1 as a sample GPCR. Our study demonstrated that the established evolutionary search for the active state of the leukotriene receptor provided the appropriate 3D structure of the receptor to dock with its agonists.

Ishino, Yoko; Harada, Takanori; Aida, Misako

177

BUILDING STRONGER STATE ENERGY PARTNERSHIPS WITH THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY  

SciTech Connect

This technical progress report includes an update of the progress during the second year of cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. The report also describes the barriers in conduct of the effort, and our assessment of future progress and activities.

Kate Burke

2002-11-01

178

Appraisal of the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings in Colorado  

SciTech Connect

An appraisal of the use of geothermal energy for space heating requirements for selected state-owned buildings in six communities in Colorado is presented. The appraisal addresses several components of a feasibility study for geothermal applications, including resource assessment, pipeline rights-of-way, well design and drilling program, conceptual engineering designs for retrofits of building heating systems, evaluations of economic feasibility, institutional requirements, and environmental considerations. Economic feasibility is determined from evaluation of four economic measures: a simple payback period in years; twenty-year annualized system costs (geothermal system versus conventional system); total twenty-year undiscounted energy savings; and total twenty-year present value energy savings. The results of the analyses of each feasibility component are finally ranked, using a weighting system, to arrive at an order ranking of the eleven state-owned buildings for overall feasibility. The relative total feasibility rankings and the absolute evaluations of economic competitiveness with the existing conventional-fuel heating systems show that several of the state facilities are likely candidates for conversion to geothermal hot water heating systems. The best candidate by far is the Colorado State Reformatory at Buena Vista. The geothermal resource at Buena Vista (Cottonwood Canyon and Chalk Creek) is a high quality resource with high water temperatures and a water quality adequate for direct flow through the building heating units.

Meyer, R.T.; Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.

1981-01-30

179

Illinois State Buildings Energy Expense Study FY85 and Projected FY86-89.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report, the Dept. of Energy and Natural Resources (ENR) attempts to project energy costs for Illinois state buildings from FY86 through FY89. It also identifies energy usage and cost by fuel type and agency for FY81 through FY86.

R. R. Stephens J. Harms D. Jones J. Shum S. L. Tuma

1985-01-01

180

ESCORE: the EPRI steady-state core reload evaluator code: General description: Final report  

SciTech Connect

ESCORE is a FORTRAN computer code that calculates the steady-state response of Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel rods during long-term irradiation to burnups exceeding 50,000 MWd/MTU. ESCORE has been developed and tuned to give best-estimate fuel performance predictions for fuel designed to operate in both Boiling Water Reactors (BWR's) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR's). The code calculates the thermal and mechanical response of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent rod power, fast neutron flux, and coolant operating conditions. This report describes the ESCORE fuel performance models in detail. The ESCORE benchmarking by data comparisons is included. Summary descriptions of the purpose, applications, rod simulation methodology, and solution procedure of ESCORE are also provided where appropriate.

Fancher, R.B.; Fiero, I.B.; Freeburn, H.R.; Garde, A.M.; Kennard, M.W.; Krammen, M.A.; Smerd, P.G.; Yackle, N.T.

1987-02-01

181

Assessment of United States Industry Structural Codes and Standards for Application to Advanced Nuclear Power Reactors. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to evaluate United States industry consensus structural codes and standards for application to the design and construction of the Seismic Category I, Safety Class structures of currently proposed Advanced Light Water React...

T. M. Adams J. D. Stevenson

1995-01-01

182

Occupant interaction with Washington State ventilation and indoor air quality code mandated whole house ventilation systems: Telephone survey results -- Washington State University energy program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Washington State Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Code (VIAQ) has required the installation of whole house ventilation systems in all new homes since July 1991. A variety of systems are allowed by the VIAQ. In May 1998, a survey was conducted to explore occupant interaction with the code mandated systems. The survey is part of a research project designed

J. Devine; R. Kunkle; M. Lubliner

1999-01-01

183

Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from October 2007 – September 2011 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-07NT43264, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Energy Assurance and Critical Infrastructure, State and Regional Technical Assistance, Regional Initiative, Regional Coordination and Technical Assistance, and International Activities in China. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

Marks, Kate

2011-09-30

184

Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA 91-125-2125, State of Colorado, Office of the State Public Defender, Petroleum Building, Denver, Colorado.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to a request from the State of Colorado, Office of the State Public Defender (SIC-9222), an investigation was made of indoor air quality at the office in the Petroleum Building, Denver, Colorado. The building was built in 1957 and consisted of...

C. S. McCammon

1991-01-01

185

Enabling Efficient, Responsive, and Resilient Buildings: Collaboration Between the United States and India  

SciTech Connect

The United States and India have among the largest economies in the world, and they continue to work together to address current and future challenges in reliable electricity supply. The acceleration to efficient, grid-responsive, resilient buildings represents a key energy security objective for federal and state agencies in both countries. The weaknesses in the Indian grid system were manifest in 2012, in the country’s worst blackout, which jeopardized the lives of half of India’s 1.2 billion people. While both countries are investing significantly in power sector reform, India, by virtue of its colossal growth rate in commercial energy intensity and commercial floor space, is better placed than the United States to integrate and test state-of-art Smart Grid technologies in its future grid-responsive commercial buildings. This paper presents a roadmap of technical collaboration between the research organizations, and public-private stakeholders in both countries to accelerate the building-to-grid integration through pilot studies in India.

Basu, Chandrayee; Ghatikar, Girish

2013-09-25

186

Profiles of Airborne Fungi in Buildings and Outdoor Environments in the United States  

PubMed Central

We examined 12,026 fungal air samples (9,619 indoor samples and 2,407 outdoor samples) from 1,717 buildings located across the United States; these samples were collected during indoor air quality investigations performed from 1996 to 1998. For all buildings, both indoor and outdoor air samples were collected with an Andersen N6 sampler. The culturable airborne fungal concentrations in indoor air were lower than those in outdoor air. The fungal levels were highest in the fall and summer and lowest in the winter and spring. Geographically, the highest fungal levels were found in the Southwest, Far West, and Southeast. The most common culturable airborne fungi, both indoors and outdoors and in all seasons and regions, were Cladosporium, Penicillium, nonsporulating fungi, and Aspergillus. Stachybotrys chartarum was identified in the indoor air in 6% of the buildings studied and in the outdoor air of 1% of the buildings studied. This study provides industrial hygienists, allergists, and other public health practitioners with comparative information on common culturable airborne fungi in the United States. This is the largest study of airborne indoor and outdoor fungal species and concentrations conducted with a standardized protocol to date.

Shelton, Brian G.; Kirkland, Kimberly H.; Flanders, W. Dana; Morris, George K.

2002-01-01

187

Report of an illness outbreak at the Harry S Truman State Office Building  

SciTech Connect

An acute epidemic of headache, mucosal irritation, fatigue, odd taste, and dizziness involving several hundred state government employees occurred in June 1986 in an office building in Missouri that housed 2,500 employees. A survey of 305 ill and 131 well employees demonstrated that ill employees were more likely to have perceived unusual odors and inadequate air flow in their work areas. The building has eight floors, seven of which are divided in half by an atrium, and 17 separate air handling systems. A total of 87% of the ill employees were concentrated in only three of the half floors. Extensive investigation revealed no toxic substances or other direct causes for the illnesses, but several factors were identified that may have reduced air quality in the affected areas. These included a low proportion of outside air, associated with crowding, blocked vents, smoking, and use of office chemicals. This pattern of illness suggests epidemic anxiety state triggered by poor air quality.

Donnell, H.D. Jr.; Bagby, J.R.; Harmon, R.G.; Crellin, J.R.; Chaski, H.C.; Bright, M.F.; Tuinen, M.V.; Metzger, R.W. (Missouri Department of Health, Jefferson City, MO (USA))

1989-03-01

188

The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption and intensity, over and above the variation associated with the contextual factors. This study also had implications in program implementation theory, and revealed that resource availability, stringency and adherence had significant impacts on program outcomes. Using seven classification tables, this study categorized and matched the predictors of electricity consumption and intensity with the specific energy sectors in which they demonstrated significance. Project developers, energy advocates, policy makers, program administrators, building occupants and other stakeholders could use study findings in conjunction with other empirical findings, to make informed decisions regarding the adoption, continuation or discontinuation of energy programs, while taking contextual factors into consideration. The adoption and efficient implementation of the most significant programs could reduce U.S. electricity consumption, and in the long term, probably reduce U.S. energy waste, environmental degradation, energy imports, energy prices, and demands for expanding energy generation and distribution infrastructure.

Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

189

Collapsed Building  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

This masonry office building in the downtown area of Concepcion, Chile collapsed as a result of the M 8.8 earthquake on Feb. 27, 2010. The construction of this building predates the establishment of strict building codes in Chile, put in place following the devastating earthquake of 1960. ...

2010-03-30

190

Energy Efficiency of the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code in West Virginia  

SciTech Connect

This report estimate the energy savings, economic impacts, and pollution reduction from adopting the 2003 International Code Council’s 2003 International Energy Conservation Code (as the mandatory residential energy efficiency code in the state of West Virginia. The state currently allows a less stringent replacement option. This report addresses the impacts for low-rise residential buildings only.

Lucas, Robert G.

2006-12-01

191

Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

This final technical report details the results of total work efforts and progress made from July 2000 - July 2008 under the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) cooperative agreement DE-FC26-00NT40802, Building Stronger State Energy Partnerships with the U.S. Department of Energy. Major topical project areas in this final report include work efforts in the following areas: Rebuild America/Energy Smart Schools, Higher Education Initiative, Winter/Summer Fuels Outlook Conferences, Energy Emergency, Clean Energy Integration, Energy Star, and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability. All required deliverables have been provided to the National Energy Technology Laboratory and DOE program officials.

David Terry

2008-09-30

192

Case study of modifications to a wood ``I'' beam framed floor-ceiling assembly which did not meet minimum International Building Code (IBC) impact insulation class (IIC) or sound transmission class (STC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A direct comparison, using three identical floor-ceiling assemblies, which did not meet minimum building codes standards for impact insulation class as built. Each floor-ceiling assembly received different corrective measures in an effort to correct the deficiency. All corrective measures were limited to the bottom side of the assembly, since hardwood flooring was installed as the finished floor. All the floor-ceiling assemblies consisted of light weight 16-in. deep ``I'' beam structural framing members (joist) spaced at 24 in. center to center supporting 3/4 in.-t & g plywood with 1-1/2 in. light weight gypsum concrete covered with 1/2-in. plywood and finished with hardwood flooring. Using tired old industry standard methods, products, and systems the best impact insulation class increase was twelve points which still did not meet minimum building code standards. By installing the state of the art products, using the proper methods available today under the floor-ceiling assembly the field impact insulation class was increased 28 points to a field impact insulation class of 60 without acoustical mat on the top side of the assembly. By design the field sound transmission class was also improved (40 to 55 STC) due to product selection, installations procedures, and design.

Gernhart, Elzo F.

2005-09-01

193

Real-time validation of receiver state information in optical space-time block code systems.  

PubMed

Free space optical interconnect (FSOI) systems are a promising solution to interconnect bottlenecks in high-speed systems. To overcome some sources of diminished FSOI performance caused by close proximity of multiple optical channels, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems implementing encoding schemes such as space-time block coding (STBC) have been developed. These schemes utilize information pertaining to the optical channel to reconstruct transmitted data. The STBC system is dependent on accurate channel state information (CSI) for optimal system performance. As a result of dynamic changes in optical channels, a system in operation will need to have updated CSI. Therefore, validation of the CSI during operation is a necessary tool to ensure FSOI systems operate efficiently. In this Letter, we demonstrate a method of validating CSI, in real time, through the use of moving averages of the maximum likelihood decoder data, and its capacity to predict the bit error rate (BER) of the system. PMID:24978536

Alamia, John; Kurzweg, Timothy

2014-06-15

194

Self-duality and bound states of the toric code model in a transverse field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effect of a transverse magnetic field on the toric code model. We show that this problem can be mapped onto the Xu-Moore model and thus onto the quantum compass model, which are known to be self-dual. We analyze the low-energy spectrum by means of perturbative continuous unitary transformations and determine accurately the energy gaps of various symmetry sectors. Our results are in very good agreement with exact diagonalization data for all values of the parameters except at the self-dual point where level crossings are responsible for a first-order phase transition between a topological phase and a polarized phase. Interestingly, bound states of two and four quasiparticles with fermionic and bosonic statistics emerge, and display dispersion relations of reduced dimensionality.

Vidal, Julien; Thomale, Ronny; Schmidt, Kai Phillip; Dusuel, Sébastien

2009-08-01

195

Correctness of racial coding of American Indians and Alaska Natives on the Washington State death certificate.  

PubMed

Underestimation of death rates for specific races can obscure health problems and impair the ability of public programs to prevent premature death and disability. For accurate race-specific death rates, the racial classification of both the population at risk and the decreased population must be accurately ascertained. However, studies suggest that the American Indian (AI) and Alaska Native (AN) races may be not be accurately recorded on the death certificate. We performed a computerized linkage between the Indian Health Service (IHS) patient registry and the 1985-1990 computerized Washington State death certificate data. The deceased was correctly identified as AI or AN on the death certificate for 1,088 (87.2%) of 1,248 matched deaths. The majority (93%) of deceased persons identified on the death certificate as not AI or AN were listed as white. The percentage of American Indian ancestry was strongly associated with correct racial classification on the death certificate (P < .001). Birth in Washington State, membership in a large Washington State tribe, and death from an alcohol condition independently added to the likelihood of correct AI or AN racial classification. Persons who died from cancer were significantly less likely to be correctly coded as AI or AN on the death certificate. PMID:7848672

Frost, F; Tollestrup, K; Ross, A; Sabotta, E; Kimball, E

1994-01-01

196

Codes for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This standard provides codes to be used for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States, the Caribbean and other outlying areas. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Midway Islands, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and miscellaneous Pacific Islands. Each code identifies an aquifer or rock-stratigraphic unit and its age designation. The codes provide a standardized base for use by organizations in the storage, retrieval, and exchange of ground-water data; the indexing and inventory of ground-water data and information; the cataloging of ground-water data acquisition activities; and a variety of other applications.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

1985-01-01

197

Codes for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States and the Caribbean outlying areas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This standard provides codes to be used for the identification of aquifer names and geologic units in the United States, the Caribbean and other outlying areas. Outlying areas include Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, American Samoa, the Midway Islands, Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands, and miscellaneous Pacific Islands. Each code identifies an aquifer or rock-stratigraphic unit and its age designation. The codes provide a standardized base for use by organizations in the storage, retrieval, and exchange of ground-water data; the indexing and inventory of ground-water data and information; the cataloging of ground-water data acquisition activities; and a variety of other applications.

Geological Survey (U.S.)

1988-01-01

198

Energy standards and model codes development, adoption, implementation, and enforcement  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an overview of the energy standards and model codes process for the voluntary sector within the United States. The report was prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Building Energy Standards Program and is intended to be used as a primer or reference on this process. Building standards and model codes that address energy have been developed by organizations in the voluntary sector since the early 1970s. These standards and model codes provide minimum energy-efficient design and construction requirements for new buildings and, in some instances, existing buildings. The first step in the process is developing new or revising existing standards or codes. There are two overall differences between standards and codes. Energy standards are developed by a consensus process and are revised as needed. Model codes are revised on a regular annual cycle through a public hearing process. In addition to these overall differences, the specific steps in developing/revising energy standards differ from model codes. These energy standards or model codes are then available for adoption by states and local governments. Typically, energy standards are adopted by or adopted into model codes. Model codes are in turn adopted by states through either legislation or regulation. Enforcement is essential to the implementation of energy standards and model codes. Low-rise residential construction is generally evaluated for compliance at the local level, whereas state agencies tend to be more involved with other types of buildings. Low-rise residential buildings also may be more easily evaluated for compliance because the governing requirements tend to be less complex than for commercial buildings.

Conover, D.R.

1994-08-01

199

Do Corporate Codes of Ethics Reflect National Character? Evidence from Europe and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the usage and contents of corporate codes of ethics. The results from a sample of 600 large European companies are contrasted with findings reported for similar U.S. firms. The comparison reveals that significantly fewer European than U.S. firms adopted codes of ethics. In Europe, the large majority of codes have been introduced only very recently and there

Catherine C. Langlois; Bodo B. Schlegelmilch

1990-01-01

200

Request for OMB Clearance with Supporting Documents for the Evaluation of the State Capacity Building Program in Dissemination. Revised.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents the research proposal and supporting documents for a study to evaluate the process of developing a comprehensive dissemination capacity in State Education Agencies (SEAs) and to assess the impact of the capacity building activities ...

1978-01-01

201

Family Support: Fostering Leadership and Partnership to Improve Access and Quality. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 14  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) has launched a five-year initiative that will support state efforts to build comprehensive early childhood service systems. This initiative--the State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems (SECCS) Initiative--provides planning and implementation grants to the state and territory Maternal and…

Thompson, Lisa; Uyeda, Kimberly

2004-01-01

202

Analysis of Energy Saving Impacts of New Residential Energy Codes for the Gulf Coast  

SciTech Connect

At the request of the Government Accountability Office (GAO), DOE’s Building Energy Codes Program performed an analysis of the energy savings and cost impacts associated with the use of newer and more efficient residential building energy codes in the states of Louisiana and Mississippi.

Lucas, Robert G.

2007-01-01

203

FRAPCON-2: A Computer Code for the Calculation of Steady State Thermal-Mechanical Behavior of Oxide Fuel Rods  

SciTech Connect

FRAPCON-2 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady state response of light Mater reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, deformation, and tai lure histories of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (a) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (b) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (c) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (d) fission gas release, (e} fuel rod internal gas pressure, (f) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (g) cladding oxidation, and (h) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat transfer correlations. FRAPCON-2 is programmed for use on the CDC Cyber 175 and 176 computers. The FRAPCON-2 code Is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by either the FRAP-T6 computer code or the thermal-hydraulic code, RELAP4/MOD7 Version 2.

Berna, G. A; Bohn, M. P.; Rausch, W. N.; Williford, R. E.; Lanning, D. D.

1981-01-01

204

Whole-Building Airflow Network Characterization by a Many-Pressure-States (MPS) Technique  

SciTech Connect

Applications of multi-zone airflow and contaminant dispersion models to specific buildings include air quality diagnosis, weatherization, smoke control, and pressure balancing for lab-hood safety. Research applications may involve energy and air quality impacts of infiltration, ventilation, and development of associated standards. The benefits of these applications are not being fully realized because of uncertainties in model inputs. An economical test method that is as accurate but less intrusive and faster than incremental or component-by-component blower door testing is needed. Existing methods of measuring inter-zone flows by tracers and flow-pressure network parameters by pressurization tests are reviewed. A method based on simultaneous measurement of all zone pressures within a given control volume and flow measurements on a few selected inter-zonal paths is presented. Flow rates at a subset of flow measuring locations are controlled during testing to take on two or more values. Constrained, nonlinear least squares analysis produces the power law parameters (flow coefficient and exponent) for each set of two-port aggregate flow paths within the topology. Testing cost and effort are reduced by relying mainly on zone pressure measurements and a rich set of HVAC- or blower-door-induced flow-pressure excitation states with relatively few flow measuring stationsements. Results of applying the method to a two-story test building are reported. Potential application to fault detection, acceptance testing, continuous commissioning, smoke dispersion and other problems of building performance and operation are outlined.

Armstrong, Peter R.; Hadley, Donald L.; Stenner, Robert D.; Janus, Michael C.

2001-06-01

205

77 FR 26647 - National Building Safety Month, 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...work to implement building safety solutions that strengthen resilience and meet community needs. By designing and implementing state-of-the-art...technology to establish stronger codes and standards for disaster resilience. And moving forward, we must promote research and...

2012-05-04

206

Michigan State Code Adoption Analysis: Cost-Effectiveness of Lighting Requirements - ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004  

SciTech Connect

This report documents PNNL's analysis of the potential energy effect and cost-effectiveness of the lighting requirements in ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 if this energy code is adopted in the state of Michigan, instead of the current standard.

Richman, Eric E.

2006-09-29

207

Sex Bias in the U.S. Code. A Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report identifies and analyzes sex-based references in the United States Code, which forms the basis of Federal laws which allow implicit or explicit sex-based discrimination. The U.S. Commission on Civil Rights has issued this report to inform the public and to provide resource materials for private citizens, the President, and members of…

Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

208

Honor among Students: Academic Integrity and Honor Codes at State-Assisted Universities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the relationship between institutional honor codes and student attitudes and behavior related to academic dishonesty. Results reveal that an academic honor code is only a mild deterrent to academic dishonesty; faculty, student affairs staff, and students differ in their views as to why students cheat; and students are more likely to cheat…

Hall, Teresa L.; Kuh, George D.

1998-01-01

209

Comparison of Various NLTE Codes in Computing the Charge-State Populations of an Argon Plasma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comparison among nine computer codes shows surprisingly large differences where it had been believed that the theory was well understood. Each code treats an argon plasma, optically thin and with no external photon flux; temperatures vary around 1 keV a...

S. R. Stone J. C. Weisheit

1984-01-01

210

Request for OMB Clearance with Supporting Documents for the Evaluation of the State Capacity Building Program in Dissemination. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents the research proposal and supporting documents for a study to evaluate the process of developing a comprehensive dissemination capacity in State Education Agencies (SEAs) and to assess the impact of the capacity building activities in the states, addressing two questions: Is dissemination capacity being built and, if so,…

NTS Research Corp., Durham, NC.

211

Steady-state balance model to calculate the indoor climate of livestock buildings, demonstrated for finishing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indoor climate of livestock buildings is of importance for the well-being and health of animals and their production performance\\u000a (daily weight gain, milk yield etc). By using a steady-state model for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and the CO2 and odour mass flows, the indoor climate of mechanically ventilated livestock buildings can be calculated. These equations\\u000a depend on

G. Schauberger; M. Piringer; E. Petz

2000-01-01

212

Forging new partnerships to build healthier communities for a healthier state.  

PubMed

Building healthy communities is critical to reducing the rates of chronic diseases impacting millions of North Carolinians. In 2011, North Carolina's overall health status ranking was 32nd in the nation (with 1 being the best). It is well recognized that health is impacted by a variety of individual, social, environmental, and economic factors, which are complex, interrelated, and influenced by a variety of other factors. Creating healthy communities provides options for people to make health-promoting choices. Such communities include transportation alternatives, access to healthy foods and places to be active, opportunities for economic growth and education, and clean air and water. Creating communities that provide these types of options requires the work of different sectors, many of which may not have health as their main mission, such as those that focus on commerce, planning, transportation, and environmental and natural resources. This article outlines the need for healthier communities and highlights the innovative partnerships and work being done by individuals and agencies at the state, local, and national levels to build healthier communities across North Carolina. PMID:23033712

Petersen, Ruth; Hunkins, Julie A; Riegel, Lisa Diaz; Smith, Libby

2012-01-01

213

50 CFR Table 16 to Part 679 - Area Codes and Descriptions for Use With State of Alaska ADF&G Commercial Operator's Annual...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Codes and Descriptions for Use With State of Alaska ADF&G Commercial Operator's...THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 16 Table 16...and Descriptions for Use With State of Alaska ADF&G Commercial...

2010-10-01

214

Roof-top solar energy potential under performance-based building energy codes: The case of Spain  

SciTech Connect

The quantification at regional level of the amount of energy (for thermal uses and for electricity) that can be generated by using solar systems in buildings is hindered by the availability of data for roof area estimation. In this note, we build on an existing geo-referenced method for determining available roof area for solar facilities in Spain to produce a quantitative picture of the likely limits of roof-top solar energy. The installation of solar hot water systems (SHWS) and photovoltaic systems (PV) is considered. After satisfying up to 70% (if possible) of the service hot water demand in every municipality, PV systems are installed in the remaining roof area. Results show that, applying this performance-based criterion, SHWS would contribute up to 1662 ktoe/y of primary energy (or 68.5% of the total thermal-energy demand for service hot water), while PV systems would provide 10 T W h/y of electricity (or 4.0% of the total electricity demand). (author)

Izquierdo, Salvador; Montanes, Carlos; Dopazo, Cesar; Fueyo, Norberto [Fluid Mechanics Group, University of Zaragoza and LITEC (CSIC), Maria de Luna 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

2011-01-15

215

Emote aloud during learning with AutoTutor: Applying the Facial Action Coding System to cognitive–affective states during learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to discover the facial action units for affective states that occur during complex learning, this study adopted an emote-aloud procedure in which participants were recorded as they verbalised their affective states while interacting with an intelligent tutoring system (AutoTutor). Participants’ facial expressions were coded by two expert raters using Ekman's Facial Action Coding System and analysed using

Scotty D. Craig; Sidney DMello; Amy Witherspoon; Art Graesser

2008-01-01

216

PREDICTION OF TWO-PHASE FLOW IN SMALL TUBES: A SYSTEMATIC COMPARISON OF STATE-OF-THE-ART CMFD CODES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiphase dynamics and its characteristics for two-phase gas-liquid flow have been investigated by means of advanced numerical simulations. Although important in many engineering applica- tions, methods for robust and accurate simulations for high density and viscosity ratios remain elusive. A comprehensive comparison of two state-of-the-art Computational Multi-Fluid Dy- namics (CMFD) codes, Fluent and TransAT, have been performed. The two commonly

A. Carlson; P. Kudinov; C. Narayanan

217

Hardware acceleration of PIC codes: tapping into the power of state of the art processing units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are many astrophysical and laboratory scenarios where kinetic effects play an important role. Further understanding of these scenarios requires detailed numerical modeling using fully relativistic three-dimensional kinetic code such as OSIRIS [1]. However, these codes are computationally heavy. Explicitly using available hardware resources such as SIMD units (Altivec/SSE3) [2], cell processors or graphics processing units (GPUs) may allow us to significantly boost performance of these codes. For the most cases, the processing units are limited to single precision arithmetic, and require specific C/C++ code to be used. We present a comparison between double precision and single precision results, focusing both on performance and on the effects on the simulation in terms of algorithm properties. Details on a framework allowing the integration of hardware optimized routines with existing high performance codes in languages other than C is given. Finally, initial results of high performance modules of the PIC algorithm using SIMD units and GPU's will also be presented. [1] R. A. Fonseca et al., LNCS 2331, 342, (2002) [2] K. J. Bowers et al., Phys Plasmas vol. 15 (5) pp. 055703 (2008)

Fonseca, R. A.; Abreu, P.; Martins, S. F.; Silva, L. O.

2008-11-01

218

Assessment of Impacts from Updating Iowa's Residential Energy Code to Comply with the 2003 International Energy Conservation Code  

SciTech Connect

The state of Iowa currently requires that new buildings comply with the Council of American Building Officials? (CABO) 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC) (CABO 1992). CABO has been transformed into the International Code Council (ICC) and the MEC has been renamed the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The most recent edition of the code is the 2003 IECC (ICC 2003). Iowa?s Department of Natural Resources requested that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compare the 1992 MEC with the 2003 IECC to estimate impacts from updating Iowa?s residential energy code to comply with the new code. Under DOE's direction, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed an assessment of the impacts from this potential code upgrade, including impacts on construction and energy consumption costs. This report is an update to a similar report completed by PNNL in 2002 (Lucas 2002) that compared the 1992 MEC to the 2000 IECC.

Lucas, Robert G.

2003-10-31

219

Towards Understanding System Building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large software systems are composed of complex subsystems which are related to one another as well as underlying platform technologies. These relationships must be captured in a system's build artifacts; they are used by the build process to produce a properly functioning application from the system's source code. These build artifacts evolve along with the system's source code, and understanding

Mina Askari; Rolando Blanco; Alan Grosskurth

220

g--factors of Yrast States in ^152Gd and Predictions of the Winther-DeBoer Coulex Code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The g factors of the 2^+1 and 4^+1 states in ^152Gd have been measured via the Transient Hyperfine Field method in which the recoiling nucleus traversing a ferromagnet foil experiences a large magnetic field. The states were populated by Coulomb excitation with a ^58Ni beam. Since the method relies on knowledge of the population of the states during the transit time of the Gd nuclei through the ferromagnet, the Winther-deBoer Coulomb excitation code (Coulex) has been used to model the feeding, which is then compared with the measured populations. Some versions of Coulex include a factor of i^? (i^? +1) in the definition of the electric (magnetic) multipole matrix elements while others do not. It is therefore important to be aware of whatever convention is adopted in the particular code being used, and modify the code to the desired convention, if necessary. The significance of the phase convention will be discussed in conjunction with the results of the g factor measurement.

Matt, N.; Holden, J.; Kumbartzki, G.; Mayer, R. H.; Satteson, M.; Benczer-Koller, N.; Tanczyn, R.

1996-10-01

221

What`s new in codes and standards - Office of Building Technologies (OBT): Appliance and lighting standards  

SciTech Connect

US homeowners spend $110 billion each year to power such home appliances as refrigerators, freezers, water heaters, furnaces, air conditioners, and lights. These uses account for about 70% of all the primary energy consumed in homes. During its typical 10-15-year lifetime, the appliance`s operating costs may exceed its initial purchase price several times over. Nevertheless, many consumers do not consider energy efficiency when making purchases. And manufacturers are reluctant to invest in more efficient technology that may not be accepted in the highly competitive marketplace. Recognizing the great potential for energy savings, many states began prescribing minimum energy efficiencies for appliances. Anticipating the burden of complying with differing state standards, manufacturers supported developing federal standards that would preempt state standards.

NONE

1995-09-01

222

Critical state and magnetization loss in multifilamentary superconducting wire solved through the commercial finite element code ANSYS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The commercially available finite element code ANSYS has been adapted to solve the critical state of single strips and multifilamentary tapes. We studied a special algorithm which approaches the critical state by an iterative adjustment of the material resistivity. Then, we proved its validity by comparing the results obtained for a thin strip to the Brand theory for the transport current and magnetization cases. Also, the challenging calculation of the magnetization loss of a real multifilamentary BSCCO tape showed the usefulness of our method. Finally, we developed several methods to enhance the speed of convergence, making the proposed process quite competitive in the existing survey of ac losses simulations.

Farinon, S.; Fabbricatore, P.; Gömöry, F.

2010-11-01

223

Green Buildings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the Department of Energy's Center of Excellence for Sustainable Development, this Green Buildings site serves as a detailed metapage for environmentally conscious architects, engineers, and builders. As the introduction to the site points out, "The design, construction, and maintenance of buildings has a tremendous impact on our environment and our natural resources." The site offers carefully summarized links to relevant Websites and publications on topics such as building principles, building programs, rating systems, affordable housing, codes/ordinances, educational materials, and more. This site may be of interest to those who want practical applications for protecting the environment.

2000-01-01

224

NASA Glen Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Users Manual, DOS Input. Version 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The heat pipe code LERCHP has been revised, corrected, and extended. New features include provisions for pipes with curvature and bends in "G" fields. Heat pipe limits are examined in detail and limit envelopes are shown for some sodium and lithium-filled heat pipes. Refluxing heat pipes and gas-loaded or variable conductance heat pipes were not considered.

Tower, Leonard K.

2000-01-01

225

ANEOS analytic equations of state for shock physics codes input manual  

Microsoft Academic Search

ANEOS is an in-line software package which provides thermodynamic information for shock physics codes. Solids, liquids, vapors, plasmas and phase mixtures are considered in a thermodynamically consistent and complete manner. The package is flexible and easy to use. This users manual contains input instructions, examples, and descriptions of user output. 14 refs.

Samuel L. Thompson

1990-01-01

226

Spotlight on Speech Codes 2012: The State of Free Speech on Our Nation's Campuses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The U.S. Supreme Court has called America's colleges and universities "vital centers for the Nation's intellectual life," but the reality today is that many of these institutions severely restrict free speech and open debate. Speech codes--policies prohibiting student and faculty speech that would, outside the bounds of campus, be protected by the…

Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (NJ1), 2012

2012-01-01

227

Pediatric Influenza-Associated Deaths in New York State: Death Certificate Coding and Comparison to Laboratory-Confirmed Deaths  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Surveillance for laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated deaths in children is used to monitor the severity of influenza at the population level and to inform influenza prevention and control policies. The goal of this study was to better estimate pediatric influenza mortality in New York state (NYS). Methods. Death certificate data were requested for all passively reported deaths and any pneumonia and influenza (P&I) coded pediatric deaths occurring between October 2004 and April 2010, excluding New York City (NYC) residents. A matching algorithm and capture-recapture analysis were used to estimate the total number of influenza-associated deaths among NYS children. Results. Thirty-four laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported and 67 death certificates had a P&I coded death; 16 deaths matched. No laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated death had a pneumonia code and no pneumonia coded deaths had laboratory evidence of influenza infection in their medical record. The capture-recapture analysis estimated between 38 and 126 influenza-associated pediatric deaths occurred in NYS during the study period. Conclusion. Passive surveillance for influenza-associated deaths continues to be the gold standard methodology for characterizing influenza mortality in children. Review of death certificates can complement but not replace passive reporting, by providing better estimates and detecting any missed laboratory-confirmed deaths.

Hoefer, Dina; Cherry, Bryan; Kacica, Marilyn; McClamroch, Kristi; Kilby, Kimberly

2012-01-01

228

Traditional, state-of-the-art and future thermal building insulation materials and solutions – Properties, requirements and possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages and disadvantages of the thermal building insulation materials and solutions have been treated. Both traditional, state-of-the-art and possible materials and solutions beyond these have been investigated. Examples of these may be mineral wool, expanded polystyrene, extruded polystyrene, polyurethane, vacuum insulation panels, gas insulation panels, aerogels, and future possibilities like vacuum insulation materials, nano insulation materials and dynamic insulation

Bjørn Petter Jelle

2011-01-01

229

Disparities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Using TUS in a "non-ATS" state to Build Support for Evidence Based Policy  

Cancer.gov

Disparities in Secondhand Smoke Exposure: Using TUS in a “non-ATS” state to Build Support for Evidence Based Policy Sally Herndon Malek, MPH Marcus Plescia, MD MPH NC Division of Public Health Don Shopland, PHS Retired Goal: Eliminate Exposure to

230

Cost effectiveness of the 1995 model energy code in Massachusetts  

SciTech Connect

This report documents an analysis of the cost effectiveness of the Council of American Building Officials` 1995 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family houses and multifamily housing units in Massachusetts. The goal was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1995 MEC to the energy conservation requirements of the Massachusetts State Building Code-based on a comparison of the costs and benefits associated with complying with each.. This comparison was performed for three cities representing three geographical regions of Massachusetts--Boston, Worcester, and Pittsfield. The analysis was done for two different scenarios: a ``move-up`` home buyer purchasing a single-family house and a ``first-time`` financially limited home buyer purchasing a multifamily condominium unit. Natural gas, oil, and electric resistance heating were examined. The Massachusetts state code has much more stringent requirements if electric resistance heating is used rather than other heating fuels and/or equipment types. The MEC requirements do not vary by fuel type. For single-family homes, the 1995 MEC has requirements that are more energy-efficient than the non-electric resistance requirements of the current state code. For multifamily housing, the 1995 MEC has requirements that are approximately equally energy-efficient to the non-electric resistance requirements of the current state code. The 1995 MEC is generally not more stringent than the electric resistance requirements of the state code, in fact; for multifamily buildings the 1995 MEC is much less stringent.

Lucas, R.G.

1996-02-01

231

Designing for energy efficiency: a study of eight California state office buildings  

SciTech Connect

The architectural implications of energy conscious design were investigated by comparing a series of office buildings designed under similar constraints by different architects. Conceptual/architectural issues are emphasized. Although the buildings were analyzed by computer modeling, the results were used only to reinforce other observations about building form and design. The details and explanations of the more technical comparisons are described in a technical appendix. (MHR)

Moore, A.T. (ed.)

1981-06-01

232

OptaDOS: A tool for obtaining density of states, core-level and optical spectra from electronic structure codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present OptaDOS, a program for calculating core-electron and low-loss electron energy loss spectra (EELS) and optical spectra along with total-, projected- and joint-density of electronic states (DOS) from single-particle eigenenergies and dipole transition coefficients. Energy-loss spectroscopy is an important tool for probing bonding within a material. Interpreting these spectra can be aided by first principles calculations. The spectra are generated from the eigenenergies through integration over the Brillouin zone. An important feature of this code is that this integration is performed using a choice of adaptive or linear extrapolation broadening methods which we show produces higher accuracy spectra than standard fixed-width Gaussian broadening. OptaDOS  may be straightforwardly interfaced to any electronic structure code. OptaDOS  is freely available under the GNU General Public licence from http://www.optados.org.

Morris, Andrew J.; Nicholls, Rebecca J.; Pickard, Chris J.; Yates, Jonathan R.

2014-05-01

233

Self-duality and bound states of the toric code model in a transverse field  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the effect of a transverse magnetic field on the toric code model. We show that this problem can be mapped onto the Xu-Moore model and thus onto the quantum compass model, which are known to be self-dual. We analyze the low-energy spectrum by means of perturbative continuous unitary transformations and determine accurately the energy gaps of various symmetry

Julien Vidal; Ronny Thomale; Kai Phillip Schmidt; Sébastien Dusuel

2009-01-01

234

Differences between the 1993 and 1995 CABO Model Energy Codes  

SciTech Connect

The Energy Policy Act of 1992 requires the US DOE to determine if changes to the Council of American Building Officials` (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) (CABO 1993), published in the 1995 edition of the MEC (CABO 1995), will improve energy efficiency in residential buildings. The DOE, the states, and others have expressed an interest in the differences between the 1993 and 1995 editions of the MEC. This report describes each change to the 1993 MEC, and its impact. Referenced publications are also listed along with discrepancies between code changes approved in the 1994 and 1995 code-change cycles and what actually appears in the 1995 MEC.

Conover, D.R.; Lucas, R.G.

1995-10-01

235

Principles of effective team building interventions in sport: A direct services approach at Penn State University  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team building is an ongoing, multifaceted process where group members learn how to work together for a common goal, and share pertinent information regarding the quality of team functioning for the purpose of establishing more effective ways of operating. This article describes a “hands on” approach to conducting team building interventions in sport. Drawing on reserurh from organizational development and

David Yukelson

1997-01-01

236

Building sector: state of the market and two models on how to reach it  

SciTech Connect

Two subjects related to marketing solar energy in the buildings sector are discussed: first, the market size defined in terms of number of housing units and square feet of commercial floor space and their energy use characteristics and, second, several models SERI has developed and is using to move solar energy/energy efficiency into the mainstream of residential and commercial building construction. (MHR)

Holtz, M.J.

1980-08-30

237

48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036...one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The Head of the Contracting...

2010-10-01

238

48 CFR 3036.104-90 - Authority for one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). 3036.104-90 Section 3036...one-step turn-key design-build contracting for the United States Coast Guard (USCG). The Head of the Contracting...

2009-10-01

239

Building interpreters by composing monads  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exhibit a set of functions coded in Haskell that can be used as building blocks to construct a variety of interpreters for Lisp-like languages. The building blocks are joined merely through functional composition. Each building block contributes code to support a specific feature, such as numbers, continuations, functions calls, or nondeterminism. The result of composing some number of building

Guy L. Steele Jr.

1994-01-01

240

OpenMC: A State-of-the-Art Monte Carlo Code for Research and Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper gives an overview of OpenMC, an open source Monte Carlo particle transport code recently developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. OpenMC uses continuous-energy cross sections and a constructive solid geometry representation, enabling high-fidelity modeling of nuclear reactors and other systems. Modern, portable input/output file formats are used in OpenMC: XML for input, and HDF5 for output. High performance parallel algorithms in OpenMC have demonstrated near-linear scaling to over 100,000 processors on modern supercomputers. Other topics discussed in this paper include plotting, CMFD acceleration, variance reduction, eigenvalue calculations, and software development processes.

Romano, Paul K.; Horelik, Nicholas E.; Herman, Bryan R.; Nelson, Adam G.; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord

2014-06-01

241

Building construction regulations and the fuel cell: Roadblocks and/or opportunities to technology transfer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A significant amount of effort is underway to develop new technologies for the buildings sector. To be implemented in buildings, however, new technologies must meet a host of codes and standards, many of which vary from state to state. Technology developm...

D. R. Conovere B. R. Kinzey

1994-01-01

242

Build Less Code, Deliver More Science: An Experience Report on Composing Scientific Environments using Component-based and Commodity Software Platforms  

SciTech Connect

Modern scientific software is daunting in its diversity and complexity. From massively parallel simulations running on the world’s largest supercomputers, to visualizations and user support environments that manage ever growing complex data collections, the challenges for software engineers are plentiful. While high performance simulators are necessarily specialized codes to maximize performance on specific supercomputer architectures, we argue the vast majority of supporting infrastructure, data management and analysis tools can leverage commodity open source and component-based technologies. This approach can significantly drive down the effort and costs of building complex, collaborative scientific user environments, as well as increase their reliability and extensibility. In this paper we describe our experiences in creating an initial user environment for scientists involved in modeling the detailed effects of climate change on the environment of selected geographical regions. Our approach composes the user environment using the Velo scientific knowledge management platform and the MeDICi Integration Framework for scientific workflows. These established platforms leverage component-based technologies and extend commodity open source platforms with abstractions and capabilities that make them amenable for broad use in science. Using this approach we were able to deliver an operational user environment capable of running thousands of simulations in a 7 month period, and achieve significant software reuse.

Gorton, Ian; Liu, Yan; Lansing, Carina S.; Elsethagen, Todd O.; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

2013-07-17

243

Statistical Analysis and Interpretation of Building Characterization, Indoor Environmental Quality Monitoring and Energy Usage Data from Office Buildings and Classrooms in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Three independent tasks had been performed (Stetzenbach 2008, Stetzenbach 2008b, Stetzenbach 2009) to measure a variety of parameters in normative buildings across the United States. For each of these tasks 10 buildings were selected as normative indoor environments. Task 1 focused on office buildings, Task 13 focused on public schools, and Task 0606 focused on high performance buildings. To perform this task it was necessary to restructure the database for the Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) data and the Sound measurement as several issues were identified and resolved prior to and during the transfer of these data sets into SPSS. During overview discussions with the statistician utilized in this task it was determined that because the selection of indoor zones (1-6) was independently selected within each task; zones were not related by location across tasks. Therefore, no comparison would be valid across zones for the 30 buildings so the by location (zone) data were limited to three analysis sets of the buildings within each task. In addition, differences in collection procedures for lighting were used in Task 0606 as compared to Tasks 01 & 13 to improve sample collection. Therefore, these data sets could not be merged and compared so effects by-day data were run separately for Task 0606 and only Task 01 & 13 data were merged. Results of the statistical analysis of the IEQ parameters show statistically significant differences were found among days and zones for all tasks, although no differences were found by-day for Draft Rate data from Task 0606 (p>0.05). Thursday measurements of IEQ parameters were significantly different from Tuesday, and most Wednesday measures for all variables of Tasks 1 & 13. Data for all three days appeared to vary for Operative Temperature, whereas only Tuesday and Thursday differed for Draft Rate 1m. Although no Draft Rate measures within Task 0606 were found to significantly differ by-day, Temperature measurements for Tuesday and Thursday showed variation. Moreover, Wednesday measurements of Relative Humidity within Task 0606 varied significantly from either Tuesday or Thursday. The majority of differences in IEQ measurements by-zone were highly significant (p<0.001), with the exception of Relative Humidity in some buildings. When all task data were combined (30 buildings) neither the airborne culturable fungi nor the airborne non-culturable spore data differed in the concentrations found at any indoor location in terms of day of collection. However, the concentrations of surface-associated fungi varied among the day of collection. Specifically, there was a lower concentration of mold on Tuesday than on Wednesday, for all tasks combined. As expected, variation was found in the concentrations of both airborne culturable fungi and airborne non-culturable fungal spores between indoor zones (1-6) and the outdoor zone (zone 0). No variation was found among the indoor zones of office buildings for Task 1 in the concentrations of airborne culturable fungi. However, airborne non-culturable spores did vary among zones in one building in Task 1 and variation was noted between zones in surface-associated fungi. Due to the lack of multiple lighting measurements for Tasks 13 and 0606, by-day comparisons were only performed for Task 1. No statistical differences were observed in lighting with respect to the day of collection. There was a wide range of variability by-zone among seven of the office buildings. Although few differences were found for the brightest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcBrtst) and the darkest illumination of the worksurface (IllumWkSfcDrkst) in Task 1, there was considerable variation for these variables in Task 13 and Task 0606 (p < 0.001). Other variables that differed by-zone in Task 13 include CombCCT and AmbCCT1 for S03, S07, and S08. Additionally, AmbChromX1, CombChromY, and CombChromX varied by-zone for school buildings S02, S04, and S05, respectively. Although all tasks demonstrated significant differences in sound measurements by zone, some of the buil

Linda Stetzenbach; Lauren Nemnich; Davor Novosel

2009-08-31

244

Radon diffusion studies in some building materials using solid state nuclear track detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

LR-115 plastic track detector has been used to study radon diffusion through some building materials, viz. cement, soil, marble chips, sand and lime as well as air. Diffusion constant and diffusion length is calculated for all these materials.

Surinder Singh; Jatinder Kumar; Baldev Singh; Jaspal Singh

1999-01-01

245

ELS Design Group/SOL-ARC: Energy-Efficient State Office Building, San Jose, Ca, Citation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recipient of an architectural design citation from the 28th Progressive Architecture Awards is an energy-efficient office building that relies on passive techniques of conservation to produce energy savings. (Author/MLF)

Progressive Architecture, 1981

1981-01-01

246

Matlab code for Discrete State-Space Methods for the Study of Dynamic Economies  

Microsoft Academic Search

These are the Matlab programs discussed in Craig Burnside, Discrete State-Space Methods for the Study of Dynamic Economies, in Ramon Marimon and Andrew Scott, eds. Computational Methods for the Study of Dynamic Economies. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Craig Burnside

1999-01-01

247

Building on Family Strengths: Research and Services in Support of Children and Their Families. Proceedings of the Building on Family Strengths Annual Conference (14th, Portland, Oregon, May 31-June 2, 2007) and State of the Science Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The State of the Science conference was held in May, 2007 as part of the ongoing series of national conferences, "Building on Family Strengths," conducted by the Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health at Portland State University. The theme of this State-of-the Science conference was "Effective services for all…

Swart, Sandra, Ed.; Friesen, Barbara, Ed.; Holman, Ariel, Ed.; Aue, Nicole, Ed.

2009-01-01

248

Comparison of Standard 90.1-2007 and the 2009 IECC with Respect to Commercial Buildings  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) has been asked by some states and energy code stakeholders to address the comparability of the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code® (IECC) as applied to commercial buildings and ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 (hereinafter referred to as Standard 90.1-07). An assessment of comparability will help states respond to and implement conditions specified in the State Energy Program (SEP) Formula Grants American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Funding Opportunity, Number DE-FOA-0000052, and eliminate the need for the states individually or collectively to perform comparative studies of the 2009 IECC and Standard 90.1-07. The funding opportunity announcement contains the following conditions: (2) The State, or the applicable units of local government that have authority to adopt building codes, will implement the following: (A) A residential building energy code (or codes) that meets or exceeds the most recent International Energy Conservation Code, or achieves equivalent or greater energy savings. (B) A commercial building energy code (or codes) throughout the State that meets or exceeds the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007, or achieves equivalent or greater energy savings . (C) A plan to achieve 90 percent compliance with the above energy codes within eight years. This plan will include active training and enforcement programs and annual measurement of the rate of compliance. With respect to item (B) above, many more states, regardless of the edition date, directly adopt the IECC than Standard 90.1-07. This is predominately because the IECC is a model code and part of a coordinated set of model building codes that state and local government have historically adopted to regulate building design and construction. This report compares the 2009 IECC to Standard 90.1-07 with the intent of helping states address whether the adoption and application of the 2009 IECC for commercial buildings can be considered equivalent to the adoption and application of Standard 90.1-07. Based on this document, states adopting the 2009 IECC, which is the document cited in (A), above, for residential construction, can also determine if they are in compliance with the above provisions for commercial buildings in (B) above and if their code meets or exceeds the ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-07.

Conover, David R.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.

2009-12-11

249

The HART II International Workshop: An Assessment of the State-of-the-Art in Comprehensive Code Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Significant advancements in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and their coupling with computational structural dynamics (CSD, or comprehensive codes) for rotorcraft applications have been achieved recently. Despite this, CSD codes with their engineering level of modeling the rotor blade dynamics, the unsteady sectional aerodynamics and the vortical wake are still the workhorse for the majority of applications. This is especially true when a large number of parameter variations is to be performed and their impact on performance, structural loads, vibration and noise is to be judged in an approximate yet reliable and as accurate as possible manner. In this article, the capabilities of such codes are evaluated using the HART II International Workshop database, focusing on a typical descent operating condition which includes strong blade-vortex interactions. A companion article addresses the CFD/CSD coupled approach. Three cases are of interest: the baseline case and two cases with 3/rev higher harmonic blade root pitch control (HHC) with different control phases employed. One setting is for minimum blade-vortex interaction noise radiation and the other one for minimum vibration generation. The challenge is to correctly predict the wake physics-especially for the cases with HHC-and all the dynamics, aerodynamics, modifications of the wake structure and the aero-acoustics coming with it. It is observed that the comprehensive codes used today have a surprisingly good predictive capability when they appropriately account for all of the physics involved. The minimum requirements to obtain these results are outlined. XXXX The HART-II Workshops have resulted in significant improvement in the knowledge of how reliable the most utilized comprehensive codes from industry can predict rotor behavior with higher harmonic controls and blade vortex interactions. Without the collaboration provided via the Workshop series, it would not have been possible to determine the current state of the art, including the strengths and weaknesses of these methodologies. For future work, it is recommended that testing of these rotor blade types include measurement of blade bending and torsion across the entire span to provide a more complete database. It is also recommended that a very detailed and reliable knowledge of the blade structural properties be included, as questions in the appropriate modeling of the blade can render the numerical conclusions less useful. Further, it is suggested that the impact of the fuselage on wake trajectories and hence the BVI locations be further investigated.

vanderWall, Berend G.; Lim, Joon W.; Smith, Marilyn J.; Jung, Sung N.; Bailly, Joelle; Baeder, James D.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

2013-01-01

250

Fire safety codes for Hong Kong: Inadequacy for atrium design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fire safety codes for buildings in Hong Kong are reviewed in terms of building type, building interior layout, construction materials, occupancy levels, circulation patterns, access and escape routes, fire detection and firefighting systems. The fire safety codes are valid only for traditional buildings in Hong Kong. Following these codes in modem buildings might lead to 'over-design' or to providing

W. K. Chow; L. T. Wong

1998-01-01

251

An implicit steady-state initialization package for the RELAP5 computer code  

SciTech Connect

A direct steady-state initialization (DSSI) method has been developed and implemented in the RELAP5 hydrodynamic analysis program. It provides a means for users to specify a small set of initial conditions which are then propagated through the remainder of the system. The DSSI scheme utilizes the steady-state form of the RELAP5 balance equations for nonequilibrium two-phase flow. It also employs the RELAP5 component models and constitutive model packages for wall-to-phase and interphase momentum and heat exchange. A fully implicit solution of the linearized hydrodynamic equations is implemented. An implicit coupling scheme is used to augment the standard steady-state heat conduction solution for steam generator use. It solves the primary-side tube region energy equations, heat conduction equations, wall heat flux boundary conditions, and overall energy balance equation as a coupled system of equations and improves convergence. The DSSI method for initializing RELAP5 problems to steady-state conditions has been compared with the transient solution scheme using a suite of test problems including; adiabatic single-phase liquid and vapor flow through channels with and without healing and area changes; a heated two-phase test bundle representative of BWR core conditions; and a single-loop PWR model.

Paulsen, M.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Odar, F.

1995-08-01

252

A non-critical string (Liouville) approach to brain microtubules: State vector reduction, memory coding and capacity  

SciTech Connect

Microtubule (MT) networks, subneural paracrystalline cytoskeletal structures, seem to play a fundamental role in the neurons. The authors cast here the complicated MT dynamics in the form of a (1 + 1)-dimensional noncritical string theory, thus enabling them to provide a consistent quantum treatment of MTs, including environmental friction effects. They suggest, thus, that the MTs are the microsites, in the brain, for the emergence of stable, macroscopic quantum coherent states, identifiable with the preconscious states. Quantum space-time effects, as described by noncritical string theory, trigger than an organized collapse of the coherent states down to a specific or conscious state. The whole process they estimate to take {Omicron}(1 sec), in excellent agreement with a plethora of experimental/observational findings. The microscopic arrow of time, endemic in noncritical string theory, and apparent here in the self-collapse process, provides a satisfactory and simple resolution to the age-old problem of how the, central to one`s feelings of awareness, sensation of the progression of time is generated. In addition, the complete integrability of the stringy model for MT the authors advocate in this work proves sufficient in providing a satisfactory solution to memory coding and capacity. Such features might turn out to be important for a model of the brain as a quantum computer.

Mavromatos, N.E. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics] [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Nanopoulos, D.V. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); [Houston Advanced Research Center, The Woodlands, TX (United States)

1997-03-20

253

A Non-Critical String (Liouville) Approach to Brain Microtubules:. State Vector Reduction, Memory Coding and Capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microtubule (MT) networks, subneural paracrystalline cytoskeletal structures, seem to play a fundamental role in the neurons. We cast here the complicated MT dynamics in the form of a (1+1)-dimensional noncritical string theory, thus enabling us to provide a consistent quantum treatment of MTs, including enviromental friction effects. We suggest, thus, that the MTs are the microsites, in the brain, for the emergence of stable, macroscopic quantum coherent states, identifiable with the preconscious states. Quantum space-time effects, as described by noncritical string theory, trigger then an organized collapse of the coherent states down to a specific or conscious state. The whole process we estimate to take { O}(1 sec), in excellent agreement with a plethora of experimental/observational findings. The microscopic arrow of time, endemic in noncritical string theory, and apparent here in the self-collapse process, provides a satisfactory and simple resolution to the age-old problem of how the, central to our feelings of awareness, sensation of the progression of time is generated. In addition, the complete integrability of the stringy model for MT we advocate in this work proves sufficient in providing a satisfactory solution to memory coding and capacity. Such features might turn out to be important for a model of the brain as a quantum computer.

Mavromatos, N. E.; Nanopoulos, D. V.

254

Modeling the effect of climate change on U.S. state-level buildings energy demands in an integrated assessment framework  

SciTech Connect

As long-term socioeconomic transformation and energy service expansion show large spatial heterogeneity, advanced understanding of climate impact on building energy use at the sub-national level will offer useful insights into climate policy and regional energy system planning. In this study, we presented a detailed building energy model with a U.S. state-level representation, nested in the GCAM integrated assessment framework. We projected state-level building energy demand and its spatial pattern over the century, considering the impact of climate change based on the estimates of heating and cooling degree days derived from downscaled USGS CASCaDE temperature data. The result indicates that climate change has a large impact on heating and cooling building energy and fuel use at the state level, exhibiting large spatial heterogeneity across states (ranges from -10% to +10%). The sensitivity analysis reveals that the building energy demand is subject to multiple key factors, such as the magnitude of climate change, the choice of climate models, and the growth of population and GDP, and that their relative contributions vary greatly across the space. The scale impact in building energy use modeling highlights the importance of constructing a building energy model with the spatially-explicit representation of socioeconomics, energy system development, and climate change. These findings will help the climate-based policy decision and energy system, especially utility planning related to building sector at the U.S. state and regional level facing the potential climate change.

Zhou, Yuyu; Clarke, Leon E.; Eom, Jiyong; Kyle, G. Page; Patel, Pralit L.; Kim, Son H.; Dirks, James A.; Jensen, Erik A.; Liu, Ying; Rice, Jennie S.; Schmidt, Laurel C.; Seiple, Timothy E.

2014-01-01

255

Building Construction Technology Syllabus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document is a course syllabus for Kirk Garrison's building construction technology class, taught at Portland Community College. The class focuses on interpreting code language, tables, illustrations, and navigating the building codes book. This syllabus includes a course schedule, including concepts to be covered each week. This document may be downloaded in PDF file format.

Garrison, Kirk

2012-01-12

256

Steady-state balance model to calculate the indoor climate of livestock buildings, demonstrated for finishing pigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The indoor climate of livestock buildings is of importance for the well-being and health of animals and their production performance (daily weight gain, milk yield etc). By using a steady-state model for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and the CO2 and odour mass flows, the indoor climate of mechanically ventilated livestock buildings can be calculated. These equations depend on the livestock (number of animals and how they are kept), the insulation of the building and the characteristics of the ventilation system (ventilation rate). Since the model can only be applied to animal houses where the ventilation systems are mechanically controlled (this is the case for a majority of finishing pig units), the calculations were done for an example of a finishing pig unit with 1000 animal places. The model presented used 30 min values of the outdoor parameters temperature and humidity, collected over a 2-year period, as input. The projected environment inside the livestock building was compared with recommended values. The duration of condensation on the inside surfaces was also calculated.

Schauberger, G.; Piringer, M.; Petz, E.

257

Steady-state balance model to calculate the indoor climate of livestock buildings, demonstrated for finishing pigs.  

PubMed

The indoor climate of livestock buildings is of importance for the well-being and health of animals and their production performance (daily weight gain, milk yield etc). By using a steady-state model for the sensible and latent heat fluxes and the CO2 and odour mass flows, the indoor climate of mechanically ventilated livestock buildings can be calculated. These equations depend on the livestock (number of animals and how they are kept), the insulation of the building and the characteristics of the ventilation system (ventilation rate). Since the model can only be applied to animal houses where the ventilation systems are mechanically controlled (this is the case for a majority of finishing pig units), the calculations were done for an example of a finishing pig unit with 1,000 animal places. The model presented used 30 min values of the outdoor parameters temperature and humidity, collected over a 2-year period, as input. The projected environment inside the livestock building was compared with recommended values. The duration of condensation on the inside surfaces was also calculated. PMID:10789916

Schauberger, G; Piringer, M; Petz, E

2000-03-01

258

The goals of community-based corrections: An analysis of state legal codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increased reliance on community-based correctional programs has been influenced by rising offender populations and the\\u000a need for states to lessen prison crowding. The ability of community-based corrections to provide rehabilitation, punishment,\\u000a reintegration, and counseling services has been an issue among both researchers and administrators. Some researchers have\\u000a asserted that community-based correctional programs have multiple or competing functions. This study

W. Wesley Johnson; R. Gregory Dunaway; Velmer S. Burton; James W. Marquait; Steven J. Cuvelier

1994-01-01

259

GIBBS2: A new version of the quasiharmonic model code. II. Models for solid-state thermodynamics, features and implementation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the second article of the series, we present the GIBBS2 code, a Fortran90 reimplementation of the original GIBBS program [Comput. Phys. Commun. 158 (2004) 57] for the calculation of pressure-temperature dependent thermodynamic properties of solids under the quasiharmonic approximation. We have taken advantage of the detailed analysis carried out in the first paper to implement robust fitting techniques. In addition, new models to introduce temperature effects have been incorporated, from the simple Debye model contained in the original article to a full quasiharmonic model that requires the phonon density of states at each calculated volume. Other interesting novel features include the empirical energy corrections, that rectify systematic errors in the calculation of equilibrium volumes caused by the choice of the exchange-correlation functional, the electronic contributions to the free energy and the automatic computation of phase diagrams. Full documentation in the form of a user's guide and a complete set of tests and sample data are provided along with the source code. Program summaryProgram title:GIBBS2 Catalogue identifier: AEJI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEJI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, v3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 936 087 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8 596 671 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran90 Computer: Any running Unix/Linux Operating system: Unix, GNU/Linux Classification: 7.8 External routines: Part of the minpack, pppack and slatec libraries (downloaded from www.netlib.org) are distributed along with the program. Nature of problem: Given the static E(V) curve, and possibly vibrational information such as the phonon density of states, calculate the equilibrium volume and thermodynamic properties of a solid at arbitrary temperatures and pressures in the framework of the quasiharmonic approximation. Additional comments: A detailed analysis concerning the fitting of equations of state has been carried out in the first part of this article, and implemented in the code presented here. Running time: The tests provided only take a few seconds to run.

Otero-de-la-Roza, A.; Abbasi-Pérez, David; Luaña, Víctor

2011-10-01

260

Case study of modifications to a wood ``I'' beam framed floor-ceiling assembly which did not meet minimum International Building Code (IBC) impact insulation class (IIC) or sound transmission class (STC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct comparison, using three identical floor-ceiling assemblies, which did not meet minimum building codes standards for impact insulation class as built. Each floor-ceiling assembly received different corrective measures in an effort to correct the deficiency. All corrective measures were limited to the bottom side of the assembly, since hardwood flooring was installed as the finished floor. All the floor-ceiling

Elzo F. Gernhart

2005-01-01

261

Dynamic Wind Effects Provisions in Codes and Standards and Wind Tunnel Data: A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

An evaluation and comparison of six of the world's major building standards is conducted in this study, with specific discussion of their estimations of the alongwind, acrosswind, and torsional response, where appli- cable, for a given building. The codes highlighted by this study are those of the United States, Japan, Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Europe. In addition, the

T. Kijewski; A. Kareem

262

The impact of exterior finish vapour resistance on the moisture state of building walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, when the building walls covered with a painted thin render are insulated by the mineral wool slabs from outside, the defects caused by the condensed moisture accumulated in the envelopes become more and more frequent. Water vapour permeability of the exterior finish (ie the paint), if compared with the water vapour permeability of the mineral wool slab, is

Jolanta Šadauskiene; Edmundas Monstvilas; Vytautas Stankevi?ius

2007-01-01

263

THE IMPACT OF EXTERIOR FINISH VAPOUR RESISTANCE ON THE MOISTURE STATE OF BUILDING WALLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, when the building walls covered with a painted thin render are insulated by the mineral wool slabs from outside, the defects caused by the condensed moisture accumulated in the envelopes become more and more frequent. Water vapour permeability of the exterior finish (ie the paint), if compared with the water vapour permeability of the mineral wool slab, is

ÛKIO TECHNOL

264

GSGPEs: A MATLAB code for computing the ground state of systems of Gross-Pitaevskii equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GSGPEs is a Matlab/GNU Octave suite of programs for the computation of the ground state of systems of Gross-Pitaevskii equations. It can compute the ground state in the defocusing case, for any number of equations with harmonic or quasi-harmonic trapping potentials, in spatial dimension one, two or three. The computation is based on a spectral decomposition of the solution into Hermite functions and direct minimization of the energy functional through a Newton-like method with an approximate line-search strategy. Program summaryProgram title: GSGPEs Catalogue identifier: AENT_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AENT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1417 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13673 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Matlab/GNU Octave. Computer: Any supporting Matlab/GNU Octave. Operating system: Any supporting Matlab/GNU Octave. RAM: About 100 MB for a single three-dimensional equation (test run output). Classification: 2.7, 4.9. Nature of problem: A system of Gross-Pitaevskii Equations (GPEs) is used to mathematically model a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) for a mixture of different interacting atomic species. The equations can be used both to compute the ground state solution (i.e., the stationary order parameter that minimizes the energy functional) and to simulate the dynamics. For particular shapes of the traps, three-dimensional BECs can be also simulated by lower dimensional GPEs. Solution method: The ground state of a system of Gross-Pitaevskii equations is computed through a spectral decomposition into Hermite functions and the direct minimization of the energy functional. Running time: About 30 seconds for a single three-dimensional equation with d.o.f. 40 for each spatial direction (test run output).

Caliari, Marco; Rainer, Stefan

2013-03-01

265

Differences between the 1992 and 1993 CABO Model Energy Codes  

SciTech Connect

This report is one in a series of documents describing research activities in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Standards Program. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) leads the program for DOE. The goal of the Program is to develop and encourage the implementation Of Performance standards to achieve the maximum practicable energy efficiency in the design of new buildings. The program approach to meeting the goal is to initiate and manage individual research and standards and guidelines development efforts that are planned and conducted in cooperation with representatives from throughout the buildings community. Projects under way involve practicing architects and engineers, Professional societies and code organizations, industry representatives, and researchers from the private sector and national laboratories. Research results and technical justifications for standards criteria are provided to standards development and model code organizations and to Federal, State, and local jurisdictions as a basis to update their codes and standards. This effort helps to ensure that building standards incorporate the latest research results to achieve maximum energy savings in new buildings, Yet remain responsive to the needs of the affected professions, organizations, and jurisdictions. Our efforts also support the implementation, deployment, and use of energy-efficient codes and standards. This report identifies the differences between the 1992 and 1993 editions of the Council of American Building Officials, (CABO) Model Energy Code (MEC) and briefly highlights the technical and administrative impacts of these changes.

Conover, D.R.; Lucas, R.G.

1995-01-01

266

Assessment of Impacts from Updating North Dakota’s Residential Energy Code to Comply with the 2000 International Energy Conservation Code  

SciTech Connect

The current North Dakota state energy code is the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) (CABO 1993). Local jurisdictions can choose to adopt this code. CABO has been transformed into the International Code Council (ICC) and the MEC has been renamed the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The most recent edition of the code is the 2003 IECC (ICC 2003). North Dakota's Department of Community Services requested that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) compare the 1993 MEC with the 2000 IECC to estimate impacts from updating North Dakota's residential energy code to comply with the new code. Under DOE's direction, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) completed an assessment of the impacts from this potential code upgrade, including impacts on construction and energy consumption costs.

Lucas, Robert G.

2004-05-01

267

DNA sequencing and bar-coding using solid-state nanopores  

PubMed Central

Nanopores have emerged as a prominent single-molecule analytic tool with particular promise for genomic applications. In this review, we discuss two potential applications of the nanopore sensors: First, we present a nanopore-based single-molecule DNA sequencing method that utilizes optical detection for massively parallel throughput. Second, we describe a method by which nanopores can be used as single-molecule genotyping tools. For DNA sequencing, the distinction among the four types of DNA nucleobases is achieved by employing a biochemical procedure for DNA expansion. In this approach, each nucleobase in each DNA strand is converted into one of four predefined unique 16-mers in a process that preserves the nucleobase sequence. The resulting converted strands are then hybridized to a library of four molecular beacons, each carrying a unique fluorophore tag, that are perfect complements to the 16-mers used for conversion. Solid-state nanopores are then used to sequentially remove these beacons, one after the other, leading to a series of photon bursts in four colors that can be optically detected. Single-molecule genotyping is achieved by tagging the DNA fragments with ?-modified synthetic peptide nucleic acid probes coupled to an electronic characterization of the complexes using solid-state nanopores. This method can be used to identify and differentiate genes with a high level of sequence similarity at the single-molecule level, but different pathology or response to treatment. We will illustrate this method by differentiating the pol gene for two highly similar human immunodeficiency virus subtypes, paving the way for a novel diagnostics platform for viral classification.

Atas, Evrim; Singer, Alon; Meller, Amit

2013-01-01

268

DNA sequencing and bar-coding using solid-state nanopores.  

PubMed

Nanopores have emerged as a prominent single-molecule analytic tool with particular promise for genomic applications. In this review, we discuss two potential applications of the nanopore sensors: First, we present a nanopore-based single-molecule DNA sequencing method that utilizes optical detection for massively parallel throughput. Second, we describe a method by which nanopores can be used as single-molecule genotyping tools. For DNA sequencing, the distinction among the four types of DNA nucleobases is achieved by employing a biochemical procedure for DNA expansion. In this approach, each nucleobase in each DNA strand is converted into one of four predefined unique 16-mers in a process that preserves the nucleobase sequence. The resulting converted strands are then hybridized to a library of four molecular beacons, each carrying a unique fluorophore tag, that are perfect complements to the 16-mers used for conversion. Solid-state nanopores are then used to sequentially remove these beacons, one after the other, leading to a series of photon bursts in four colors that can be optically detected. Single-molecule genotyping is achieved by tagging the DNA fragments with ?-modified synthetic peptide nucleic acid probes coupled to an electronic characterization of the complexes using solid-state nanopores. This method can be used to identify and differentiate genes with a high level of sequence similarity at the single-molecule level, but different pathology or response to treatment. We will illustrate this method by differentiating the pol gene for two highly similar human immunodeficiency virus subtypes, paving the way for a novel diagnostics platform for viral classification. PMID:23109189

Atas, Evrim; Singer, Alon; Meller, Amit

2012-12-01

269

Quantum coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theorem is proven for quantum information theory that is analogous to the noiseless coding theorem of classical information theory. In the quantum result, the von Neumann entropy S of the density operator describing an ensemble of pure quantum signal states is equal to the number of spin-1\\/2 systems (``quantum bits'' or ``qubits'') necessary to represent the signal faithfully. The

Benjamin Schumacher

1995-01-01

270

FRAPCON-3: A computer code for the calculation of steady-state, thermal-mechanical behavior of oxide fuel rods for high burnup  

SciTech Connect

FRAPCON-3 is a FORTRAN IV computer code that calculates the steady-state response of light water reactor fuel rods during long-term burnup. The code calculates the temperature, pressure, and deformation of a fuel rod as functions of time-dependent fuel rod power and coolant boundary conditions. The phenomena modeled by the code include (1) heat conduction through the fuel and cladding, (2) cladding elastic and plastic deformation, (3) fuel-cladding mechanical interaction, (4) fission gas release, (5) fuel rod internal gas pressure, (6) heat transfer between fuel and cladding, (7) cladding oxidation, and (8) heat transfer from cladding to coolant. The code contains necessary material properties, water properties, and heat-transfer correlations. The codes` integral predictions of mechanical behavior have not been assessed against a data base, e.g., cladding strain or failure data. Therefore, it is recommended that the code not be used for analyses of cladding stress or strain. FRAPCON-3 is programmed for use on both mainframe computers and UNIX-based workstations such as DEC 5000 or SUN Sparcstation 10. It is also programmed for personal computers with FORTRAN compiler software and at least 8 to 10 megabytes of random access memory (RAM). The FRAPCON-3 code is designed to generate initial conditions for transient fuel rod analysis by the FRAPTRAN computer code (formerly named FRAP-T6).

Berna, G.A.; Beyer, G.A.; Davis, K.L.; Lanning, D.D.

1997-12-01

271

Impact of the FY 2005 Building Technologies Program on United States Employment and Earned Income  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of subprograms on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model called ImBuild II is used in this study of all 21 Building Technologies Program subprograms in the EERE final FY 2005 budget request to the Office of Management and Budget on February 2, 2004. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and earned income are reported by subprogram for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings and investments from these subprograms have the potential of creating a total of 396,000 jobs and about $5.6 billion in earned income (2003$) by the year 2030.

Scott, Michael J.; Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hostick, Donna J.

2004-08-31

272

Building Knowledge Stocks: The Role of State Higher-Education Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A variety of studies provide evidence that the stock of college-educated labor has fundamental effects on state and local economies through its association with wages, economic growth, personal incomes, and tax revenues. As a result, policymakers in many states try to increase the percentage of the state's population (or workforce) that has a…

Groen, Jeffrey A.

2009-01-01

273

Appendices of an appraisal for the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings in Colorado. Section F. Steamboat Springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State Highway Department Building at Steamboat Springs has been evaluated in this appraisal for the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings. Evaluation of existing resource assessment data for Routt Hot Springs indicates a reservoir temperature of 200°F to 250°F, well depths of 2900 feet, flowrates of 100 gpm per well, and total dissolved solids of 550 mg\\/l. The

R. T. Meyer; B. A. Coe; J. D. Dick

1981-01-01

274

Building Ready States: A Governor's Guide to Supporting a Comprehensive, High-Quality Early Childhood State System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing an effective and efficient early childhood state system will involve efforts to support program quality and a highly qualified professional workforce based on clearly articulated standards for child development and school readiness. This kind of system improvement will rely on collaborative governance, integrated data to drive and…

Demma, Rachel

2010-01-01

275

Federal Building and Fire Safety Investigation of the World Trade Center Disaster: Comparison of Codes, Standards, and Practices in Use at the Time of the Design and Construction of World Trade Center 1, 2, and 7. NIST NCSTAR 1-1E.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report was prepared to support the goals and objectives of the analysis of building and fire codes and practices of the National Institute of Standards and Technology World Trade Center (WTC) Investigation. The report provides a comparison and summar...

J. C. Razza R. A. Grill

2005-01-01

276

Building a New Storyline for Florida's Domestic Security to Provide Future Resiliency for the State.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Immediately after the 9/11 event, the state of Florida drafted one of the Nation's first comprehensive counterterrorism strategies to aid in the protection of the state's visitors and citizens. The strategy has had several modifications over the years, bu...

D. D. Pape

2008-01-01

277

Building a Multicontextual Model of Latino College Enrollment: Student, School, and State-Level Effects  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Latinos' college enrollment rates, particularly in four-year institutions, have not kept pace with their population growth in the United States. Using three-level hierarchical generalized linear modeling, this study analyzes data from the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS) to examine the influence of high school and state contexts, in addition…

Nunez, Anne-Marie; Kim, Dongbin

2012-01-01

278

Governance without Government in Somalia: Spoilers, State Building, and the Politics of Coping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zones of state failure are assumed to be anarchic. In reality, communities facing the absence of an effective state authority forge systems of governance to provide modest levels of security and rule of law. Nowhere is this phenomenon more evident than in Somalia, where an array of local and regional governance arrangements have emerged since the 1991 collapse of the

Ken Menkhaus

2007-01-01

279

Promoting Positive Parenting Practices through Parenting Education. Building State Early Childhood Comprehensive Systems Series, Number 13  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2003, the Maternal and Child Health Bureau (MCHB) released a "Strategic Plan for Early Childhood Health." In recognition of the critical role states play in the development of early childhood initiatives and of the unique contributions that state Title V programs can make to these initiatives, the Bureau operationalized their strategic plan…

Zepeda, Marlene; Varela, Frances; Morales, Alex

2004-01-01

280

Building Stronger State Partnerships with the US Department of Energy (Energy Assurance)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From 2007 until 2011, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) engaged in a partnership with the National Energy Technology Lab (NETL) to improve State-Federal coordination on electricity policy and energy assurance issues. This project allowed State Public Utility Commissioners and their staffs to engage on the most cutting-edge level in the arenas of energy assurance and electricity policy.

Mike Keogh

2011-01-01

281

Combined Fountain Code with Network Coding in Cooperative Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we will investigate the block error rate (BLER) performance in cooperative communication, through combining fountain code with network coding. Contrast to the fixed-rate code, the rate of fountain code is not determined in advance, since that varies according to the instant channel state information. Under the error-free channel condition, network coding can get the maximum possible rate

Jing Yang; Jianping An; Xiangming Li; Lei Yuan

2010-01-01

282

Globalization and Community Organizing: Building Today’s Local-Global Movement in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic, political, and social crises are deeply affecting communities throughout the United States. In the United States\\u000a the long history of genocide of indigenous peoples, enslavement of African peoples, the economic exploitation of working people\\u000a including many immigrant communities, the inequality of women of these communities and classes, wars of conquest and expansion\\u000a of the continental U.S., and ecocide (the

Walda Katz-Fishman; Jerome Scott

283

Energy Codes and Standards: Facilities  

SciTech Connect

Energy codes and standards play a vital role in the marketplace by setting minimum requirements for energy-efficient design and construction. They outline uniform requirements for new buildings as well as additions and renovations. This article covers basic knowledge of codes and standards; development processes of each; adoption, implementation, and enforcement of energy codes and standards; and voluntary energy efficiency programs.

Bartlett, Rosemarie; Halverson, Mark A.; Shankle, Diana L.

2007-01-01

284

State-of-the-art interior-piping-systems applications: Commercial buildings. Final report, June 1987June 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four types of commercial buildings were identified as candidates for the use of semi-rigid tubing: low-rise offices, low-rise motels, retail buildings, and high-rise residential buildings. For each building type, design documents were obtained for a specific building. The installation costs for a conventional low-pressure rigid steel piping system and elevated-pressure (2-5 psig) corrugated stainless steel tubing and copper tubing semi-rigid

A. J. Willman; D. Stanton-Hoyle

1990-01-01

285

Response to comments received from the State of Colorado and the public on the Environmental Assessment for resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this document to respond to comments from the State of Colorado and the public on the draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Resumption of Thermal Stabilization of Plutonium Oxide in Building 707 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The draft EA was provided to the State of Colorado and the public on September 8, 1993, for a comment period of 60 days. The Department`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1021.301) requires that prior to approval of the EA, DOE is to allow the host State and Indian Tribe a period of from 14 to 30 days to review and comment on the EA. The Department established a comment period of 60 days for this EA in response to requests by the public during the first public meeting on July 7, 1993, before preparation of the EA. Other issues raised at the July 7 meeting included the range of alternatives to be considered, the time period for preparation of the EA, and the amount of material to be thermally stabilized. These and other comments made by the public at that meeting were carefully considered in preparation of the EA. In addition to providing the preapproval draft EA to the State of Colorado, DOE distributed the EA to all persons and groups on the RFP public information mailing list and placed the EA and reference documents in the DOE Public Reading Rooms in the RFP area. A public meeting was held on October 6, 1993, to hear public comments on the draft EA. All comments on the draft EA, those received both at the October 6 public meeting and through correspondence, have been reproduced in their entirety in this Response to Comments document. Responses to the commenters` questions and concerns are provided, and changes made to the body of the EA are indicated in the responses. All comments received have been considered in the revision of the EA.

Not Available

1994-02-01

286

Building Software Development Capacity to Advance the State of Educational Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educational technologists may advance the state of the field by increasing capacity to develop software tools and instructional applications. Presently, few academic programs in educational technology require even a single computer programming course. Further, the educational technologists who develop software generally work independently or in…

Luterbach, Kenneth J.

2013-01-01

287

Characteristics of clays and properties of building ceramics in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general characteristics and technological properties of four types of clays obtained from the same location at the north of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, have been investigated. These clays are intended for applications in ceramics such as bricks and roofing tiles. Clays were first analyzed by X-ray diffraction, chemical composition particle size distribution, thermal analysis and plasticity.

C. M. F. Vieira; R. Sánchez; S. N. Monteiro

2008-01-01

288

Cross-cultural issues, small states and research: capacity building in Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article examines ways of improving the contribution of research and evaluation to the process of educational development in small states. This is done with reference to the related theoretical literature and the experience of recent studies conducted as part of the Belize Primary Education Development Project in Central America. Particular attention is given to the implications of changing geopolitical

Michael Crossley

2001-01-01

289

A multiscale approach to ion diffusion in clays: building a two-state diffusion-reaction scheme from microscopic dynamics.  

PubMed

The mobility of particles is generally lowered by the presence of a confining medium, both because of geometrical effects, and because of the interactions with the confining surfaces, especially when the latter are charged. The water/mineral interface plays a central role in the dynamics of ions. The ionic mobility in clays is often understood as an interplay between the diffusion of mobile ions and their possible trapping at the mineral surfaces. We describe how to build a two-state diffusion-reaction scheme from the microscopic dynamics of ions, controlled by their interaction with a mineral surface. The starting point is an atomic description of the clay interlayer using molecular simulations. These provide a complete description of the ionic dynamics on short time and length scales. Using the results of these simulations, we then build a robust mesoscopic (Fokker-Planck) description. In turn, this mesoscopic description is used to determine the mobility of the ions in the interlayer. These results can then be cast into a diffusion-reaction scheme, introducing in particular the fraction of mobile ions, or equivalently the distribution coefficient Kd. This coefficient is of great importance in characterizing electrokinetic phenomena in porous materials. PMID:17349652

Rotenberg, Benjamin; Marry, Virginie; Dufrêche, Jean-François; Giffaut, Eric; Turq, Pierre

2007-05-15

290

Diagnosis code assignment: models and evaluation metrics  

PubMed Central

Background and objective The volume of healthcare data is growing rapidly with the adoption of health information technology. We focus on automated ICD9 code assignment from discharge summary content and methods for evaluating such assignments. Methods We study ICD9 diagnosis codes and discharge summaries from the publicly available Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) repository. We experiment with two coding approaches: one that treats each ICD9 code independently of each other (flat classifier), and one that leverages the hierarchical nature of ICD9 codes into its modeling (hierarchy-based classifier). We propose novel evaluation metrics, which reflect the distances among gold-standard and predicted codes and their locations in the ICD9 tree. Experimental setup, code for modeling, and evaluation scripts are made available to the research community. Results The hierarchy-based classifier outperforms the flat classifier with F-measures of 39.5% and 27.6%, respectively, when trained on 20?533 documents and tested on 2282 documents. While recall is improved at the expense of precision, our novel evaluation metrics show a more refined assessment: for instance, the hierarchy-based classifier identifies the correct sub-tree of gold-standard codes more often than the flat classifier. Error analysis reveals that gold-standard codes are not perfect, and as such the recall and precision are likely underestimated. Conclusions Hierarchy-based classification yields better ICD9 coding than flat classification for MIMIC patients. Automated ICD9 coding is an example of a task for which data and tools can be shared and for which the research community can work together to build on shared models and advance the state of the art.

Perotte, Adler; Pivovarov, Rimma; Natarajan, Karthik; Weiskopf, Nicole; Wood, Frank; Elhadad, Noemie

2014-01-01

291

Runlength codes from source codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of binary runlength codes, also known as (d,k) codes, is analyzed. These codes are developed by constructing a lossless source code that maps runlengths into unconstrained binary sequences. The source code is constructed for the maxentropic distribution on runlengths. The inverse of the source code, which outputs runlengths guided toward the ideal maxentropic distribution, is the (d,k) code.

Kenneth J. Kerpez

1991-01-01

292

Counter-narcotics policies in Tajikistan and their impact on state building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1990s, Tajikistan has become a key hub along international opiates-trafficking routes. Tajik security agencies lack the equipment and the skills to effectively counter drug-smuggling networks. Funding from external donors has partially contributed to the renovation and modernization of these agencies. Since the late 1990s both the United States and the European Union have been providing assistance to

Filippo De Danieli

2011-01-01

293

The politics of African energy development: Ethiopia's hydro-agricultural state-building strategy and clashing paradigms of water security.  

PubMed

As key economic, ecological and demographic trends converge to reshape Africa and its relationship with the outside world, a new politics is emerging in the twenty-first century around the water-food-energy nexus, which is central to the continent's relevance in the global economy. On the one hand, Malthusian anxieties are proliferating; pessimists link population growth and growing water scarcity to state failure and 'water wars'. On the other hand, entrepreneurs, sovereign wealth funds and speculators consider Africa's potential in water resources, energy production and food output as one of the last great untapped opportunities for the global economy: Africa is on the brink of an agro-industrial transformation. This article examines how African actors are not merely responding to economic and environmental changes but also thinking politically about water, food and energy security. Many of them are seizing the new opportunities to redefine their national politics, their relationship with local communities and their ties with external players, regionally and globally. Ethiopia's project of hydro-agricultural state-building helps to identify the most important fault lines of this new politics at the national, local and international level. The politics of water security and energy development simultaneously puts African states and their populations on the defensive, as they grapple with huge challenges, but also provides them with unique opportunities to take advantage of a more favourable global configuration of forces. PMID:24080620

Verhoeven, Harry

2013-11-13

294

Building co-operative bibliographic databases in European bioethics: a contribution from EU New Member States.  

PubMed

The paper presents a web-based application, developed as a part of the Eurethnet database network, which is being used by project partners from EU New Member States to collect bibliographic records from bioethics domains. The application development was focused mainly on records compatibility with other Eurethnet databases, support for all European character sets, minimalisation of network traffic, and security issues. The time window available for the system development was very small and this problem was solved with our own software for automatic application generation. PMID:17574702

Dimec, Jure; Leskosek, Branimir

2007-08-01

295

Coset Codes Viewed as Terminated Convolutional Codes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, coset codes are considered as terminated convolutional codes. Based on this approach, three new general results are presented. First, it is shown that the iterative squaring construction can equivalently be defined from a convolutional code whose trellis terminates. This convolutional code determines a simple encoder for the coset code considered, and the state and branch labelings of the associated trellis diagram become straightforward. Also, from the generator matrix of the code in its convolutional code form, much information about the trade-off between the state connectivity and complexity at each section, and the parallel structure of the trellis, is directly available. Based on this generator matrix, it is shown that the parallel branches in the trellis diagram of the convolutional code represent the same coset code C(sub 1), of smaller dimension and shorter length. Utilizing this fact, a two-stage optimum trellis decoding method is devised. The first stage decodes C(sub 1), while the second stage decodes the associated convolutional code, using the branch metrics delivered by stage 1. Finally, a bidirectional decoding of each received block starting at both ends is presented. If about the same number of computations is required, this approach remains very attractive from a practical point of view as it roughly doubles the decoding speed. This fact is particularly interesting whenever the second half of the trellis is the mirror image of the first half, since the same decoder can be implemented for both parts.

Fossorier, Marc P. C.; Lin, Shu

1996-01-01

296

Building hierarchical models of avian distributions for the State of Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To predict the distributions of breeding birds in the state of Georgia, USA, we built hierarchical models consisting of 4 levels of nested mapping units of decreasing area: 90,000 ha, 3,600 ha, 144 ha, and 5.76 ha. We used the Partners in Flight database of point counts to generate presence and absence data at locations across the state of Georgia for 9 avian species: Acadian flycatcher (Empidonax virescens), brownheaded nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), Carolina wren (Thryothorus ludovicianus), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), prairie warbler (Dendroica discolor), yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyxus americanus), white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus), and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina). At each location, we estimated hierarchical-level-specific habitat measurements using the Georgia GAP Analysis18 class land cover and other Geographic Information System sources. We created candidate, species-specific occupancy models based on previously reported relationships, and fit these using Markov chain Monte Carlo procedures implemented in OpenBugs. We then created a confidence model set for each species based on Akaike's Information Criterion. We found hierarchical habitat relationships for all species. Three-fold cross-validation estimates of model accuracy indicated an average overall correct classification rate of 60.5%. Comparisons with existing Georgia GAP Analysis models indicated that our models were more accurate overall. Our results provide guidance to wildlife scientists and managers seeking predict avian occurrence as a function of local and landscape-level habitat attributes.

Howell, J. E.; Peterson, J. T.; Conroy, M. J.

2008-01-01

297

Expanding the genetic code for site-specific labelling of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein and building biotin-functionalized virus-like particles.  

PubMed

A method for site-specific and high yield modification of tobacco mosaic virus coat protein (TMVCP) utilizing a genetic code expanding technology and copper free cycloaddition reaction has been established, and biotin-functionalized virus-like particles were built by the self-assembly of the protein monomers. PMID:24592400

Wu, F C; Zhang, H; Zhou, Q; Wu, M; Ballard, Z; Tian, Y; Wang, J Y; Niu, Z W; Huang, Y

2014-04-18

298

Achievable Steps Toward Building a National Health Information Infrastructure in the United States  

PubMed Central

Consensus is growing that a health care information and communication infrastructure is one key to fixing the crisis in the United States in health care quality, cost, and access. The National Health Information Infrastructure (NHII) is an initiative of the Department of Health and Human Services receiving bipartisan support. There are many possible courses toward its objective. Decision makers need to reflect carefully on which approaches are likely to work on a large enough scale to have the intended beneficial national impacts and which are better left to smaller projects within the boundaries of health care organizations. This report provides a primer for use by informatics professionals as they explain aspects of that dividing line to policy makers and to health care leaders and front-line providers. It then identifies short-term, intermediate, and long-term steps that might be taken by the NHII initiative.

Stead, William W.; Kelly, Brian J.; Kolodner, Robert M.

2005-01-01

299

49 CFR 41.120 - Acceptable model codes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...published by the International Conference of Building...South Workman Mill Rd., Whittier, Cal...Code Administrators International (BOCA) National...Building Code Congress International, 900 Montclair Rd., Birmingham,...

2010-10-01

300

49 CFR 41.120 - Acceptable model codes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...published by the International Conference of Building...South Workman Mill Rd., Whittier, Cal...Code Administrators International (BOCA) National...Building Code Congress International, 900 Montclair Rd., Birmingham,...

2009-10-01

301

Appendices of an appraisal for the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings in Colorado. Section F. Steamboat Springs  

SciTech Connect

The State Highway Department Building at Steamboat Springs has been evaluated in this appraisal for the use of geothermal energy in state-owned buildings. Evaluation of existing resource assessment data for Routt Hot Springs indicates a reservoir temperature of 200/sup 0/F to 250/sup 0/F, well depths of 2900 feet, flowrates of 100 gpm per well, and total dissolved solids of 550 mg/l. The data on Steamboat Hot Springs indicates a reservoir temperature of 150/sup 0/F, well depths uncertain but in the range of 800 to 6000 feet, flowrates of 500 gpm per well, and total dissolved solids of 100 to 6000 mg/l. The State Highway Department Building in Glenwood Springs is a combination office building and maintenance garage. It is presently heated by two suspended natural gas furnaces. Two geothermal options have been evaluated: (1) a heat exchanger coupled to a deep well on the geothermal side and to hot water fan coil heaters on the building side; and (2) water-to-air heat pumps supplied from a shallow warm aquifer. In the first case, space heating can be accomplished using 150/sup 0/F geothermal water at 30 gpm; in the second case, space heating can be accomplished with 80/sup 0/F to 100/sup 0/F warm water at 50 gpm. The geothermal energy economics are evaluated for both the heat exchanger/deep well and the heat pump/shallow well options. The principal institutional issue for a geothermal heating system for the Highway Department Building is the question of whether or not the state owns the geothermal rights on the state property.

Meyer, R.T.; Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.

1981-01-01

302

Building Regional Threat-Based Networks for Estuaries in the Western United States  

PubMed Central

Estuaries are ecologically and economically valuable and have been highly degraded from both land and sea. Estuarine habitats in the coastal zone are under pressure from a range of human activities. In the United States and elsewhere, very few conservation plans focused on estuaries are regional in scope; fewer still address threats to estuary long term viability.We have compiled basic information about the spatial extent of threats to identify commonalities. To do this we classify estuaries into hierarchical networks that share similar threat characteristics using a spatial database (geodatabase) of threats to estuaries from land and sea in the western U.S.Our results show that very few estuaries in this region (16%) have no or minimal stresses from anthropogenic activity. Additionally, one quarter (25%) of all estuaries in this study have moderate levels of all threats. The small number of un-threatened estuaries is likely not representative of the ecological variability in the region and will require working to abate threats at others. We think the identification of these estuary groups can foster sharing best practices and coordination of conservation activities amongst estuaries in any geography.

Merrifield, Matthew S.; Hines, Ellen; Liu, Xiaohang; Beck, Michael W.

2011-01-01

303

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: fixed fiveoverfive ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: fixed five-over-five wood windows with five-light hoppers with concrete sills; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

304

57. BUILDING NO. 1071, ORDNANCE FACILITY (CRYSTALLIZATION BUILDING), LOOKING AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

57. BUILDING NO. 1071, ORDNANCE FACILITY (CRYSTALLIZATION BUILDING), LOOKING AT SOUTHEAST SIDE. NOTE ESCAPE CHUTES PROJECTING FROM SIDES OF BUILDING. - Picatinny Arsenal, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

305

Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: rolling metal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building C, east façade: rolling metal gate and fence, spiral and inclined staircases; southwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

306

ClinicalCodes: An Online Clinical Codes Repository to Improve the Validity and Reproducibility of Research Using Electronic Medical Records  

PubMed Central

Lists of clinical codes are the foundation for research undertaken using electronic medical records (EMRs). If clinical code lists are not available, reviewers are unable to determine the validity of research, full study replication is impossible, researchers are unable to make effective comparisons between studies, and the construction of new code lists is subject to much duplication of effort. Despite this, the publication of clinical codes is rarely if ever a requirement for obtaining grants, validating protocols, or publishing research. In a representative sample of 450 EMR primary research articles indexed on PubMed, we found that only 19 (5.1%) were accompanied by a full set of published clinical codes and 32 (8.6%) stated that code lists were available on request. To help address these problems, we have built an online repository where researchers using EMRs can upload and download lists of clinical codes. The repository will enable clinical researchers to better validate EMR studies, build on previous code lists and compare disease definitions across studies. It will also assist health informaticians in replicating database studies, tracking changes in disease definitions or clinical coding practice through time and sharing clinical code information across platforms and data sources as research objects.

Springate, David A.; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Ashcroft, Darren M.; Olier, Ivan; Parisi, Rosa; Chamapiwa, Edmore; Reeves, David

2014-01-01

307

Creativity Fostering Behaviour as an Index of Productivity and Capacity Building among Lecturers in Selected Universities in Ogun and Oyo States  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The need for creative thinking and behaviour is more acute in our contemporary society than before. Therefore, this study tried to investigate creativity fostering behaviour as an index of productivity and capacity building among lecturers in selected universities in Ogun and Oyo States. To achieve this, multi-stage sampling technique was…

Olawale, Sunday G.; Adeniyi, Emmanuel O.; Olubela, OpeOluwa I.

2010-01-01

308

Building construction regulations and the fuel cell: Roadblocks and/or opportunities to technology transfer  

SciTech Connect

A significant amount of effort is underway to develop new technologies for the buildings sector. To be implemented in buildings, however, new technologies must meet a host of codes and standards, many of which vary from state to state. Technology development efforts frequently neglect an analysis of codes and standards until late in the development phase (typically just prior to commercialization) or even worse, not until after commercialization. Because of the time lag in either making necessary technology modifications to meet codes or updating codes to accommodate the new technology, such neglect often results in significant delays in new technology implementation. Under new circumstances, codes and standards can encourage the use of certain technologies, enhancing their market performance. Analysis of codes and standards should be undertaken as early as possible in the technology development phase, preferably in parallel to technology development so that requirements to meet codes and standards can be integrated into the technology as it is developed, and so that required codes and standards modifications can be initiated and perhaps finalized in anticipation of new technologies. Several codes and standards considerations must be assessed before fuel cells can be widely employed in the US buildings sector.

Conovere, D.R.; Kinzey, B.R.

1994-08-01

309

An Assessment of Comprehensive Code Prediction State-of-the-Art Using the HART II International Workshop Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite significant advancements in computational fluid dynamics and their coupling with computational structural dynamics (= CSD, or comprehensive codes) for rotorcraft applications, CSD codes with their engineering level of modeling the rotor blade dynamics, the unsteady sectional aerodynamics and the vortical wake are still the workhorse for the majority of applications. This is especially true when a large number of parameter variations is to be performed and their impact on performance, structural loads, vibration and noise is to be judged in an approximate yet reliable and as accurate as possible manner. In this paper, the capabilities of such codes are evaluated using the HART II Inter- national Workshop data base, focusing on a typical descent operating condition which includes strong blade-vortex interactions. Three cases are of interest: the baseline case and two cases with 3/rev higher harmonic blade root pitch control (HHC) with different control phases employed. One setting is for minimum blade-vortex interaction noise radiation and the other one for minimum vibration generation. The challenge is to correctly predict the wake physics - especially for the cases with HHC - and all the dynamics, aerodynamics, modifications of the wake structure and the aero-acoustics coming with it. It is observed that the comprehensive codes used today have a surprisingly good predictive capability when they appropriately account for all of the physics involved. The minimum requirements to obtain these results are outlined.

vanderWall, Berend G.; Lim, Joon W.; Smith, Marilyn J.; Jung, Sung N.; Bailly, Joelle; Baeder, James D.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

2012-01-01

310

Sensitivity of International Classification of Diseases codes for hyponatremia among commercially insured outpatients in the United States  

PubMed Central

Background Administrative claims are a rich source of information for epidemiological and health services research; however, the ability to accurately capture specific diseases or complications using claims data has been debated. In this study, the authors examined the validity of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes for the identification of hyponatremia in an outpatient managed care population. Methods We analyzed outpatient laboratory and professional claims for patients aged 18 years and older in the National Managed Care Benchmark Database from Integrated Healthcare Information Services. We obtained all claims for outpatient serum sodium laboratory tests performed in 2004 and 2005, and all outpatient professional claims with a primary or secondary ICD-9-CM diagnosis code of hyponatremia (276.1). Results A total of 40,668 outpatient serum sodium laboratory results were identified as hyponatremic (serum sodium < 136 mmol/L). The sensitivity of ICD-9-CM codes for hyponatremia in outpatient professional claims within 15 days before or after the laboratory date was 3.5%. Even for severe cases (serum sodium ? 125 mmol/L), sensitivity was < 30%. Specificity was > 99% for all cutoff points. Conclusion ICD-9-CM codes in administrative data are insufficient to identify hyponatremia in an outpatient population.

Shea, Alisa M; Curtis, Lesley H; Szczech, Lynda A; Schulman, Kevin A

2008-01-01

311

Building capacity of the Baltic States to meet the EU Water Framework Directive through watershed demonstration projects.  

PubMed

The Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO), in cooperation with the United States EPA, is completing it role in assisting the Baltic Countries of Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia with watershed management capacity building demonstration projects under the Great Lakes/Baltic Sea Partnership Program. The Countries of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania view the skills gained through this program as important to their objective of complying with the European Union's Water Framework Directive and thus facilitating accession into the European Union. The program also addressed Kaliningrad's desire to work cooperatively with their neighboring countries concerning shared waters. Three watershed demonstration projects were designed and implemented, two of which involved joint country efforts: Parnu River (Estonia) modeling for nutrients and bacteria survey; river basin assessment and management planning for the Lielupe Basin (Latvia and Lithuania); and data base development and cooperative water quality survey and analysis for the Sesupe River (Lithuania and Kaliningrad). The benefits of the projects include enhancing the country's technical skills and the forging of relationships, without which achieving effective watershed management will be difficult to achieve. PMID:15137146

Vicory, A; Staniskis, J; Heath, J; Davenport, T

2003-01-01

312

Changes in steady-state levels of mRNAs coding for type IV collagen, laminin and fibronectin following capillary basement membrane thickening in human adult onset diabetes.  

PubMed

The development of capillary basement membrane thickening has been linked to microvascular changes known to occur in tissues of patients with type II diabetes. Previous evidence has suggested that capillary basement membrane thickening is due to increased basement membrane synthesis. In this study, skin samples from 8 diabetic patients with confirmed capillary basement membrane thickening and 7 non-diabetic controls were used to assess steady state levels of mRNAs coding for several basement components including pro alpha 1(IV) collagen, laminin and fibronectin. Total RNA was extracted from abdominal skin samples and levels of mRNAs coding for the basement membrane components laminin, fibronectin and pro alpha 1(IV) collagen, a fibrillar collagenous protein, pro alpha 1(I) collagen and an intracellular polypeptide, gamma-actin, were determined by dot blot hybridization analysis. While there were no changes of steady state levels of pro alpha 1(I) collagen mRNA and laminin mRNA, a significant reduction was noted in the quantitative recovery of mRNA levels for pro alpha 1(IV) collagen, gamma-actin and fibronectin in total RNA isolated from the skin of diabetic patients. This reduction in levels of mRNAs coding for basement membrane components contrasts with pathological confirmation of an accumulation of endothelial capillary basement membrane in skin from diabetic patients and suggests that basement membrane thickening arises more as a consequence of reduced basement membrane degradation than elevated synthesis of basement membrane components. PMID:2245601

Kolbe, M; Kaufman, J L; Friedman, J; Dinerstein, C; Mackenzie, J W; Boyd, C D

1990-01-01

313

Energy Conservation Business Opportunities in Multifamily Housing: Energy-Efficient Manufactured Housing in Chicago: Part 2, Building Code, Construction and Energy Efficiency Issues: (Final Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Center for Neighborhood Technology (CNT) with funding from federal and state sources is involved in a broad study examining the many economic and social issues of deteriorating neighborhoods. This study is only a portion of the major study, conducted ...

L. Rangelov

1986-01-01

314

Library Buildings and Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six articles discuss library buildings and construction: (1) library buildings and their parts; (2) the North Campus Library of California State University at Long Beach in 1995; (3) new structures for teaching libraries; (4) construction standards for California public libraries; (5) Sick (Library) Building Syndrome; and (6) using focus-group…

Oringdulph, Robert E.; And Others

1990-01-01

315

Analysis of the impacts of energy conservation codes in new single-family homes  

SciTech Connect

Within the 50 states some form of federal code or standard for energy conservation in new building construction is typically incorporated into state and local codes. Two of these codes, the Model Energy Code (MEC) and the proposed ASHRAE standard 90.2P are of special importance to the residential data base developed by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) because they influence thermal requirements and have either been recently updated or will be revised in 1992. In this study, we evaluate the impacts of these two thermal codes on the energy performance and energy consumption of prototypical new single-family buildings. Base case buildings, with characteristics typical of current building practices, are modified to meet the thermal envelope standards and are simulated with the DOE-2.1D building energy simulation program. In addition, we also model the effects of appliance and heating and cooling equipment efficiencies promulgated under the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) of 1987 and of the NAECA Amendments of 1988. We compare heating and cooling loads and energy use for the prototypical house for several cases: the base case, with 1980s vintage thermal envelope and appliance and equipment efficiencies; with ASHRAE 90 thermal requirements; with Model Energy Code thermal requirements; with NAECA appliance and HVAC efficiencies; and with combinations of the ASHRAE 90 Standard or Model Energy Code and the NAECA appliance and equipment efficiency improvements. The results provide a glimpse of how these standards will affect future end-use energy consumption in new single-family buildings.

Ritschard, R.L.; Hanford, J.W.; Sezgen, A.O.

1992-12-01

316

State-of-the-art interior-piping-systems applications: Commercial buildings. Final report, June 1987-June 1989  

SciTech Connect

Four types of commercial buildings were identified as candidates for the use of semi-rigid tubing: low-rise offices, low-rise motels, retail buildings, and high-rise residential buildings. For each building type, design documents were obtained for a specific building. The installation costs for a conventional low-pressure rigid steel piping system and elevated-pressure (2-5 psig) corrugated stainless steel tubing and copper tubing semi-rigid systems were estimated. In addition, the installation cost of an all-electric HVAC system was estimated for each building. The results of these studies indicated that the semi-rigid tubing systems were more cost effective than the rigid steel piping system. Further, the installation cost of gas HVAC systems in the four buildings was nearly equivalent to the installation cost of all-electric HVAC systems. Field tests conducted at a strip shopping center and a three-story motel also indicated that the semi-rigid tubing was more cost effective than the rigid steel pipe system.

Willman, A.J.; Stanton-Hoyle, D.

1990-06-01

317

Alabama's Education Coalition Focuses on Supporting the State's Math, Science and Technology Initiative and on Building Distance Learning Programs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Alabama Math Science Technology Educational Coalition (AMSTEC) was formed as a non-profit after a 1998 NASA Linking Leaders program brought in education and corporate leaders to address systemic education reform in Alabama public schools. AMSTEC was instrumental in the creation of the Alabama Math Science Technology Initiative (AMSTI), a K-12 program designed using data from national and international research and local teacher survey. In the face of dwindling government support in a state ranked last in education funding, AMSTEC believes that its best hope for improved STEM education lies in strengthening its community/industry partnerships and building upon the Department of Education's newly created AMSTI program. NASA's GLOBE program is the primary earth science education component being integrated into AMSTI. AMSTI is structured to provide teachers with (1) the materials, equipment, technology and supplies necessary to deliver high quality, inquiry-based instruction; (2) professional development linked directly to the educational resources with the intent of strengthening content knowledge, instructional strategies, and use of assessment tools; and (3) on-site support and mentoring throughout the year in the interest of achieving these goals. Roles for community partners to support these objectives far exceed that of mere funding - especially in the area of mentoring and professional development. Currently, AMSTEC consists of 100+ members including classroom teachers and district officers, education department representatives from higher educational institutions, policy makers and administrators, and government and industry representatives. AMSTEC remains partially tied to NASA fiscally and is administratively housed by the National Space Science and Technology Center's Earth System Science Center. AMSTEC's partnership emphasis is focused on increasing corporate and industry participation to support the implementation of AMSTI and its hub-site-based program. Future foci for AMSTEC are development and implementation of distance learning programs across Alabama's K-12 public schools.

Denson, R. L.

2003-12-01

318

A Better Handoff for Code Officials  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Building Energy Codes Program has partnered with ICC to release the new Building Energy Codes Resource Guide: Code Officials Edition. We created this binder of practical materials for a simple reason: code officials are busy learning and enforcing several codes at once for the diverse buildings across their jurisdictions. This doesn’t leave much time to search www.energycodes.gov, www.iccsafe.org, or the range of other helpful web-based resources for the latest energy codes tools, support, and information. So, we decided to bring the most relevant materials to code officials in a way that works best with their daily routine, and point to where they can find even more. Like a coach’s game plan, the Resource Guide is an "energy playbook" for code officials.

Conover, David R.; Yerkes, Sara

2010-09-24

319

On constructing embedded multilevel trellis codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A design technique is presented to reduce the search time for trellis codes with multilevel/phase modulation. Codes are constructed by connecting trelis diagrams for codes with fewer states in parallel. For example, an N-state code can be constructed by connecting two N/2-state codes. The way in which the embedded codes are connected increases the upper limit on minimum free distance otherwise imposed by parallel transitions between states. In some cases, this technique can reduce the number of codes in a code search by a factor of approximately 2 to the nu power, the number of coder states. A computer search incorporating this technique for eight-level amplitude modulation (8-AM) codes having 2 to the 11th and 2 to the 12th states produced codes with greater minimum free distance than reported previously (i.e., greater than 6 dB coding gain).

Honig, Michael L.

1988-02-01

320

State Regulations and the ACA Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice: Oil and Water for the Substance Abuse Counselor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews state regulations responsible for determining the minimum qualifications for counselors, clinical supervisors, or client assessors in the substance abuse treatment field. Few of the 34 states surveyed required treatment outcome studies or referenced licensed professional counselors. Discusses implications new counselors may face when their…

West, Paul L.; Mustaine, Beverly L.; Wyrick, Barry

1999-01-01

321

1986\\/68. Preliminary report on building cracking at the Tasmanian State Institute of Technology campus at Newnham  

Microsoft Academic Search

Widespread cracking is occurring on many of the buildings on the T.S.I.T. campus at Newnham. This cracking is reported to have started in 1982-1983, the drought years in Launceston, and is continuing. It is thought to be related to foundation movements caused by differential ground movements from an underlying expansive clay. Two auger holes at two proposed building sites showed

W. R. Moore

322

Urban heat island phenomenon, urban morphology and building energy: The case of Chicago, United States of America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this thesis is to integrate urban climate and urban design for predicting building energy using simulation approach. Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon as a function of urban climate change and street geometry for urban morphology is considered. This study is aimed at providing architects/urban designers more informed choices for building design in a changing urban climate. The microclimatic variation in the Chicago area is investigated. The effect of air temperature and cloud cover on building energy is investigated for the influence of UHI on building energy. Street width (W) and building height (H) are the geometric descriptors for defining the street geometry. Street geometry dealt with the street aspect ratio (H/W=1, 2, 4 and 8) and street orientation (N, NNW, NW, WNW and W). The sensitivity analysis is performed for street geometry parameters to investigate its effect on the building energy. The investigations are carried out in the varying microclimatic conditions within the Chicago area. Optimum street geometry from energy point of view is suggested. Street geometry is found out to have significant effect on cooling energy savings. Street aspect ratio is found out to be dominant parameter than street orientation. Further, applications of the street geometry in relation to the density of built-up area and climate suitability in the urban area are discussed.

Bhiwapurkar, Pravin

323

Facilities Standards for the Public Buildings Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides product requirements and criteria for new buildings and alterations for the General Services Administration (GSA). It contains building standards edited to place high reliance on commercial standards and codes. It should be used in ...

1993-01-01

324

Evolving genetic code  

PubMed Central

In 1985, we reported that a bacterium, Mycoplasma capricolum, used a deviant genetic code, namely UGA, a “universal” stop codon, was read as tryptophan. This finding, together with the deviant nuclear genetic codes in not a few organisms and a number of mitochondria, shows that the genetic code is not universal, and is in a state of evolution. To account for the changes in codon meanings, we proposed the codon capture theory stating that all the code changes are non-disruptive without accompanied changes of amino acid sequences of proteins. Supporting evidence for the theory is presented in this review. A possible evolutionary process from the ancient to the present-day genetic code is also discussed.

OHAMA, Takeshi; INAGAKI, Yuji; BESSHO, Yoshitaka; OSAWA, Syozo

2008-01-01

325

Building Fire Safety in the Far East  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building fire safety activities in the Far East will be briefly reviewed in this paper. Fire safety concerns in some buildings with new architectural features will be discussed. Glass constructions need special attention. Key points on building fire safety provisions, including both passive building construction and active fire protection systems will be pointed out. Whether the current fire codes are

W. K. Chow

2005-01-01

326

Code Green.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

McMinn, John

2002-01-01

327

Code Status  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Clinical Critical Care Information for Patients | | More Code Status Information for Patients Introduction General Information Common ... Approaches in Critical Care Commonly Asked Questions Credits "Code status" are the words used by hospital staff ...

328

Code Stabilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dijkstra's concept of self-stabilization assumes that faults can only a! ect the variables of a program. We study the notion of self-stabilization if faults can also a! ect (i.e., augment) the program code of a system. A code stabilizing sys- tem automatically recovers from (almost) arbitrary perturbations of its program code. We prove some lower bounds for code stabilizing systems

Felix C. Freiling; Sukumar Ghosh

2005-01-01

329

Decomposing Uncertainty in Climate, Socioeconomics and Technological Change for a Decision to Impose Aggressive Building Energy Standards across the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This analysis presents quantification and decomposition of key sources of uncertainty associated with state-level decisions on whether to impose aggressive building energy standards. The research compares uncertainty in future climate model projections, national and international emissions policy, population and economic growth, and technology cost and performance across several states and focuses on three decision criteria--energy savings, savings in greenhouse gas emissions, and costs of the standards. The research utilizes a version of the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model that has been regionalized to represent energy demand and supply within each of the 50 U.S. states. A Monte Carlo sampling approach provides 12,000 GCAM runs that are post-processed to provide a rigorous comparison of the relative importance of the modeled sources of uncertainty at the state level when aggressive standards are imposed and identifies the key 'game changers.'

Scott, M. J.; Daly, D. S.; Lansing, C. S.; McJeon, H. C.; Patel, P. L.; Peterson, M. J.; Rice, J.; Zhou, Y.

2013-12-01

330

The 2005 American steel structures design code  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Institute of Steel Construction was founded in 1921 and issued the first US structural steel design code in 1923.11The steel design code in the US is officially called the Specification for Structural Steel Buildings. In this paper the words specification and code are used interchangeably, meaning the same thing. It was 10 pages long and based on the

Reidar Bjorhovde

2006-01-01

331

Solar Workbook. A Step by Step Procedure for Assessing Solar Opportunities in Existing Buildings in New York State.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determining the feasibility of modifying existing buildings to take advantage of solar energy requires a formal technical study. This workbook is designed to help the reader perform a preliminary analysis to decide whether investing in such a formal study would be beneficial. The book guides the user through an exploration of the general…

New York State Energy Office, Albany.

332

A comparative study of laws, rules, codes and other influences on nursing homes' disaster preparedness in the Gulf Coast states.  

PubMed

In 2005, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita devastated several Gulf Coast states and caused many deaths. The hurricane- related deaths of 70 nursing home residents--34 believed drowned in St. Rita's Nursing Home in Louisiana and 36 from 12 other nursing homes--highlighted problems associated with poorly developed and executed disaster plans, uninformed evacuation decision-making, and generally inadequate response by providers and first responders (DHHS, 2006; Hyer, Brown, Berman, & Polivka-West, 2006). Such loss of human life perhaps could have been prevented and certainly lessened if, prior to the hurricanes, policies, regulations, and laws had been enacted, executable disaster guidelines been available, vendor contracts been honored, and sufficient planning taken place. This article discusses applicable federal and state laws and regulations that govern disaster preparedness with a particular focus on nursing homes. It highlights gaps in these laws and makes suggestions regarding future disaster planning. PMID:17899530

Brown, Lisa M; Hyer, Kathryn; Polivka-West, LuMarie

2007-01-01

333

Status of MARS Code  

SciTech Connect

Status and recent developments of the MARS 14 Monte Carlo code system for simulation of hadronic and electromagnetic cascades in shielding, accelerator and detector components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV are described. these include physics models both in strong and electromagnetic interaction sectors, variance reduction techniques, residual dose, geometry, tracking, histograming. MAD-MARS Beam Line Build and Graphical-User Interface.

N.V. Mokhov

2003-04-09

334

An evaluation method for school building design at the preliminary phase with optimisation of aspects of environmental comfort for the school system of the State São Paulo in Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a method for evaluating and optimising environmental comfort parameters of school buildings during the preliminary stages of design. In order to test the method, 39 existing public school building designs in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, had their plans analysed and characterised in relation to their influence on environmental comfort. Four aspects of comfort were considered:

Valéria Azzi Collet da Graça; Doris Catharine Cornelie Knatz Kowaltowski; João Roberto Diego Petreche

2007-01-01

335

Multiphase equation of state for iron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The PANDA code is used to build a multiphase equation of state (EOS) table for iron. Separate EOS tables were first constructed for each of the individual phases. The phase diagram and multiphase EOS were then determined from the Helmholtz free energies. ...

G. I. Kerley

1993-01-01

336

Multiphase equation of state for iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PANDA code is used to build a multiphase equation of state (EOS) table for iron. Separate EOS tables were first constructed for each of the individual phases. The phase diagram and multiphase EOS were then determined from the Helmholtz free energies. The model includes four solid phases ([alpha],[gamma], [delta], and [var epsilon]) and a fluid phase (including the liquid,

Kerley

1993-01-01

337

Multiphase equation of state for iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PANDA code is used to build a multiphase equation of state (EOS) table for iron. Separate EOS tables were first constructed for each of the individual phases. The phase diagram and multiphase EOS were then determined from the Helmholtz free energies. The model includes four solid phases (α,γ, δ, and {var_epsilon}) and a fluid phase (including the liquid, vapor,

Kerley

1993-01-01

338

Using Social Network Theory to Influence the Development of State and Local Primary Prevention Capacity-Building Teams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the role that social network theory and social network analysis has played in assessing and developing effective primary prevention networks across a southeastern state. In 2004 the state began an effort to develop a strategic plan for the primary prevention of violence working with local communities across the state. The…

Cook-Craig, Patricia G.

2010-01-01

339

Energy efficient building design  

SciTech Connect

The fundamental concepts of the building design process, energy codes and standards, and energy budgets are introduced. These tools were combined into Energy Design Guidelines and design contract requirements. The Guidelines were repackaged for a national audience and a videotape for selling the concept to government executives. An effort to test transfer of the Guidelines to outside agencies is described.

Not Available

1992-03-01

340

96. BUILDING NO. 539, POWDER BLENDER, SOUTHWEST ELEVATION WITH BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

96. BUILDING NO. 539, POWDER BLENDER, SOUTHWEST ELEVATION WITH BUILDING NO. 561 IN BACKGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

341

63. BUILDING NO. 1301, ORDNANCE FACILITY (MORTAR POWDER BUILDING), INTERIOR, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

63. BUILDING NO. 1301, ORDNANCE FACILITY (MORTAR POWDER BUILDING), INTERIOR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST DOWN SCREENED WALKWAY ON NORTHWEST SIDE. - Picatinny Arsenal, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

342

Hypermap-Homology Quantum Codes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new type of sparse CSS quantum error correcting code based on the homology of hypermaps. Sparse quantum error correcting codes are of interest in the building of quantum computers due to their ease of implementation and the possibility of developing fast decoders for them. Codes based on the homology of embeddings of graphs, such as Kitaev's toric code, have been discussed widely in the literature and our class of codes generalize these. We use embedded hypergraphs, which are a generalization of graphs that can have edges connected to more than two vertices. We develop theorems and examples of our hypermap-homology codes, especially in the case that we choose a special type of basis in our homology chain complex. In particular, the most straightforward generalization of the m x m toric code to hypermap-homology codes gives us a [(3/2) m2,2,m] code as compared to the toric code which is a [2m2,2,m] code. Thus we can protect the same amount of quantum information, with the same error-correcting capability, using less physical qubits.

Leslie, Martin

343

State-to-state reactive differential cross sections for the H+H2-->H2+H reaction on five different potential energy surfaces employing a new quantum wavepacket computer code: DIFFREALWAVE.  

PubMed

State-to-state differential cross sections have been calculated for the hydrogen exchange reaction, H+H2-->H2+H, using five different high quality potential energy surfaces with the objective of examining the sensitivity of these detailed cross sections to the underlying potential energy surfaces. The calculations were performed using a new parallel computer code, DIFFREALWAVE. The code is based on the real wavepacket approach of Gray and Balint-Kurti [J. Chem. Phys. 108, 950 (1998)]. The calculations are parallelized over the helicity quantum number Omega' (i.e., the quantum number for the body-fixed z component of the total angular momentum) and wavepackets for each J,Omega' set are assigned to different processors, similar in spirit to the Coriolis-coupled processors approach of Goldfield and Gray [Comput. Phys. Commun. 84, 1 (1996)]. Calculations for J=0-24 have been performed to obtain converged state-to-state differential cross sections in the energy range from 0.4 to 1.2 eV. The calculations employ five different potential energy surfaces, the BKMP2 surface and a hierarchical family of four new ab initio surfaces [S. L. Mielke, et al., J. Chem. Phys. 116, 4142 (2002)]. This family of four surfaces has been calculated using three different hierarchical sets of basis functions and also an extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, the so called CCI surface. The CCI surface is the most accurate surface for the H3 system reported to date. Our calculations of differential cross sections are the first to be reported for the A2, A3, A4, and CCI surfaces. They show that there are some small differences in the cross sections obtained from the five different surfaces, particularly at higher energies. The calculations also show that the BKMP2 performs well and gives cross sections in very good agreement with the results from the CCI surface, displaying only small divergences at higher energies. PMID:17092069

Hankel, Marlies; Smith, Sean C; Allan, Robert J; Gray, Stephen K; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G

2006-10-28

344

Building Specifications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The building in the top photo is the new home of the National Permanent Savings Bank in Washington, D.C., designed by Hartman-Cox Architects. Its construction was based on a money-saving method of preparing building specifications which derived from NASA technology developed to obtain quality construction while holding down cost of launch facilities, test centers and other structures. Written technical specifications spell out materials and components to be used on construction projects and identify the quality tests each item must pass. Specifications can have major impact on construction costs. Poorly formulated specifications can lead to unacceptable construction which must be replaced, unnecessarily high materials costs, safety hazards, disputes and often additional costs due to delays and litigation. NASA's Langley Research Center developed a novel approach to providing accurate, uniform, cost-effective specifications which can be readily updated to incorporate new building technologies. Called SPECSINTACT, it is a computerized - system accessible to all NASA centers involved in construction programs. The system contains a comprehensive catalog of master specifications applicable to many types of construction. It enables designers of any structure to call out relevant sections from computer storage and modify them to fit the needs of the project at hand. Architects and engineers can save time by concentrating their efforts on needed modifications rather than developing all specifications from scratch. Successful use of SPECSINTACT has led to a number of spinoff systems. One of the first was MASTERSPEC, developed from NASA's experience by Production Systems for Architects and Engineers, Inc., an organization established by the American Institute of Architects. MASTERSPEC, used in construction of the bank building pictured, follows the same basic format as SPECSINTACT and can be used in either automated or manual modes. The striking appearance of the bank building shows that, while MASTERSPEC saves time and money, its use involves no sacrfice in architectural design freedom. The Naval Engineering Facilities Command employs an automated specifications system based on SPECSINTACT. The Public Buildings Service of the General Services Administration used SPECSINTACT as a starting point in a plan to make its guideline specifications available to architects and engineers on a nationwide computer network. Public Technology, Inc., a NASA Technology Application Team, is working with Production Systems for Architects and Engineers, Inc., to promote widespread use of the system by state and local governments for cost benefits to taxpayers.

1978-01-01

345

Insurance billing and coding.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to highlight the importance of understanding various numeric and alpha-numeric codes for accurately billing dental and medically related services to private pay or third-party insurance carriers. In the United States, common dental terminology (CDT) codes are most commonly used by dentists to submit claims, whereas current procedural terminology (CPT) and International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD.9.CM) codes are more commonly used by physicians to bill for their services. The CPT and ICD.9.CM coding systems complement each other in that CPT codes provide the procedure and service information and ICD.9.CM codes provide the reason or rationale for a particular procedure or service. These codes are more commonly used for "medical necessity" determinations, and general dentists and specialists who routinely perform care, including trauma-related care, biopsies, and dental treatment as a result of or in anticipation of a cancer-related treatment, are likely to use these codes. Claim submissions for care provided can be completed electronically or by means of paper forms. PMID:18501731

Napier, Rebecca H; Bruelheide, Lori S; Demann, Eric T K; Haug, Richard H

2008-07-01

346

Model-building codes for membrane proteins.  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a novel approach to modeling the transmembrane spanning helical bundles of integral membrane proteins using only a sparse set of distance constraints, such as those derived from MS3-D, dipolar-EPR and FRET experiments. Algorithms have been written for searching the conformational space of membrane protein folds matching the set of distance constraints, which provides initial structures for local conformational searches. Local conformation search is achieved by optimizing these candidates against a custom penalty function that incorporates both measures derived from statistical analysis of solved membrane protein structures and distance constraints obtained from experiments. This results in refined helical bundles to which the interhelical loops and amino acid side-chains are added. Using a set of only 27 distance constraints extracted from the literature, our methods successfully recover the structure of dark-adapted rhodopsin to within 3.2 {angstrom} of the crystal structure.

Shirley, David Noyes; Hunt, Thomas W.; Brown, W. Michael; Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Slepoy, Alexander; Sale, Kenneth L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Young, Malin M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Gray, Genetha Anne (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

2005-01-01

347

Tools Directory: Building Energy Software  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains descriptions of 283 energy-related software tools for buildings, with an emphasis on using renewable energy and achieving energy efficiency and sustainability in buildings. For each piece of software listed, descriptions of uses, intended audience, advantages, costs, disadvantages, and contact information is provided. Some of the software is available at no charge. Topics for which software is available include: codes and standards, HVAC equipment and systems, energy economics, solar climate analysis, water conservation, lighting, renewable energy, and green buildings.

2007-02-19

348

Computer Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

COSMIC MINIVER, a computer code developed by NASA for analyzing aerodynamic heating and heat transfer on the Space Shuttle, has been used by Marquardt Company to analyze heat transfer on Navy/Air Force missile bodies. The code analyzes heat transfer by four different methods which can be compared for accuracy. MINIVER saved Marquardt three months in computer time and $15,000.

1985-01-01

349

User instructions for the CIDER Dose Code  

SciTech Connect

This document provides user instructions for the CIDER (Calculation of Individual Doses from Environmental Radionuclides) computer code. The CIDER code computes estimates of annual doses estimated for both reference individuals with a known residence and food consumption history. This document also provides user instructions for four utility codes used to build input data libraries for CIDER. These utility codes are ENVFAC (environmental factors), FOOFAC (food factors), LIFFAC (lifestyle factors), and ORGFAC (organ factors). Finally, this document provides user instructions for the EXPAND utility code. The EXPAND code processes a result file from CIDER and extracts a summary of the dose information for reporting or plotting purposes.

Eslinger, P.W.; Lessor, K.S.; Ouderkirk, S.J.

1994-05-01

350

Building Awareness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of developing students' building awareness by exploring logos, or buildings that symbolize a country, to learn about architecture and the cultures in different countries. Explores categories of buildings. Includes examples of logos from around the world. (CMK)

Meilach, Dona Z.

2001-01-01

351

Building a Market for Small Wind: The Break-Even Turnkey Cost of Residential Wind Systems in the United States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Although small wind turbine technology and economics have improved in recent years, the small wind market in the United States continues to be driven in large part by state incentives, such as cash rebates, favorable loan programs, and tax credits. This p...

J. L. Edwards R. Wiser M. Bolinger T. Forsyth

2004-01-01

352

Building on Progress: How Ready Are States To Implement President Bush's Education Plan? A Status Report by the Education Commission of the States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Bush's comprehensive education plan includes major initiatives in areas ranging from accountability to school safety. While breaking new ground in some areas, Bush's plan accelerates the progress states have made in improving quality, performance, and flexibility in public education. This status report reviews the progress of states in…

Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

353

Investigations: Building Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These activities invite students to use mathematics to explore interesting facts about famous buildings. The investigation for grades three to four focuses on the SkyDome, a sports arena in Toronto, Canada, and the investigation for grades five to six discusses the Empire State Building in New York City. Includes reproducible student worksheets.…

Small, Marian S.

1996-01-01

354

Federal and state regulatory requirements for the D&D of the Alpha-4 Building, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has begun the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of Building 9201-4 (Alpha-4) at the Oak Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, The Alpha-4 Building was used from 1953--1962 to house a column exchange (Colex) process for lithium isotope separation. This process involved electrochemical and solvent extraction processes that required substantial quantities of mercury. Presently there is no law or regulation mandating decommissioning at DOE facilites or setting de minimis or ``below regulatory concern`` (BRC) radioactivity levels to guide decommissioning activities at DOE facilities. However, DOE Order 5820.2A, Chap. V (Decommissioning of Radioactively Contaminated Facilities), requires that the regulatory status of each project be identified and that technical engineering planning must assure D&D compliance with all environmental regulations during cleanup activities. To assist in the performance of this requirement, this paper gives a brief overview of potential federal and state regulatory requirements related to D&D activities at Alpha-4. Compliance with other federal, state, and local regulations not addressed here may be required, depending on site characterization, actual D&D activities, and wastes generated.

Etnier, E.L.; Houlberg, L.M.; Bock, R.E.

1994-03-04

355

75 FR 21266 - Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Overview Information; Building State Capacity for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...to create or enhance, and sustain, a State infrastructure designed...applicant will use funds to sustain its prevention efforts, identifying...Address to Request Application Package: You can obtain an application package via the Internet. To...

2010-04-23

356

Building a market for small wind: The break-even turnkey cost of residential wind systems in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Although small wind turbine technology and economics have improved in recent years, the small wind market in the United States continues to be driven in large part by state incentives, such as cash rebates, favorable loan programs, and tax credits. This paper examines the state-by-state economic attractiveness of small residential wind systems. Economic attractiveness is evaluated primarily using the break-even turnkey cost (BTC) of a residential wind system as the figure of merit. The BTC is defined here as the aggregate installed cost of a small wind system that could be supported such that the system owner would break even (and receive a specified return on investment) over the life of the turbine, taking into account current available incentives, the wind resource, and the retail electricity rate offset by on-site generation. Based on the analysis presented in this paper, we conclude that: (1) the economics of residential, grid-connected small wind systems is highly variable by state and wind resource class, (2) significant cost reductions will be necessary to stimulate widespread market acceptance absent significant changes in the level of policy support, and (3) a number of policies could help stimulate the market, but state cash incentives currently have the most significant impact, and will be a critical element of continued growth in this market.

Edwards, Jennifer L.; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Forsyth, Trudy

2004-03-01

357

Buildings Technology Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Buildings Technology Center is a "research facility devoted to the development of technologies that improve the energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of residential and commercial buildings." The state-of-the-art research and development facility houses about 50 staff and 10-20 guest researchers. The website describes the center's facilities, research capabilities, and research programs. Another section describes some of the tools for buildings that the center has developed, such as a heat pump design model, building envelope web-based calculators, and a computer program designed to determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for single-family homes. Publications on topics such as envelope systems, appliance and equipment efficiency, Desiccant-related research and other research on building design and performance are posted online. An easy-to-browse database of success stories provides specifications, rendered and line drawings, and other facts about the Center's building technologies.

358

A state-of-the-art review of the reactor lower head models employed in three representative U.S. severe accident codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

MELCOR, SCDAP\\/RELAP5, MAAP4 are three representative U.S. computer codes that are being most widely used for the integral analysis of core melt accident progression and the resultant lower head response expected at the reactor lower plenum such as the accident that took place in the TMI-2: the first two are NRC codes and the last one is an industrial code.

Kwang-II Ahn; Dong-Ha Kim

2003-01-01

359

Interior building details of Building A, Room 2212: plaster ceiling ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior building details of Building A, Room 2-212: plaster ceiling and one-over-one double hung wood sash over a fixed three-light window, Room A-213 painted plaster finished partition walls; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

360

Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: two threelight ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building A; north façade: two three-light wood casement windows flank a three-light fixed wood window with concrete sill; southerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

361

Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: exposed common ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building A; west façade: exposed common bond brick wall, arched brick lintels over a two single-light casement window with brick sills, arched brick lintel over door cornice; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

362

45. BUILDING NO. 462, CHEMISTRY LAB (FORMERLY TRACER LOADING BUILDING), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

45. BUILDING NO. 462, CHEMISTRY LAB (FORMERLY TRACER LOADING BUILDING), VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT WEST SIDE. BUILDING NO. 462-B, GENERAL PURPOSE MAGAZINE, AT LEFT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

363

81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

81. BUILDING NO. 561, CANNON POWDER BLENDER, LOOKING NORTHWEST, BUILDING NO. 561-A, PROPELLANT PLANT (FIREPROOF SHELTER), IN FOREGROUND, BUILDING NO. 561-D IN EXTREME FOREGROUND. - Picatinny Arsenal, 500 Area, Powder Factory & Power House, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

364

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: concrete staircase, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building A; east façade: concrete staircase, profiled cement, plaster door surround, recessed panel inscribed "1859", historic window opening with concrete sill above door, cement plaster dentil course and cornice truncated wood beam ends, plaster finished brick wall, granite base; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

365

Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: ellshaped south ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: ell-shaped south facing concrete staircase with decorative pipe railing, second floor entrance with cement plaster profiled surround, dentil course cornice, truncated embedded wood beams, cream colored plaster-finished exterior façade, closed off window well with protruding vent; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

366

EPAct and the model code  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this presentation is to provide an introduction to the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1992 Model Energy Code (MEC); to describe the status of its adoption, implementation, and enforcement; and to introduce a line of MEC compliance materials, collectively referred to as the MECcheck{trademark} materials.

Connell, L.M.

1995-02-01

367

A three-field model of transient 3D multiphase, three-component flow for the computer code 4 A3. Par1: Theoretical basis: Conservation and state equations, numerics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physical and mathematical basis on which the IVA3 computer code relies are described. IVA3 was developed for numerical simulation of flows of air, steam, water, microscopic solid particles which can be carried only by water, and 'liquid metal' that is immiscible with water. The state of the art of the 3D (three dimensional) modeling for transient multiphase flows, the

N. I. Kolev

1991-01-01

368

Timing Is Everything: Building State Policy on Teacher Credentialing in an Era of Multiple, Competing, and Rapid Education Reforms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Senate Bill (SB) 2042, authored by Senator Marion Bergeson, was passed to establish a new system for providing teacher preparation within the state of California. The credentialing reforms introduced in SB 2042 follow a tradition described by Irving Hendrik and stake their own claims regarding the locus of control over teacher quality, the role of…

Sandy, Mary Vixie

2006-01-01

369

Relevance of cross-section analysis in correct diagnosis of the state of conservation of building materials as evidenced by spectroscopic imaging.  

PubMed

In the present work the need to use cross-section analysis as a routine procedure to characterize physiochemical damage on building materials was evaluated using a combination of spectroscopic imaging techniques based on Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). First, samples for cross-section analysis required special preparation to avoid the loss of soluble and weakly anchored compounds and thereby ensure the representativeness of the analysis. To this end, samples were dry drilled and fractured with a single blow rather than cut to avoid friction. Cross-section analysis allowed surface deposition (crusts and patinas) to be differentiated from penetrating pollution and the affected depth to be determined. Elemental and molecular distributions were obtained to establish the origin of the compounds/elements found. Moreover, establishing the depth reached by the pollutant, which depends on the material porosity, can help to determine the physicochemical form of the pollutant. Finally, SEM-EDX images allowed surface and internal cracks, as well as the causes of these physical stresses, to be identified. As a result, surface analysis alone was shown to lead to incomplete or even incorrect conclusions that can be avoided by using cross-section analysis as a routine procedure when assessing the state of conservation of building materials. PMID:23992558

Prieto-Taboada, Nagore; Gómez-Laserna, Olivia; Martinez-Arkarazo, Irantzu; Olazabal, María Ángeles; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

2013-10-15

370

Dress Codes. Legal Brief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As illustrated by two recent decisions, the courts in the past decade have demarcated wide boundaries for school officials considering dress codes, whether in the form of selective prohibitions or required uniforms. Administrators must warn the community, provide legitimate justification and reasonable clarity, and comply with state law. (MLH)

Zirkel, Perry A.

2000-01-01

371

Student Dress Codes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School officials see a need for regulations that prohibit disruptive and inappropriate forms of expression and attire; students see these regulations as unwanted restrictions on their freedom. This paper reviews court litigation involving constitutional limitations on school authority, dress and hair codes, state law constraints, and school…

Uerling, Donald F.

372

Speech coding  

SciTech Connect

Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the coding techniques are equally applicable to any voice signal whether or not it carries any intelligible information, as the term speech implies. Other terms that are commonly used are speech compression and voice compression since the fundamental idea behind speech coding is to reduce (compress) the transmission rate (or equivalently the bandwidth) And/or reduce storage requirements In this document the terms speech and voice shall be used interchangeably.

Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

1998-05-08

373

7,7'-Diamino-2,2'-diindolylmethane: a building block for highly efficient and selective anion receptors-studies in solution and in the solid state.  

PubMed

The easy-to-make 7,7'-diamino-2,2'-diindolylmethane was used as a building block for the construction of anion receptors operating by hydrogen bonds. Its various bisamide and bisurea derivatives were designed and synthesised as acyclic as well as macrocyclic molecules, then their structural and anion binding properties were studied in solution and in the solid state. The bisamide receptors demonstrate high affinity towards oxoanions in highly polar and partially aqueous solutions (DMSO with up to 25 % H(2)O) with significant selectivity for dihydrogen phosphate. Remarkably, the bisurea-based molecules are able to bind anionic guests even in pure methanol and show selectivity toward tetrahedral oxoanions, that is, hydrogen sulphate and dihydrogen phosphate. X-ray analysis revealed that both classes of molecules adopt a similar conformation in the solid state: a bent sheet shape with a binding pocket equipped with hydrogen-bond donors (four for the amides and six for the bisureas), whose orientation is particularly tailored for oxoanions. The results of ROESY NMR experiments are in agreement with the findings for the solid state and confirmed that both bisamides and bisureas can easily adapt the conformation with convergent hydrogen-bond donors, which is highly suitable for anion binding. PMID:22976547

Dydio, Pawe?; Lichosyt, Dawid; Zieli?ski, Tomasz; Jurczak, Janusz

2012-10-22

374

Interior building details of Building B, Room B101: east brick ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior building details of Building B, Room B-101: east brick retaining wall, wood ceiling, plywood baton partition wall; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

375

Interior building details of Building E, Room E002 to E002a ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior building details of Building E, Room E-002 to E-002a arch brick plaster wall through the east brick retaining wall; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

376

Interior building details of Building D, Room D101 to Room ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior building details of Building D, Room D-101 to Room D-101c partition wall with multi-pane wood sash; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

377

Interior building details of Building D, Room DM5: concrete stairs ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior building details of Building D, Room D-M5: concrete stairs to education room at road level; northerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

378

Interior building details of Building D, Room D004 northwest cell, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior building details of Building D, Room D-004 northwest cell, painted plaster wall, tiebacks on north painted plaster wall; easterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

379

Interior building details of Building C, Room C101: historic painted ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior building details of Building C, Room C-101: historic painted wood staircase, wood handrails, metal brackets and batter board; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

380

Interior building details of Building C, Room C101: historic painted ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior building details of Building C, Room C-101: historic painted wood staircase, wood handrails, metal brackets and batter board, northeasterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

381

Interior building details of Building A, Room A109 Dutch door, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior building details of Building A, Room A109 Dutch door, room A-108 single panel wood door with wood trim northerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

382

Interior building details of Building D, Room D101 partition wall ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior building details of Building D, Room D-101 partition wall with multi-pane wood sash, timber wood truss ceiling; northerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

383

Interior building details of Building A, Room A101: painted wood ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior building details of Building A, Room A-101: painted wood staircase, wood handrails with metal brackets, plastered finished brick walls; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

384

Fire Safety Code for Historic Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) periodically updates each fire safety code and standard that it develops. Acknowledging the need for a document to prescribe fire safety for historic buildings, a complete and thorough rewrite of NFPA 914 was undertaken. The former recommended practice has now been issued as the Code for Fire Protection in Historic Structures. The 2001 edition

John M. Watts; Robert E. Solomon

2002-01-01

385

An algebraic approach to network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

We take a new look at the issue of network capacity. It is shown that network coding is an essential ingredient in achieving the capacity of a network. Building on recent work by Li et al., who examined the network capacity of multicast networks, we extend the network coding framework to arbitrary networks and robust networking. For networks which are

Ralf Koetter; Muriel Médard

2003-01-01

386

Code Cracker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whether it's the genetic code, an ancient language, or patterns of light in a distant galaxy, scientists often have to play the role of decoder. In this activity, learners create a code to send secret messages for other learners to decode. When learners set up a free account at Kinetic City, they can answer bonus questions at the end of the activity as a quick assessment. As a larger assessment, learners can complete the Bug Blaster game after they've completed several activities.

Science, American A.

2009-01-01

387

Investigating the performance and energy saving potential of Chinese commercial building benchmark models for the hot humid and severe cold climate regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The demand for energy in China is growing at an alarming rate. Buildings have become a significant component of the energy-demand mix accounting for nearly one-quarter of the country's total primary energy consumption. This study compares the building code standards for office and hotel buildings in the hot humid and severe cold climate regions of China and the United States. Benchmark office and hotel building models have been developed for Guangzhou and Harbin, China that meets China's minimum national and regional building energy codes with the integration of common design and construction practices for each region. These models are compared to the ASHRAE standard based US reference building models for Houston, Texas and Duluth, Minnesota which have similar climate conditions. The research further uses a building energy optimization tool to optimize the Chinese benchmarks using existing US products to identify the primary areas for potential energy savings. In the case of the Harbin models, an economic analysis has also been performed to determine the economic feasibility of alternative building designs. The most significant energy-saving options are then presented as recommendations for potential improvements to current China building energy codes.

Herrmann, Lesley Anne

388

A State-Based Approach to Building a Liquid National Market for Renewable Energy Certificates: The REC-EX Model  

SciTech Connect

RECs are the currency driving the growth of renewable energy markets and the sale of RECs from renewable energy generation projects could promise a predictable return. But the existing REC markets in the U.S. sorely lack the liquidity needed to make good on that promise. The author proposes a Renewable Energy Certificate Exchange program rooted in the construction of a national trading platform for RECs in tandem with the execution of a new agreement among the states with REC-based renewable portfolio standards. (author)

Berendt, Christopher B.

2006-06-15

389

Using bioprocess stoichiometry to build a plant-wide mass balance based steady-state WWTP model.  

PubMed

Steady-state models are useful for design of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) because they allow reactor sizes and interconnecting flows to be simply determined from explicit equations in terms of unit operation performance criteria. Once the overall WWTP scheme is established and the main system defining parameters of the individual unit operations estimated, dynamic models can be applied to the connected unit operations to refine their design and evaluate their performance under dynamic flow and load conditions. To model anaerobic digestion (AD) within plant-wide WWTP models, not only COD and nitrogen (N) but also carbon (C) fluxes entering the AD need to be defined. Current plant-wide models, like benchmark simulation model No 2 (BSM2), impose a C flux at the AD influent. In this paper, the COD and N mass balance steady-state models of activated sludge (AS) organics degradation, nitrification and denitrification (ND) and anaerobic (AD) and aerobic (AerD) digestion of wastewater sludge are extended and linked with bioprocess transformation stoichiometry to form C, H, O, N, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and charge mass balance based models so that also C (and H and O) can be tracked through the whole WWTP. By assigning a stoichiometric composition (x, y, z and a in C(x)H(y)O(z)N(a)) to each of the five main influent wastewater organic fractions and ammonia, these, and the products generated from them via the biological processes, are tracked through the WWTP. The model is applied to two theoretical case study WWTPs treating the same raw wastewater (WW) to the same final sludge residual biodegradable COD. It is demonstrated that much useful information can be generated with the relatively simple steady-state models to aid WWTP layout design and track the different products exiting the WWTP via the solid, liquid and gas streams, such as aerobic versus anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge, N loads in recycle streams, methane production for energy recovery and green house gas (CO(2), CH(4)) generation. To reduce trial and error usage of WWTP simulation software, it is recommended that they are extended to include pre-processors based on mass balance steady-state models to assist with WWTP layout design, unit operation selection, reactor sizing, option evaluation and comparison and wastewater characterization before dynamic simulation. PMID:19345392

Ekama, G A

2009-05-01

390

Jackson Park Hospital Green Building Medical Center  

SciTech Connect

Jackson Park Hospital completed the construction of a new Medical Office Building on its campus this spring. The new building construction has adopted the City of Chicago�s recent focus on protecting the environment, and conserving energy and resources, with the introduction of green building codes. Located in a poor, inner city neighborhood on the South side of Chicago, Jackson Park Hospital has chosen green building strategies to help make the area a better place to live and work.

William Dorsey; Nelson Vasquez

2010-03-01

391

"Watts per person" paradigm to design net zero energy buildings: Examining technology interventions and integrating occupant feedback to reduce plug loads in a commercial building  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As building envelopes have improved due to more restrictive energy codes, internal loads have increased largely due to the proliferation of computers, electronics, appliances, imaging and audio visual equipment that continues to grow in commercial buildings. As the dependency on the internet for information and data transfer increases, the electricity demand will pose a challenge to design and operate Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs). Plug Loads (PLs) as a proportion of the building load has become the largest non-regulated building energy load and represents the third highest electricity end-use in California's commercial office buildings, accounting for 23% of the total building electricity consumption (Ecova 2011,2). In the Annual Energy Outlook 2008 (AEO2008), prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that presents long-term projections of energy supply and demand through 2030 states that office equipment and personal computers are the "fastest growing electrical end uses" in the commercial sector. This thesis entitled "Watts Per Person" Paradigm to Design Net Zero Energy Buildings, measures the implementation of advanced controls and behavioral interventions to study the reduction of PL energy use in the commercial sector. By integrating real world data extracted from an energy efficient commercial building of its energy use, the results produce a new methodology on estimating PL energy use by calculating based on "Watts Per Person" and analyzes computational simulation methods to design NZEBs.

Yagi Kim, Mika

392

Video coding  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Digitalized video images are compressed in several steps in order to provide a system for transmitting moving video pictures via narrow band channels, such as the telephone network. The system is based on any extension of the bit-plane coding technique to video sequences and lossy conditions. The compression technique can also be advantageously used in a lossless compression system. The system involves the steps of bit plane representation and skipping the least significant bit plane(s), shifting the pixels, coding with a Gray code, the use of segmentation, and motion-estimation/motion compensation and application of a transmit/not transmit/motion compensate (TX/NT/MC) procedure, exploiting of the temporal redundancy of two corresponding bit planes via an XOR operation on two successive images, and a plane-by-plane application of an extended RLEID technique. The RLEID technique includes coding a run of like binary symbols with one word, the run including a transition between the penultimate and ultimate binary symbol.

2001-03-27

393

Highlighting High Performance: National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Thermal Test Facility, Golden, Colorado. Office of Building Technology State and Community Programs (BTS) Brochure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Thermal Test Facility in Golden, Colorado, was designed using a whole-building approach--looking at the way the building's systems worked together most efficiently. Researchers monitor the performance of the 11,0...

S. Burgert

2001-01-01

394

Investive Mehrkosten der Niedrigenergiebauweise. Abgerechnete Kosten oeffentlich gefoerderter Wohnhaeuser in Hessen und Schleswig-Holstein. (Additional investment costs of low-energy house building. Actual costs of state-sponsored residential buildings in Hesse and Schleswig Holstein).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low energy house building has been promoted financially in certain Laender for some years now. The present study makes an evaluation of the additional investment costs of low-energy house building by analysing the first complete accounts of residential bu...

W. Eicke-Hennig

1993-01-01

395

Building Bridges to Postsecondary Training for Low-Skill Adults: Outcomes of Washington State's I-BEST Program  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nationally, relatively few of the more than 2.5 million adults who enroll annually in basic skills programs advance successfully to college-level coursework. This limits the ability of such individuals to secure jobs that pay family-supporting wages and that offer opportunity for career advancement. This Brief, which is based on CCRC Working Paper No. 16, summarizes findings from a study conducted by the Community College Research Center (CCRC) at Teachers College, Columbia University, on the outcomes of the Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training program, or I-BEST, an innovative program developed by the community and technical colleges in Washington State to increase the rate at which adult basic skills students enter and succeed in postsecondary occupational education and training.

2011-10-18

396

Healthy Buildings?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

Grubb, Deborah

397

2401-W Waste storage building closure plan  

SciTech Connect

This plan describes the performance standards met and closure activities conducted to achieve clean closure of the 2401-W Waste Storage Building (2401-W) (Figure I). In August 1998, after the last waste container was removed from 2401-W, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) notified Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) in writing that the 2401-W would no longer receive waste and would be closed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) unit (98-EAP-475). Pursuant to this notification, closure activities were conducted, as described in this plan, in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 and completed on February 9, 1999. Ecology witnessed the closure activities. Consistent with clean closure, no postclosure activities will be necessary. Because 2401-W is a portion of the Central Waste Complex (CWC), these closure activities become the basis for removing this building from the CWC TSD unit boundary. The 2401-W is a pre-engineered steel building with a sealed concrete floor and a 15.2-centimeter concrete curb around the perimeter of the floor. This building operated from April 1988 until August 1998 storing non-liquid containerized mixed waste. All waste storage occurred indoors. No potential existed for 2401-W operations to have impacted soil. A review of operating records and interviews with cognizant operations personnel indicated that no waste spills occurred in this building (Appendix A). After all waste containers were removed, a radiation survey of the 2401-W floor for radiological release of the building was performed December 17, 1998, which identified no radiological contamination (Appendix B).

LUKE, S.M.

1999-07-15

398

Building an \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Java is a popular development platform for mo- bile code systems. It ensures application porta- bility and mobility for a variety of systems, while providing strong security features. The interme- diate code (byte code) allows the virtual machine to verify statically (during the loading phase) that the program is well-behaved. This is done by a software security module called the

Damien Deville; Gilles Grimaud

2002-01-01

399

Design and Use of Interactive Learning Stations in Construction Education for Building Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing Systems  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over the past several years, the building codes that govern the design and installation of mechanical and electrical systems for buildings have become increasingly prescriptive in nature, specifying detailed information related to the design and installation of the systems, while offering no reasoning behind their prescriptive measures. Students now read about the design and installation of these systems in textbooks, and using the building codes, have in-class exercises drafting the systems, which in industry are used for fabrication and installation. Therefore, in conjunction with a new curriculum proposed for the construction management department at California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), San Luis Obispo an interactive learning station was developed for student use to enhance student learning. This paper focuses on the design and use of interactive learning stations for building mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems that allow construction students to perform hands-on fit-up exercises and test their performance.

Korman, Thomas; Simonian, Lonny

2009-10-16

400

49 CFR 41.117 - Buildings built with Federal assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...assistance. (d) For buildings built with Federal...compliance with the seismic design and construction...verifications of seismic design codes, standards, and practices used in the design and construction of the building, construction...

2013-10-01

401

Progress in Advanced Spray Combustion Code Integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiyear project to assemble a robust, muitiphase spray combustion code is now underway and gradually building up to full speed. The overall effort involves several university and government research teams as well as Rocketdyne. The first part of this paper will give an overview of the respective roles of the different participants involved, the master strategy, the evolutionary milestones, and an assessment of the state-of-the-art of various key components. The second half of this paper will highlight the progress made to date in extending the baseline Navier-Stokes solver to handle multiphase, multispecies, chemically reactive sub- to supersonic flows. The major hurdles to overcome in order to achieve significant speed ups are delineated and the approaches to overcoming them will be discussed.

Liang, Pak-Yan

1993-01-01

402

Minimum cost model energy code envelope requirements  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the analysis underlying development of the U.S. Department of Energy`s proposed revisions of the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal envelope requirements for single-family and low-rise multifamily residences. This analysis resulted in revised MEC envelope conservation levels based on an objective methodology that determined the minimum-cost combination of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) for residences in different locations around the United States. The proposed MEC revision resulted from a cost-benefit analysis from the consumer`s perspective. In this analysis, the costs of the EEMs were balanced against the benefit of energy savings. Detailed construction, financial, economic, and fuel cost data were compiled, described in a technical support document, and incorporated in the analysis. A cost minimization analysis was used to compare the present value of the total long-nm costs for several alternative EEMs and to select the EEMs that achieved the lowest cost for each location studied. This cost minimization was performed for 881 cities in the United States, and the results were put into the format used by the MEC. This paper describes the methodology for determining minimum-cost energy efficiency measures for ceilings, walls, windows, and floors and presents the results in the form of proposed revisions to the MEC. The proposed MEC revisions would, on average, increase the stringency of the MEC by about 10%.

Connor, C.C.; Lucas, R.G.; Turchen, S.J.

1994-08-01

403

The development of CACTUS : a wind and marine turbine performance simulation code.  

SciTech Connect

CACTUS (Code for Axial and Cross-flow TUrbine Simulation) is a turbine performance simulation code, based on a free wake vortex method, under development at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as part of a Department of Energy program to study marine hydrokinetic (MHK) devices. The current effort builds upon work previously done at SNL in the area of vertical axis wind turbine simulation, and aims to add models to handle generic device geometry and physical models specific to the marine environment. An overview of the current state of the project and validation effort is provided.

Barone, Matthew Franklin; Murray, Jonathan

2010-12-01

404

Rise of the Build Infrastructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CMS Offline Software, CMSSW, is an extremely large software project, with roughly 3 millions lines of code, two hundreds of active developers and two to three active development branches. Given the scale of the problem, both from a technical and a human point of view, being able to keep on track such a large project, bug free, and to deliver builds for different architectures is a challenge in itself. Moreover the challenges posed by the future migration of CMSSW to multithreading also require adapting and improving our QA tools. We present the work done in the last two years in our build and integration infrastructure, particularly in the form of improvements to our build tools, in the simplification and extensibility of our build infrastructure and the new features added to our QA and profiling tools. Finally we present our plans for the future directions for code management and how this reflects on our workflows and the underlying software infrastructure.

Eulisse, Giulio; Muzaffar, Shahzad; Abdurachmanov, David; Mendez, David

2014-06-01

405

FPFP 2: A code for following airborne fission products in generic nuclear plant flow paths  

SciTech Connect

In order to assure that a nuclear power plant control room remains habitable during certain types of postulated accidents, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has undertaken a special study for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This purpose of this study is to develop software that can aid in the analyses of control room habitability during accidents in which airborne fission products could challenge internal air pathways to the control room. PNL has completed an initial version (FPFP) and final version (FPFP 2) of a software package that can estimate the unsteady-state invasion of quantities of fission products into the control room or any other destination within the nuclear plant via generic internal flow paths. This report consists of three parts: Section 2.0, Technical Bases, describes the flow path components and mechanisms of natural fission product deposition; Section 3.0, FPFP 2 Code Description, describes code organization and the functions of the subroutines; and Section 4.0, Code Operation, discusses details of input requirements, code output, and a sample case demonstration. The appendices consist of an FPFP 2 Fortran code listing, a listing of a code for building input files, forms for building input files, and the sample case input and output files. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Owcarski, P.C.; Burk, K.W.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Yasuda, D.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

1991-03-01

406

Prevention and recovery in early psychosis (PREP(®)): building a public-academic partnership program in Massachusetts, United States.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been increasing emphasis on early intervention (EI) for psychotic disorders. EI programs in public mental health settings have been established in countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, and Canada. However, there are relatively few EI programs in the United States (U.S.). Here we describe the conceptual origins and practical development of the PREP program, i.e., Prevention and Recovery in Early Psychosis, as it evolved in a public academic psychiatry setting in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. PREP developed over a decade through a partnership between the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health and academic institutions within the Harvard Department of Psychiatry. We discuss the evolution, programmatic features, funding mechanisms, staffing, and the role of clinical training in PREP. The key principles in developing the PREP Program include the focus on early, evidence based, person-centered and phase-specific, integrated and continuous, comprehensive care. This program has served as a foundation for the emergence of related services at our institution, including a research clinic treating those at clinical high risk or within the putative "prodromal" period preceding frank psychosis. This account offers one possible blueprint for the development of EI programs despite the lack in the U.S. of a national mandate for EI or prevention-based mental health programs. PMID:23466116

Caplan, Brina; Zimmet, Suzanna V; Meyer, Eric C; Friedman-Yakoobian, Michelle; Monteleone, Thomas; Jude Leung, Y; Guyer, Margaret E; Rood, Laura Logue; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Seidman, Larry J

2013-04-01

407

Utility residential new construction programs: Going beyond the code. A report from the Database on Energy Efficiency Programs (DEEP) Project  

SciTech Connect

Based on an evaluation of 10 residential new construction programs, primarily sponsored by investor-owned utilities in the United States, we find that many of these programs are in dire straits and are in danger of being discontinued because current inclusion of only direct program effects leads to the conclusion that they are not cost-effective. We believe that the cost-effectiveness of residential new construction programs can be improved by: (1) promoting technologies and advanced building design practices that significantly exceed state and federal standards; (2) reducing program marketing costs and developing more effective marketing strategies; (3) recognizing the role of these programs in increasing compliance with existing state building codes; and (4) allowing utilities to obtain an ``energy-savings credit`` from utility regulators for program spillover (market transformation) impacts. Utilities can also leverage their resources in seizing these opportunities by forming strong and trusting partnerships with the building community and with local and state government.

Vine, E.

1995-08-01

408

Continuation of research into language concepts for the mission support environment: Source code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research into language concepts for the Mission Control Center is presented. A computer code for source codes is presented. The file contains the routines which allow source code files to be created and compiled. The build process assumes that all elements and the COMP exist in the current directory. The build process places as much code generation as possible on the preprocessor as possible. A summary is given of the source files as used and/or manipulated by the build routine.

Barton, Timothy J.; Ratner, Jeremiah M.

1991-01-01

409

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and...appropriate for federally assisted new building construction: (1) 2003 NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code. Copies of...

2012-01-01

410

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and...appropriate for federally assisted new building construction: (1) 2003 NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code. Copies of...

2007-01-01

411

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and...appropriate for federally assisted new building construction: (1) 2003 NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code. Copies of...

2011-01-01

412

7 CFR 1792.103 - Seismic design and construction standards for new buildings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Seismic Safety of Federally Assisted New Building Construction § 1792.103 Seismic design and...appropriate for federally assisted new building construction: (1) 2003 NFPA 5000 Building Construction and Safety Code. Copies of...

2008-01-01

413

MELCOR computer code manuals  

SciTech Connect

MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code that models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. MELCOR is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission as a second-generation plant risk assessment tool and the successor to the Source Term Code Package. A broad spectrum of severe accident phenomena in both boiling and pressurized water reactors is treated in MELCOR in a unified framework. These include: thermal-hydraulic response in the reactor coolant system, reactor cavity, containment, and confinement buildings; core heatup, degradation, and relocation; core-concrete attack; hydrogen production, transport, and combustion; fission product release and transport; and the impact of engineered safety features on thermal-hydraulic and radionuclide behavior. Current uses of MELCOR include estimation of severe accident source terms and their sensitivities and uncertainties in a variety of applications. This publication of the MELCOR computer code manuals corresponds to MELCOR 1.8.3, released to users in August, 1994. Volume 1 contains a primer that describes MELCOR`s phenomenological scope, organization (by package), and documentation. The remainder of Volume 1 contains the MELCOR Users Guides, which provide the input instructions and guidelines for each package. Volume 2 contains the MELCOR Reference Manuals, which describe the phenomenological models that have been implemented in each package.

Summers, R.M.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hodge, S.A.; Hyman, C.R.; Sanders, R.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01

414

Analysis of low density codes and improved designs using irregular graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In (6), Gallager introduces a family of codes based on sparse bipartite graphs, which he calls low-density parity-check codes. He suggests a natural decoding algorithm for these codes, and proves a good bound on the fraction of errors that can be corrected. As the codes that Gallager builds are derived from regular graphs, we refer to them as regular codes.

Michael Mitzenmacher; A. Shokrollah; Daniel A. Spielman

1998-01-01

415

2. Contextual view of building in setting, view to southwest ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Contextual view of building in setting, view to southwest from slope above "Hayloft" Building (HABS-CA-2611-B), showing east side and north rear of building, State Highway 1 visible at left center. Scale stick visible on roof of building. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Big Sur Inn Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

416

Building Fire Simulation Model, Volume 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Building Fire Simulation Model (BFSM) provides information for improving fire tests and fire investigations. It provides a means of improving the quality of information used in code provision equipment and can assist in establishing equivalency for fi...

J.A. Swartz R.F. Fahy E.M. Connelly D.P. Demers

1983-01-01

417

US green building conference - 1994  

SciTech Connect

This report constitutes the proceedings of the Green Building Conference held in Gaithersburg, Maryland, February 16-17, 1994. The conference was co-sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the US Green Building Council (USGBC). Over 450 individuals attended the conference representing building product manufacturers, building owners and managers, environmental groups, utilities, contractors, builders, architects, engineers, and the local, state, and the federal governments. The conference provided an opportunity to acquire practical, useful information on green buildings, resources, and guidelines. Eighteen papers were presented at the conference. Separate abstracts and indexing were prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

Fanney, A.H.; Whitter, K.M.; Traugott, A.E.; Simon, L.N. [eds.

1994-12-31

418

Code torrent: content distribution using network coding in VANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile peer-to-peer systems have recently got in the lime-light of the research community that is striving to build efficient and effective mobile content addressable networks. Along this line of research, we propose a network coding based file swarming protocol targeting vehicular ad hoc net-works (VANET). We argue that file swarming protocols in VANET should deal with typical mobile network issues

Uichin Lee; Joon-Sang Park; Joseph Yeh; Giovanni Pau; Mario Gerla

2006-01-01

419

Image subband coding using arithmetic coded trellis coded quantization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented for encoding memoryless sources using trellis coded quantization (TCQ) with uniform thresholds. The trellis symbols are entropy-coded using arithmetic coding. The performance of the arithmetic coded uniform threshold TCQ, for encoding the family of generalized Gaussian densities, is compared with uniform threshold quantization (UTQ) and the Shannon lower bound (SLB). At high rates, the method performs

Rajan L. Joshi; Valerie J. Crump; Thomas R. Fischer

1995-01-01

420

Building Together  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Bob the Builder(TM)-themed activity, learners explore what it means to work together as a team. Learners repeat the phrase âCan We Build It?(TM) Yes We Can!â until they can chant it together as a team. Then, learners repeat the chant at each activity station. Learners rotate through the stations where they build with blocks, LEGO® bricks or other small manipulatives, hammer nails and wood, pump with water, and construct a building site by moving sand with toy trucks. This activity is featured on page 9 of the "Bob the Builder(TM) â Project: Build It" unit of study.

Indianapolis, The C.

2006-01-01

421

Building Houses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Build a house you can fit inside, using cardboard tubes. Variations of this activity include building for a toy (easier) or building a house the right size for a stuffed animal or a garage for a toy car. Also included is an option to build houses inspired by those around the world (harder). This activity focuses on the understanding of sizes and shapes: Can I fit in this if I stand up? if I sit? Do we have enough cardboard tubes to make a triangular roof? This activity is available as a webpage and a downloadable pdf. Students should have the ability to use scissors and tape well.

2010-01-01

422

AUTOMATIC CODE GENERATION FOR INSTRUMENT FLIGHT SOFTWARE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic code generation can be used to convert soft- ware state diagrams into executable code, enabling a mo- del-based approach to software design and development. The primary benefits of this process are reduced devel- opment time and continuous consistency between the sys- tem design (statechart) and its implementation. We used model-based design and code generation to produce soft- ware for

Kiri L. Wagstaff; Edward Benowitz; DJ Byrne; Ken Peters; Garth Watney

423

Should the “Slow Code” Be Resuscitated?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most bioethicists and professional medical societies condemn the practice of “slow codes.” The American College of Physicians ethics manual states, “Because it is deceptive, physicians or nurses should not perform half-hearted resuscitation efforts (‘slow codes’).” A leading textbook calls slow codes “dishonest, crass dissimulation, and unethical.” A medical sociologist describes them as “deplorable, dishonest and inconsistent with established ethical principles.”

John D. Lantos; William L. Meadow

2011-01-01

424

Engineering Technical Letter (ETL) 93-3, Inventory, Screening, Prioritization, and Evaluation of Existing Buildings for Seismic Risk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This letter provides instructions for assigning a seismic risk code for existing Air Force buildings. The method for determining the priority for performing an evaluation for seismic risk of existing buildings on an installation is defined. The risk code ...

1993-01-01

425

40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Bb of... - State Requirements Incorporated by Reference in Subpart BB of Part 147 of the Code of Federal...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Requirements Incorporated by Reference in Subpart BB of Part 147 of the Code of Federal Regulations A Appendix A to Subpart BB of Part 147 Protection of Environment...PROGRAMS Montana Pt. 147, Subpt. BB, App. A Appendix A to Subpart BB...

2010-07-01

426

Combined trellis coding with asymmetric modulations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of asymmetric signal constellations combined with optimized trellis coding to improve the performance of coded systems without increasing the average or peak power, or changing the bandwidth constraints of a system is discussed. The trellis code, asymmetric signal set, and Viterbi decoder of the system model are examined. The procedures for assigning signals to state transitions of the trellis code are described; the performance of the trellis coding system is evaluated. Examples of AM, QAM, and MPSK modulations with short memory trellis codes are presented.

Divsalar, D.; Simon, M. K.

1985-01-01

427

Hydrogen outgassing, electrical consumption and the myriad code requirements much venting over the need for ventilation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There appears a level of consternation swirling about of late that is rooted in varying interpretations by Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) such as building inspectors, electrical inspectors and so on regarding international building codes now that they have been adopted over national codes in many US jurisdictions. The intention of this paper is to identify the international codes covering hydrogen

Dan McMenamin; Roy Steward

2010-01-01

428

Building Green  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There's a great deal of talk about "building green" in the architecture and design world, but to many, this phrase may not mean a great deal. This website, created by the Building Green company, can help the uninitiated learn more about this subject. First-time visitors should click on the "Green Building Information" area. Here they can get answers to such question as "What is green?" and also learn more about green design strategies and the LEED rating system. Right next to this section is the "Case Studies" area, which features green building projects like elementary schools, commercial facilities, and university buildings. The site is rounded out by a "News" area and a detailed bibliography of websites, print resources, and so on.

429

Report of Ad Hoc Committee on Energy Efficiency in Large Buildings to the Interdepartmental Fuel and Energy Committee of the State of New York.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Unwarranted amounts of energy are wasted each year in providing major public and privately owned buildings and the desired environment within them. Improved design, construction, and maintenance and operation can save significant amounts of energy without impairment of these processes throughout the life cycle of these buildings, arbitrarily…

New York State Interdepartmental Fuel and Energy Committee, Albany.

430

Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: embedded wood ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Exterior building details of Building B, east façade: embedded wood beams and interrupted dentil course cornice resulting from the removal of the third floor tuberculosis ward, yard level paneled Dutch door, second level two a typical six-light wood casement windows over a single-panel wood door with four light exits to fire escape; westerly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

431

VIEW OF BUILDING 440 LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. BUILDING 440, THE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

VIEW OF BUILDING 440 LOOKING WEST, NORTHWEST. BUILDING 440, THE TRANSPORT MODIFICATION CENTER, CONSISTS OF FOUR HIGH-BAY CORRUGATED METAL STRUCTURES. BUILDING 440 WAS USED FOR PACKAGING AND STAGING SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIALS AND DEPLETED URANIUM FOR SHIPMENT AND TO MODIFY VEHICLES TO MEET SPECIFIC UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REQUIREMENTS. (2/8/84) - Rocky Flats Plant, Transport Modification Center, North of Cactus Avenue, approximately 400 feet east of Third Street, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

432

Shock wave codes at Sandia National Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories is very active in developing multi- dimensional, multi-material shock wave physics codes. One example is the state-of-the-art, three-dimensional Eulerian code CTH which is used at numerous government and university sites. CTH is being ported to both Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) and Multiple Instruction Multiple Data (MIMD) massively parallel computers. The next-generation arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian code RHALE is under development. This paper will discuss these codes.

McGlaun, J.M.

1991-08-20

433

Securing mobile code.  

SciTech Connect

If software is designed so that the software can issue functions that will move that software from one computing platform to another, then the software is said to be 'mobile'. There are two general areas of security problems associated with mobile code. The 'secure host' problem involves protecting the host from malicious mobile code. The 'secure mobile code' problem, on the other hand, involves protecting the code from malicious hosts. This report focuses on the latter problem. We have found three distinct camps of opinions regarding how to secure mobile code. There are those who believe special distributed hardware is necessary, those who believe special distributed software is necessary, and those who believe neither is necessary. We examine all three camps, with a focus on the third. In the distributed software camp we examine some commonly proposed techniques including Java, D'Agents and Flask. For the specialized hardware camp, we propose a cryptographic technique for 'tamper-proofing' code over a large portion of the software/hardware life cycle by careful modification of current architectures. This method culminates by decrypting/authenticating each instruction within a physically protected CPU, thereby protecting against subversion by malicious code. Our main focus is on the camp that believes that neither specialized software nor hardware is necessary. We concentrate on methods of code obfuscation to render an entire program or a data segment on which a program depends incomprehensible. The hope is to prevent or at least slow down reverse engineering efforts and to prevent goal-oriented attacks on the software and execution. The field of obfuscation is still in a state of development with the central problem being the lack of a basis for evaluating the protection schemes. We give a brief introduction to some of the main ideas in the field, followed by an in depth analysis of a technique called 'white-boxing'. We put forth some new attacks and improvements on this method as well as demonstrating its implementation for various algorithms. We also examine cryptographic techniques to achieve obfuscation including encrypted functions and offer a new application to digital signature algorithms. To better understand the lack of security proofs for obfuscation techniques, we examine in detail general theoretical models of obfuscation. We explain the need for formal models in order to obtain provable security and the progress made in this direction thus far. Finally we tackle the problem of verifying remote execution. We introduce some methods of verifying remote exponentiation computations and some insight into generic computation checking.

Link, Hamilton E.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Neumann, William Douglas; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn; Pierson, Lyndon George; Anderson, William Erik

2004-10-01

434

Factors Affecting Coding Errors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Memorandum describes experiments which sought to identify the factors that contribute to coding errors. The experiments used code-stimulus materials: numeric codes, consisting only of numbers; alpha codes, consisting only of letters; alpha-numeric co...

S. Owsowtiz, A. Sweetland

1965-01-01

435

Codes with special correlation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets uniform binary codes with special correlation including transorthogonality and simplex code, Hadamard matrices and difference sets

Baumert, L. D.

1964-01-01

436

Seismic Retrofit of Existing Buildings: Innovative Alternatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent earthquakes in Turkey (1999) and Taiwan (1999) demonstrated the power of nature and the catastrophic impact of such power upon urban cities. Casualties and damage associated with older buildings, which were designed and constructed using codes that are now known to provide inadequate safety, are far worse than that for newer buildings which have been designed and built in

Moe Cheung; Simon Foo; Jacques Granadino

437

Coding Theorems for Individual Sequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quantity called the {em finite-state} complexity is assigned to every infinite sequence of elements drawn from a finite sot. This quantity characterizes the largest compression ratio that can be achieved in accurate transmission of the sequence by any finite-state encoder (and decoder). Coding theorems and converses are derived for an individual sequence without any probabilistic characterization, and universal data

Jacob Ziv

1978-01-01

438

State  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The notion of state is fundamental to the design and analysis of virtually all computational systems. The Myhill-Nerode Theorem\\u000a of Finite Automata theory—and the concepts underlying the Theorem—is a source of sophisticated fundamental insights about\\u000a a large class of state-based systems, both finite-state and infinite-state systems. The Theorem’s elegant algebraic characterization\\u000a of the notion of state often allows one to

Arnold L. Rosenberg

2006-01-01

439

Building Blueprints: Looking Toward the Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights Kent State University's (Ohio) conversion of its physical education building to a technology building that features fiber optics and advanced cabling systems. Photos and a floor plan are included. (GR)

College Planning & Management, 2001

2001-01-01

440

Symmetric Distributed Source Coding using LDPC Code  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed source coding is a promising enabling technology for sensor network applications. Symmetric distributed source coding can achieve the entire Slepian-Wolf rate region and offer sensor network applications a wide range of options to compress and transmit data. In this paper, we design a new symmetric distributed coding scheme that realize the benefits of both simplified code construction and bit

Baochun Bai; Yang Yang; Pierre Boulanger; Janelle J. Harms

2008-01-01

441

Rate 3/4 convolutional coding of 16-PSK - Code design and performance study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convolutional coding coupled with 16-PSK modulation is investigated for bandwidth efficient transmission. Rate 3/4, small memory codes are found which are optimized in the free-distance sense on the Gaussian channel. These codes provide up to 4.8 dB of coding gain with 32 states over uncoded 8-PSK, a scheme having the same spectral efficiency as the codes described. The performance is compared with earlier findings of Ungerboeck and some recent results on R = 2/3 coded 8-PSK. In addition, results of a channel transmission study to assess the performance of the four-state code on the band-limited nonlinear channel are presented, and it is found that performance of the coded scheme degrades comparably with uncoded 8-PSK, i.e., coding gain is roughly preserved.

Wilson, S. G.; Sleeper, H. A.; Schottler, P. J.; Lyons, M. T.

1984-01-01

442

Cost-effective compliance with life safety codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ALARM is personal computer software that helps building managers and fire safety engineers achieve cost-effective compliance with the widely used NFPA 101,Life Safety Code®. The software currently supports health-care occupancy analysis. Through the equivalency provision of the code,ALARM implements a goal-oriented, or performance-based, approach to code compliance. The software generates a set of alternative code compliance strategies and their estimated

Stephen F. Weber; Barbara C. Lippiatt

1996-01-01

443

THYDE-W: RCS analysis code.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

THYDE-W is applicable not only to transient analyses, but also to steady state analyses of RCS behaviors. In a steady state analysis, the code generates a solution satisfying the transient equations without external disturbances. In a transient analysis, ...

Y. Asahi K. Matsumoto M. Hirano

1990-01-01

444

Building safer structures  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In this century, major earthquakes in the United States have damaged or destroyed numerous buildings, bridges, and other structures. By monitoring how structures respond to earthquakes and applying the knowledge gained, scientists and engineers are improving the ability of structures to survive major earthquakes. Many lives and millions of dollars have already been saved by this ongoing research.

Celebi, Mehmet; Page, Robert A.; Seekins, Linda

1995-01-01

445

Video coding with dynamic background  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motion estimation (ME) and motion compensation (MC) using variable block size, sub-pixel search, and multiple reference frames (MRFs) are the major reasons for improved coding performance of the H.264 video coding standard over other contemporary coding standards. The concept of MRFs is suitable for repetitive motion, uncovered background, non-integer pixel displacement, lighting change, etc. The requirement of index codes of the reference frames, computational time in ME & MC, and memory buffer for coded frames limits the number of reference frames used in practical applications. In typical video sequences, the previous frame is used as a reference frame with 68-92% of cases. In this article, we propose a new video coding method using a reference frame [i.e., the most common frame in scene (McFIS)] generated by dynamic background modeling. McFIS is more effective in terms of rate-distortion and computational time performance compared to the MRFs techniques. It has also inherent capability of scene change detection (SCD) for adaptive group of picture (GOP) size determination. As a result, we integrate SCD (for GOP determination) with reference frame generation. The experimental results show that the proposed coding scheme outperforms the H.264 video coding with five reference frames and the two relevant state-of-the-art algorithms by 0.5-2.0 dB with less computational time.

Paul, Manoranjan; Lin, Weisi; Lau, Chiew Tong; Lee, Bu-Sung

2013-12-01

446

5. BUILDING NO. 404, THERMO CHEMISTRY LABORATORY, LOOKING NORTHWEST AT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. BUILDING NO. 404, THERMO CHEMISTRY LABORATORY, LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING. BUILDING NO. 403 IN BACKGROUND RIGHT. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

447

Building Sandcastles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive application young children become familiar with 3-dimensional shapes by matching a variety of shapes in order to build a sandcastle. There are two levels of play, parent pointers, and hints to help out along the way.

2014-01-01

448

Building Languages  

MedlinePLUS

... National Center Homepage Hearing Loss Share Compartir Building Languages How can I start communicating with my baby ... English (MCE), Natural Gestures, Speech (Lip) Reading, Speech "Language" When most people hear the word "language" they ...

449

Healthy buildings  

SciTech Connect

This book is covered under the following headings: Healthy building strategies/productivity, Energy and design issues, Ventilation, Contaminants, Thermal, airflow, and humidity issues, School-related issues, Sources and sinks, Filtering, Operation and maintenance.

Not Available

1991-01-01

450

Summary of Green Building Programs  

SciTech Connect

In early 2002, the National Association of Home Builders completed a census of residential green building programs across the United States to assess differences and similarities among programs. This report catalogs different ways that builders participate in residential green building programs.

Not Available

2002-08-01

451

A Magnetic Diagnostic Code for 3D Fusion Equilibria  

SciTech Connect

A synthetic magnetic diagnostics code for fusion equilibria is presented. This code calculates the response of various magnetic diagnostics to the equilibria produced by the VMEC and PIES codes. This allows for treatment of equilibria with both good nested flux surfaces and those with stochastic regions. DIAGNO v2.0 builds upon previous codes through the implementation of a virtual casing principle. The codes is validated against a vacuum shot on the Large Helical Device where the vertical field was ramped. As an exercise of the code, the diagnostic response for various equilibria are calculated on the Large Helical Device (LHD).

Samuel Aaron Lazerson

2012-07-27

452

A Magnetic Diagnostic Code for 3D Fusion Equilibria  

SciTech Connect

A synthetic magnetic diagnostics code for fusion equilibria is presented. This code calculates the response of various magnetic diagnostics to the equilibria produced by the VMEC and PIES codes. This allows for treatment of equilibria with both good nested flux surfaces and those with stochastic regions. DIAGNO v2.0 builds upon previous codes through the implementation of a virtual casing principle. The code is validated against a vacuum shot on the Large Helical Device (LHD) where the vertical field was ramped. As an exercise of the code, the diagnostic response for various equilibria are calculated on the LHD.

Samuel A. Lazerson, S. Sakakibara and Y. Suzuki

2013-03-12

453

High Performance Buildings Database  

DOE Data Explorer

The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

454

ATLAS software configuration and build tool optimisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ATLAS software code base is over 6 million lines organised in about 2000 packages. It makes use of some 100 external software packages, is developed by more than 400 developers and used by more than 2500 physicists from over 200 universities and laboratories in 6 continents. To meet the challenge of configuration and building of this software, the Configuration Management Tool (CMT) is used. CMT expects each package to describe its build targets, build and environment setup parameters, dependencies on other packages in a text file called requirements, and each project (group of packages) to describe its policies and dependencies on other projects in a text project file. Based on the effective set of configuration parameters read from the requirements files of dependent packages and project files, CMT commands build the packages, generate the environment for their use, or query the packages. The main focus was on build time performance that was optimised within several approaches: reduction of the number of reads of requirements files that are now read once per package by a CMT build command that generates cached requirements files for subsequent CMT build commands; introduction of more fine-grained build parallelism at package task level, i.e., dependent applications and libraries are compiled in parallel; code optimisation of CMT commands used for build; introduction of package level build parallelism, i. e., parallelise the build of independent packages. By default, CMT launches NUMBER-OF-PROCESSORS build commands in parallel. The other focus was on CMT commands optimisation in general that made them approximately 2 times faster. CMT can generate a cached requirements file for the environment setup command, which is especially useful for deployment on distributed file systems like AFS or CERN VMFS. The use of parallelism, caching and code optimisation significantly-by several times-reduced software build time, environment setup time, increased the efficiency of multi-core computing resources utilisation, and considerably improved software developer and user experience.

Rybkin, Grigory; Atlas Collaboration

2014-06-01

455

Warren-Alquist State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Act, Public Resources Code Section 25000 et seq. Incorporated are all amendments to the Act through 1978  

SciTech Connect

The text of the Warren-Alquist State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Act is given. The chapters of the Act are: Title and General Provisions; Definitions; State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission; Planning and Forecasting; Energy Resources Conservation; Power Facility and Site Certification; Research and Development; Energy Shortage Contingency Planning; State Energy Resources Conservation and Development Accounts; Enforcement and Judicial Review. The Articles are also included. (MCW)

Not Available

1978-01-01

456

Code Verification Results of an LLNL ASC Code on Some Tri-Lab Verification Test Suite Problems  

SciTech Connect

As scientific codes become more complex and involve larger numbers of developers and algorithms, chances for algorithmic implementation mistakes increase. In this environment, code verification becomes essential to building confidence in the code implementation. This paper will present first results of a new code verification effort within LLNL's B Division. In particular, we will show results of code verification of the LLNL ASC ARES code on the test problems: Su Olson non-equilibrium radiation diffusion, Sod shock tube, Sedov point blast modeled with shock hydrodynamics, and Noh implosion.

Anderson, S R; Bihari, B L; Salari, K; Woodward, C S

2006-12-29

457

Homological stabilizer codes  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we define homological stabilizer codes on qubits which encompass codes such as Kitaev's toric code and the topological color codes. These codes are defined solely by the graphs they reside on. This feature allows us to use properties of topological graph theory to determine the graphs which are suitable as homological stabilizer codes. We then show that all toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. We show that the topological color codes and toric codes correspond to two distinct classes of graphs. We define the notion of label set equivalencies and show that under a small set of constraints the only homological stabilizer codes without local logical operators are equivalent to Kitaev's toric code or to the topological color codes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that Kitaev's toric codes are equivalent to homological stabilizer codes on 4-valent graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that toric codes and color codes correspond to homological stabilizer codes on distinct graphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find and classify all 2D homological stabilizer codes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find optimal codes among the homological stabilizer codes.

Anderson, Jonas T., E-mail: jonastyleranderson@gmail.com

2013-03-15

458

Sensitivity Analysis and Uncertainty Characterization of Subnational Building Energy Demand in an Integrated Assessment Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residential and commercial buildings are a major source of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in the United States, accounting for 41% of energy consumption and 40% of carbon emissions in 2011. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) historically have been used to estimate the impact of energy consumption on greenhouse gas emissions at the national and international level. Increasingly they are being asked to evaluate mitigation and adaptation policies that have a subnational dimension. In the United States, for example, building energy codes are adopted and enforced at the state and local level. Adoption of more efficient appliances and building equipment is sometimes directed or actively promoted by subnational governmental entities for mitigation or adaptation to climate change. The presentation reports on new example results from the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) IAM, one of a flexibly-coupled suite of models of human and earth system interactions known as the integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM) system. iRESM can evaluate subnational climate policy in the context of the important uncertainties represented by national policy and the earth system. We have added a 50-state detailed U.S. building energy demand capability to GCAM that is sensitive to national climate policy, technology, regional population and economic growth, and climate. We are currently using GCAM in a prototype stakeholder-driven uncertainty characterization process to evaluate regional climate mitigation and adaptation options in a 14-state pilot region in the U.S. upper Midwest. The stakeholder-driven decision process involves several steps, beginning with identifying policy alternatives and decision criteria based on stakeholder outreach, identifying relevant potential uncertainties, then performing sensitivity analysis, characterizing the key uncertainties from the sensitivity analysis, and propagating and quantifying their impact on the relevant decisions. In the example, regional stakeholders have identified a need to understand the cost and effectiveness of potential regional policies to upgrade building energy codes and equipment standards to reduce carbon emissions and save energy. This presentation discusses the application and results of fractional factorial analyses and related methods that we have used to determine the sensitivity of key benefits and costs of regional building codes and equipment efficiency standards at the state level, while also reducing the dimensionality of the downstream uncertainty characterization and propagation problem. The presentation analyzes alternative policies for regional building standards in the context of uncertain population and economic growth, carbon scenarios that represent both future atmospheric carbon loading and national emissions polices, and regional climate changes projected by a range of climate models.

Scott, M. J.; Daly, D.; McJeon, H.; Zhou, Y.; Clarke, L.; Rice, J.; Whitney, P.; Kim, S.

2012-12-01

459

Resolved: That the Federal Government Should Establish an Education Policy to Significantly Increase Academic Achievement in Secondary Schools in the United States. National Debate Topic for High Schools, 1999-2000 Pursuant to 44 United States Code, Section 1333.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In compliance with 44 U.S. Code, section 1333, the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress prepared this bibliography to assist high school debaters in researching the topic. This bibliography is intended to assist debaters in the identi...

1999-01-01

460

Performance evaluation of a passive solar building in Western Himalayas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the Passive Solar Building Programme, more than 100 buildings have been constructed in the high altitude region of the Indian State of Himachal Pradesh. A policy decision has been taken by the State that all government\\/semi-government buildings are to be designed and constructed as per passive solar housing technology. The evaluation studies of some of these buildings have been

S. S. Chandel; R. K. Aggarwal

2008-01-01

461

Encyclopedia of Sparse Graph Codes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of Gallager codes for low error tolerance, short block length andhigh rate applications.Sparse graph codes include Gallager codes, Tanner codes, MN codes Repeat--Accumulate codes (RA codes), and turbo codes, all of which have near--Shannonlimit performance.This paper (which is still in preparation) describes empirical properties of a wideselection of these codes, comparing in particular the codes\\

David J. C. Mackay

1999-01-01

462

Buildings Technology Research & Integration Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Buildings Technology Center is a "research facility devoted to the development of technologies that improve the energy efficiency and environmental compatibility of residential and commercial buildings." The state-of-the-art research and development facility houses about 50 staff and 10-20 guest researchers. The website describes the center's facilities, research capabilities, and research programs. Another section describes some of the tools for buildings that the center has developed, such as a heat pump design model, building envelope web-based calculators, and a computer program designed to determine the most cost-effective retrofit measures for single-family homes. Publications on topics such as envelope systems, appliance and equipment efficiency, Desiccant-related research and other research on building design and performance are posted online. An easy-to-browse database of success stories provides specifications, rendered and line drawings, and other facts about the Center's building technologies.

463

Building Design  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Building Design site bills itself as "the architects" website", and it is a claim that is quite accurate and apropos. Designed to complement their print publication, the site is a treasure-trove of material for just about anyone who is involved in any aspect of building, including architects, design theorists, planners, and so on. As the magazine is based in the United Kingdom, there's definitely a British Isles focus. Readers probably won't mind as the site offers excellent coverage of the field in the "News" section, where they can sign up to receive email updates, watch some slideshows of new and proposed buildings, and read long-form pieces. Not surprisingly, the site is keeping up with the proverbial Joneses" by offering a smattering of intelligent and lively blogs, coupled with podcasts that mix contemporary interviews and discussions with archived materials such as talks with Buckminster Fuller on his environmental philosophy.

464

Historic American Buildings Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Historic American Buildings Survey is a stellar repository of material that will delight and amaze persons with a passion for the built environment. These photos, drawings, and other items document achievements in architecture, engineering, and landscape design in the United States and its territories through a comprehensive range of building types, engineering technologies, and landscapes. All told, there are over 556,000 separate items here covering everything from the Golden Gate Bridge to the Pueblo of Acoma. First-time visitors may wish to look at the Background and Scope area before diving in. It's easy to search the collection, and users might want type in a hometown, a favorite building, or even an architectural style. All in all, it's a wonderful trip through American history via its historic landscapes, urban, suburban, and other.